WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term continuous monitoring

  1. Long term continuous radon monitoring in a seismically active area

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, A; Galli, G

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a long term, continuous radon monitoring experiment started in April 2010 in a seismically active area, affected during the 2010-2013 data acquisition time window by an intense micro seismic activity and by several small seismic events. We employed both correlation and cross-correlation analyses in order to investigate possible relationship existing between the collected radon data, seismic events and meteorological parameters. Our results do not support the feasibility of a robust one-to-one association between the small magnitude earthquakes characterizing the local seismic activity and single radon measurement anomalies, but evidence significant correlation patterns between the spatio-temporal variations of seismic moment release and soil radon emanations, the latter being anyway dominantly modulated by meteorological parameters variations.

  2. Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures

  3. Modification and Continue Monitoring of Kartini Reactor Tank Liner for Long Term Safe Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puradwi, I. W.; Nitiswati, S.; Tjiptono, T.; Umar, S.; Nugroho, Tri [BATAN, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses an experience on modification of bulk shielding facility (BSF) and monitoring of the Kartini reactor tank liner through in-service inspection (ISI) for long term safe operation. The objective of BSF modification is to prevent future water penetration from BSF to both the thermalizing column and space between the aluminium reactor tank liner and the concrete. Modification of BSF needs to be conducted because leakage from the BSF has entered to the area behind the aluminium tank liner and has saturated the concrete that has potential to corrode the steel reinforcement bar, and subsequently pushing the aluminium bottom tank and causing the swelling. The three swelling on the bottom tank have been continued monitoring through ISI regularly since 2001 up to now to observe and measure the three swellings profile. Result of swellings profile measurement indicated that swelling had grown slowly in size and became relatively stable. Careful analysis and assessment of the root causes of the swelling indicated that swelling do not present a threat to future safe operation of the reactor and Kartini reactor is considered to be in good condition. As an outcome of modification and continue monitoring, Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta has been already obtained extended operation license for the third period from Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia (BAPETEN) up to 2020.

  4. An Optical Oxygen Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Perfused Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F. G.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Anderson, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    For long-term growth of man1ITlalian cells in perfused bioreactors, it is essential to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium to quantitate and control level of DO. Continuous measurement of the amount of DO in the cell culture medium in-line under sterile conditions in NASA's perfused bioreactor requires that the oxygen sensor provide increased sensitivity and be sterilizable and nontoxic. Additionally, long-term cell culture experiments require that the calibration be maintained several weeks or months. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An optical oxygen sensor (BOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. Tris( 4,7 -diphenyl-l, 1 O-phenanthroline )ruthenium(II) chloride is employed as the fluorescent dye indicator. The sensing element consists of a glass capillary (OD 4.0 mm; ID 2.0 mm) coated internally with a thin layer of the fluorescent dye in silicone matrix and overlayed with a black shielding layer. Irradiation of the sensing element with blue light (blue LED with emission maximum at 475 nm) generates a red fluorescence centered at 626 nm. The fluorescence intensity is correlated to the concentration of DO present in the culture medium, following the modified non-linear Stern-Volmer equation. By using a pulsed irradiating light source, the problem of dye-bleaching, which is often encountered in long-term continuous measurements of tIns type, 'is minimized. To date we achieved sensor resolution of 0.3 mmHg at 50 mmHg p02, and 0.6 mmHg at 100 mmHg p02, with a response time of about one minute. Calibration was accomplished in sterile phosphate-buffered saline with a blood-gas analyzer (BGA) measurement as reference. Stand-alone software was also developed to control the sensor and bioreactor as well as to

  5. The Utility of Continuous Temperature Monitoring of Refrigerators in a Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Postolski, Josh; Williams, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    It is the current practice in most long-term care facilities to use manual logs when documenting refrigerator temperatures. This process is commonly associated with poor or fabricated compliance, little oversight, and documentation errors, both because of overt omissions and unsubstantiated values. It is also well-established that medication storage requirements are mandated by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). This analysis demonstrates the potential risk of poor cold-chain management of medications and establishes the possible utility of digitally recorded continuous temperature monitoring over manual logs. This small case-oriented review of a large nursing facility's storage process attempts to expose the risk associated with improper medication storage. The primary outcome of the study was to determine if a difference existed between temperature logs completed manually compared with those done with a continuous monitor. American Thermal Instruments (ATI) thermometers were placed into each of the existing refrigerators in a 147-bed nursing facility. Through a mobile app, the data recorded in each refrigerator were compiled into daily reports. Data were collected from a total of 12 refrigerators, 3 of which were medication refrigerators. Logging intervals were done over a 263-minute period and compiled the lowest recorded temperature, highest recorded temperature, and the average temperature for each refrigerator. In addition, reports showing the real-time results were compiled using the ATI DataNow service. All of the refrigerators analyzed had highest temperature recorded readings exceeding the maximum allowable temperature (50°F for refrigerator). All of the refrigerators had lowest temperature recorded readings below the minimum allowable temperature (32°F for refrigerators). All of the refrigerators also reported average temperatures outside of the allowable temperature range. The results necessitated the replacement of a refrigerator and

  6. Continuation of long-term global SO2 pollution monitoring from OMI to OMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Joiner, Joanna; Fioletov, Vitali; McLinden, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, advances in satellite remote sensing of pollution-relevant species have made space-borne observations an increasingly important part of atmospheric chemistry research and air quality management. This progress has been facilitated by advanced UV-vis spectrometers, such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite, and continues with new instruments, such as the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible, using our state-of-the-art principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique, to continue the long-term global SO2 pollution monitoring started by OMI with the current and future OMPS instruments that will fly on the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) 1, 2, 3, and 4 satellites in addition to SNPP, with a very good consistency of retrievals from these instruments. Since OMI SO2 data have been primarily used for (1) providing regional context on air pollution and long-range transport on a daily basis and (2) providing information on point emission sources on an annual basis after data averaging, we focused on these two aspects in our OMI-OMPS comparisons. Four years of retrievals (2012-2015) have been compared for three regions: eastern China, Mexico, and South Africa. In general, the comparisons show relatively high correlations (r = 0. 79-0.96) of daily regional averaged SO2 mass between the two instruments and near-unity regression slopes (0.76-0.97). The annual averaged SO2 loading differences between OMI and OMPS are small (worth noting that consistent SO2 retrievals were achieved without any explicit adjustments to OMI or OMPS radiance data and that the retrieval agreement may be further improved by introducing a more comprehensive Jacobian lookup table than is currently used.

  7. Continuation of long-term global SO2 pollution monitoring from OMI to OMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Joiner, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the past 12+ years, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA EOS Aura satellite has pioneered the first high-resolution global SO2 pollution monitoring, which enabled new studies of atmospheric chemistry and applications for air quality management. Such long-term SO2 record will be continued with other satellite instruments, i.e., the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Mapper on board NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite and the follow up JPSS series satellites. In this presentation, we demonstrate the first comparison between OMI and OMPS SO2 retrievals from the OMI operational SO2 algorithm, which is our state-of-the-art principal component analysis (PCA) approach. The PCA technique does not use any sort of "soft calibration" corrections required in concurrent satellite SO2 algorithms and enables seamless merging of different satellite datasets. We demonstrate a very good consistency of the retrievals from OMI and OMPS. Four full years of OMI and OMPS SO2 retrievals during 2012-2015 have been analyzed over some of the world's most polluted regions: eastern China, Mexico, and South Africa. In general, the comparisons show high correlations (r =0.79-0.96) of SO2 mass between the two instruments on a daily basis and less than unity regression slopes (0.76-0.97) indicating slightly lower OMPS SO2 mass as compared with OMI. The annual averaged SO2 loading difference between OMI and OMPS is negligible (instruments also show generally good agreement in terms of the daily spatial distribution in SO2. For example, over the Mexico region for 82% of the days, the two instruments have a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.6 or better. Such consistent retrievals were achieved without any explicit adjustment to OMI or OMPS radiance data. We will further improve the retrieval agreement in the next versions of the OMI and OMPS retrievals by applying a more comprehensive Jacobian lookup table that properly accounts for

  8. TESTING THE ACCURACY OF MEASURED VALUES IN CONTINUOUS LONG-TERM GEODETIC MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vaněček

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available widespread used method. In this paper, an analysis of the accuracy and its changes over time of the measured values in continuous geodetic monitoring is presented. For the analysis, a set of data measured in the period of time between January 2006 to July 2010 was used. The main method of the analysis is a linear-harmonic function approximation.

  9. Continuation of long-term global SO2 pollution monitoring from OMI to OMPS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Can; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, advances in satellite remote sensing of pollution-relevant species have made space-borne observations an increasingly important part of atmospheric chemistry research and air quality management. This progress has been facilitated by advanced UV-Vis spectrometers, such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA EOS Aura satellite, and continues with new instruments, such as the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the NASA-NOAA Suomi National...

  10. Role of Interleukin-1/Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Family of Cytokines in Long-Term Continuous Glucose Monitoring In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Antar, Omar; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose-sensor-induced tissue reactions (e.g., inflammation and wound healing) are known to negatively impact sensor function in vivo. The roles of cytokine networks in controlling these tissue reactions (i.e., sensor biofouling) is not understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a key anti-inflammatory antagonist of the proinflammatory interleukin-1 cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha and IL-1 beta] in controlling continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods To investigate the role of IL-1Ra in long-term CGM in vivo, we compared CGM in transgenic mice that overexpress IL-1Ra [interleukin-1 receptor antagonist overexpresser (IL-1Ra~OE), B6.Cg-Tg(IL1rn)1Dih/J] or are deficient in IL-1Ra [interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1Ra~KO), B6.129S-IL1rntm1Dih/J] with mice that have normal levels of IL-1Ra (C57BL/6) over a 28-day time period. Results Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) analysis of CGM results among the mice of varying IL-1Ra levels demonstrated that during the first 21 days, IL-1~KO mice had the greatest tissue inflammation and the poorest sensor performance (i.e., higher MARD values) when compared with normal or IL-1Ra~OE mice. By 28 days post-sensor implantation, the inflammatory reactions had subsided and were replaced by varying degrees of fibrosis. Conclusions These data support our hypothesis on the importance of the IL-1 family of agonists and antagonists in controlling tissue reactions and sensor function in vivo. These data also suggest that local delivery of IL-1Ra genes or recombinant proteins (anakinra) or other IL-1 antagonists such as antibodies or soluble IL-1 receptors would suppress sensor-induced tissue reactions and likely enhance glucose sensor function by inhibiting inflammation and wound healing at sensor implantation sites. PMID:24351180

  11. Ultrafine particles in four European urban environments: Results from a new continuous long-term monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, J.; Staelens, J.; Cordell, R.; Stroobants, C.; Zikova, N.; Hama, S. M. L.; Wyche, K. P.; Kos, G. P. A.; Van Der Zee, S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, P. S.; Roekens, E.

    2016-07-01

    To gain a better understanding on the spatiotemporal variation of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban environments, this study reports on the first results of a long-term UFP monitoring network, set up in Amsterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE), Leicester (UK) and London (UK). Total number concentrations and size distributions were assessed during 1-2 years at four fixed urban background sites, supplemented with mobile trailer measurements for co-location monitoring and additional short-term monitoring sites. Intra- and interurban spatiotemporal UFP variation, associations with commonly-monitored pollutants (PM, NOx and BC) and impacts of wind fields were evaluated. Although comparable size distributions were observed between the four cities, source-related differences were demonstrated within specific particle size classes. Total and size-resolved particle number concentrations showed clear traffic-related temporal variation, confirming road traffic as the major UFP contributor in urban environments. New particle formation events were observed in all cities. Correlations with typical traffic-related pollutants (BC and NOx) were obtained for all monitoring stations, except for Amsterdam, which might be attributable to UFP emissions from Schiphol airport. The temporal variation in particle number concentration correlated fairly weakly between the four cities (rs = 0.28-0.50, COD = 0.28-0.37), yet improved significantly inside individual cities (rs = 0.59-0.77). Nevertheless, considerable differences were still obtained in terms of particle numbers (20-38% for total particle numbers and up to 49% for size-resolved particle numbers), confirming the importance of local source contributions and the need for careful consideration when allocating UFP monitoring stations in heterogeneous urban environments.

  12. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  13. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  14. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  15. Cardiac abnormalities discovered during long-term monitoring for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Lisa A

    2008-09-01

    During routine EEGs, ambulatory EEGs, prolonged EEGs in the intensive care unit, and long-term monitoring for epilepsy (LTME), trained technologists record cerebral activity as well as a basic electrocardiogram (ECG). The traditional use of this ECG tracing is to differentiate ECG artifact from abnormal brain activity. The past few years of LTME have given rise to a greater appreciation of the importance of ECG recording in patients undergoing continuous video EEG monitoring. The ECG must be reviewed for abnormalities, both ictal and non-ictal related. Although EEG technologists are not formally trained in ECG, abnormalities on ECG may be observed that could warrant further investigation through cardiology services. In addition to treating the patient's neurological issues, it may be possible to bring attention to previously undiagnosed cardiac problems that could seriously threaten the patient's health.

  16. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program procedures: fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Eric N.; Glittinger, Eric J.; O'Hara, T. Matt; Ickes, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    This manual constitutes the second revision of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element Fish Procedures Manual. The original (1988) manual merged and expanded on ideas and recommendations related to Upper Mississippi River fish sampling presented in several early documents. The first revision to the manual was made in 1995 reflecting important protocol changes, such as the adoption of a stratified random sampling design. The 1995 procedures manual has been an important document through the years and has been cited in many reports and scientific manuscripts. The resulting data collected by the LTRMP fish component represent the largest dataset on fish within the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) with more than 44,000 collections of approximately 5.7 million fish. The goal of this revision of the procedures manual is to document changes in LTRMP fish sampling procedures since 1995. Refinements to sampling methods become necessary as monitoring programs mature. Possible refinements are identified through field experiences (e.g., sampling techniques and safety protocols), data analysis (e.g., planned and studied gear efficiencies and reallocations of effort), and technological advances (e.g., electronic data entry). Other changes may be required because of financial necessity (i.e., unplanned effort reductions). This version of the LTRMP fish monitoring manual describes the most current (2014) procedures of the LTRMP fish component.

  17. Drug taper during long-term video-EEG monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guld, Asger Toke; Sabers, A; Kjaer, T W

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anti-epileptic drugs (AED) are often tapered to reduce the time needed to record a sufficient number of seizure during long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM). Fast AED reduction is considered less safe, but few studies have examined this. Our goal is to examine whether the rate of AED...

  18. Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than

  19. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  20. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  1. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo (Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  2. The automated infrared thermal imaging system for the continuous long-term monitoring of the surface temperature of the Vesuvius crater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sansivero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared remote sensing monitoring is a significant tool aimed to integrated surveillance system of active volcanic areas. In this paper we describe the realization and the technological evolution of the permanent image thermal infrared (TIR surveillance system of the Vesuvius volcano. The TIR monitoring station was installed on the Vesuvius crater rim on July 2004 in order to acquire scenes of the SW inner slope of Vesuvius crater that is characterized by a significant thermal emission. At that time, it represented the first achievement all over the world of a permanent surveillance thermal imaging system on a volcano. It has been working in its prototypal configuration till May 2007. The experience gained over years about the engineering, management and maintenance of TIR remote acquisition systems in extreme environmental conditions, allows us to design and realize a new release of the TIR monitoring station with improved functionalities and more flexibility for the IR image acquisition, management and storage, which became operational in June 2011. In order to characterize the thermal background of the Vesuvius crater at present state of volcanic quiescence, the time series of TIR images gathered between July 2004 and May 2012 were analyzed using a statistical approach. Results show no significant changes in the thermal radiation during the observation periods, so they can be assumed as representative of a background level to which refer for the interpretation of possible future anomalies related to a renewal of the volcanic dynamics of the Vesuvius volcano.

  3. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deming; Yang; Zhengfei; Lu; Danglun; Luo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al.(2011) find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  4. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    CERN Document Server

    Peil, Steven; Swanson, Thomas B; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial cesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below $2\\times 10^{-13}$ and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low $10^{-16}$s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing $6\\times 10^{-17}$ at $10^7$~s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of $7.5 \\times 10^{-19}$/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of $1\\times 10^{-13}$ and long-term frequency stability consistent wit...

  5. Quantifiable long-term monitoring on parks and nature preserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Scott; Moorman, Christopher; DePerno, Christopher S.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Herpetofauna have declined globally, and monitoring is a useful approach to document local and long-term changes. However, monitoring efforts often fail to account for detectability or follow standardized protocols. We performed a case study at Hemlock Bluffs Nature Preserve in Cary, NC to model occupancy of focal species and demonstrate a replicable long-term protocol useful to parks and nature preserves. From March 2010 to 2011, we documented occupancy of Ambystoma opacum(Marbled Salamander), Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander), Carphophis amoenus (Eastern Worm Snake), and Diadophis punctatus (Ringneck Snake) at coverboard sites and estimated breeding female Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander) abundance via dependent double-observer egg-mass counts in ephemeral pools. Temperature influenced detection of both Marbled and Red-backed Salamanders. Based on egg-mass data, we estimated Spotted Salamander abundance to be between 21 and 44 breeding females. We detected 43 of 53 previously documented herpetofauna species. Our approach demonstrates a monitoring protocol that accounts for factors that influence species detection and is replicable by parks or nature preserves with limited resources.

  6. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  7. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will

  8. ADCP application for long-term monitoring of coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIOKA Hiroshi; TAKAYAMA Tomotsuka; SERIZAWA Shigeatsu

    2005-01-01

    Three kind of application of ADCP is reported for long-term monitoring in coastal sea.(1)The rourine monitoring of water qualities.The water quality and ADCP echo data (600 kHz) observed in the long-term are analgzed at MT (Marine Tower) Station of Kansai International Airport in the Osaka Bay, Japan. The correlation between the turbidity and echo intensity in the surface layer is not good because air bubbles generated by breaking wave are not detected by the turbidity meter, but detected well by ADCP. When estimating the turbidity consists of plankton population from echo intensity, the effect ofbubbles have to be eliminated. (2) Monitoring stirring up of bottom sediment. The special observation was carded out by using following two ADCP in the Osaka Bay, One ADCP was installed upward on the sea. The other ADCP was hanged downward at the gate type stand about 3 m above from the bottom. At the spring tide, high echo intensities indicating the stirring up of bottom sediment were observed. (3) The monitoring for the boundary condition of water mixing at an estuary. In summer season, the ADCP was set at the mouth of Tanabe Bay in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.During the observation, water temperature near the bottom showed remarkable falls with interval of about 5~7 d. When the bottom temperature fell, the inflow current with low echo intensity water appears at the bottom layer in the ADCP record. It is concluded that when occasional weak northeast wind makes weak coastal upwelling at the mouth of the bay, the combination of upwelling with internal tidal flow causes remarkable water exchange and dispels the red tide.

  9. Long-term monitoring of marine gas leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, Kai; Faber, Eckhard; Poggenburg, Jürgen; Seeger, Christian; Furche, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations is one of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study. Although offshore operations are significantly more expensive than comparable onshore operations, the growing public resistance against onshore CCS projects makes sub-seabed storage a promising option. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is always the possibility of leakage from the reservoir. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. The basic design of the monitoring system builds on our experience in volcano monitoring. Early prototypes were composed of a raft floating on the surface of a mud volcano, carrying sensors for CO2 flux and concentration, data storage and transmission, and power supply by battery-buffered solar panels. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, connected by a flexible tube. This setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. A system for unattended long-term monitoring in a marine environment has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of a funnel-shaped gas collector, a sensor head and pressure housings for electronics and power supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data

  10. Reflectance-based detection for long term environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy J. Johnson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, the potential of colorimetric sensors utilizing porphyrin indicators for long term environmental monitoring is demonstrated. Prototype devices based on commercial color sensing chips (six per device were combined with in-house developed algorithms for data analysis. The devices are intended to provide real-time sensing of threats. An initial outdoor data set was collected using prototype devices with occasional spiked exposure to targets. This data was supported by similar data collected in a controlled indoor environment. Weaknesses in the noted performance of the devices during these experiments were addressed through altering device parameters, algorithm parameters, and array element composition. Additional outdoor data sets totaling 1,616 h and indoor data sets totaling 728 h were collected in support of assessing these changes to the system configuration. The optimized system provided receiver operating characteristics (ROC of specificity 0.97 and sensitivity 1.0.

  11. Long-term spectropolarimetric monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    Bedecarrax, I; Aurière, M; Grunhut, J; Wade, G; Chiavassa, A; Donati, J -F; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Perrin, G

    2013-01-01

    We report on a long-term monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse, using the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters, respectively installed at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii). The data set, constituted of circularly polarized (Stokes V) and intensity (Stokes I) spectra, was collected between 2010 and 2012. We investigate here the temporal evolution of magnetic field, convection and temperature at photospheric level, using simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field component, the core emission of the Ca II infrared triplet, the line-depth ratio of selected photospheric lines and the radial velocity of the star.

  12. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

    2015-09-01

    The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

  13. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators.

  14. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  15. Long-term Spectroscopic Monitoring of LBVs and LBV Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lobel, A; Torres, K; Gorlova, N

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a long-term spectroscopic monitoring program (since mid 2009) of Luminous Blue Variables with the new HERMES echelle spectrograph on the 1.2 m Mercator telescope at La Palma (Spain). We investigate high-resolution (R=80,000) optical spectra of two LBVs, P Cyg and HD 168607, the LBV candidates MWC 930 and HD 168625, and the LBV binary MWC 314. In P Cyg we observe flux changes in the violet wings of the Balmer H{\\alpha}, H{\\beta}, and He I lines between May and Sep 2009. The changes around 200 km/s to 300 km/s are caused by variable opacity at the base of the supersonic wind from the blue supergiant. We observe in MWC 314 broad double-peaked metal emission lines with invariable radial velocities over time. On the other hand, we measure in the photospheric S II {\\lambda}5647 absorption line, with lower excitation energy of ~14 eV, an increase of the heliocentric radial velocity centroid from 37 km/s to 70 km/s between 5 and 10 Sep 2009 (and 43 km/s on 6 Apr 2010). The increase of radial vel...

  16. Long Term Three-dimensional Model Parameterization and Evaluation By The Use of Combined Continuous Ozone Lidar Profiles, Vertical Wind Profiles and Ground Based Monitors Obtained During The Escompte Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejafon, E.; Robin, D.; Kalthoff, N.; Pesch, M.

    ESCOMPTE 2001 is a field experiment that took place in the southeast of France, in order to understand chemical transformation and transport and then to improve numer- ical models devoted to pollution study and forecasting. To achieve this goal, a stand alone ozone LIDAR was installed from June 11th to July 13th in Cadarache, 30 km northeast of the cities of Marseilles and Aix-en-Provence, downwind from the ozone precursors emissions zones in case of sea-breeze development conditions. This full automatic LIDAR provided vertical profiles of ozone concentration and also the mix- ing height dynamics, between 100 m and 2 500 m, with a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and a temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Data obtained with the LIDAR were connected to ground based ozone monitor installed on the same location by the air quality network, in order to evaluate the data quality and to obtain ozone verti- cal profiles from the ground level up to the free troposphere, which is an optimized support for tree-dimensional photochemical models parameterization and evaluation. The ozone diurnal cycles and the daily atmospheric stratification recorded during this month show the fast dynamics during pollution episodes, resulting from combined photochemical and transport effects in case of sea-breeze. They also specify the re- maining ozone vertical structure during non polluted episodes. Such long-term infor- mation is then a consistent support for model parameterization and evaluation, as it can specify the ozone concentration and the PBL dynamics from the beginning to the last end of a pollution episode. This one month vertical ozone profiles, which were compiled in a movie, will be presented and discussed more precisely. The obtained results, combined with continuous vertical wind profiles obtained with a SODAR and a ground based meteorological station installed on the same location, give access to the continuous ozone flux vertical profiles and the PBL dynamics.

  17. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  18. Long-term performance of hemofilters in continuous hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, J; Olbricht, C J; Koch, K M

    1996-01-01

    We measured the filter performance of six polyamide hemofilters with a running time exceeding 72 h applied for continuous hemofiltration in intensive care patients. The sieving coefficients for urea and creatinine were close to unity and remained constant. The sieving coefficient of polyfructosan (mean molecular weight 3 kD) was around 0.75 and did not change with running time. The hydraulic permeability remained also unchanged. The relationships between blood pressure and blood flow and between blood flow and filtration rate remained linear, and the gradient did not change with time. We conclude that a daily routine change of polyamide hemofilters applied in continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and presumably in continuous venovenous hemofiltration is not necessary within the first 72 h of treatment, unless a major decrease in the filtration rate occurs.

  19. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved...clock, rubidium fountain, operational atomic fountain (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction: beyond caesiums ...and masers The performance of atomic clocks has improved more than seven orders of magnitude since the first caesium clock was demonstrated by Essen

  20. Polycarbonates: a long-term highly sensitive radon monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Poffijn, A; Meesen, G; Deynse, A V

    2000-01-01

    An approach for long-term (either retrospective or prospective) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn measurements is proposed that is based on the combination of the high radon absorption ability of some polycarbonates with their alpha track-etch properties. The detection limit is projected to be <10 Bq m sup - sup 3 for an exposure time of 20 yr.

  1. Long term pipeline monitoring in geomechanically sensitive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir-Jones, I.; Sun, M. [Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, monitoring pipeline structural integrity is necessary for both regulatory and environmental purposes. Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants developed an automated structural integrity monitoring (SIM) system, data on strain, displacement and temperature are continuously acquired and automatically transmitted to the monitoring personnel. The aim of this paper is to present this technology and its implementation on one of Inter Pipeline Fund's lines as well. The automated SIM equipment was installed on a new 42'' line at the crossing of the Clearwater River close to Fort McMurray. Results showed that this technology is a good way to monitor pipelines in remote locations, environmentally sensitive areas, river and embankment crossings and in locations where external forces can put the pipeline at risk; but it should not be used otherwise as that would not be cost effective. This paper described the developed automated SIM and showed that it should only be used in specific locations to be cost effective.

  2. Long Term Monitoring of EM Signals Near Parkfield CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, K.; Morrison, H.; Egbert, G.

    2005-12-01

    Fluctuations of resistivity and anomalous electromagnetic (EM) signals have often been reported as precursors to earthquakes. Most of these reports are based on anecdotal observations of unusual phenomena associated with distant earthquakes, with anomalous signals that are often orders of magnitude larger than expected based on laboratory measurements. In an attempt to assess the validity of these reports, and to understand how such signals might be generated, anomalous EM signals and resistivity have been monitored since 1995 using magnetotelluric (MT) instruments at the site of the focused earthquake prediction experiment at Parkfield, CA. This EM monitoring array was fully operational and producing high quality data when the long awaited 28 Sept Mw=6.0 Parkfield earthquake occured. The Parkfield MT site, consisting of three magnetic induction coils and replicated orthogonal electric dipoles, was situated within a few kilometers of the northwestern end of the surface rupture, providing unprecedented observations of EM signals at a well calibrated site in very close proximity to a moderate (M~6) earthquake. A second MT site near Hollister, CA was also functioning well before, during, and after the earthquake, providing a callibrated reference for cancellation of normal EM variations due to ionospheric and magnetospheric sources. Analysis of this data using a variety of techniques has not revealed any anomalous signals which were unambiguos precursors to the 28 September Earthquake. In particular, residual E and B fields computed in both the time and frequency domains over the year 2004 using the remote Hollister site for prediction have been analyzed statistically, revealing no long term trends or changes in anomalous EM signal or noise levels in the months to days preceeding the earthquake. Similarly, no anomalous bursts of EM activity are seen immediately preceeding the earthquake. Based on our analysis of these residuals we conclude that any anomalous magnetic

  3. Noncontact ECG system for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Neil J; Anumula, Harini A; Duff, Eric; Soussou, Walid

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements made using an ECG system with QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrodes integrated into a pad system that is placed over a chair. QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrode has the property of measuring bioelectric potentials at a small separation from the body. This enables the measurement of ECG signals through fabric, without the removal of clothing or preparation of skin. The ECG was measured through the subject's clothing while the subject sat in the chair without any supporting action from the subject. The ECG pad system is an example of a high compliance system that places minimal requirements upon the subject and, consequently, can be used to generate a long-term record from ECG segments collected on a daily basis, providing valuable information on long-term trends in cardiac health.

  4. Long term monitoring of landslide: observation gravitational slope cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Edouard; Lebourg, Thomas; Vidal, Maurin

    2016-04-01

    Since several years of studies on landslides, we realized the role and subtle interactions that existed between the structural complexity, masses dynamics and complex internal circulation of fluids. Thus, to gain a better understanding of the processes taking place during the evolution of an unstable slope, an observational study is necessary. In this perspective, our team currently monitors slow moving landslide zones. The aim of such a monitoring is to gain a better knowledge of the links between external forcing (meteorological, seismological) and signals going out of the slope (kinematic, vibrations, electrical resistivity). In December 2000, a dramatic event affected the sandy/clayey landslide in the Southern Alpes Maritimes (France). A 10 meters high scarp appeared at the foot of the landslide and affected private yards nearby. This area then became a major concern for local authorities and understand the processes taking place, a scientific challenge. In order to understand the land-sliding reactivations and to quantify the natural cycles of deformations, we analyse the main factors of this complex system. After 10 years of observation we are now able to highlight some of the complex behaviours by the measurement of physical parameters (geophysical monitoring). A permanent 115 m ERT line (5 meters electrode spacing) has been installed and provides an acquisition daily since 2006. The daily acquisitions are now accompanied by continuous measurements from boreholes (thermometers, piezometers, tiltmeters) and pluviometry. We are able to control the whole monitoring from the lab, and all these data are transmitted in real time. The analysis of these large amounts of data over large time series allows the detection of seasonal cycles of surface activity. The deformation taking place can be assimilated to a near-elastic deformation and show a lateral decoupling on both sides of the fault cutting the landslide. These deformation cycles can be associated with the

  5. Long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring for ground based augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwook; Lee, Jiyun

    2012-08-01

    Extreme ionospheric anomalies can pose a potential integrity threat to ground-based augmentation of the Global Positioning System (GPS), and thus the development of ionospheric anomaly threat models for each region of operation is essential for system design and operation. This paper presents a methodology for automated long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring, which will be used to build an ionospheric anomaly threat model, evaluate its validity over the life cycle of the system, continuously monitor ionospheric anomalies, and update the threat model if necessary. This procedure automatically processes GPS data collected from external networks and estimates ionospheric gradients at regular intervals. If ionospheric gradients large enough to be potentially hazardous to users are identified, manual data examination is triggered. This paper also develops a simplified truth processing method to create precise ionospheric delay estimates in near real-time, which is the key to automating the ionospheric monitoring procedure. The performance of the method is examined using data from the 20 November 2003 and 9 November 2004 ionospheric storms. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of simplified truth processing within long-term ionosphere monitoring. From the case studies, the automated procedure successfully identified extreme ionospheric anomalies, including the two worst ionospheric gradients observed and validated previously based on manual analysis. The automation of data processing enables us to analyze ionospheric data continuously going forward and to more accurately categorize ionospheric behavior under both nominal and anomalous conditions.

  6. Long-term monitoring of river basins: strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    In a world where equilibrium is more and more uncommon, monitoring is an essential way to discover whether undesirable change is taking place. Monitoring requires a deliberate plan of action: the regular collection and processing of information. Long-term data reveal important patterns, allowing trends, cycles, and rare events to be identified. This is particularly important for complex systems where signals may be subtle and slow to emerge. Moreover, very long data sets are essential to test hypotheses undreamt of at the time the monitoring was started. This overview includes long time series from UK river basins showing how hydrology and water quality have changed over time - and continue to change. An important conclusion is the long time frame of system recovery, well beyond the normal lifetime of individual governments or research grants. At a time of increasing hydroclimatic variability, long time series remain crucially important; in particular, continuity of observations is vital at key benchmark sites.

  7. Pulsed or continuous flow in long-term assist devices: a debated topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Fabrizio; Zingarelli, Edoardo; Flocco, Roberto; Dato, Guglielmo Mario Actis; Parisi, Francesco; Punta, Giuseppe; Forsennati, Pier Giuseppe; Bardi, Gian Luca; Del Ponte, Stefano; Patanè, Francesco; Casabona, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The end-stage cardiomyopathy is an increasing worldwide problem. Cardiac transplantation lacks sufficient donors to treat all patients, and there is thus debate about alternative strategies. The use of left ventricular assist devices for long-term support is increasing with a positive impact on patient survival. Although there is an ongoing debate regarding the risks and benefits of maintaining pulsatile flow during long-term ventricular assist device support, there has been a significant move towards implantation of continuous flow devices due to the lower surgical morbidity and better long-term reliability of these pumps. The following is a review of the literature on continuous and pulsatile flow for long-term support. Starting from the definition of flow, we analyze the current evidence and consider gastrointestinal complications.

  8. Smartphone based monitoring system for long-term sleep assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of sleep disorders, highly prevalent in Western countries, typically involves sophisticated procedures and equipment that are highly intrusive to the patient. The high processing capabilities and storage capacity of current portable devices, together with a big range of available sensors, many of them with wireless capabilities, create new opportunities and change the paradigms in sleep studies. In this work, a smartphone based sleep monitoring system is presented along with the details of the hardware, software and algorithm implementation. The aim of this system is to provide a way for subjects, with no pre-diagnosed sleep disorders, to monitor their sleep habits, and on the initial screening of abnormal sleep patterns.

  9. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    rapid, and plankton ) that are ignored under the existing cost- effective manner. design of the monitoring program, but which A major purpose of the... mussels on dissolved oxygen and planktonic specifically focus on local areas where projects chlorophyll levels at selected locations, but are...term goals of the Program are to understand the system, determine resource trends and effects , develop management alternatives, manage information, and

  10. Long term wireless ambient monitoring of heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayong; Pozzi, Matteo; Zonta, Daniele; Zanon, Paolo; Ceriotti, Matteo; Mottola, Luca; Picco, Gian Pietro; Murphy, Amy L.; Guna, Stefan; Corrà, Michele

    2010-04-01

    Motivated by the preservation of an artistic treasure, the fresco of the "Cycle of the Months" on the second floor in an historic tower, Torre Aquila, a wireless sensor network (WSN) has been developed and installed for permanent health monitoring. The monitoring scheme covers both static and dynamic evaluation of the tower structural integrity from local to global scale and consists of 17 nodes, including 2 long length fiber optic sensors (FOS), 3 accelerometers and 12 environmental nodes. The system has been working for 1.5 years and has been debugged and updated both as to hardware and software. This paper focuses mainly on the ambient vibration analysis used to investigate the performance of the sensor nodes and structural properties of the tower. Initial ambient vibration monitoring shows that cyclic environmental factors, such as traffic flow, are not the dominant cause of tower vibration; and the vibration levels of the tower in different axes are not large enough to be a critical issue calling for attention under current conditions. It proves that the WSN is an effective tool, capable of providing information relevant to safety assessment of the tower.

  11. Long Term Monitoring of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Abacı

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Macrovascular complications that predispose to ischemic and peripheral vascular disease are rare under the age of 30 years. In addition, growth retardation, delay of puberty, psychiatric disorders, dermatologic complications (lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, autoimmune hypothyroidism, and celiac disease are the other complications associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In childhood and adolescence, monitoring and optimizing glycemic control is most important in management for preventing the development and progression of early complications. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 111-8

  12. Investigating Long-Term Monitoring Protocols in support of Quivira NWR Habitat Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project purpose is to investigate long-term monitoring protocols in support of Quivira NWR habitat objectives as described in the Refuge’s recently approved CCP...

  13. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  14. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  15. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Macroinvertebrate Belt Transects since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  16. Long-term multi-frequency monitoring of microquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trushkin, Sergei A; Bursov, Nikolaj N

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the results of the radio studies of the X-ray binaries with relativistic jets. We carried out a multi-frequency (1-30 GHz) daily monitoring of the radio flux variability of the microquasars SS433, GRS1915+105, and Cyg X-3 with the RATAN-600 radio telescope during the recent sets from 1 November 2006 to 31 August 2008. From December 2005 radio emission of Cyg X-3 after four years relatively quiescent levels (100-200 mJy) dropped down to $\\sim$20 mJy, and then we detected a lot of bright radio flaring events (1-20 Jy) followed the very variable (from 0 to 0.5 crabs) 15-50 keV X-ray emission, which was monitored in the Swift/BAT ASM program. Again from December 2007 to March 2008 we have daily measured almost quiescent fluxes from Cyg X-3 but in April 2008 a bright radio flare with clear synchrotron self-absorption was detected. We detected several bright short-term flares from GRS 1915+105 which could be associated with active soft X-ray events. In intense measurements of SS433 fluxes (often mutually...

  17. Long-term monitoring of Ark 120 with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, M.; Papadakis, I. E.; Grupe, D.; Brinkmann, W. P.; Räth, C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the results of a six-month Swift monitoring campaign of Ark 120, a prototypical `bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy. The lack of intrinsic absorption combined with the nearly contemporaneous coverage of the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray bands makes it possible to investigate the link between the accretion disc and the putative Comptonization corona. Our observations confirm the presence of substantial temporal variability, with the X-ray characterized by large-amplitude flux changes on time-scales of few days, while the variations in the UV bands are smoother and occur on time-scales of several weeks. The source also shows spectral variability with the X-ray spectrum steepening when the source is brighter. We do not detect any correlation between the UV flux and the X-ray spectral slope. A cross-correlation analysis suggests positive delays between X-rays and the UV emission, favouring a scenario of disc reprocessing. Although the strength of the correlation is moderate with a delay which is not well constrained (7.5 ± 7 d), it is nevertheless indicative of a very large disc reprocessing region, with a separation between the X-ray and the UV-emitting regions, which could be as large as 1000 rG. The Ark 120 correlation results are in agreement with those obtained in similar multiwavelength monitoring studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). When combined together, the observations so far can be well described by a linear relation between the X-ray/UV delays and the mass of the central black hole. Within the context of the simplest scenario, where these delays correspond to light-travel times, the implied distance between the X-ray source and the optical/UV disc reprocessing region in these AGN should be of the order of many hundreds of gravitational radii.

  18. Long-term pressure monitoring with arterial applanation tonometry : a non-invasive alternative during clinical intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, Koen S; Kalmar, Alain F; Struys, Michel M R F; Mortier, Eric P; Avolio, Alberto P; Segers, Patrick; Verdonck, Pascal R

    2008-01-01

    Arterial tonometry is a non-invasive technique for continuous registration of arterial pressure waveforms. This study aims to assess tonometric blood pressure recording (TBP) as an alternative for invasive long-term bedside monitoring. A prospective study was set up where patients undergoing neurosu

  19. Long-term monitoring of Ark 120 with Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, M; Grupe, D; Brinkmann, W P; Raeth, C

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a six-month Swift monitoring campaign of Ark120, a prototypical bare Seyfert1 galaxy. The lack of intrinsic absorption combined with the nearly contemporaneous coverage of the UV and X-ray bands makes it possible to investigate the link between the accretion disk and the Comptonization corona. Our observations confirm the presence of substantial temporal variability, with the X-rays characterized by large-amplitude flux changes on timescales of few days, while the variations in the UV bands are smoother on timescales of several weeks. The source also shows spectral variability with the X-ray spectrum steepening when the source is brighter. We do not detect any correlation between the UV flux and the X-ray spectral slope. A cross correlation analysis suggests positive delays between X-rays and the UV emission, favoring a scenario of disk reprocessing. Although the strength of the correlation is moderate with a delay not well constrained (7.5+-7 days), it is nevertheless indicative of a...

  20. [Safety study of long-term video-electroencephalogram monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, M; Vivanco, R; Massot, A; Jiménez, J; Roquer, J; Rocamora, R

    2014-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life associated with drug-resistant epilepsy justify admitting patients to epilepsy monitoring units (EMU). These units employ methods that promote the occurrence of seizures, which involves a risk of secondary adverse events. The aim of our study is to characterise and quantify these adverse events in a Spanish EMU. A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients admitted consecutively to our EMU. Patients admitted due to status epilepticus, clusters of seizures, or as participants in a clinical trial were excluded. We included 175 patients, of whom 92.1% (161) did not suffer any adverse events. Status epilepticus was present in 3.4% (6); 1.7% (3) had traumatic injury, 1.7% (3) had interictal or postictal psychosis, and 1.1% (2) had cardiorespiratory impairment. There were no risk factors associated with these adverse events. The most frequently-identified adverse events were status epilepticus, traumatic injury, interictal or postictal psychosis, and cardiorespiratory disorders. The frequency of these adverse events was similar to that seen in international literature. The complications detected do not contraindicate VEEGM. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. CNT/PDMS composite flexible dry electrodes for long-term ECG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha-Chul; Moon, Jin-Hee; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Joung-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite-based dry ECG electrode that can be readily connected to conventional ECG devices, and showed its long-term wearable monitoring capability and robustness to motion and sweat. While the dispersion of CNTs in PDMS is challenging, we optimized the process to disperse untreated CNTs within PDMS by mechanical force only. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the CNT/PDMS electrode were tested according to the concentration of CNTs and its thickness. The performances of ECG electrodes were evaluated by using 36 types of electrodes which were fabricated with different concentrations of CNTs, and with a differing diameter and thickness. The ECG signals were obtained by using electrodes of diverse sizes to observe the effects of motion and sweat, and the proposed electrode was shown to be robust to both factors. The CNT concentration and diameter of the electrodes were critical parameters in obtaining high-quality ECG signals. The electrode was shown to be biocompatible from the cytotoxicity test. A seven-day continuous wearability test showed that the quality of the ECG signal did not degrade over time, and skin reactions such as itching or erythema were not observed. This electrode could be used for the long-term measurement of other electrical biosignals for ubiquitous health monitoring including EMG, EEG, and ERG.

  2. Volunteerism as Purpose: Examining the Long-Term Predictors of Continued Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.; Ogata, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study frames continued long-term participation in community engagement activities as indicative of a sense of "purpose" as defined by Damon, Menon, and Cotton Bronk (2003). Using data from US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined factors that predict whether students participating in civic engagement…

  3. Volunteerism as Purpose: Examining the Long-Term Predictors of Continued Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.; Ogata, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study frames continued long-term participation in community engagement activities as indicative of a sense of "purpose" as defined by Damon, Menon, and Cotton Bronk (2003). Using data from US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined factors that predict whether students participating in civic engagement…

  4. Volunteerism as Purpose: Examining the Long-Term Predictors of Continued Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.; Ogata, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study frames continued long-term participation in community engagement activities as indicative of a sense of "purpose" as defined by Damon, Menon, and Cotton Bronk (2003). Using data from US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined factors that predict whether students participating in civic engagement activities…

  5. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed E

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Dolphin Biosonar Activity in Deep Pelagic Waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Alonge, Giuseppe; Bellia, Giorgio; De Domenico, Emilio; Grammauta, Rosario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Mazzola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio; Pavan, Gianni; Papale, Elena; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Speziale, Fabrizio; Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2017-06-28

    Dolphins emit short ultrasonic pulses (clicks) to acquire information about the surrounding environment, prey and habitat features. We investigated Delphinidae activity over multiple temporal scales through the detection of their echolocation clicks, using long-term Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM). The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare operates multidisciplinary seafloor observatories in a deep area of the Central Mediterranean Sea. The Ocean noise Detection Experiment collected data offshore the Gulf of Catania from January 2005 to November 2006, allowing the study of temporal patterns of dolphin activity in this deep pelagic zone for the first time. Nearly 5,500 five-minute recordings acquired over two years were examined using spectrogram analysis and through development and testing of an automatic detection algorithm. Echolocation activity of dolphins was mostly confined to nighttime and crepuscular hours, in contrast with communicative signals (whistles). Seasonal variation, with a peak number of clicks in August, was also evident, but no effect of lunar cycle was observed. Temporal trends in echolocation corresponded to environmental and trophic variability known in the deep pelagic waters of the Ionian Sea. Long-term PAM and the continued development of automatic analysis techniques are essential to advancing the study of pelagic marine mammal distribution and behaviour patterns.

  7. An RFID-based on-lens sensor system for long-term IOP monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Liao, Yu-Te; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an RFID-based on-lens sensor system is proposed for noninvasive long-term intraocular pressure monitoring. The proposed sensor IC, fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS process, consists of capacitive sensor readout circuitry, RFID communication circuits, and digital processing units. The sensor IC is integrated with electroplating capacitive sensors and a receiving antenna on the contact lens. The sensor IC can be wirelessly powered, communicate with RFID compatible equipment, and perform IOP measurement using on-lens capacitive sensor continuously from a 2cm distance while the incident power from an RFID reader is 20 dBm. The proposed system is compatible to Gen2 RFID protocol, extending the flexibility and reducing the self-developed firmware efforts.

  8. Factors associated with the effectiveness of continuing education in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; Esbaugh, Jacquelin; Aylward, Sandra; Cathers, Tamzin; Harvey, David P; Hillier, Loretta M; Keat, Nancy; Feightner, John W

    2005-06-01

    This article examines factors within the long-term-care work environment that impact the effectiveness of continuing education. In Study 1, focus group interviews were conducted with staff and management from urban and rural long-term-care facilities in southwestern Ontario to identify their perceptions of the workplace factors that affect transfer of learning into practice. Thirty-five people were interviewed across six focus groups. In Study 2, a Delphi technique was used to refine our list of factors. Consensus was achieved in two survey rounds involving 30 and 27 participants, respectively. Management support was identified as the most important factor impacting the effectiveness of continuing education. Other factors included resources (staff, funding, space) and the need for ongoing expert support. Organizational support is necessary for continuing education programs to be effective and ongoing expert support is needed to enable and reinforce learning.

  9. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  10. Long-term monitoring of stream bank stability under different vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminska, Dominika; Skaalsveen, Kamilla; Kerkhof, Tjibbe

    2017-04-01

    Vegetated buffer zones are common environmental measures in many countries, including Norway. The presence of riparian vegetation on stream banks not only provides ecological benefits but also influence bank slope stability, through several complex interactions between riparian vegetation and hydro - mechanical processes. The hydrological processes associated with slope stability are complex and yet difficult to quantify, especially because their transient effects (e.g. changes throughout the vegetation life cycle). Additionally, there is very limited amount of field scale research focusing on investigation of coupled hydrological and mechanical influence of vegetation on stream bank behavior, accounting for both seasonal time scale and different vegetation type, and none dedicated to marine clay soils (typically soil for Norway). In order to fill this gap we established continues, long term hydrogeological monitoring o selected cross - section within stream bank, covered with different types of vegetation, typical for Norwegian agriculture areas (grass, shrubs, and trees). The monitoring involves methods such as spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture conditions, ground water level and fluctuation of water level in the stream. Herein we will present first 10 months of monitoring data: observed hydrological trends and differences between three cross - sections. Moreover, we will present first modelling exercises that aims to estimate stream banks stability with accounting on presence of different vegetation types using BSTEM and HYDRUS models. With this presentation, we would like to stimulate the discussion and get feedback that could help us to improve both, our experimental set up and analysis approach.

  11. Long Term Geoelectrical Monitoring of Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic Deep-water Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf Coast, opportunities exist to study the evolution of fresh crude oil contamination in beach sediments and marshes. Grand Terre 1 Island, off the coast of Grand Isle in southern Louisiana, is an uninhabited barrier island, heavily impacted by the DWH spill, and ideal for undisturbed long term monitoring of crude oil degradation processes. A 10 channel Syscal-Pro resistivity / IP instrument (IRIS Instruments, France) is the heart of the fully autonomous geoelectrical monitoring system; the system, which is housed in a weatherproof container, relies solely on solar power, is controlled by an energy efficient PC and can be accessed remotely via web tools. The monitoring scheme involves collecting bi-daily resistivity measurements from surface and shallow boreholes, ranging from January 2011 to the present; environmental parameters, such as T, are continuously recorded at several depths. During regular field trips we perform larger scale geophysical surveys, and geochemical measurements (pH, DO, T, fluid C) to support the continuous geophysical monitoring. The contaminated layer on site is a visually distinctive layer of crude oil, isolated by cleaner sands above and below which is identified by a clear and obvious resistive anomaly in preliminary surveys. Early results show a decrease in average of the resistance values of each dataset over time. Further processing of the data yields a linearly shaped resistive anomaly, which coincides with the location of the oil layer. The changes in subsurface resistivity appear to be focused within this anomaly. Time filtering of the data by the time that they were collected, morning or evening, reveals a diurnal variation. While both time frames follow the same overall trend, the measurements in the morning are slightly more resistive than those in the evening. This indicates that there are environmental factors, such as temperature, that need to be

  12. FEATURES OF LONG-TERM MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT WITH CONTINUOUS-FLOW PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a review of the comparative analysis of methods and tools for long-term mechanical circulatory support with continuous flow and pulsatile flow implantable pumps. Particular attention is paid to the choice of the optimal modes of the operation of pumps based on the physical principles of the interaction between a the steady flow of blood to the pulsatile mechanics of the heart chambers. 

  13. Long-term crustal deformation monitored by gravity and space geodetic techniques at Medicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Zerbini, S.; Lago, L.; Romagnoli, C.; Simon, D.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of an international collaboration, during 1996, at Medicina, Italy, a continuous GPS (CGPS) and a superconducting gravimeter (SG) were installed by the University of Bologna and the Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Frankfurt, respectively. The main purpose of the research was the establishment and the demonstration of an observational procedure leading to a reliable estimate of height variations and to interpret gravity variations/changes in conjunction with mass variations/changes within and above the Earth's crust. To fulfill the stated objectives, additional information is needed. In particular, continuous registrations of meteoclimatic parameters such as sacrificial water table level, electrical conductivity and temperature, deep well levels, rainfall, air pressure and temperature and balloon radio sonde data. A comparison, performed over a period of more than six years of data, between the CGPS and SG series has shed light on the existence of relevant seasonal fluctuations in both data sets, quite similar in amplitude and phase. They were interpreted and modeled as the sum of various environmental loadings for the height and gravity series and the Newtonian attraction components for gravity alone. The removal of the observed oscillations is most important in order to estimate properly the long-term trends, which characterize the CGPS and SG series. Moreover, the combination of SG and repeated absolute gravity measurements shows the capability of both techniques to determine the long-term trend in gravity. Just the combined view allows a significant trend analysis. In addition, the CGPS measurements are compared with other geodetic space techniques available at the Medicina station. In total, a strategy has been developed demonstrating how the present day available techniques should be combined to monitor crustal deformations and achieve relevant information for possible causes.

  14. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a long-term electrical resistivity survey at Grand Terre 1 (GT1) Island off the coast of Louisiana, a site contaminated with crude oil associated with the April 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Electrical resistivity has proven sensitivity to biogeochemical processes associated with the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. However, most of these studies have been in freshwater environments and for aged spills. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill therefore provided an unprecedented opportunity to capture the early time biogeophysical signals resulting from the physical, chemical and microbial transformation of crude oil in highly saline environments. We used a multi-channel resistivity system powered by solar panels to obtain continuous measurements twice a day on both a surface array and two shallow borehole arrays. This system operated for approximately 1.5 years and provided a unique long-term dataset of resistivity changes. Temperature and specific conductance values for the shallow groundwater were continuously logged. . Resistivity changes likely associated with biodegradation processes were then isolated from these environmental factors by modeling. In addition, groundwater was sampled for geochemical analyses from wells installed at the study site and soil samples were collected for microbial analyses at several locations, including both contaminated and uncontaminated locations. Microcosms were set up to determine the biodegradation potential of indigenous populations, and microbial diversity analysis was used to determine microbial community composition. Surface and borehole resistivity arrays revealed an initial resistive anomaly co-located with the known contamination. Pixel time series analysis of an inverted time sequence of resistivity sections highlighted differing responses between contaminated and uncontaminated locations. The contaminated locations exhibit persistent resistivity decreases over time, whereas areas

  15. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  16. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  17. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  18. Stable and Continuous Long-term Enzymatic Reaction using an Enzyme-Nanofiber Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyung; Hwang, Ee Taek; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Sun Mi; Sang, Byoung-In; Choi, Yong Su; Kim, Jungbae; Gu, Man Bock

    2007-07-01

    This study shows the preparation and application of enzyme-nanofiber composites for long-term stable operation. The enzyme-nanofiber composite was prepared by coating an enzyme-aggregate, the esterase from Rhizopus oryzae, on the surface of the nanofibers. The activity and stability of the esterase-nanofiber composite was evaluated by measuring the production of p-nitrophenol from the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. It was found that enzyme-nanofiber was very stable, even when the fibers were shaken in glasses, preserving 80 % of the initial activity for 100 days. In addition, the enzyme nanofiber composite was repeatedly used in 30 cycles of substrate hydrolysis and still remained active. Consequently, the esterase-nanofiber composite was finally employed to find its feasibility of long-term and stable continuous substrate hydrolysis reaction. In the sample reactor, the production of p-nitrophenol was consistent for 400 hr. Additionally, it was found that the production of p-nitrophenol proportionally decreased as the dilution rate was increased, showing the relationship between the efficiency of hydrolysis and the retention time within the reactor. This study demonstrates that the enzyme-nanofiber composite can be used in both repeated-batch and continuous modes for long-term stable operation.

  19. Long-term pressure monitoring with arterial applanation tonometry: a non-invasive alternative during clinical intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Koen S; Kalmar, Alain F; Struys, Michel M R F; Mortier, Eric P; Avolio, Alberto P; Segers, Patrick; Verdonck, Pascal R

    2008-01-01

    Arterial tonometry is a non-invasive technique for continuous registration of arterial pressure waveforms. This study aims to assess tonometric blood pressure recording (TBP) as an alternative for invasive long-term bedside monitoring. A prospective study was set up where patients undergoing neurosurgical intervention were subjected to both invasive (IBP) and non-invasive (TBP) blood pressure monitoring during the entire procedure. A single-element tonometric pressure transducer was used to better investigate different inherent error sources of TBP measurement. A total of 5.7 hours of combined IBP and TBP were recorded from three patients. Although TBP performed fairly well as an alternative for IBP in steady state scenarios and some short-term variations, it could not detect relevant long-term pressure variations at all times. These findings are discussed in comparison to existing work. Physiological alterations at the site of TBP measurement are highlighted as a potentially important source of artifacts. It is concluded that at this point arterial tonometry remains not enough understood for long-term use during a delicate operative procedure. Physiological changes at the TBP measurement site deserve further investigation before tonometry technology is to be considered as an non-invasive alternative for long-term clinical monitoring.

  20. Changes in methodology for monitoring long-term vegetation quadrats on the Jornada Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 150 sq. mi. quadrats were established for long-term monitoring of vegetation dynamics on the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico in the early 1900s. Today, approximately 120 of those sites are revisited on a five year sampling rotation. Although some of the methods for data...

  1. Long term demographic monitoring of wader populations in non-breeding areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Robert A.; Clark, Nigel A.; Lanctot, Richard; Nebel, Silke; Harrington, Brian; Clark, Jacquie A.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Meltofte, Hans; Rogers, Danny I.; Rogers, Ken G.; Ens, Bruno J.; Reynolds, Christopher M.; Ward, Robin M.; Piersma, Theunis; Atkinson, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding numeric changes in wader populations requires knowledge of the demographic parameters underlying such changes, i.e. survival and recruitment. Data from long-term monitoring programmes are crucial for obtaining these parameters. Following discussions held at a workshop on demographic mo

  2. Long-term Metformin Therapy and Monitoring for Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Elliott, John L; Patel, Birju B; Holland, N Wilson; Johnson, Theodore M; Khakharia, Anjali; Phillips, Lawrence S; Oakley, Godfrey P; Vaughan, Camille P

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between long-term metformin therapy and serum vitamin B12 monitoring. Retrospective cohort study. A single Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), 2002-2012. Veterans 50 years or older with either type 2 diabetes and long-term metformin therapy (n = 3,687) or without diabetes and no prescription for metformin (n = 13,258). We determined diabetes status from outpatient visits, and defined long-term metformin therapy as a prescription ≥500 mg/d for at least six consecutive months. We estimated the proportion of participants who received a serum B12 test and used multivariable logistic regression, stratified by age, to evaluate the association between metformin use and serum B12 testing. Only 37% of older adults with diabetes receiving metformin were tested for vitamin B12 status after long-term metformin prescription. The mean B12 concentration was significantly lower in the metformin-exposed group (439.2 pg/dL) compared to those without diabetes (522.4 pg/dL) (P = .0015). About 7% of persons with diabetes receiving metformin were vitamin B12 deficient (vitamin B12 testing compared to those without metformin exposure, after adjusting for sex, race and ethnicity, body mass index, and number of years treated at the VAMC. Long-term metformin therapy is significantly associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentration, yet those at risk are often not monitored for B12 deficiency. Because metformin is first line therapy for type 2 diabetes, clinical decision support should be considered to promote serum B12 monitoring among long-term metformin users for timely identification of the potential need for B12 replacement. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  4. Monitoring the introduction of a surgical intervention with long-term consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Spiegelhalter, D.J.; Bull, C.

    2007-01-01

    Surgical innovations are often introduced for their expected long-term benefits, but the decision to abandon the existing treatment must be based on the available short-term data and rational judgment. We present a framework for monitoring the introduction of a surgical intervention with long......-term consequences and failure-time endpoints. The framework is based on Bayesian methods, and formally combines study data, clinical opinion, and external evidence to construct a posterior survival function from which intuitive summary statistics can be extracted to aid decision making. It incorporates learning...

  5. Challenges and Opportunities of Long-Term Continuous Stream Metabolism Measurements at the National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, K. J.; Lunch, C. K.; Baxter, C.; Hall, R.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Roberts, B. J.; Marcarelli, A. M.; Tank, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in dissolved oxygen sensing and modeling have made continuous measurements of whole-stream metabolism relatively easy to make, allowing ecologists to quantify and evaluate stream ecosystem health at expanded temporal and spatial scales. Long-term monitoring of continuous stream metabolism will enable a better understanding of the integrated and complex effects of anthropogenic change (e.g., land-use, climate, atmospheric deposition, invasive species, etc.) on stream ecosystem function. In addition to their value in the particular streams measured, information derived from long-term data will improve the ability to extrapolate from shorter-term data. With the need to better understand drivers and responses of whole-stream metabolism come difficulties in interpreting the results. Long-term trends will encompass physical changes in stream morphology and flow regime (e.g., variable flow conditions and changes in channel structure) combined with changes in biota. Additionally long-term data sets will require an organized database structure, careful quantification of errors and uncertainties, as well as propagation of error as a result of the calculation of metabolism metrics. Parsing of continuous data and the choice of modeling approaches can also have a large influence on results and on error estimation. The two main modeling challenges include 1) obtaining unbiased, low-error daily estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), and 2) interpreting GPP and ER measurements over extended time periods. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), in partnership with academic and government scientists, has begun to tackle several of these challenges as it prepares for the collection and calculation of 30 years of continuous whole-stream metabolism data. NEON is a national-scale research platform that will use consistent procedures and protocols to standardize measurements across the United States, providing long-term

  6. Features of long-term health monitored strains of a bridge with wavelet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the five years' monitored strains collected from a long-term health monitoring system installed on a bridge with wavelet transform.In the analysis,the monitored strains are pre-processed,features of the monitored data are summarized briefly.The influences of the base functions on the results of wavelet analysis are studied simultaneously.The results show that the db wavelet is a good mother wavelet function in the analysis,and the order N should be larger than 20,but less than 46 in deco...

  7. Developing a Long-term Monitoring Program with Undergraduate Students in Marine Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, T. M.; Boryta, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    A goal of our growing marine geoscience program at Mt. San Antonio College is to involve our students in all stages of developing and running an undergraduate research project. During the initial planning phase, students develop and test their proposals. Instructor-set parameters were chosen carefully to help guide students toward manageable projects but to not limit their creativity. Projects should focus on long-term monitoring of a coastal area in southern California. During the second phase, incoming students will critique the initial proposals, modify as necessary and continue to develop the project. We intend for data collection opportunities to grow from geological and oceanographic bases to eventually include other STEM topics in biology, chemistry, math and GIS. Questions we will address include: What makes this a good research project for a community college? What are the costs and time commitments involved? How will the project benefit students and society? Additionally we will share our initial results, challenges, and unexpected pitfalls and benefits.

  8. Consistent control of psoriasis by continuous long-term therapy: the promise of biological treatments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2006-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable disease that frequently requires long-term treatment. Although many patients benefit from effective traditional systemic therapies, namely methotrexate, cyclosporin, retinoids and fumaric acid esters, and some patients achieve long-term disease control, unrestricted

  9. Criteria to assess and select sites for long-term avian monitoring in an urbanizing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lorne P; Milne, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    A methodology was developed to prioritize the suitability of sites for long-term monitoring of avian populations, including vulnerable species, both to enhance assessment of changes in ecological resources and to facilitate land-use planning at the regional scale. This paper argues that a successful monitoring program begins with a site prioritization procedure that integrates scores based on spatial controls with ecological and socio-economic indicators, particularly those dependent on community involvement. The evaluation strategy in this study combines 1) spatial controls such as land ownership and accessibility, with 2) biological and habitat indicators such as vulnerable species and habitat connectivity, and 3) community and agency variables such as volunteer commitment and agency priorities. In total, a set of ten indicators was identified. This strategy was applied to predominantly agricultural landscapes, which are experiencing increasing human pressures, in three sub-watersheds of the Credit River, Southern Ontario. Specifically, bird populations were recorded during the breeding seasons of 2000-2002 in nine land units or habitat types including marsh, deciduous forest, and grasslands as mapped by Credit Valley Conservation (CVC) following Ecological Land Classification (ELC) guidelines. CVC selected sites for long-term monitoring in 2002 and the relationships between the scored (or ranked) sites and the selected long-term monitoring sites are discussed.

  10. Observing Campaign to Monitor Magnetically-Active Dwarfs for Long-Term Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-10-01

    Dr. Styliani (Stella) Kafka of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, requests AAVSO observers to perform long-term photometric monitoring on a number of magnetically active dwarf stars, with an observing frequency of one observation every three days taken with one or more filters. When multiple filters are available, the preferred observations are (in order of precedence): Rc, V, Ic, and B. Please observe such that you obtain a signal to noise of at least 50 (100 or higher is preferred). These objects are all nearby dwarfs known or suspected to have magnetic activity, primarily of the UV Ceti (flare star) or BY Draconis subtypes. Long-term photometric monitoring of these objects will be used in conjunction with other multiwavelength observations from ground-based facilities including the Magellan 6.5-meter and DuPont 2.5-meter telescopes in Chile to understand the long-term magnetic activity cycles of these stars. Such a study can reveal information about the physical natures of these stars, but also about their near space environments and habitability for life. These objects are red, and the variability amplitudes are low, often well below 0.1 magnitudes. The long-term variability due to stellar activity cycles may be much lower. Photometric accuracy rather than the number of observations are key to the success of this project. Unaccounted-for atmospheric effects such as extinction will likely overwhelm any long-term signal from these stars. Observers are strongly urged to fully calibrate their systems and to carefully reduce and transform their photometry to standard photometric passbands, including corrections for airmass/atmospheric extinction. Parameters for 40 objects are given. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  11. New method for long-term monitoring of intragastric pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Consecutive monitoring of intragastric pH using the Bravo(R) capsule.METHODS: We put threads through a Bravo(R) capsule and then affixed it to the gastric wall by endoscopic hemoclipping in seven subjects. Study data were uploaded to a computer via Datalink every 48 h. In this way, repeated monitoring of intragastric pH was undertaken.RESULTS: All subjects were able to monitor gastric pH over a 1-wk period, and five for > 2 wk. No complications were encountered during the monitoring.After pH monitoring, we safely retrieved the capsule endoscopically.CONCLUSION: Clipping a Bravo(R) capsule onto the gastric wall enabled long-term intragastric pH monitoring.This is a methodological report of pH monitoring over a period of > 2 wk.

  12. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  13. Long-Term Survival of Saplings during the Transformation to Continuous Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Mackintosh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Glentress Trial Area is an extensive research area in southern Scotland of 117 ha where a long-term trial of the transformation of even-aged plantations to continuous cover has been in progress since 1952. During the assessment of permanent sample plots in 1990 information on the species and spatial position of saplings (trees taller than 1.3 m with a diameter at breast height of < 7 cm was recorded. This provided a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term survival of saplings during the transformation process when the Trial Area was reassessed in 2009. The main finding was that 37% of saplings survived the 19-year period and the majority developed into trees (≥7 cm diameter at breast height. There was considerable variation between species, the lowest survival of saplings was European larch (Larix decidua Mill. (13% and the highest European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. (55%; however differences between species were not significant. There were, however, significant differences between the six management areas with three with high sapling survival (55% to 61% but others much lower (27% to 32%. If this result is confirmed by other studies, covering a broader range of sites, management guidance that assumes 90% survival will need to be revised.

  14. Long-term fish monitoring in large rivers: Utility of “benchmarking” across basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Casper, Andrew F.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Waite, Ian R.; Kosovich, John J.; Chapman, Colin; Irwin, Elise R.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Ickes, Brian; McKerrow, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    In business, benchmarking is a widely used practice of comparing your own business processes to those of other comparable companies and incorporating identified best practices to improve performance. Biologists and resource managers designing and conducting monitoring programs for fish in large river systems tend to focus on single river basins or segments of large rivers, missing opportunities to learn from those conducting fish monitoring in other rivers. We briefly examine five long-term fish monitoring programs in large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Tallapoosa rivers) and identify opportunities for learning across programs by detailing best monitoring practices and why these practices were chosen. Although monitoring objectives, methods, and program maturity differ between each river system, examples from these five case studies illustrate the important role that long-term monitoring programs play in interpreting temporal and spatial shifts in fish populations for both established objectives and newly emerging questions. We suggest that deliberate efforts to develop a broader collaborative network through benchmarking will facilitate sharing of ideas and development of more effective monitoring programs.

  15. A novel method for long-term monitoring of intracranial pressure in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Maria Schmidt; Juhler, Marianne; Skjolding, Anders Daehli;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preclinical neurological studies, monitoring intracranial pressure (ICP) in animal models especially in rodents is challenging. Further, the lack of methods for long-term ICP monitoring has limited the possibilities to conduct prolonged studies on ICP fluctuations in parallel...... and in the epidural space. The two pressures were recorded twice a week for 59 days and the correlation was studied. RESULTS: The two pressure recordings correlated exceptionally well and the R(2) values on each recording day ranged between 0.99 and 1.00. However, the ventricular probes caused a number...

  16. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed.

  17. Long-term monitoring of PCDD/PCDF and other unintentionally produced POPs-Concepts and case studies from Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REINMANN; Jürgen; WEBER; Roland; HAAG; Roland

    2010-01-01

    During the start-up and unstable combustion periods,even the state-of-the-art incinerators emit polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PCDD/PCDF) in stack gases at concentrations that are up to 1000 times higher than normal operation. Therefore,incinerators and other sources with variation of PCDD/PCDF release into air cannot be reliably monitored by the conventional short-term sampling that covers only 0.1%to 0.2%of the yearly operating time.A more comprehensive monitoring regime is required.This paper describes different applications of continuous PCDD/PCDF sampling in some European countries.The cases demonstrate that flexible regimes for continuous sampling can be crafted and applied by governments or regional/local authorities.Such regimes range from a countrywide,continuous requirement for selected facility types(e.g.,waste incinerators) to a facility-specific regime that applies,for example,to new facilities for a defined time period until the facility has demonstrated continuous compliance with regulatory limits. Countries implementing the Stockholm Convention are suggested to evaluate in their Best available technology/Best environmental practice(BAT/BEP) activities the usefulness of long-term sampling by,for example,designating institutes related to the environmental ministry or regional authorities to supervise long-term sampling regimes at relevant facilities in their country/areas,beginning with priority sources(e.g.,facilities used for destruction of persistent organic pollutants(POPs) or hazardous waste processing) . This paper presents and discusses the results of the AMESA long-term monitoring system having demonstrated that in addition to PCDD/PCDF all other unintentionally produced POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention could be supervised.

  18. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-12-08

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987-1990 and 2000-2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time.

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Glacier Change at GÖSSNITZKEES (austria) Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, V.; Seier, G.

    2016-06-01

    Gössnitzkees is a small heavily debris-covered cirque glacier (49.8 ha) located in the Schober Mountains, Hohe Tauern Range, Austrian Alps. Glacier nourishment is mainly due to avalanches descending from its surrounding headwalls. Gössnitzkees is the largest glacier in the Schober Mountains and is highly representative of the other 25 glaciers of this mountain group. All glaciers of this mountain group have receded continuously since 1850. Ongoing atmospheric warming sustains excessive glacier melt. In 1988 a long-term monitoring program was started at Gössnitzkees using terrestrial photogrammetry in order to document and quantify glacier change. The surveys have been repeated from time to time using different types of cameras. Recent surveys date from 2009, 2012, and 2015. The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, to investigate whether or not the rather complex photogrammetric evaluation process using a conventional photogrammetric workstation (mostly with a limited degree of automation for terrestrial applications) can be replaced by modern fully automated Structure-from-Motion (SfM) based approaches, and secondly, to document and quantify the glacier change at Gössnitzkees based on available information augmented by results obtained from the most recent surveys mentioned. Over the last 27 years (1988-2015) the terminus of Gössnitzkees has receded by 179 m and the glacier ice has melted at a mean annual rate of about 1.5 m/year. The Schober Mountains are in the process of deglaciation and the glaciers will likely disappear within the next two decades. Based on our practical investigations we found out that SfM-based software is in general capable of handling terrestrial photographs in a fully automatic mode supporting challenging glacier studies.

  20. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  1. Gastric bypass patients' goal-strategy-monitoring networks for long-term dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Amanda; Bisogni, Carole A

    2014-10-01

    Following gastric bypass surgery, patients must make dramatic dietary changes, but little is known about patients' perspectives on long-term dietary management after this surgery. This grounded theory, qualitative study sought to advance conceptual understanding of food choice by examining how gastric bypass patients constructed personal food systems to guide food and eating behaviors 12 months post-surgery. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each of 16 adults, purposively sampled from bariatric support groups. Using constant comparative analysis of verbatim interview transcripts, researchers identified participants' goal-strategy-monitoring networks representing how participants used specific food and eating behaviors towards their main goals of: Weight Management, Overall Health, Avoiding Negative Reactions to Eating, and Integrating Dietary Changes with Daily Life. Linked to each main goal was a hierarchy of intermediary goals, strategies, and tactics. Participants used monitoring behaviors to assess strategy effectiveness towards goal achievement. Individuals' Weight Management networks were compared to uncover similarities and differences among strategy use and monitoring methods among those who maintained weight loss and those who regained weight. The complex, multilevel goal-strategy-monitoring networks identified illustrate the "work" involved in constructing new personal food systems after surgery, as well as advance understanding of strategies as a component of people's personal food systems. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with insight into the long-term dietary issues that gastric bypass patients face and a potential method for representing how people relate deliberate dietary behaviors to their goals.

  2. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  3. Long-term monitoring of geodynamic surface deformation using SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenyu

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is a powerful tool to measure surface deformation and is well suited for surveying active volcanoes using historical and existing satellites. However, the value and applicability of InSAR for geodynamic monitoring problems is limited by the influence of temporal decorrelation and electromagnetic path delay variations in the atmosphere, both of which reduce the sensitivity and accuracy of the technique. The aim of this PhD thesis research is: how to optimize the quantity and quality of deformation signals extracted from InSAR stacks that contain only a low number of images in order to facilitate volcano monitoring and the study of their geophysical signatures. In particular, the focus is on methods of mitigating atmospheric artifacts in interferograms by combining time-series InSAR techniques and external atmospheric delay maps derived by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In the first chapter of the thesis, the potential of the NWP Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model for InSAR data correction has been studied extensively. Forecasted atmospheric delays derived from operational High Resolution Rapid Refresh for the Alaska region (HRRR-AK) products have been compared to radiosonding measurements in the first chapter. The result suggests that the HRRR-AK operational products are a good data source for correcting atmospheric delays in spaceborne geodetic radar observations, if the geophysical signal to be observed is larger than 20 mm. In the second chapter, an advanced method for integrating NWP products into the time series InSAR workflow is developed. The efficiency of the algorithm is tested via simulated data experiments, which demonstrate the method outperforms other more conventional methods. In Chapter 3, a geophysical case study is performed by applying the developed algorithm to the active volcanoes of Unimak Island Alaska (Westdahl, Fisher and Shishaldin) for long term volcano deformation

  4. Time-series modeling of long-term weight self-monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Elina; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    Long-term self-monitoring of weight is beneficial for weight maintenance, especially after weight loss. Connected weight scales accumulate time series information over long term and hence enable time series analysis of the data. The analysis can reveal individual patterns, provide more sensitive detection of significant weight trends, and enable more accurate and timely prediction of weight outcomes. However, long term self-weighing data has several challenges which complicate the analysis. Especially, irregular sampling, missing data, and existence of periodic (e.g. diurnal and weekly) patterns are common. In this study, we apply time series modeling approach on daily weight time series from two individuals and describe information that can be extracted from this kind of data. We study the properties of weight time series data, missing data and its link to individuals behavior, periodic patterns and weight series segmentation. Being able to understand behavior through weight data and give relevant feedback is desired to lead to positive intervention on health behaviors.

  5. Long-term post-wildfire monitoring of phenology and recovery using a MODIS time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2012-12-01

    Disturbance severity in forests or grasslands is generally conceptualized as the difference between the state before and immediately after a disturbance event. This approach fails to capture slow-acting disturbances that take years to materialize, secondary disturbance effects such as delayed mortality, or variable rates of recovery. Remotely sensed data can provide a multi-seasonal baseline and long-term post-disturbance record of recovery that also captures associated disturbances, such as post event salvage logging or restoration efforts. Here we track the MODIS satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index or NDVI of several large wildfires that occurred early in the last decade to measure fire and associated disturbance severity with multi-seasonal and multi-year contexts. Large fires analyzed included Oregon's Biscuit Fire, Colorado's Hayman Fire, Arizona's Rodeo-Chediski Fire, and Georgia's Okefenokee Fire among others. Short-term results were generally consistent with prior post-fire estimates of short-term wildfire severity, but long-term fire effects diversified. Both short and long-term severity varied by topography and vegetation types, as measured by changes in seasonal NDVI, not just single-season NDVI. This broadened monitoring technique provides a moderate resolution record of recovery that can inform questions related to cumulative impacts and ecological resilience.

  6. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology for Long Term High Precision Deformation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezočnik, Rok; Ambrožič, Tomaž; Sterle, Oskar; Bilban, Gregor; Pfeifer, Norbert; Stopar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new methodology for high precision monitoring of deformations with a long term perspective using terrestrial laser scanning technology. In order to solve the problem of a stable reference system and to assure the high quality of possible position changes of point clouds, scanning is integrated with two complementary surveying techniques, i.e., high quality static GNSS positioning and precise tacheometry. The case study object where the proposed methodology was tested is a high pressure underground pipeline situated in an area which is geologically unstable. PMID:22303152

  7. Design of the Long-term Safety Monitoring System of Zhicheng Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The long-term safety monitoring system of Zhicheng Yangtze River Bridge was established in the principle of open information service and standardized systems engineering.The ADSL dynamic IP communication network established by using VPN technology and application of encryption technology,tunnel technology and user identification accreditation technology have made the system safer and more reliable.The system can fulfill real-time,regular and triggered signal collection according to needs and may give notice or alarm for the discovery of real-time failure.Monitored data can be collected and stored to provide reliable data for stipulating technical indicators for safety operation of the large-span railway bridges.The system,after its completion,can maintain its long-term stable running,take hold of the running condition of all locations of bridge under monitoring,evaluate the overall situation and life cycle,and make available the technical reserves for the Infrastructure Inspection Center of MOR.

  8. Long-term synchronized electrophysiological and behavioral wireless monitoring of freely moving animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Laszlo; Ftomov, Sergiu; Timofeev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Parallel electrophysiological recording and behavioral monitoring of freely moving animals is essential for a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper we describe a novel wireless recording technique, which is capable of synchronously recording in vivo multichannel electrophysiological (LFP, MUA, EOG, EMG) and activity data (accelerometer, video) from freely moving cats. The method is based on the integration of commercially available components into a simple monitoring system and is complete with accelerometers and the needed signal processing tools. LFP activities of freely moving group-housed cats were recorded from multiple intracortical areas and from the hippocampus. EMG, EOG, accelerometer and video were simultaneously acquired with LFP activities 24-h a day for 3 months. These recordings confirm the possibility of using our wireless method for 24-h long-term monitoring of neurophysiological and behavioral data of freely moving experimental animals such as cats, ferrets, rabbits and other large animals. PMID:23099345

  9. Structural condition assessment of long-span suspension bridges using long-term monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng; Youliang, Ding; Aiqun, Li

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on developing an online structural condition assessment technique using long-term monitoring data measured by a structural health monitoring system. The seasonal correlations of frequency-temperature and beam-end displacement-temperature for the Runyang Suspension Bridge are performed, first. Then, a statistical modeling technique using a six-order polynomial is further applied to formulate the correlations of frequency-temperature and displacement-temperature, from which abnormal changes of measured frequencies and displacements are detected using the mean value control chart. Analysis results show that modal frequencies of higher vibration modes and displacements have remarkable seasonal correlations with the environmental temperature and the proposed method exhibits a good capability for detecting the micro damage-induced changes of modal frequencies and displacements. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from frequency and displacement time series and is well suited for online condition monitoring of long-span suspension bridges.

  10. Long-term crustal deformation monitored by gravity and space techniques at Medicina, Italy and Wettzell, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Zerbini, S.; Matonti, F.; Simon, D.

    2004-10-01

    Series of gravity recordings at the stations Medicina (Italy) and Wettzell (Germany) are investigated to separate seasonal gravity variations from long-term trends in gravity. The findings are compared to height variations monitored by continuous GPS observations. To study the origin of these variations in height and gravity the environmental parameters at the stations are included in the fact finding. In Medicina, a clear seasonal signal is visible in the gravity and height data series, caused by seasonal fluctuations in the atmosphere including mass redistribution, the ocean, groundwater but also by geo-mechanical effects such as soil consolidation and thermal expansion of the structure supporting the GPS antenna. In Wettzell, no seasonal effect could be clearly identified, and the long-term trend in gravity is mainly caused by ground water variations. The successful combination of height and gravity series with the derived ratio of gravity to height changes indicates that the long-term trends in height and gravity are most likely due to mass changes rather than to tectonic movements.

  11. Long-term monitoring of a cable stayed bridge using a SCADA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbol, Marco; Kim, Sehwan; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    DuraMote is a MEMS-based remote sensing system, which is developed for the NIST TIP project, Next Generation SCADA for Prevention and Mitigation of Water System Infrastructure Disaster. It is designed for supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) of pipe ruptures in water distribution systems. In this project, a method is developed to detect the pipe ruptures by analyzing the acceleration data gathered by DuraMote which consists of two primary components; the first, "Gopher" contains the accelerometers and are attached to the water pipe surface noninvasively, and the second, "Roocas" is placed above ground supplying the power to, and retrieving the data from the multiple Gophers, and then transmit the data through Wi-Fi to a base station. The relays support the Wi-Fi network to facilitate the transmission. A large scale bridge provides an ideal test-bet to validate the performance of such a complex monitoring system as DuraMote for its accuracy, reliability, robustness, and user friendliness. This is because a large bridge is most of the time subjected to susceptible level of ambient vibration due to passing loads, wind, etc. DuraMote can record the acceleration time history arising from the vibration making it possible to estimate the frequency values of various bridge vibration modes. These estimated frequency values are then compared with the values computed from analytical model of the bridge for the verification of the accuracy of DuraMote. It is noted that such a verification method cannot be used practically by deploying DuraMote on a water distribution network since the dynamic behavior of a pipe network, either above or underground, is too complex to model analytically for this purpose, and in addition, the network generally lacks conveniently recordable ambient vibration. In this experiment, the performance of DuraMote system was tested being installed on the Hwamyung Bridge, a 500 m long RC cable stayed bridge in Korea for long term monitoring. In

  12. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  13. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  14. [Long-term outcomes of children treated with continuous renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, S; Bialobrzeska, K; Casellas, M M; Santiago, M J; López-Herce, J; Toledo, B; Carrillo, Á

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze long-term outcomes and kidney function in children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) after an acute kidney injury episode. A retrospective observational study was performed using a prospective database of 128 patients who required CRRT admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between years 2006 and 2012. The subsequent outcomes were assessed in those surviving at hospital discharge. Of the 128 children who required RRT in the pediatric intensive care unit, 71 survived at hospital discharge (54.4%), of whom 66 (92.9%) were followed up. Three patients had chronic renal failure prior to admission to the NICU. Of the 63 remaining patients, 6 had prolonged or relapses of renal function disturbances, but only one patient with atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome developed end-stage renal failure. The rest had normal kidney function at the last check-up. Most of surviving children that required CRRT have a positive outcome later on, presenting low mortality rates and recovery of kidney function in the medium term. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Long term behavior of radiocaesium in moose: conclusions from 25 years of monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, R.; Sonesten, L.; Goedkoop, W. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment (Sweden); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden); Wikenros, C. [Department of Ecology (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) deposited after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986, still persist in forest ecosystems in parts of Sweden at relatively high concentrations. In the forest, radiocaesium is assumed to be reversibly bound to the soil, which facilitates its uptake by plant roots and fungal mycelia thus making it available, as fodder, to wild animals. Even today this leads to contaminated meat from moose (Alces alces) and other game species. Around 100 000 moose, approximately 1/3 of the whole population, are shot each year in Sweden which makes moose the main source of consumed game meat. Hence understanding the long-term behavior of radiocaesium in forest ecosystems is important for the evaluation of future potential health risks to consumers. The two municipalities of Heby and Uppsala, in east-central Sweden, experienced relatively large deposition in 1986 (5 - 100 kBq/m{sup 2}). Monitoring of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in meat from moose hunted in these areas was initiated already in autumn 1986 and is still continuing. Muscle samples from front leg of the slaughtered moose are received from local hunters during the hunting season and more than 3500 samples have been collected during the years. The samples are adjoined with a sampling protocol containing information on estimated age, sex and weight, as well as where and when each moose was shot. Gamma spectrometry of the {sup 137}Cs- activities is performed on fresh or frozen moose muscle samples using HPGe detectors. The main part of all the samples analyzed since 1986 are from the northern part of Heby municipality. This study area covers approximately 400 km{sup 2} and received a mean ground deposition of approximately 35 kBq/m{sup 2} of {sup 137}Cs in 1986. The area is dominated by managed coniferous forests, but also includes large parts of agricultural land. A database of > 3 500 moose samples collected from hunts between 1986 and 2010 was used in this study. The results of the

  16. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management [Special Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Christensen, Sigurd W [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Ham, Kenneth [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL; Morris, Gail Wright [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  17. Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  18. Long term, continuous exposure to panobinostat induces terminal differentiation and long term survival in the TH-MYCN neuroblastoma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Kelly; Cullinane, Carleen; Ardley, Kerry; Shortt, Jake; Martin, Ben; Tothill, Richard W; Li, Jason; Johnstone, Ricky W; McArthur, Grant A; Hicks, Rodney J; Wood, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy in childhood and accounts for ∼15% of childhood cancer deaths. Amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma is associated with aggressive disease and predicts for poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are therefore essential to improving patient outcomes in this setting. The histone deacetylases are known to interact with N-Myc and regulate numerous cellular processes via epigenetic modulation, including differentiation. In this study, we used the TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma to investigate the antitumor activity of the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat. In particular we sought to explore the impact of long term, continuous panobinostat exposure on the epigenetically driven differentiation process. Continuous treatment of tumor bearing TH-MYCN transgenic mice with panobinostat for nine weeks led to a significant improvement in survival as compared with mice treated with panobinostat for a three-week period. Panobinostat induced rapid tumor regression with no regrowth observed following a nine-week treatment period. Initial tumor response was associated with apoptosis mediated via upregulation of BMF and BIM. The process of terminal differentiation of neuroblastoma into benign ganglioneuroma, with a characteristic increase in S100 expression and reduction of N-Myc expression, occurred following prolonged exposure to the drug. RNA-sequencing analysis of tumors from treated animals confirmed significant upregulation of gene pathways associated with apoptosis and differentiation. Together our data demonstrate the potential of panobinostat as a novel therapeutic strategy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

  19. FACT - Long-term Monitoring of Bright TeV-Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Hildebrand, D; Knötig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q; Zänglein, M

    2013-01-01

    Since October 2011, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is operated successfully on the Canary Island of La Palma. Apart from the proof of principle for the use of G-APDs in Cherenkov telescopes, the major goal of the project is the dedicated long-term monitoring of a small sample of bright TeV blazars. The unique properties of G-APDs permit stable observations also during strong moon light. Thus a superior sampling density is provided on time scales at which the blazar variability amplitudes are expected to be largest, as exemplified by the spectacular variations of Mrk 501 observed in June 2012. While still in commissioning, FACT monitored bright blazars like Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 during the past 1.5 years so far. Preliminary results including the Mrk 501 flare from June 2012 will be presented.

  20. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2005-02-01

    The flow and transport model of Shoal is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for Shoal, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for Shoal will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for Shoal, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency.

  1. The New Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA for Remote and Long-Term Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palanques

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A suitable sampling technology to identify species and to estimate population dynamics based on individual counts at different temporal levels in relation to habitat variations is increasingly important for fishery management and biodiversity studies. In the past two decades, as interest in exploring the oceans for valuable resources and in protecting these resources from overexploitation have grown, the number of cabled (permanent submarine multiparametric platforms with video stations has increased. Prior to the development of seafloor observatories, the majority of autonomous stations were battery powered and stored data locally. The recently installed low-cost, multiparametric, expandable, cabled coastal Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA, located 4 km off of Vilanova i la Gertrú, Barcelona, at a depth of 20 m, is directly connected to a ground station by a telecommunication cable; thus, it is not affected by the limitations associated with previous observation technologies. OBSEA is part of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO infrastructure, and its activities are included among the Network of Excellence of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET. OBSEA enables remote, long-term, and continuous surveys of the local ecosystem by acquiring synchronous multiparametric habitat data and bio-data with the following sensors: Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD sensors for salinity, temperature, and pressure; Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP for current speed and direction, including a turbidity meter and a fluorometer (for the determination of chlorophyll concentration; a hydrophone; a seismometer; and finally, a video camera for automated image analysis in relation to species classification and tracking. Images can be monitored in real time, and all data can be stored for future studies. In this article, the various components of OBSEA are described, including its hardware (the sensors and the network of marine and

  2. Linking archival and remotely sensed data for long-term environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandawana, Hamisai; Eckardt, Frank; Chanda, Raban

    2005-12-01

    The broad objective of this paper is to illustrate how archival, historical and remotely sensed data can be used to complement each other for long-term environmental monitoring. One of the major constraints confronting scientific investigation in the area of long-term environmental monitoring is lack of data at the required temporal and spatial scales. While remotely sensed data have provided dependable change detection databases since 1972, long-term changes such as those associated with typical climate scenarios often require longer time series data. The lack of data in readily accessible and usable formats for periods predating commercial satellite products has for a long time restricted the scope of environmental studies to temporally brief, synoptic overviews covering short time scales, thereby compromising our understanding of complex environmental processes. One way to improve this understanding is by cross-linking different forms of data at different temporal scales. However, most remote sensing based change research has tended to marginalize the utility of archival and historical sources in environmental monitoring. While the accuracy of data from non-instrumental records is often source-specific and varies from place to place, carefully conducted searches can yield useful information that can be effectively used to extend the temporal coverage of projects dependant on time series data. This paper is based on an ongoing project on environmental monitoring in the world's largest Ramsar site, the Okavango Delta, located on the northeastern fringes of Southern Africa's Kalahari-Namib desert in northern Botswana. With a database covering over 150 years between 1849 and 2001, the primary objectives of this paper are to: (1) outline how modern remotely sensed data (i.e., CORONA and Landsat) can be complemented by historical in situ observations (i.e., travellers' records and archival maps) to extend temporal coverage into the historical past, (2) illustrate that

  3. Bat Species Occurrence and Long-Term Bat Population Monitoring on Refuges Using Acoustical Detection - 2012-2015 Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long-term trend monitoring efforts for bats on National Wildlife Refuges have been prompted by a paucity of significant population information and precipitous...

  4. [2015 survey overview and future plans : Investigating Long-Term Monitoring Protocols in support of Quivira NWR Habitat Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is an overview of 2015 surveying for the Investigating Long-Term Monitoring Protocols in support of Quivira NWR Habitat Objectives project led by Fort...

  5. 2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm

  6. Maintaining Accurate Long-Term Sensing Ability Despite Significant Size Reduction of Implantable Cardiac Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Julia; Varnavas, Varnavas; WEIßENBERGER, Wilko; Erbel, Raimund; Reinsch, Nico

    2016-12-01

    The Reveal LINQ™ implantable cardiac monitor (ICM; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is obviously smaller than its precursor (the Reveal XT™), but little is known about its long-term safety. Here, we investigated the long-term R-wave sensing reliability of the Reveal LINQ™ ICM. We analyzed the sensing quality of the Reveal LINQ™ ICM over time between March 2014 and January 2015. A total of 30 patients underwent Reveal LINQ™ implantation. The main reason for implantation was unexplained syncope (60%). We evaluated a total of 305.8 patient-months (median, 10.7 months) of R-wave sensing quality. A comparison of baseline and follow-up R-wave sensing values revealed no difference (0.401 mV ± 0.244 mV vs 0.447 mV ± 0.323 mV; P = 0.225). The consistent detection of events is an important safety feature of an ICM and linked to secure R-wave sensing. Despite the noticeable size reduction, the Reveal LINQ™ ICM retains reliable sensing quality over time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Rangeland monitoring reveals long-term plant responses to precipitation and grazing at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.

  8. Long-term dam safety monitoring of Punt dal Gall arch dam in Switzerland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.WIELAND[1; G.F.KIRCHEN[2

    2012-01-01

    The 130 m high Punt dal Gall dam is located at the Swiss-Italian border in the South-eastern part of Switzerland and was completed in 1969.The dam is founded on highly folded and partially crushed dolomite and limestone formations.A grout curtain with an area of 120,000 m 2 was provided for controlling seepage.For the monitoring of the dam deformations five inverted pendulums were installed in the dam and three in the rock foundation of the right abutment outside of the dam.For a seasonal water level fluctuation in the reservoir of about 60 m the maximum amplitude of the radial displacement is 25 mm,which includes both the effects of the water load and temperature effects.Furthermore a comprehensive geodetic network was established,57 joint meters were installed and cracks in the crest gallery are monitored by crack meters.There are also thermometers,piezometers and rocmeters.Springs at the left and right banks of the dam are monitored and chemical analyses of the seepage water and springs are performed regularly.The dam is equipped with strong motion instruments and several near-field earthquakes have been recorded in the past.The paper describes the long-term safety monitoring of this 42 years old arch dam.A short description of the Swiss practice in dam safety monitoring and emergency planning is also given.

  9. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  10. Long-term monitoring of the Sedlec Ossuary - Analysis of hygrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Balík, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Sedlec Ossuary is one of the twelve UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic. Although the ossuary is listed among the most visited Czech tourist attractions, its technical state is almost critical and a radical renovation is necessary. On this account, hygrothermal performance of the ossuary is experimentally researched in the presented paper in order to get information on moisture sources and to get necessary data for optimized design of renovation treatments and reconstruction solutions that will allow preserve the historical significance of this attractive heritage site. Within the performed experimental analysis, the interior and exterior climatic conditions are monitored over an almost three year period together with relative humidity and temperature profiles measured in the most damage parts of the ossuary chapel. On the basis of measured data, the long-term hygrothermal state of the ossuary building is accessed and the periods of possible surface condensation are identified.

  11. The Porretta thermal springs (Northern Apennines: seismogenic structures and long-term geochemical monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Italiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal springs of Porretta are located on a seismically active area of the Northern Apennines. In 19th Century a chemist identified anomalous behaviour of the thermal waters in concomitance with local seismic events. Recent studies assessed the geochemical features of the circulating fluids (e.g., waters carry a dissolved CH4-dominated gas phase with a radiogenic signature of the helium isotopic ratio and observed anomalous hydrologic and geochemical signals possibly related to crustal strain phenomena due to local seismic events. Long-term geochemical monitoring was carried out from 2001 to 2006 with the aim of detecting the behaviour of the circulating fluids possibly coinciding with seismic activity. The collected data reveal a sensitivity of the thermal waters to the activity of the main fault crossing the village of Porretta and identify a «seismogenic» structure crossing the village.

  12. Long term monitoring system integrated in an elevational gradient in NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilla, J.; Malizia, A.; Osinaga, O.; Blundo, C.; Grau, R.; Malizia, L.; Aráoz, E.

    2013-05-01

    Ecological trends and ranges of variability are poorly known in the tropical and subtropical Andes. Long term studies are powerful tools to detect the response of vegetation dynamics, biodiversity and hydrological cycle to these trends. We present a long term monitoring system in NW Argentinean mountains, including forest permanent plots at different elevations and high elevation grasslands, encompassing more than 3.000 m elevation range. Long term studies include: 1) 66 ha of mountain forest permanent plots along the Yungas elevational gradient from c. 400 to 2500 masl , and latitudinal gradient (22-28S) with 45 plots in mature forests and 28 in secondary forests originated in grazing, agriculture and selective logging. Some of these permanent plots have achieved 20 years of monitoring and all of them are included in the "Red de Bosques Andinos" a network created recently, together with c. 10 institutions and more than 130 (c. 120 ha) forest permanent plots from Argentina to Colombia Andes. 2) Two GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) sites, above 4000 masl with more than 170 species recorded, including one re-measurement. This system is included in GLORIA network (www.gloria.ac.at) and in GLORIA Andes (http://www.condesan.org/gloria), and 3) more than 15 satellite monitored high Andean lakes and a wide extension of vegas (75800 ha in Argentinean puna). A digital database is being implemented to organize and provide access to the information generated by these three systems coordinated by the Instituto de Ecología Regional (http://www.iecologia.com.ar). These monitoring data are analyzed together with instrumental and dendrochronological data to describe the dynamics of these ecosystems over an area of 20 million hectares distributed between 22 and 28°S. Some of the most significant results to date include: 1) secondary mountain forests are expanding over grasslands and agriculture lands, and tend to converge toward mature forest

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Mini-Split Ductless Heat Pumps in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Loomis, H.

    2015-06-01

    Transformations, Inc. has extensive experience building their high performance housing at a variety of Massachusetts locations, in both a production and custom home setting. The majority of their construction uses mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs) for space conditioning. This research covered the long-term performance of MSHPs in Zone 5A; it is the culmination of up to 3 years' worth of monitoring in a set of eight houses. This research examined electricity use of MSHPs, distributions of interior temperatures and humidity when using simplified (two-point) heating systems in high-performance housing, and the impact of open-door/closed-door status on temperature distributions. The use of simplified space conditioning distribution (through use of MSHPs) provides significant first cost savings, which are used to offset the increased investment in the building enclosure.

  14. Field Deployable Fiber Bragg Grating Strain Patch for Long-Term Stable Health Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Kalinka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fiber Bragg grating (FBG strain patch specially adapted for long-term and high-strain applications has been developed and characterized. The design concept for the patch is based on a glass-fiber reinforced plastic (gfrp carrier material. The developed concept for the FBG integration into the carrier material was derived from reliable integration procedure of FBG sensors into composite structures. The patches’ temperature sensitivity, strain gauge factor, fiber–matrix interface adhesion and fatigue behavior were characterized. As a result, FBG strain patches with linear temperature and strain behavior, as well as excellent fatigue resistance, were developed and can be used as part of a monitoring system for advanced composite materials in aerospace structures or wind turbine power plants.

  15. Turbulent airflow meter for long-term monitoring in patient-ventilator circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S E; Shore, J H; Barnes, C W; Lindauer, J; Osborn, J J

    1977-03-01

    A new type of flowmeter is described which operates on the principle that pressure drop (deltaP) produced by turbulent volume flow (V) through a simple resistance chamber obeys a relation of V = K (deltaP)0.50. Data are given showing that the device follows a true power law with a single exponent for airflows ranging from 3.5 to 270 l/min. Standard instrumentation and a linearization circuit are used with the new flowmeter to provide linear steady-state and alternating airflow measurements up to peak rates of 150 l/min and frequency to 15 Hz. Data are presented comparing integrated airflow readings from the new turbulent flowmeter and a laminar-type flowmeter. The turbulent airflow meter appears to offer increased reliability for long-term patient monitoring use in patient-ventilator circuits.

  16. Gasbuggy, New Mexico Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) that has been conducted since 1972 at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico underground nuclear detonation site. The nuclear testing was conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program, which is discussed in greater detail in Appendix A. The detonation at Gasbuggy took place in 1967, 4,240 feet below ground surface, and was designed to fracture the host rock of a low-permeability natural gas-bearing formation in an effort to improve gas production. The site has historically been managed under the Nevada Offsites Project. These underground nuclear detonation sites are within the United States but outside of the Nevada Test Site where most of the experimental nuclear detonations conducted by the U.S. Government took place. Gasbuggy is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM ).

  17. Long-term quasi-continuous oxygen saturation levels obtained from sternal photoplethysmography on patients with obstructive lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chreiteh, Shadi; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Belhage, Bo

    2016-01-01

    the sternum of patients admitted to the hospital with obstructive lung diseases. Due to the lack of a gold standard reference that is suitable for long-term monitoring without interfering with the patient's activity level, we extracted reliable segments based on knowledge from the basic pulse oximeter theory...

  18. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2014 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbach, James

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2014 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The goals of the 2014 annual LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient and to monitor the vertical and downgradient horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at the site. The LTM activities consisted of an annual groundwater sampling event in December 2014, which included the collection of water levels from the LTM wells. During the annual groundwater sampling event, depth to groundwater was measured and VOC samples were collected using passive diffusion bags (PDBs) from 30 monitoring wells. In addition to the LTM sampling, additional assessment sampling was performed at the site using low-flow techniques based on previous LTM results and assessment activities. Assessment of monitoring well MW0052DD was performed by collecting VOC samples using low-flow techniques before and after purging 100 gallons from the well. Monitoring well MW0064 was sampled to supplement shallow VOC data north of Hot Spot 2 and east of Hot Spot 4. Monitoring well MW0089 was sampled due to its proximity to MW0090. MW0090 is screened in a deeper interval and had an unexpected detection of trichloroethene (TCE) during the 2013 LTM, which was corroborated during the March 2014 verification sampling. Monitoring well MW0130 was sampled to provide additional VOC data beneath the semi-confining clay layer in the Hot Spot 2 area.

  19. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  20. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  1. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  2. Long-term and transient forcing of the low ionosphere monitored by SAVNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Bertoni, Fernando C. P.; Gavilán, Hernan R.; Samanes, Jorge C.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we present the main findings obtained by the South America VLF NETwork since its installation in the South America territory. In particular we show the capability of the VLF technique to monitor the long-term solar activity and transient solar and geomagnetic disturbances. On long timescales they are indices on the possibility of monitoring the Lyman-α solar radiation. On shorter timescales we show that the VLF technique is a very sensitive mean of detecting solar X-ray flares. Those small events with a peak power ⩾5×10-7 W/m2 are detected with a 100% probability. A lower limit for the X-ray power of ˜2.7 10-7 W/m2 has been found in order to produce a ionospheric disturbance, and we confirm the important role of the Lyman-α radiation to form and maintain the low ionospheric D-region. SAVNET has also observed for the first time the ionospheric disturbances produced by outbursts from the magnetar SGR 1550-5408. This genuine detection suggests the possibility of monitoring on a routine basis these objects of fundamental importance in high-energy astrophysics. Finally, we show that SAVNET is well suited for participating to the search for seismo-ionospheric disturbances in order to study the possibility of earthquake events prediction.

  3. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes - lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmeister, H.G. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and ecotox-Austria, Fleschgasse 22, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: harald.zechmeister@univie.ac.at; Dirnboeck, T. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.dirnboeck@umweltbundesamt.at; Huelber, K. [VINCA, Giessergasse 6/7, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: karl.huelber@vinca.at; Mirtl, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.mirtl@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-06-15

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43 kg N*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}) and sulphur (10 to 18 kg SO{sub 4}-S*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zoebelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S. - Bryophytes show ambiguous response to airborne pollutants during 14 years of monitoring in a forest ecosystem.

  4. Stable microwave radiometry system for long term monitoring of deep tissue temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-02-01

    Background: There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods: We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain onaxis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results: We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of +0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions: A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  5. Long-term monitoring of change in Tropical grasslands- GLORIA network in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, F. X.; Muriel, P.; Halloy, S.; Beck, S.; Meneses, R. I.; Irazabal, J.; Aguirre, N.; Viñas, P.; Suarez, D.; Becerra, M. T.; Gloria-Andes Network

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that predicted warming and increased frequency of extreme weather events increase with altitude in the Andean mountains. Combined with enormous topographic (and hence precipitation) heterogeneity, poverty and intensive land use, creates in the region a situation of high vulnerability to global change. Since 2005 the network Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environment (GLORIA) sites have been progressively installed in Andean countries to monitor changes, document the type and magnitude of impacts and provide guidance to develop adaptation strategies for biodiversity, humans, and productive systems. We report the preliminary results from 10 of those sites, in addition to new sites planned in South America. These sites provide baseline data and identify processes and patterns in plant biodiversity across different geographic contexts. These preliminary results show the tremendous singularity of the vegetation and flora patterns in the study sites, suggesting high sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate anomalies. It is expected that the consolidation of this network will support and strengthen long-term observation and monitoring research programs to enable the documentation and understanding of climate change impacts on the Andean biota. Our research considers complementary modules of investigation (e.g. carbon stocks and fluxes, plant responses to experimental manipulation) that contextualize the challenges and opportunities of adaptation for biodiversity and socio-economic components, providing measures of trends as well as effectiveness of adaptive management strategies.

  6. Long-term monitored catchments in Norway - a hydrologic and chemical evaluation -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydersen, E.

    1994-10-20

    About 20 years ago, long-term monitoring of small Norwegian catchments were initiated, because of increasing concern regarding acidification of surface water and damage to fish populations. Long range transported air pollutants were considered to be the major acidification factor and so both precipitation and runoff chemistry were included in the monitoring programme. This report contains a thorough hydrologic and chemical evaluation of precipitation and runoff water separately as well as relationships between precipitation chemistry and runoff chemistry. The data comes from four catchments: Birkenes, Storgama, Langtjern and Kaarvatn. The chapters are (1) Sampling and analysis, (2) Description of the catchments, (3) Hydrology, (4) Chemistry, with subsections on wet deposition, dry deposition, concentration of marine compounds with distance from the sea, acid precipitation, runoff chemistry, sulphuric acid and other acidifying compounds, acid neutralizing capacity, and aluminium, (5) Time trends in precipitation and runoff chemistry. The time trends are evaluated in relation to the declining emissions of sulphur compounds in Europe since the late seventies. 134 refs., 213 figs., 54 tabs.

  7. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  8. In-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, J S; McKeever, S W S

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y, and sup 9 sup 9 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm sup 3) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y but is unsuitable for measuring sup 9 sup 9 Tc in soil. The second objective ...

  9. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  10. Long term country-wide rainfall monitoring employing cellular communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2013-04-01

    Accurate rainfall observations with high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed for hydrological applications, agriculture, meteorology, and climate monitoring. However, the majority of the land surface of the earth lacks accurate rainfall information and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America, and Africa. This calls for alternative sources of rainfall information. Various studies have shown that microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed for rainfall monitoring. Such networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have a high density, especially in urban areas. The basic principle of rainfall monitoring using microwave links is as follows. Rainfall attenuates the electromagnetic signals transmitted from one telephone tower to another. By measuring the received power at one end of a microwave link as a function of time, the path-integrated attenuation due to rainfall can be calculated. Previous studies have shown that average rainfall intensities over the length of a link can be derived from the path-integrated attenuation. This is particularly interesting for those countries where few surface rainfall observations are available. Here we present preliminary results of long term country-wide rainfall monitoring employing cellular communication networks. A dataset from a commercial microwave link network over the Netherlands is analyzed, containing data from an unprecedented number of links (~ 2000) covering the land surface of the Netherlands (35500 square kilometres). This dataset spans from January 2011 through October 2012. Daily rainfall maps (1 km spatial resolution) are derived from the microwave link data and compared to maps from a gauge-adjusted radar dataset. The performance of the rainfall retrieval algorithm will be investigated, particularly a possible seasonal dependence.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: V899 Mon long-term monitoring (Ninan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Baug, T.; Bhatt, B. C.; Mohan, V.; Ghosh, S. K.; Men'shchikov, A.; Anupama, G. C.; Tamura, M.; Henning, Th.

    2016-03-01

    Our long-term optical monitoring of V899 Mon started on 2009 November 30. The observations were carried out using the 2m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) at the Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle (Ladakh), belonging to the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), India, and the 2m telescope at the IUCAA (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics) Girawali Observatory (IGO), Girawali (Pune), India. Near-infrared (NIR) photometric monitoring of the source in J, H, and K/KS bands was carried out using the HCT NIR camera (NIRCAM), the TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC) mounted on HCT, and the TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) mounted on the IGO telescope. Our medium-resolution (R~1000) optical spectroscopic monitoring of V899 Mon also started on 2009 November 30. The spectroscopic observations were carried out using both HCT/HFOSC and IGO/IFOSC. These observations were done in the effective wavelength range of 3700-9000Å. We acquired a high-resolution (R~37000) spectrum of V899 Mon during its second outburst phase on 2014 December 22 using the Southern African Large Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph (SALT-HRS). NIR (1.02-2.35um) spectroscopic monitoring of V899 Mon started on 2013 September 25 using TIRSPEC mounted on HCT. Continuum interferometric observation of V899 Mon at 1280MHz with 33.3MHz bandwidth was carried out on 2014 October 17 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), Pune, India. (3 data files).

  12. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2015 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2015 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objectives of the 2015 LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient, to monitor the vertical and horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs; including the upgradient and sidegradient extents, which are monitored every five years), and to monitor select locations internal to the dissolved groundwater plume. The 2015 LTM event included several upgradient and sidegradient monitoring wells that are not sampled annually to verify the extent of VOCs in this portion of the site. The December 2015 LTM groundwater sampling event included, depth to groundwater measurements, 40 VOC samples collected using passive diffusion bags, and one VOC sample collected using low-flow techniques. Additionally, monitoring well MW0052DD was overdrilled and abandoned using rotasonic drilling techniques. The following conclusions can be made based on the 2015 LTM results: groundwater flow is generally to the west with northwest and southwest flow components from the water table to approximately 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS); peripheral monitoring wells generally delineate VOCs to groundwater cleanup target levels (GCTLs) except for monitoring wells MW0088, MW0090, MW0095, and NPSHMW0039, which had vinyl chloride (VC) concentrations near the GCTL and MW0062, which had trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethenen (cDCE), and VC concentrations above natural attenuation default concentrations (NADCs); VOCs in interior downgradient wells generally fluctuate within historic ranges except for monitoring wells in the north-northwest portion of the site, which have increasing VC concentrations indicating potential plume migration and expansion; Historically, the vertical extents of the VOCs were delineated by monitoring wells

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing and long term monitoring reveal watershed-estuary ecosystem interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestir, E. L.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Morgan-King, T.; Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.

    2016-02-01

    Estuarine ecosystems and their biogeochemical processes are extremely vulnerable to climate and environmental changes, and are threatened by sea level rise and upstream activities such as land use/land cover and hydrological changes. Despite the recognized threat to estuaries, most aspects of how change will affect estuaries are not well understood due to the poorly resolved understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions in estuarine systems. Remote sensing technologies such as high spectral resolution optical systems enable measurements of key environmental parameters needed to establish baseline conditions and improve modeling efforts. The San Francisco Bay-Delta is a highly modified estuary system in a state of ecological crisis due to the numerous threats to its sustainability. In this study, we used a combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and long-term in situ monitoring records to investigate how water clarity has been responding to extreme climatic events, anthropogenic watershed disturbances, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) invasions. From the long-term turbidity monitoring record, we found that water clarity underwent significant increasing step changes associated with sediment depletion and El Nino-extreme run-off events. Hyperspectral remote sensing data revealed that invasive submerged aquatic pant species have facultative C3 and C4-like photosynthetic pathways that give them a competitive advantage under the changing water clarity conditions of the Bay-Delta system. We postulate that this adaptation facilitated the rapid expansion of SAV following the significant step changes in increasing water clarity caused by watershed disturbances and the 1982-1983 El Nino events. Using SAV maps from hyperspectral remote sensing, we estimate that SAV-water clarity feedbacks were responsible for 20-70% of the increasing water clarity trend in the Bay-Delta. Ongoing and future developments in airborne and

  14. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  15. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related

  16. Long-term arsenic monitoring with an Enterobacter cloacae microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-12-01

    A microbial fuel cell was constructed with biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae grown on the anode. Bioelectrocatalysis was observed when the biofilm was grown in media containing sucrose as the carbon source and methylene blue as the mediator. The presence of arsenic caused a decrease in bioelectrocatalytic current. Biofilm growth in the presence of arsenic resulted in lower power outputs whereas addition of arsenic showed no immediate result in power output due to the short term arsenic resistance of the bacteria and slow transport of arsenic across cellular membranes to metabolic enzymes. Calibration curves plotted from the maximum current and maximum power of power curves after growth show that this system is able to quantify both arsenate and arsenate with low detection limits (46 μM for arsenate and 4.4 μM for arsenite). This system could be implemented as a method for long-term monitoring of arsenic concentration in environments where arsenic contamination could occur and alter the metabolism of the organisms resulting in a decrease in power output of the self-powered sensor.

  17. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  18. Long-term magnetic field monitoring of the Sun-like star Ksi Boo A

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenthaler, A; Saar, S; Solanki, S K; Auriere, M; Dintrans, B; Fares, R; Gastine, T; Lanoux, J; Lignieres, F; Marsden, S C; Morin, J; Paletou, F; Velez, J C Ramirez; Theado, S; Van Grootel, V

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We aim at investigating the long-term temporal evolution of the magnetic field of the solar-type star Ksi Boo A, both from direct magnetic field measurements and from the simultaneous estimate of indirect activity indicators. Methods. We use 7 time-series of high-resolution, circularly-polarized spectra obtained with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter between 2007 and 2011, for a total of 76 spectra. Using about 6,100 photospheric spectral lines covering the visible domain, we employ a cross-correlation procedure to compute, from each spectrum, a mean polarized line profile. We model the large-scale photospheric magnetic field of the star by means of Zeeman-Doppler Imaging and follow the year-to-year evolution of the reconstructed magnetic topology. Simultaneously, we monitor the width of several magnetically-sensitive spectral lines, the radial velocity and line asymmetry of intensity line profiles and the chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and Halpha lines. Results. During the highest obser...

  19. Long-Term Marine Traffic Monitoring for Environmental Safety in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, T.; Gyftakis, S.; Charou, E.; Perantonis, S.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Koromila, I.; Makrygiorgos, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean Sea is characterized by an extremely high marine safety risk, mainly due to the significant increase of the traffic of tankers from and to the Black Sea that pass through narrow straits formed by the 1600 Greek islands. Reducing the risk of a ship accident is therefore vital to all socio-economic and environmental sectors. This paper presents an online long-term marine traffic monitoring work-flow that focuses on extracting aggregated vessel risks using spatiotemporal analysis of multilayer information: vessel trajectories, vessel data, meteorological data, bathymetric / hydrographic data as well as information regarding environmentally important areas (e.g. protected high-risk areas, etc.). A web interface that enables user-friendly spatiotemporal queries is implemented at the frontend, while a series of data mining functionalities extracts aggregated statistics regarding: (a) marine risks and accident probabilities for particular areas (b) trajectories clustering information (c) general marine statistics (cargo types, etc.) and (d) correlation between spatial environmental importance and marine traffic risk. Towards this end, a set of data clustering and probabilistic graphical modelling techniques has been adopted.

  20. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  1. Implementing CUAHSI and SWE observation data models in the long-term monitoring infrastructure TERENO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. The challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR. TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes the data available through standard web services. Data are stored following the CUAHSI observation data model in combination with the 52° North Sensor Observation Service data model. The data model was implemented using the PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS. Especially in a long-term project, such as TERENO, care has to be taken in the data model. We chose to adopt the CUAHSI observational data model because it is designed to store observations and descriptive information (metadata

  2. Long-term stability of a TLD-based individual monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Abrantes, J N; Margo, O; Rangel, S; Santos, L

    2006-01-01

    The thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system at the Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) of the Nuclear Technology Institute (ITN) at the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) comprises two 6600 Harshaw readers and the Harshaw 8814 TL card and the holder containing two LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosemeters for the evaluation of H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). The readers are calibrated on a monthly basis and as part of the quality assurance programme implemented at the IMS a set of dosemeters is issued monthly to the DPRSN's Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for linearity measurements. The results obtained since November 2001 are presented. Fading and sensitivity change experiments are carried out every month covering 8 week periods so that enough time is given to simulate issuing, integrating and receiving times and respective delays. A set of 96 dosemeters organised in eight subsets of 12 are used. In each subset, four dosemeters are irradiated and stored at room temperature (RT), four are not irradiated at all and the last four are irradiated after storage. The 12 dosemeters of each subset are readout at the same time, one per week, covering the 8 week period. The results from the sets irradiated and stored at different periods allowed for the evaluation of fading and sensitivity changes experienced over the whole monitoring period and respective preparation time and readout delays. Time evolution charts of the reader calibration factors, of the linearity parameters and of the evolution of the integrated area in the region of dosimetric interest with storage at RT were obtained. This paper aims to quantify the long-term stability of the TLD system in use at the IMS.

  3. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  4. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  5. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  7. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  8. Documenting the use of the Long Term Resource Monitoring element’s fish monitoring methodologies throughout the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.

    2016-08-16

    The Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program’s Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element is designed to monitor and assess long term trends in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). To accomplish this, standardized methods are used that allow for comparisons across pools and rivers. In recent years, other projects and other agencies have adopted the LTRM fish methodologies for use outside the UMRR. To determine how widespread the use of the Fish Component’s methods are, a twelve question survey was delivered via SurveyMonkey.com through the states comprising the American Fisheries Society (AFS) North Central Division and the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee. Approximately 2,000 professionals were reached with ≈11 percent participating. Results indicate that nearly all (95 percent) respondents use standardized methods in their sampling and 48 percent are familiar with the LTRM fish methodologies. Roughly one-third (35 percent) of all respondents have used the methods in the past and most (78 percent) of those have modified the methods to suit the information needs specific to their fishery. Results indicate that the LTRM methods have indeed spread outside the UMRR and are now a well-known and potentially widely used technique to sample fish communities.

  9. Documenting the Use of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Element’s Fish Monitoring Methodologies Throughout the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.

    2016-08-16

    The Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program’s Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element is designed to monitor and assess long term trends in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). To accomplish this, standardized methods are used that allow for comparisons across pools and rivers. In recent years, other projects and other agencies have adopted the LTRM fish methodologies for use outside the UMRR. To determine how widespread the use of the Fish Component’s methods are, a twelve question survey was delivered via SurveyMonkey.com through the states comprising the American Fisheries Society (AFS) North Central Division and the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee. Approximately 2,000 professionals were reached with ≈11 percent participating. Results indicate that nearly all (95 percent) respondents use standardized methods in their sampling and 48 percent are familiar with the LTRM fish methodologies. Roughly one-third (35 percent) of all respondents have used the methods in the past and most (78 percent) of those have modified the methods to suit the information needs specific to their fishery. Results indicate that the LTRM methods have indeed spread outside the UMRR and are now a well-known and potentially widely used technique to sample fish communities.

  10. The impact of long-term haemofiltration (continuous veno-venous haemofiltration) on cell-mediated immunity during endotoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nilsen, B U; Bollen, P;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased survival with high-volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH) has been demonstrated in critically ill patients. This may be the result of intensified blood purification or an effect on the immune system. We hypothesized that CVVH modifies the cell-mediated immunity....... However, in the long term, CVVH was unable to modify the endotoxin-induced changes in cell-mediated immunity....

  11. Efalizumab: results of a 3-year continuous dosing study for the long-term control of psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, C; Menter, A; Hamilton, T.; Caro, I.; Xing, B.; Gottlieb, AB

    2008-01-01

    Background Efalizumab, a T-cell-targeted, recombinant, humanized, monoclonal IgG1 antibody, inhibits key T-cell-mediated steps in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Efalizumab is approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis in adults in more than 50 countries. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term, continuous efalizumab therapy in patients with psoriasis. Methods This open-label, multicentre phase III study enrolled 339 patients with moderate-to-...

  12. Long-Term Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Sexuality in Female Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in f...

  13. Long term photometric monitoring of comet 103P/Hartley2 with the new robotic TRAPPIST telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.; Magain, P.

    2011-10-01

    We report on a long term monitoring of comet 103P/Hartley2 with six cometary narrow band filters using the TRAPPIST 0.60m telescope installed recently at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. This new robotic telescope is dedicated to exoplanet and solar system research. The comet was observed with the cometary filters during 4 months, from Oct. 29 to Feb. 22. Since then the monitoring continues but only through the BVRI filters and about two times per week. Those observations allowed us to make a detailed light curve of the comet after its perihelion passage and derive production rates of the 4 main species (OH, CN, C2, C3) as well as the dust production rate (Afρ) over that period. The high sampling of our monitoring allowed us to find a periodicity in the gaseous light curves and to deduce a rotation period of 18.4h early November, slowing down to about 19h by the end of December.

  14. Long-Term Monitoring of Water Dynamics in the Sahel Region Using the Multi-Sar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, A.; Wendleder, A.; Schmitt, A.; Huber, M.

    2016-06-01

    Fresh water is a scarce resource in the West-African Sahel region, seasonally influenced by droughts and floods. Particularly in terms of climate change, the importance of wetlands increases for flora, fauna, human population, agriculture, livestock and fishery. Hence, access to open water is a key factor. Long-term monitoring of water dynamics is of great importance, especially with regard to the spatio-temporal extend of wetlands and drylands. It can predict future trends and facilitate the development of adequate management strategies. Lake Tabalak, a Ramsar wetland of international importance, is one of the most significant ponds in Niger and a refuge for waterbirds. Nevertheless, human population growth increased the pressure on this ecosystem, which is now degrading for all uses. The main objective of the study is a long-term monitoring of the Lake Tabalak's water dynamics to delineate permanent and seasonal water bodies, using weather- and daytime-independent multi-sensor and multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data available for the study area. Data of the following sensors from 1993 until 2016 are used: Sentinel-1A, TerraSARX, ALOS PALSAR-1/2, Envisat ASAR, RADARSAT-1/2, and ERS-1/2. All SAR data are processed with the Multi-SAR-System, unifying the different characteristics of all above mentioned sensors in terms of geometric, radiometric and polarimetric resolution to a consistent format. The polarimetric representation in Kennaugh elements allows fusing single-polarized data acquired by older sensors with multi-polarized data acquired by current sensors. The TANH-normalization guarantees a consistent and therefore comparable description in a closed data range in terms of radiometry. The geometric aspect is solved by projecting all images to an earth-fixed coordinate system correcting the brightness by the help of the incidence angle. The elevation model used in the geocoding step is the novel global model produced by the TanDEM-X satellite

  15. Long-term monitoring of a large landslide by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gerald; Schraml, Klaus; Mansberger, Reinfried; Hübl, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Currently UAVs become more and more important in various scientific areas, including forestry, precision farming, archaeology and hydrology. Using these drones in natural hazards research enables a completely new level of data acquisition being flexible of site, invariant in time, cost-efficient and enabling arbitrary spatial resolution. In this study, a rotary-wing Mini-UAV carrying a DSLR camera was used to acquire time series of overlapping aerial images. These photographs were taken as input to extract Digital Surface Models (DSM) as well as orthophotos in the area of interest. The "Pechgraben" area in Upper Austria has a catchment area of approximately 2 km². Geology is mainly dominated by limestone and sandstone. Caused by heavy rainfalls in the late spring of 2013, an area of about 70 ha began to move towards the village in the valley. In addition to the urgent measures, the slow-moving landslide was monitored approximately every month over a time period of more than 18 months. A detailed documentation of the change process was the result. Moving velocities and height differences were quantified and validated using a dense network of Ground Control Points (GCP). For further analysis, 14 image flights with a total amount of 10.000 photographs were performed to create multi-temporal geodata in in sub-decimeter-resolution for two depicted areas of the landslide. Using a UAV for this application proved to be an excellent choice, as it allows short repetition times, low flying heights and high spatial resolution. Furthermore, the UAV acts almost weather independently as well as highly autonomously. High-quality results can be expected within a few hours after the photo flight. The UAV system performs very well in an alpine environment. Time series of the assessed geodata detect changes in topography and provide a long-term documentation of the measures taken in order to stop the landslide and to prevent infrastructure from damage.

  16. Performance of long-term CT monitoring in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstad, Audun E. [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: a.e.berstad@medisin.uio.no; Aalokken, Trond Mogens [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway); Kolbenstvedt, Alf [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway); Bjortuft, Oystein [Department of Thoracic Medicine, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of CT, including expiratory scans with minimum intensity projection in predicting the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Materials and methods: Forty consecutive patients, 29 bilateral and 11 single lung transplanted, were followed-up with regular scans for a median of 36 months. Air trapping was evaluated on expiratory scans constructed from two short spiral scans with minimum intensity projection-technique, one at the level of the carina and the other midway between the right diaphragm and the carina. Air trapping was scored on a 16-point scale. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was diagnosed according to established clinical criteria and quantified spirometrically. Results: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in 17 patients (43%) after a median of 12 months. Air trapping and bronchiectasis was seen before the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in only two and one patient, respectively. Interobserver agreement for air trapping score was good (kappa = 0.65). Air trapping scores performed significantly better than that achieved by chance alone in determining the presence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (P = 0.0025). An air trapping score of 4 or more provided the best results with regard to sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of an air trapping of 4 or more in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome were 77, 74, 68 and 81%, respectively. Conclusion: Expiratory CT scans with minimum intensity projection-reconstruction did not predict the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in most patients. The findings seriously limit the clinical usefulness of long-term CT monitoring for diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation.

  17. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Survival on first-line and second-line ART regimens is estimated based on annual retention rates reported by national AIDS programs. Costs per patient-year were calculated from country-reported ARV procurement prices, and expenditures on laboratory tests, health care utilization and end-of-life care from in-depth costing studies. Of the 3.5 million ART patients in 2011, 2.3 million will still need treatment in 2020. The annual cost of maintaining ART falls from $1.9 billion in 2011 to $1.7 billion in 2020, as a result of a declining number of surviving patients partially offset by increasing costs as more patients migrate to second-line therapy. The Global Fund is expected to continue being a major contributor to meeting this financial need, alongside other international funders and domestic resources. Costs would be $150 million less in 2020 with an annual 5% decline in first-line ARV prices and $150-370 million less with a 5%-12% annual decline in second-line prices, but $200 million higher in 2020 with phase out of stavudine (d4T, or $200 million higher with increased migration to second-line regimens expected if all countries routinely adopted viral load monitoring. Deaths postponed by ART correspond to 830,000 life-years saved in 2011, increasing to around 2.3 million life-years every year between 2015 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Annual patient-level direct costs of supporting a patient cohort remain fairly stable over 2011-2020, if current antiretroviral prices and delivery costs are maintained. Second-line antiretroviral prices are a major cost driver, underscoring the importance of investing in treatment quality to improve retention on first-line regimens.

  18. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiong

    Full Text Available In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  19. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  20. Remediation and its effect represented on long term monitoring data at a chlorinated ethenes contaminated site, Wonju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    A research for the contamination of chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea, was carried out based on 17 rounds of groundwater quality data collection from 2009 to 2015. Remediation technologies such as soil vapor extraction, soil flushing, biostimulation, and pump-and-treat have been applied to eliminate the contaminant sources of trichloroethylene (TCE) and to prevent the migration of TCE plume from remediation target zones to groundwater discharge area like a stream. The remediation efficiency according to the remedial actions was evaluated by tracing a time-series of plume evaluation and temporal mass discharge at three transects (Source, Transect-1, Transect-2) which was assigned along the groundwater flow path. Also, based on long term monitoring data, dissolved TCE concentration and mass of residual TCE in the initial stage of disposal were estimated to evaluate the efficiency of in situ remediation. The results of temporal and spatial monitoring before remedial actions showed that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. However, from the end of intensive remedial actions from 2012 to 2013, the aqueous concentrations of TCE plume present at and around the main source areas decreased significantly. Especially, during the intensive remediation period, the early average mass discharge (26.58 g/day) at source transect was decreased to average 4.99 g/day. Estimated initial dissolved concentration and residual mass of TCE in the initial stage of disposal decreased rapidly after an intensive remedial action in 2013 and it is expected to be continuously decreased from the end of remedial actions to 2020. This study demonstrates that long term monitoring data are useful in assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions at chlorinated ethenes contaminated site. Acknowledgements This project is supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment under "The GAIA

  1. Military Personnel: DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women, but Should Monitor Long-Term Integration Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    10. Study of historical U.S. Marine Corps integration efforts Review the integration of women into Marine Corps aviation occupations and past...integration of women into the logistics and aviation communities 13. Expand Unit Assignments Survey Determine participants’ experiences regarding...MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women , but Should Monitor Long-Term

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.; Chi, B.L.; Oenema, O.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was

  3. Myocardial strain and strain rate in monitoring subclinical heart failure in asymptomatic long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Groot-Loonen, J.J.; Marcus, K.A.; Bellersen, L.; Feuth, T.; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the role of global myocardial strain and strain rate in monitoring subclinical heart failure in a large group of asymptomatic long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Global strain (rate) parameters of survivors were compared with those in healthy controls and were related to conventional

  4. Seizures in the intrahippocampal kainic acid epilepsy model: Characterization using long-term video-EEG monitoring in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Raedt; A. Van Dycke; D. Van Melkebeke; T. De Smedt; P. Claeys; T. Wyckhuys; K. Vonck; W. Wadman; P. Boon

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats evokes a status epilepticus (SE) and leads to spontaneous seizures. However to date, precise electroencephalographic (EEG) and clinical characterization of spontaneous seizures in this epilepsy model using long-term video-EEG monitor

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.; Chi, B.L.; Oenema, O.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was

  6. Long term in situ monitoring of total dissolved iron concentrations on the MoMAR observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes-Huon, Agathe; Legrand, Julien; Tanguy, Virginie; Cathalot, Cecile; Blandin, Jérôme; Rolin, Jean-Francois; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the scientific community wants relevant monitoring with an increase in spatial and temporal distribution of key chemicals. The hydrothermal ecosystems characterized by strong physico-chemical gradients are also of particular interest as they present an unique fauna, sustained by microbial chemosynthesis. The characterization of the chemical environment in the hydrothermal vent ecosystems implies the use of in situ instrumentation which is a serious challenge in the marine environment (Prien et al. 2007). The CHEMINI (CHEmical MINIaturised analyser), presented here, is a chemical in situ analyser specialized for deep sea uses (Vuillemin et al. 2007). It was first deployed on the autonomous deep sea observatory MoMAR (Monitoring of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, FIXO3, Fixed point Open Ocean Observatories) in 2010. The first part of the presentation will focus on the description of the CHEMINI, then on the results obtained on the MoMAR observatory during the last 4 years. CHEMINI, implemented on the TEMPO ecological module determined total dissolved iron concentrations associated with an optode and a temperature probe. Several months of total iron concentrations, of T°C and videos were recorded permitting the study of the temporal dynamics of faunal assemblages and their habitat on the Lucky strike vent (-1700m, Cuvelier et al. 2011). Long term in situ analysis of total dissolved iron (31st of August 2013 - 23rd of February 2014, [DFe] = 7.12 +- 2.11 µmol L-1, n = 519) at the Eiffel Tower edifice is presented in details. The daily analyzed in situ standard (25µmol.L-1) showed an excellent reproducibility (1.07%, n=522). CHEMINI was reliable, robust over time for in situ analysis. The averaged total dissolved iron concentrations for the 6 months period remain low but they correlated significantly with temperature showing a spectra frequency with a maximal contribution around 4-5 days for both variables. The analytical results will be commented and the future

  7. Long-term monitoring of the TeV emission from Mrk 421 with the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, B; Bi, X J; Bleve, C; Bolognino, I; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Melcarne, A K Calabrese; Camarri, P; Cao, Z; Cappa, A; Cardarelli, R; Catalanotti, S; Cattaneo, C; Celio, P; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Chen, Y; Creti, P; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; Staiti, G D'Alí; Danzengluobu,; Dattoli, M; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T; Ding, X H; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F; Galeotti, P; Giroletti, E; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; James, I; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Li, J Y; Li, X X; Liguori, G; Liu, C; Liu, C Q; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari, S M; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Pagliaro, A; Panareo, M; Panico, B; Perrone, L; Pistilli, P; Qu, X B; Rossi, E; Ruggieri, F; Salvini, P; Santonico, R; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Stanescu, C; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xu, B; Xue, L; Yan, Y X; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L; Zhang, P; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q; Zizzi, G

    2011-01-01

    ARGO-YBJ is an air shower detector array with a fully covered layer of resistive plate chambers. It is operated with a high duty cycle and a large field of view. It continuously monitors the northern sky at energies above 0.3 TeV. In this paper, we report a long-term monitoring of Mrk 421 over the period from 2007 November to 2010 February. This source was observed by the satellite-borne experiments Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and Swift in the X-ray band. Mrk 421 was especially active in the first half of 2008. Many flares are observed in both X-ray and gamma-ray bands simultaneously. The gamma-ray flux observed by ARGO-YBJ has a clear correlation with the X-ray flux. No lag between the X-ray and gamma-ray photons longer than 1 day is found. The evolution of the spectral energy distribution is investigated by measuring spectral indices at four different flux levels. Hardening of the spectra is observed in both X-ray and gamma-ray bands. The gamma-ray flux increases quadratically with the simultaneously measur...

  8. MONITORING TREE POPULATION DYNAMICS IN ARID ZONE THROUGH MULTIPLE TEMPORAL SCALES: INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS, CHANGE DETECTION AND FIELD LONG TERM MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Isaacson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1 individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2 spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  9. Long-term monitoring of Sgr A* at 7 mm with VERA and KaVA

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Sohn, Bong Won; Lee, Sang Sung; Trippe, Sascha; Honma, Mareki

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of radio monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 7 mm (i.e. 43 GHz) with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is a VLBI array in Japan. VERA provides angular resolutions on millisecond scales, resolving structure within ~100 Schwarzschild radii of Sgr A* similar to Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA). We performed multi-epoch observations of Sgr A* in 2005 - 2008, and started monitoring it again with VERA from January 2013 for tracing the current G2 encounter event. Our preliminary results in 2013 show that Sgr A* on mas scales has been in ordinary state as of August 2013, although some fraction of the G2 cloud already passed pericenter of Sgr A* in April 2013. We will continue on monitoring Sgr A* with VERA and newly developed KaVA (KVN and VERA Array).

  10. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented. ...

  11. Long-term assessment of an autonomous wireless structural health monitoring system at the new Carquinez Suspension Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Kim, Junhee; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome P.; van der Linden, G. W.; Jacob, Vince; Thometz, Ed; Hipley, Pat; Sheng, Li-Hong

    2011-04-01

    A dense network of sensors installed in a bridge can continuously generate response data from which the health and condition of the bridge can be analyzed. This approach to structural health monitoring the efforts associated with periodic bridge inspections and can provide timely insight to regions of the bridge suspected of degradation or damage. Nevertheless, the deployment of fine sensor grids on large-scale structures is not feasible using wired monitoring systems because of the rapidly increasing installation labor and costs required. Moreover, the enormous size of raw sensor data, if not translated into meaningful forms of information, can paralyze the bridge manager's decision making. This paper reports the development of a large-scale wireless structural monitoring system for long-span bridges; the system is entirely wireless which renders it low-cost and easy to install. Unlike central tethered data acquisition systems where data processing occurs in the central server, the distributed network of wireless sensors supports data processing. In-network data processing reduces raw data streams into actionable information of immediate value to the bridge manager. The proposed wireless monitoring system has been deployed on the New Carquinez Suspension Bridge in California. Current efforts on the bridge site include: 1) long-term assessment of a dense wireless sensor network; 2) implementation of a sustainable power management solution using solar power; 3) performance evaluation of an internet-enabled cyber-environment; 4) system identification of the bridge; and 5) the development of data mining tools. A hierarchical cyber-environment supports peer-to-peer communication between wireless sensors deployed on the bridge and allows for the connection between sensors and remote database systems via the internet. At the remote server, model calibration and damage detection analyses that employ a reduced-order finite element bridge model are implemented.

  12. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  13. Long-term therapy for heart failure with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnie, J J; Bourgeois, R J; Husserl, F E

    1985-06-01

    This article reports the treatment with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis of a patient with intractable congestive heart failure secondary to an ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although the use of peritoneal dialysis to treat refractory heart failure is not new, the advent of an effective continuous peritoneal dialysis system has allowed its use over prolonged periods of time. The two-year treatment interval described herein represents the longest reported application of this technique, to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Approach for long term environmental parameters monitoring process using data acquisition devices and high level applications for data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Bogdan; Boca, Loredana; Abrudean, Mihail; Joldes, Remus

    2010-11-01

    Present paper describes a long term monitoring process of few environmental parameters for evaluating green energy potential (wind energy and solar energy) of a small geographical area (~ 32 km2). The monitoring approach presented in this paper consists in: real-time data acquisition process using two real-time data acquisition devices (DAQ); a wireless network used for long distance data transmission in order to send all acquired data to a remote location for processing; Virtual Instrument (VI's) applications used for controlling data acquisition devices and the acquisition process; a network protocol analyzer used for a detailed analysis of the communication protocols and data packets; the management of the huge volume of sensor data by using a high level software application; long term sensor monitoring using a complex graphic software application. The measured environment parameters are the following: wind speed, wind direction, temperature, sun intensity and illumination, steel pylon vibrations on three axes.

  15. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    these sites. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are presented for the general river application of the method.Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this acoustical method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, for example, to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets. Several types of error analyses are presented to evaluate (1) the stability of acoustical calibrations over time, (2) the effect of neglecting backscatter from silt and clay, (3) the bias arising from changes in sand grain size, (4) the time-varying error in the method, and (5) the influence of nonrandom processes on error. Results indicate that (1) acoustical calibrations can be stable for long durations (multiple years), (2) neglecting backscatter from silt and clay can result in unacceptably high bias, (3) two frequencies are likely required to obtain sand-concentration measurements that are unbiased by changes in grain size, depending on site-specific conditions and acoustic frequency, (4) relative errors in silt-and-clay- and sand-concentration measurements decrease substantially as concentration increases, and (5) nonrandom errors may arise from slow changes in the spatial structure of suspended sediment that affect the relations between concentration in the acoustically ensonified part of the cross section and concentration in the entire river cross section. Taken together, the error analyses indicate that the two-frequency method produces unbiased measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and sand concentration, with errors that are similar to, or larger than, those associated with conventional sampling methods.

  16. Estimation of Recharge from Long-Term Monitoring of Saline Tracer Transport Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Binley, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    The movement of a saline tracer added to the soil surface was monitored in the unsaturated zone using cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and subjected to natural rainfall conditions. The ERT data were inverted and corrected for subsurface temperature changes, and spatial moment...... methods. In September 2011, a saline tracer was added across a 142-m2 area at the surface at an application rate mimicking natural infiltration. The movement of the saline tracer front was monitored using cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT); data were collected on a daily to weekly...... basis and continued for 1 yr after tracer application. The ERT data were inverted and corrected for temperature changes in the subsurface, and spatial moment analysis was used to calculate the tracer mass, position of the center of mass, and thereby the downwardly recharging flux. The recovered mass...

  17. Continuous long-term electroencephalography: the gold standard for neonatal seizure diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A

    2015-06-01

    Newborn infants at risk for cerebral dysfunction, such as those with acute brain injury or with disorders of brain development, often have encephalopathy and seizures. Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring can enhance the care of these highly vulnerable patients, through identification of prognostically significant EEG background patterns and accurate diagnosis of seizures and non-seizure paroxysmal events. Neonatal seizures are usually subclinical, and abnormal neonatal movements are often not the result of seizures. Judicious use of conventional EEG monitoring can provide precise diagnosis, quantify seizures, and guide treatment--neonates with EEG-proven seizures should receive appropriate medications and those whose events are not seizures may be spared unnecessary exposure to medications that have potentially important side-effects.

  18. Environmental Satellites: Planning Required to Mitigate Near-Term Risks and Ensure Long-Term Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    work together. For example, climate measurements have allowed scientists to better understand the effect of deforestation on how the earth absorbs...development activities. Until the transition risks are effectively mitigated, and unless components are able to continue scheduled development, it...observations such as greenhouse gas levels (e.g., carbon dioxide), aerosol and dust particles, and moisture concentration. When these data are

  19. Continuity of care for patients on a waiting list for institutional long-term care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine patients' satisfaction with continuity of care while on a waiting list for residential care or nursing home care. Two hundred and seventy-eight patients participated in the study, all living in the community setting of two cities in the Netherlands. These patient

  20. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  1. Assessing the long term impact of power plant emissions on regional air pollution using extensive monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval; Broday, David M

    2009-02-01

    In spite of the recent increasing interest in energy production from renewable sources, polluting hydrocarbon-fueled power plants will continue to provide most of the electricity to the world's population in the coming decades. This work studies the long term impact on the regional ambient air which can be attributable to three plants with different power outputs, fuel types, and stack heights. The study is carried out in an area with relatively flat topography and typical coastal meteorology. A dense air pollution monitoring network, operating for many years, makes this area a real life laboratory for studying the pollution routes, the impact of the sources at different directions and distances, and the effects of transition to cleaner fuel. The direct impact of each of the two large power plants on the ambient SO2 levels could be clearly detected in most of the monitoring stations at distances up to 40 km away. Interestingly, a relatively large impact can also be attributed to the indirect effect of emissions that are recirculated back to the region with the land breeze. The transition from using fuel oil to natural gas in one of the large power plants resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mean SO2 levels in all of the monitoring stations. The contribution of the industrial emissions to the ambient NO2 levels seems to be very modest relative to that from traffic. An analysis of the NO, NO2 and O3 records suggests that the highest mean NO2 concentrations, and a large proportion of the total NO2 encountered in the study area, are probably due to recirculated NOx emitted by traffic in a densely populated region north of it.

  2. Early and continued manual stimulation is required for long-term recovery after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosheva, Maria; Rink, Svenja; Jansen, Ramona; Bendella, Habib; Pavlov, Stoyan P; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Angelov, Doychin N; Dunlop, Sarah A

    2017-02-18

    We previously have shown that manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles for 2 months after facial nerve injury in rats improves whisking and reduces motor end plate polyinnervation. Here, we seek to determine whether discontinuing or delaying MS after facial-facial anastomosis (FFA) leads to similar results. Rats were subjected to FFA and received MS for (1) 4 months (early and continued), (2) the first but not the last 2 months (discontinued), or (3) the last 2 months (delayed). Intact animals and those not receiving MS (no MS) were also examined. Early and continued MS restored whisking amplitude to 43°, a value significantly higher compared with the discontinued, delayed, and no MS groups (32°, 24°, and 10°, respectively). Motor end plate polyinnervation occurred in all experimental groups but was significantly higher in the delayed group. Early and continued MS results in better recovery than when it is either discontinued or delayed. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Long-term monitoring of UK river basins: the disconnections between the timescales of hydrological processes and watershed management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a wealth of hydrological monitoring data that has both good coverage in space since the early 1970s, and also a few locations where records have been kept continuously for almost 150 years. Such datasets offer unique opportunities for the hydrologist to consider how the concepts of stationarity, change, and definitions of "baseline" resources should be used to shape how we build models of these systems, and how we devise appropriate and sustainable watershed management strategies. In this paper we consider some of the UK's longest hydrological and biogeochemical records, to explore how long records can be used to shape such understanding and, in some cases, how they can be used to identify new modes of behaviour that need to be incorporated into management planning, from the scale of individual watersheds right up to the national scale. We also consider how key timescales of hydrological responses that are evident within the data may pose major problems for watershed management unless appropriate attention is paid to the potential impacts of processes that work over decadal timescales - much longer than sub-decadal water industry investment cycles or short-term projects for watershed management planning. We use our long-term records to show how key processes can be identified, and to illustrate how careful interpretation of shorter term records will improve decision-making for water resource management.

  4. [Approaches to reduce the retroaction of long-term monitoring of bioelectric events in ergonomic field studies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipp, P; Faber, S

    1979-10-01

    When monitoring bioelectric signals the surface electrodes can cause a retroaction on the subject thereby introducing an error of measurement. There are two types of retroaction: physical and psycho-physiological. A physical retroaction due to the hydration process of the skin occurs if 'wet' electrodes are used for the recording of the skin conductance level (SCL) causing a continuous drift of the SCL and a decrease in sensitivity to SCL changes. Therefore a dry electrode was developed with improved performance: It exhibits less sensitivity to motion, is not subject to polarization, and features better SCL long-term stability. When recording the electrocardiogram or the electromyogram a psychophysiological retroaction occurs due to the annoyance caused by the skin-irritating abrading techniques in order to decrease the skin impedance and reduce the motion artifact. In an attempt to abandon the skin preparation whenever permissible without sacrificing the measurement accuracy a performance estimation procedure was developed. Basing on the information on the signal frequency content, the electrode contact area, the required accuracy of measurement and the amplifier input impedance a decision on the necessity of skin preparation is made. Moreover, the results of a study are reported investigating the reduction of motion artifacts by means of electrode design and appropriate electrode jelly formulation.

  5. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  6. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-02-26

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated.

  7. Long-term continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements at Baring Head, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Nichol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present descriptions of the in situ instrumentation, calibration procedures, intercomparison efforts, and data filtering methods used in a 39-yr record of continuous atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 observations made at Baring Head, New Zealand. Located on the southern coast of the North Island, Baring Head is exposed to extended periods of strong air flow from the south with minimal terrestrial influence resulting in low CO2 variability. The site is therefore well suited for sampling air masses that are representative of the Southern Ocean region. Instrumental precision is better than 0.015 ppm (1-σ on 1-Hz values. Comparisons to over 600 co-located flask samples, as well as laboratory based flask and cylinder comparison exercises, suggest that over recent decades compatibility with respect to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO and World Meteorological Organisation (WMO CO2 scales has been 0.3 ppm or better.

  8. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  9. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  10. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  11. Long-term statistics of continuous single column model simulations at Cabauw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, R.

    2009-04-01

    Single column model (SCM) simulation has become a valuable and relied-upon tool in the development and evaluation of parameterizations for general circulation models (GCM). In this method, the sub-grid model of a GCM is independently integrated in time, using prescribed large-scale forcings and boundary conditions. Typically, an idealized case is constructed based on observational data from a field experiment. An advantage of the SCM technique is that the model physics is studied in controlled conditions, in an isolated mode from the larger-scale circulation. Combined with the low computational cost involved, this serves to enhance model transparency and facilitates getting insight into the simulated system. A drawback of the SCM as a development tool is that relatively few cases have yet been formulated. Often these idealized cases represent so-called 'golden days', reflecting observed situations thought prototypical for a specific weather regime. One could question the representativeness of such idealized cases; i) they might actually reflect unique situations that rarely occur, and ii) they do not necessarily represent those regimes that cause the most problems in GCMs. As a result, parameterizations might get optimized for rare situations, while their performance for the most 'troublesome' regimes remains unassessed. These issues have inspired efforts to perform SCM evaluations on a more continuous basis, thus automatically covering many different weather regimes. One such project is the recently initiated Cabauw Parameterization Testbed. Short-range (3-day) SCM simulations are performed daily for the Cabauw meteorological site in the Netherlands, operated by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI). The multi-year archive of SCM simulations thus generated is evaluated against the wealth of continuous observational datastreams measured at Cabauw, which cover the thermodynamic, kinematic and cloudy state of the atmosphere. The method of

  12. Long-term structural health monitoring of the 2006 Torino's Olympic pedestrian cabled-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, L. M.; De Stefano, A.

    2009-03-01

    The currently project is focused on monitoring the reliability, the static and dynamic conditions of the Pedestrian Olympic Bridge in Torino, Italy. Smart sensors based on fiber optic sensors, realized by University of Illinois at Chicago, were installed on the cables. In parallel new low-cost accelerometers and inclinometers sensors, realized by the ChiLab, Italy), were installed on the bridge deck to control statically but also dynamically its behaviour. Acquisition system to collect the data through a continuous monitoring platform, able to pre-process the data, was integrated to manage it locally or in remote way. The performance and reliability of civil infrastructure systems such as bridges are governed by a number of factors including the actual operating and loading environments, complex interactions between structural members and systems, and defect, deterioration and damage mechanisms. These factors are studied dynamically with structural identification of various levels of uncertainty which can be attributed to the fabricated-constructed-erected nature of these systems, variability in site characteristics and conditions, material properties and service loads, and direct exposure to the environment over long life-cycles that are often many decades in length.

  13. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An electrical sensor for long-term monitoring of ultrafine particles in workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Tikkanen, Juha; Janka, Kauko; Taimisto, Pekka; Lehtimäki, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Pegasor Oy Ltd. (Finland) has developed a diffusion charging measurement device that enables continuous monitoring of fine particle concentration at a low initial and lifecycle cost. The innovation, for which an international process and apparatus patent has been applied for, opens doors for monitoring nanoparticle concentrations in workplaces. The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) operates by electrostatically charging particles passing through the sensor and then measuring the current caused by the charged particles as they leave the sensor. The particles never touch the sensor and so never accumulate on its surfaces or need to be cleaned off. The sensor uses an ejector pump to draw a constant sample flow into the sensing area where it is mixed with the clean, charged pump flow air (provided by an external source). The sample flow containing charged particles passes through the sensor. The current generated by the charge leaving the detection volume is measured and related to the particle surface area. This system is extremely simple and reliable - no contact, no moving parts, and all critical parts of the sensor are constantly cleaned by a stream of fresh, filtered air. Due to the ejector pump, the sample flow, and respectively the sensor response is independent of the flow and pressure conditions around the sampling inlet. Tests with the Pegasor Particle Sensor have been conducted in a laboratory, and at a workplace producing nanoparticles for glass coatings. A new measurement protocol has been designed to ensure that process workers are not exposed to unusually high nanoparticle concentrations at any time during their working day. One sensor is placed inside the process line, and a light alarm system indicates the worker not to open any protective shielding or ventilation systems before concentration inside has reached background levels. The benefits of PPS in industrial hygiene are that the same monitoring technology can be used at the source as well as at the

  15. Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a

  16. The use of long term monitoring data for the extension of the service duration of existing wind turbine support structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraux, C.; Brühwiler, E.

    2016-09-01

    Actual wind energy converter (WEC) are designed for a relatively short service life of 20 years and the limiting criterion is the fatigue safety. However, effective fatigue loading endured by the structural components of the wind turbines (WT) is likely to be much below design assumptions provided by current codes. This paper describes a simple but efficient long term monitoring system that allows owners to verify the fatigue safety of their existing WTs. The monitored data will also help to drastically extend the service life of existing wind turbine support structure and will thus reduce the global environmental footprint of WTs.

  17. Long-term maintenance therapy using rituximab-induced continuous B-cell depletion in patients with ANCA vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, William F; Cortazar, Frank B; Wenger, Julia; Murphy, Andrew P; Rhee, Eugene P; Laliberte, Karen A; Niles, John L

    2014-04-01

    Remission in the majority of ANCA vasculitis patients is not sustained after a single course of rituximab, and risk of relapse warrants development of a successful strategy to ensure durable remission. A retrospective analysis of ANCA vasculitis patients who underwent maintenance therapy using rituximab-induced continuous B-cell depletion for up to 7 years was performed. Maintenance therapy with rituximab was initiated after achieving remission or converting from other prior maintenance therapy. Continuous B-cell depletion was achieved in all patients by scheduled rituximab administration every 4 months. Disease activity, serologic parameters, adverse events, and survival were examined. In the study, 172 patients (mean age=60 years, 55% women, 57% myeloperoxidase-ANCA) treated from April of 2006 to March of 2013 underwent continuous B-cell depletion with rituximab. Median remission maintenance follow-up time was 2.1 years. Complete remission (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS] = 0) was achieved in all patients. Major relapse (BVAS ≥ 3) occurred in 5% of patients and was associated with weaning of other immunosuppression drugs. Remission was reinduced in all patients. Survival mirrored survival of a general age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched United States population. This analysis provides evidence for long-term disease control using continuous B-cell depletion. This treatment strategy in ANCA vasculitis patients also seems to result in survival rates comparable with rates in a matched reference population. These findings suggest that prospective remission maintenance treatment trials using continuous B-cell depletion are warranted.

  18. A new, long-term daily satellite-based rainfall dataset for operational monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Ross I.; Grimes, David; Black, Emily; Tarnavsky, Elena; Young, Matthew; Greatrex, Helen; Allan, Richard P.; Stein, Thorwald; Nkonde, Edson; Senkunda, Samuel; Alcántara, Edgar Misael Uribe

    2017-05-01

    Rainfall information is essential for many applications in developing countries, and yet, continually updated information at fine temporal and spatial scales is lacking. In Africa, rainfall monitoring is particularly important given the close relationship between climate and livelihoods. To address this information gap, this paper describes two versions (v2.0 and v3.0) of the TAMSAT daily rainfall dataset based on high-resolution thermal-infrared observations, available from 1983 to the present. The datasets are based on the disaggregation of 10-day (v2.0) and 5-day (v3.0) total TAMSAT rainfall estimates to a daily time-step using daily cold cloud duration. This approach provides temporally consistent historic and near-real time daily rainfall information for all of Africa. The estimates have been evaluated using ground-based observations from five countries with contrasting rainfall climates (Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia) and compared to other satellite-based rainfall estimates. The results indicate that both versions of the TAMSAT daily estimates reliably detects rainy days, but have less skill in capturing rainfall amount—results that are comparable to the other datasets.

  19. A CSTR-hollow-fiber system for continuous hydrolysis of proteins. Factors affecting long-term stability of the reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeslie, W D; Cheryan, M

    1982-01-01

    Factors affecting the long-term operational stability of a CSTR-hollow-fiber reactor for continuous hydrolysis of proteins were studied. The activity declined in a stepwise manner during a run. Declining from 92% conversion to 60% conversion in about ten hours at a space time of four minutes. Initial decay appears to be due to leakage of small active fragments of the enzyme mixture (Pronase) through the membrane, and later decay due to thermal degradation and loss of activators such as calcium through the membrane. The rate of buildup of unconverted substrate in the reaction vessel was controlled by operational variables, but did not appear to affect the reactor output or the operation of the reactor. The decay of the reactor could be partially compensated for by appropriate manipulation of the space-time variables.

  20. Long-term, high-frequency water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment: insights from spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Alice; Kirchner, James; Faucheux, Mikael; Merot, Philippe; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    The choice of sampling frequency is a key issue in the design and operation of environmental observatories. The choice of sampling frequency creates a spectral window (or temporal filter) that highlights some timescales and processes, and de-emphasizes others (1). New online measurement technologies can monitor surface water quality almost continuously, allowing the creation of very rich time series. The question of how best to analyze such detailed temporal datasets is an important issue in environmental monitoring. In the present work, we studied water quality data from the AgrHys long-term hydrological observatory (located at Kervidy-Naizin, Western France) sampled at daily and 20-minute time scales. Manual sampling has provided 12 years of daily measurements of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chloride and sulfate (2), and 3 years of daily measurements of about 30 other solutes. In addition, a UV-spectrometry probe (Spectrolyser) provides one year of 20-minute measurements for nitrate and DOC. Spectral analysis of the daily water quality time series reveals that our intensively farmed catchment exhibits universal 1/f scaling (power spectrum slope of -1) for a large number of solutes, confirming and extending the earlier discovery of universal 1/f scaling in the relatively pristine Plynlimon catchment (3). 1/f time series confound conventional methods for assessing the statistical significance of trends. Indeed, conventional methods assume that there is a clear separation of scales between the signal (the trend line) and the noise (the scatter around the line). This is not true for 1/f noise, since it overestimates the occurrence of significant trends. Our results raise the possibility that 1/f scaling is widespread in water quality time series, thus posing fundamental challenges to water quality trend analysis. Power spectra of the 20-minute nitrate and DOC time series show 1/f scaling at frequencies below 1/day, consistent with the longer-term daily

  1. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  2. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

  3. Information fusion diagnosis and early-warning method for monitoring the long-term service safety of high dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing LIU; Zhong-ru WU; Yang YANG; Jiang HU; Bo XU

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the service behavior of high dams and establishing early-warning systems for them have become increasingly important in ensuring their long-term service.Current analysis methods used to obtain safety monitoring data are suited only to single survey point data.Unreliable or even paradoxical results are inevitably obtained when processing large amounts of monitoring data,thereby causing difficulty in acquiring precise conclusions.Therefore,we have developed a new method based on multi-source information fusion for conducting a comprehensive analysis of prototype monitoring data of high dams.In addition,we propose the use of decision information entropy analysis for building a diagnosis and early-warning system for the long-term service of high dams.Data metrics reduction is achieved using information fusion at the data level.A Bayesian information fusion is then conducted at the decision level to obtain a comprehensive diagnosis.Early-warning outcomes can be released after sorting analysis results from multi-positions in the dam according to importance.A case study indicates that the new method can effectively handle large amounts of monitoring data from numerous survey points.It can likewise obtain precise real-time results and export comprehensive early-warning outcomes from multi-positions of high dams.

  4. Long-term no-till and stover retention each decrease the global warming potential of irrigated continuous corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Virginia L; Schmer, Marty R; Stewart, Catherine E; Sindelar, Aaron J; Varvel, Gary E; Wienhold, Brian J

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, the most increase in cultivated land area globally has been due to a doubling of irrigated land. Long-term agronomic management impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated systems, however, remain relatively unknown. Here, residue and tillage management effects were quantified by measuring soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes and SOC changes (ΔSOC) at a long-term, irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L.) system in eastern Nebraska, United States. Management treatments began in 2002, and measured treatments included no or high stover removal (0 or 6.8 Mg DM ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively) under no-till (NT) or conventional disk tillage (CT) with full irrigation (n = 4). Soil N2 O and CH4 fluxes were measured for five crop-years (2011-2015), and ΔSOC was determined on an equivalent mass basis to ~30 cm soil depth. Both area- and yield-scaled soil N2 O emissions were greater with stover retention compared to removal and for CT compared to NT, with no interaction between stover and tillage practices. Methane comprised <1% of total emissions, with NT being CH4 neutral and CT a CH4 source. Surface SOC decreased with stover removal and with CT after 14 years of management. When ΔSOC, soil GHG emissions, and agronomic energy usage were used to calculate system GWP, all management systems were net GHG sources. Conservation practices (NT, stover retention) each decreased system GWP compared to conventional practices (CT, stover removal), but pairing conservation practices conferred no additional mitigation benefit. Although cropping system, management equipment/timing/history, soil type, location, weather, and the depth to which ΔSOC is measured affect the GWP outcomes of irrigated systems at large, this long-term irrigated study provides valuable empirical evidence of how management decisions can impact soil GHG emissions and surface SOC

  5. Reagent-free ultrasensitive spectroscopic probes for long term diabetes monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, N. C.; Barman, I.; Kang, J. W.; Horowitz, G.; Rao Dasari, Ramachandra

    2012-02-01

    Long-term glycemic control is essential in developing therapeutics for diabetics. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin have been increasingly accepted as a functional metric of glycemic control over the past two to three months and three weeks, respectively. In this talk, we present the first demonstration of non-enhanced Raman spectroscopy as a novel analytical method for quantitative detection of HbA1c and glycated albumin. Using the drop coating deposition Raman technique, we observe that the non-enzymatic glycosylation of these proteins results in subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate the glycated proteins from their unglycated variants with 100%. Additionally, the developed multivariate calibration models show a high degree of prediction accuracy even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. The excellent accuracy and reproducibility achieved in this proof-of-concept study opens substantive avenues for basic investigations of glycated proteins as well as in high-throughput glycemic marker sensing in multi-component mixtures and potentially even in serum and whole blood samples.

  6. Towards Long-Term Multi-Hop WSN Deployments for Environmental Monitoring: An Experimental Network Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the network performance and costs associated with the deployment, labor, and maintenance of a long-term outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN located at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP, which has been in operation for more than four years for environmental data collection. The WSN performance is studied over selected time periods during the network deployment time, based on two different TinyOS-based WSN routing protocols: commercial XMesh and the open-source Collection Tree Protocol (CTP. Empirical results show that the network performance is improved with CTP (i.e., 79% packet reception rate, 96% packet success rate and 0.2% duplicate packets, versus using XMesh (i.e., 36% packet reception rate and 46% packet success rate, with 3%–4% duplicate packets. The deployment cost of the 52-node, 253-sensor WSN is $31,500 with an additional $600 per month in labor and maintenance resulting in a cost of $184 m−2·y−1 of sensed area. Network maintenance during the first four years of operation was performed on average every 12 days, costing approximately $187 for each field visit.

  7. A new technique to monitor the long-term stability of an optoelectronic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan Thang; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Journet, Bernard; Vu, Van Yem

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is the ability to synthesize directly very high spectral purity frequency in microwave domain. Beside applications in radar, telecommunication and satellite systems, OEO can also be used in sensor applications such as refractive index or distance measurements. However, the long-term stability of the OEO is easily affected by ambient environment variations. The optical fiber loop effective refractive index varies corresponding to its surrounding temperature changes. Consequently, it makes the optical transmission path inside the fiber loop differ from the initial state, leading to oscillation frequency changes. To stabilize the single loop OEO, it is essential to keep its high Q elements in a well-controlled thermal box as much as possible. Unfortunately, in the real implementation condition, this requirement is difficult to be satisfied. In this paper, we present a new technique to estimate the oscillation frequency variation under the room temperature by using a vector network analyzer (VNA). Experimental results show a good correlation between OEO oscillation frequency drift and the phase measured by the VNA. This technique can be implemented to apply corrections when using the OEO as a distance variation or a refractive index measurement tool. We also tracked the temperature of the fiber loop at the same time with the VNAbased experiment to compare two correlations of temperature and phase with OEO oscillation frequency.

  8. Understanding Biogeochemical and Hydrological Processes in a Reservoir, Kentucky Lake (USA), Using Long-term Monitoring and Real-time Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, S. P.; White, D.; Williamson, M.; Hooks, R.

    2010-12-01

    . Additional real-time monitoring sites will be located in each stream. We presently are evaluating calibration needs, issues, and performance in a continuous-measurement environment. Continuous, high-resolution water quality and meteorological data coupled with the long-term (16-day interval over 22 years) water quality monitoring program will be extremely valuable in helping us understand constituent and hydrological fluxes within Kentucky Lake and the influence of contrasting land-use watersheds in the Tennessee River basin.

  9. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin A; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D; Yost, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Mobile monitoring has provided a means for broad spatial measurements of air pollutants that are otherwise impractical to measure with multiple fixed site sampling strategies. However, the larger the mobile monitoring route the less temporally dense measurements become, which may limit the usefulness of short-term mobile monitoring for applications that require long-term averages. To investigate the stationarity of short-term mobile monitoring measurements, we calculated long term medians derived from a mobile monitoring campaign that also employed 2-week integrated passive sampler detectors (PSD) for NOx, Ozone, and nine volatile organic compounds at 43 intersections distributed across the entire city of Baltimore, MD. This is one of the largest mobile monitoring campaigns in terms of spatial extent undertaken at this time. The mobile platform made repeat measurements every third day at each intersection for 6-10 minutes at a resolution of 10 s. In two-week periods in both summer and winter seasons, each site was visited 3-4 times, and a temporal adjustment was applied to each dataset. We present the correlations between eight species measured using mobile monitoring and the 2-week PSD data and observe correlations between mobile NOx measurements and PSD NOx measurements in both summer and winter (Pearson's r = 0.84 and 0.48, respectively). The summer season exhibited the strongest correlations between multiple pollutants, whereas the winter had comparatively few statistically significant correlations. In the summer CO was correlated with PSD pentanes (r = 0.81), and PSD NOx was correlated with mobile measurements of black carbon (r = 0.83), two ultrafine particle count measures (r =0.8), and intermodal (1-3 μm) particle counts (r = 0.73). Principal Component Analysis of the combined PSD and mobile monitoring data revealed multipollutant features consistent with light duty vehicle traffic, diesel exhaust and crankcase blow by. These features were more consistent

  10. Summary of preliminary step-trend analysis from the Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-termMonitoring Program—2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Kristin; Shanahan, Erin; Daley, Rob; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In mixed and dominant stands, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) occurs in over two million acres within the six national forests and two national parks that comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Currently, whitebark pine, an ecologically important species, is impacted by multiple ecological disturbances; white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), wildfire, and climate change all pose significant threats to the persistence of whitebark pine populations. Substantial declines in whitebark pine populations have been documented throughout its range.Under the auspices of the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (GYCC), several agencies began a collaborative, long-term monitoring program to track and document the status of whitebark pine across the GYE. This alliance resulted in the formation of the Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group (GYWPMWG), which consists of representatives from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU). This groundbased monitoring program was initiated in 2004 and follows a peer-reviewed protocol (GYWPMWG 2011). The program is led by the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network (GRYN) of the National Park Service in coordination with multiple agencies. More information about this monitoring effort is available at: http://science. nature.nps.gov/im/units/gryn/monitor/whitebark_pine.cfm. The purpose of this report is to provide a draft summary of the first step-trend analysis for the interagency, long-term monitoring of whitebark pine health to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) as part of a synthesis of the state of whitebark pine in the GYE. Due to the various stages of the analyses and reporting, this is the most efficient way to provide these results to the IGBST.

  11. [The structure of intestinal dysbioses in children of preschool age during long-term period of monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchenko, U M; Rakova, E B; Popkova, S M; Savelkaeva, M V; Ivanova, E I; Kungurtseva, E A; Serduk, L V; Shabanova, N M

    2015-02-01

    The study was organized to examine long-term (1990-2011) structure of intestinal dysbioses in children of preschool age residing in Irkutsk. The significant decrease of expression of micro-ecological shifts (IV and III degrees) to the end of period of monitoring and almost total lacking of cases of eubiosis and statistically reliable (p ≤ 0.05) increasing of rate of dysbioses of I and II degrees were established. The given circumstance can be related to ongoing on the territory ecological pressure on organism of negative factors of environment including factors of anthropogenic character.

  12. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon-nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J Beversdorf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined three years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N speciation and inorganic carbon (C availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the toxic phase. Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment.

  13. Long-term monitoring of methane release and associated oceanographc setting offshore Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dølven, Knut Ola; Ferre, Benedicte; Frank, Carsten; Mienert, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are stored in the Arctic Ocean sediments, both as free gas and in form of methane hydrates. Warming of Arctic Ocean bottom water can destabilize methane hydrates and cause extensive methane release to the ocean, influencing marine environments (Åström et al., 2016). Previous oceanographic studies have shown a significant methane release from seep-sites offshore western Svalbard, mainly based on hydrographic snapshots and/or echosounder data. These studies have shown that the methane release has significant temporal variations, and these variations can only be investigated properly with ocean observatories. Two K-Lander ocean observatories, developed in collaboration between CAGE and Kontgberg Maritime were deployed at two of these seep sites at 90 and 240 meter depth, from July 2015 to May 2016. Time series obtained from these two observatories include ocean current profiles, temperature, salinity, pressure, as well as dissolved methane and CO2 concentration. The oceanographic data show a clear seasonal variation and indicates that the water column can be significantly affected by atmospheric forcing during winter season. At the same time, methane concentration shows significant temporal variations on both relatively short (hours) and long (seasonal) time scales, with values ranging from 90 to 800 nmol/kg. The short term variations indicates a non-mixed benthic boundary layer with respect to dissolved methane, while the long term variations may indicate seasonal changes in the vertical transport of methane in the water column. Acknowledgements This project is funded by CAGE (Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate), Norwegian Research Council grant no. 223259. Reference Åström, E. Carrol, M. L., Ambrose, W., Carrol, J. "Arctic cold seeps in marine methane hydrate environments: impacts on shelf macrobenthic community structure offshore Svalbard". Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2016 (1616-1599) 552 p. 1-18.

  14. New concepts for a microprocessor oriented long term intelligent monitoring of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, C P; Couvreur, M C; Toulotte, J M; Dubois, O

    1980-07-01

    This paper is based on the utilization of the very elementary principle of linear regression used in a recursive way. This technique tested on electrophysiological signals readily leads to the conception of a monitoring system built on a biprocessor unit. In a clinical context, the use of microprocessors leads then to the design of very compact devices including the capability of distributed processing which embrances the concept of intelligent monitoring. Finally, a proposal is given for the realization of a complete monitoring control desk (MCD) devoted to the survey of eight patients.

  15. Design of a Wireless Sensor Network for Long-term, In-Situ Monitoring of an Aqueous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Grimes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous sensor network is described consisting of an array of sensor nodes that can be randomly distributed throughout a lake or drinking water reservoir. The data of an individual node is transmitted to the host node via acoustic waves using intermediate nodes as relays. Each node of the sensor network is a data router, and contains sensors capable of measuring environmental parameters of interest. Depending upon the required application, each sensor node can be equipped with different types of physical, biological or chemical sensors, allowing long-term, wide area, in situ multi-parameter monitoring. In this work the aqueous sensor network is described, with application to pH measurement using magnetoelastic sensors. Beyond ensuring drinking water safety, possible applications for the aqueous sensor network include advanced industrial process control, monitoring of aquatic biological communities, and monitoring of waste-stream effluents.

  16. Are healthcare aides underused in long-term care? A cross-sectional study on continuing care facilities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir A; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Charland, Paola

    2017-05-17

    Over the last 10 years, appropriate workforce utilisation has been an important discussion among healthcare practitioners and policy-makers. The role of healthcare aides (HCAs) has also expanded to improve their utilisation. This evolving role of HCAs in Canada has prompted calls for standardised training, education and scope of practice for HCAs. The purpose of this research was to examine the differences in HCAs training and utilisation in continuing care facilities. From June 2014 to July 2015, we conducted a mixed-method study on HCA utilisation in continuing care. This paper presents findings gathered solely from the prospective cross-sectional survey of continuing care facilities (long-term care (LTC) and supportive living (SL)) on HCA utilisation. We conducted this study in a Western Canadian province. The managers of the continuing care facilities (SL and LTC) were eligible to participate in the survey. The pattern of HCAs involvement in medication assistance and other care activities in SL and LTC facilities. We received 130 completed surveys (LTC=64 and SL=52). Our findings showed that approximately 81% of HCAs were fully certified. We found variations in how HCAs were used in SL and LTC facilities. Overall, HCAs in SL were more likely to be involved in medication management such as assisting with inhaled medication and oral medication delivery. A significantly larger proportion of survey respondents from SL facilities reported that medication assistance training was mandatory for their HCAs (86%) compared with the LTC facilities (50%) (p value facilities. HCAs in SL facilities may be considered better used according to their required educational training and competencies. Expanding the role of HCAs in LTC facilities may lead to a cost-effective and more efficient utilisation of workforce in continuing care facilities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  17. Long-Term Maintenance Therapy Using Rituximab-Induced Continuous B-Cell Depletion in Patients with ANCA Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, William F.; Cortazar, Frank B.; Wenger, Julia; Murphy, Andrew P.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Laliberte, Karen A.; Niles, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Remission in the majority of ANCA vasculitis patients is not sustained after a single course of rituximab, and risk of relapse warrants development of a successful strategy to ensure durable remission. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective analysis of ANCA vasculitis patients who underwent maintenance therapy using rituximab-induced continuous B-cell depletion for up to 7 years was performed. Maintenance therapy with rituximab was initiated after achieving remission or converting from other prior maintenance therapy. Continuous B-cell depletion was achieved in all patients by scheduled rituximab administration every 4 months. Disease activity, serologic parameters, adverse events, and survival were examined. Results In the study, 172 patients (mean age=60 years, 55% women, 57% myeloperoxidase–ANCA) treated from April of 2006 to March of 2013 underwent continuous B-cell depletion with rituximab. Median remission maintenance follow-up time was 2.1 years. Complete remission (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS]=0) was achieved in all patients. Major relapse (BVAS≥3) occurred in 5% of patients and was associated with weaning of other immunosuppression drugs. Remission was reinduced in all patients. Survival mirrored survival of a general age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched United States population. Conclusion This analysis provides evidence for long-term disease control using continuous B-cell depletion. This treatment strategy in ANCA vasculitis patients also seems to result in survival rates comparable with rates in a matched reference population. These findings suggest that prospective remission maintenance treatment trials using continuous B-cell depletion are warranted. PMID:24626432

  18. A Framework for Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Olympic National Park: Prototype for the Coniferous Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Ed

    2003-01-01

    This report is the result of a five-year collaboration between scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Olympic Field Station, and the natural resources staff of Olympic National Park to develop a comprehensive strategy for monitoring natural resources of Olympic National Park. Olympic National Park is the National Park Serviceʼs prototype monitoring park, representing parks in the coniferous forest biome. Under the umbrella of the National Park Serviceʼs prototype parks program, U.S. Geological Survey and Olympic National Park staffs are obligated to:develop strategies and designs for monitoring the long-term health and integrity of national park ecosystems with a significant coniferous forest component.design exportable monitoring protocols that can be used by other parks within the coniferous forest biome (i.e., parks having similar environments), andcreate a demonstration area and ʻcenter of excellenceʼ for assisting other parks in developing ecological monitoring programs.Olympic National Park is part of the North Coast and Cascades Network, a network of seven Pacific Northwestern park units created recently by the National Park Serviceʼs Inventory and Monitoring Program to extend the monitoring of ʻvital signsʼ of park health to all National Park Service units. It is our intent and hope that the monitoring strategies and conceptual models described here will meet the overall purpose of the prototype parks monitoring program in proving useful not only to Olympic National Park, but also to parks within the North Coast and Cascades Network and elsewhere. Part I contains the conceptual design and sampling framework for the prototype long-term monitoring program in Olympic National Park. In this section, we explore key elements of monitoring design that help to ensure the spatial, ecological, and temporal integration of monitoring program elements and discuss approaches used to design an ecosystem

  19. Physics-Based Continuous Simulation of Long-Term Near-Surface Hydrologic Response for the Coos Bay Experimental Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.; Loague, K.; Montgomery, D. R.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    The study reported here employed the physics-based InHM to simulate continuous hydrologic response from 1990 through 1996 for the Coos Bay (CB1) experimental catchment. InHM dynamically simulates 3D variably- saturated subsurface flow using Richards equation and 2D surface and open channel flow using the diffusion- wave approximation to the depth-integrated shallow-water equations. The uniqueness of the boundary-value problem (BVP) used in a previous study to successfully simulate three sprinkling experiments was assessed, via model performance evaluation against piezometric and discharge data, for 33 events extracted from the seven- year continuous record. The simulations conducted in this effort suggest the potential for interaction between the deeper water table and near-surface hydrologic response, which is in agreement with the detailed field observations made during the CB1 sprinkling experiments. The InHM simulations could not adequately reproduce the observed pore-water pressures, suggesting that detailed characterization of the locations and connectivities of bedrock fractures would be necessary to simulate distributed hydrologic response at locations where bedrock fracture flow is important. The results from this study suggest that uniqueness is a problem for physics-based models when employing a BVP used successfully for smaller magnitude storms to simulate larger storms. The long-term simulations conducted here, combined with previous event-based hydrologic- response simulations and field-based observations, highlight the challenges in characterizing / simulating fractured bedrock flow at small catchments like CB1.

  20. Using remote sensing and spatial analysis of trees characteristics for long-term monitoring in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, low humidity and small amount of precipitation. Trees In arid environments such an Acacia are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species. Long term monitoring of acacia tree population in those areas is thus essential tool to estimate the overall ecosystem condition. We suggest a new remote sensing data analysis technique that can be integrated with field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments and improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. In this work we have studied the contribution of remote sensing methods to long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid environments. In order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey, we implemented two different approaches: (1) Trees individual based change detection using Corona satellite images and (2) Spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. A map of individual acacia trees that was extracted from a color infra-red (CIR) aerial photographs taken at 2010 allowed us to examine the distribution pattern of the trees size and foliage health status (NDVI). Comparison of the tree sizes distribution and NDVI values distribution enabled us to differentiate between long-term (decades) and short-term (months to few years) processes that brought the population to its present state. The spatial analysis revealed that both tree size and NDVI distribution patterns were significantly clustered, suggesting that the processes responsible for tree size and tree health status (i.e., flash-floods spatial spreading) have a spatial expression. The distribution of the trees in the Wadi (ephemeral river) was divided into three distinct parts: large trees with high NDVI values, large trees with low NDVI values and small trees with

  1. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  2. Twenty years of long-term Atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in Western Germany (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vonberg, D.; Putz, T.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Atrazine, one of the most frequent applied pesticides worldwide, was banned in Germany in 1991 due to exceeded threshold values in ground- and drinking waters. Monitoring of atrazine was hence introduced in the Zwischenscholle aquifer, exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells were monitored since 1991, of which 11 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the 'regression on order statistics' (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the concentrations in groundwater are on a constant level without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with observation wells exhibiting constantly concentrations above the threshold on the one hand and observation wells where concentrations are frequently below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the monitoring dataset and relationships of triazine compounds became obvious. Accordingly the metabolite desisopropylatrazine was exclusively associated with the occurrence of the parent compound simazine and not atrazine, whereas deethylatrazine was clearly related to atrazine.

  3. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Miller, Scott; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Archer, Erik; Roper, Brett B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual models are an integral facet of long-term monitoring programs. Proposed linkages between drivers, stressors, and ecological indicators are identified within the conceptual model of most mandated programs. We empirically evaluate a conceptual model developed for a regional aquatic and riparian monitoring program using causal models (i.e., Bayesian path analysis). We assess whether data gathered for regional status and trend estimation can also provide insights on why a stream may deviate from reference conditions. We target the hypothesized causal pathways for how anthropogenic drivers of road density, percent grazing, and percent forest within a catchment affect instream biological condition. We found instream temperature and fine sediments in arid sites and only fine sediments in mesic sites accounted for a significant portion of the maximum possible variation explainable in biological condition among managed sites. However, the biological significance of the direct effects of anthropogenic drivers on instream temperature and fine sediments were minimal or not detected. Consequently, there was weak to no biological support for causal pathways related to anthropogenic drivers’ impact on biological condition. With weak biological and statistical effect sizes, ignoring environmental contextual variables and covariates that explain natural heterogeneity would have resulted in no evidence of human impacts on biological integrity in some instances. For programs targeting the effects of anthropogenic activities, it is imperative to identify both land use practices and mechanisms that have led to degraded conditions (i.e., moving beyond simple status and trend estimation). Our empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning the long-term monitoring program provided an opportunity for learning and, consequently, we discuss survey design elements that require modification to achieve question driven monitoring, a necessary step in the practice of

  4. REMOTE MONITORING OF PATIENTS WITH LONG-TERM MECHATRONIC CIRCULATORY SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Adaskin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of remote patient monitoring and the parameters of circulatory assist device AVK-N as well as the advantages of said technology to improve the efficiency of personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of patients with AVK-N in the postoperative period. Authors show the capabilities of remote monitoring technology to determine the location of the patient by satellite navigation in the case of emergency call for medical and technical services, and present the structure and modes of the displayed information for mobile devices and Web-server. Doctor-patient interaction based on remote monitoring technology via mobile/ satellite/wired Internet is also shown. 

  5. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  6. Assessment of the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term watershed monitoring in an urban slough system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at eight sites within the Buffalo Slough, near Portland, Oregon, to (1) measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and organochlorine (OC) compounds in the slough, (2) assess the usefulness of SPMDs as a tool for investigating and monitoring hydrophobic compounds throughout the Columbia Slough system, and (3) evaluate the utility of SPMDs as a tool for measuring the long-term effects of watershed improvement activities. Data from the SPMDs revealed clear spatial and seasonal differences in water quality within the slough and indicate that for hydrophobic compounds, this time-integrated passive-sampling technique is a useful tool for long-term watershed monitoring. In addition, the data suggest that a spiking rate of 2-5 ??g/SPMD of permeability/performance reference compounds, including at least one compound that is not susceptible to photodegradation, may be optimum for the conditions encountered here. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  7. Long-term monitoring programme of the hydrological variability in the Mediterranean Sea: a first overview of the HYDROCHANGES network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schroeder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity, collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important timescales in key places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins, constitute a priority in the context of global changes. This led CIESM (The Mediterranean Science Commission to support, since 2002, the HYDROCHANGES programme (http//www.ciesm.org/marine/programs/hydrochanges.htm, a network of autonomous conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD sensors, deployed on mainly short and easily manageable subsurface moorings, within the core of a certain water mass. The HYDROCHANGES strategy is twofold and develops on different scales. To get information about long-term changes of hydrological characteristics, long time series are needed. But before these series are long enough they allow the detection of links between them at shorter timescales that may provide extremely valuable information about the functioning of the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this paper is to present the history of the programme and the current set-up of the network (monitored sites, involved groups as well as to provide for the first time an overview of all the time series collected under the HYDROCHANGES umbrella, discussing the results obtained thanks to the programme.

  8. Long-Term Dynamic Monitoring of the Historical Masonry FAÇADE: the Case of Palazzo Ducale in Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, J.; Russo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge's palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.

  9. The Long-Term Settlement Deformation Automatic Monitoring System for the Chinese High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is one of the milestones of China’s high-speed railway development and its security plays a significant role in China’s economic and social development. However, the evaluation methods used for large-scale security operations and important infrastructure systems, such as the high-speed railways, are discrete and nonlinear; thus they cannot issue emergency warnings in a timely manner. The emergence of optical fiber sensing technology can solve this problem. This technology has progressed rapidly in its application to the monitoring of railway security and it has attracted much attention within the industry. This study considers the newly built passenger railway line between Shijiazhuang and Jinan as an example. The web-based, all-in-one fiber Bragg grating static level is described as well as a set of online monitoring systems, which is automated, real-time, remote, visual, and adaptable to the standards of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway. According to our theoretical analysis, the planned automated monitoring of settlement deformation for the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and the real-time analysis and calculation of monitoring data can ensure the operational security of this section of China’s high-speed railway system.

  10. Photovoltaic Module Thermal/Wind Performance: Long-Term Monitoring and Model Development for Energy Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TamizhMani, G.; Ji, L.; Tang, Y.; Petacci, L.; Osterwald, C.

    2003-06-01

    In order to predict the energy production of photovoltaic (PV) modules, it is necessary to predict the module temperature as a function of ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction, total irradiance, and relative humidity. This paper presents a mathematical model to predict the module temperature based on the field monitored real data of module temperature, ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity.

  11. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1 V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Pottschmidt, K; Böck, M; Nowak, M A; Rodriguez, J; Bodaghee, A; Bel, M Cadolle; Case, G L; Hanke, M; Kühnel, M; Markoff, S B; Pooley, G G; Rothschild, R E; Tomsick, J A; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme to determine the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). State determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different monitors, facilitating the determination of the state and its context for any observation of the source, potentially over the lifetimes of different individual monitors. A separation of the hard and the intermediate state, which strongly differ in their spectral shape and short-term timing behavior, is only possible when monitor data in the soft X-rays (<5 keV) are available. A statistical analysis of the states confirms the different activity patterns of the source (e.g., months to years long hard state periods or phases during which numerous transitions occurs). It also shows the hard and soft states to be stable, with the probability of Cyg X-1 remaining in a given state for at least one week to be larger than 85...

  12. Developments toward a low-cost approach for long-term, unattended vapor intrusion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay V; Tolley, William K

    2014-08-07

    There are over 450 000 sites contaminated by chemicals in the US. This large number of contaminated sites and the speed of subsurface migration of chemicals pose considerable risk to nearby residences and commercial buildings. The high costs for monitoring around these sites stem from the labor involved in placing and replacing the passive sorbent vapor samplers and the resultant laboratory analysis. This monitoring produces sparse data sets that do not track temporal changes well. To substantially reduce costs and better track exposures, less costly, unattended systems for monitoring soil gases and vapor intrusion into homes and businesses are desirable to aid in the remediation of contaminated sites. This paper describes progress toward the development of an inexpensive system specifically for monitoring vapor intrusion; the system can operate repeatedly without user intervention with low detection limits (1 × 10(-9), or 1 part-per-billion). Targeted analytes include chlorinated hydrocarbons (dichloroethylene, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene) and benzene. The system consists of a trap-and-purge preconcentrator for vapor collection in conjunction with a compact gas chromatography instrument to separate individual compounds. Chemical detection is accomplished with an array of chemicapacitors and a metal-oxide semiconductor combustibles sensor. Both the preconcentrator and the chromatography column are resistively heated. All components are compatible with ambient air, which serves as the carrier gas for the gas chromatography and detectors.

  13. Testing common stream sampling methods for broad-scale, long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Archer; Brett B. Roper; Richard C. Henderson; Nick Bouwes; S. Chad Mellison; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated sampling variability of stream habitat sampling methods used by the USDA Forest Service and the USDI Bureau of Land Management monitoring program for the upper Columbia River Basin. Three separate studies were conducted to describe the variability of individual measurement techniques, variability between crews, and temporal variation throughout the summer...

  14. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-10-27

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability.

  15. Long-Term Monitoring of Desert Land and Natural Resources and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring environmental impacts over large, remote desert regions for long periods of time can be very costly. Remote sensing technologies present a promising monitoring tool because they entail the collection of spatially contiguous data, automated processing, and streamlined data analysis. This report provides a summary of remote sensing products and refinement of remote sensing data interpretation methodologies that were generated as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Solar Energy Program. In March 2015, a team of researchers from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected field data of vegetation and surface types from more than 5,000 survey points within the eastern part of the Riverside East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ). Using the field data, remote sensing products that were generated in 2014 using very high spatial resolution (VHSR; 15 cm) multispectral aerial images were validated in order to evaluate potential refinements to the previous methodologies to improve the information extraction accuracy.

  16. Long term monitoring of urban subsidence by Permanent Scatterer DInSAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yixian; ZHANG Hong; WANG Chao

    2007-01-01

    When using differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) to monitor the surface deformation over a long time scale, it is often strongly affected by the spatial and temporal decorrelations and atmospheric dishomogeneities. The recently developed Permanent Scatterers (PS) technique proposed by Fertti et al. can overcome these difficulties by interpreting time-series of interferometric phase only at coherent point scatterers. In this study, we apply this PS technique using 25 ERS-1/2 scenes from 1992 to 2000 to monitor the subsidence in Suzhou. By using the linear deformation model, the deformation map in Suzhou urban area over the eight years is obtained. And the calculated results are in good agreement with the measurements of leveling.

  17. Changes in Cleanup Strategies and Long-Term Monitoring Costs for DOE FUSRAP Sites-17241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Roberts, Rebecca [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Young, Carl [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.

    2017-03-05

    LM is preparing for the transfer of 11 new FUSRAP sites within the next 10 years from USACE, many of which will have substantially greater LTSM requirements than the current Completed sites. LM is analyzing the estimates for the level of effort required to monitor the new sites in order to make more customized and accurate predictions of future life cycle costs and environmental liabilities of these sites.

  18. Synthesis of long-term nickel monitoring in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Don; Grieb, Thomas; Mills, William; Sedlak, Margaret

    2007-09-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Bay (RMP) has conducted annual monitoring of the San Francisco Estuary (estuary) since 1993. The RMP primarily monitors water, sediment, and bivalves, although short-term pilot and special studies on select topics are also conducted. The purpose of this article is to synthesize over 10 years of RMP nickel data and to illustrate how comprehensive monitoring data contribute to an understanding of contaminant fate. Nickel concentrations observed in water (43.7-233.7 nM) are largely a function of the geology of the watershed surrounding the estuary and inputs from wastewater treatment plants and urban runoff. The geologic formations supplying sediment to the estuary contain high concentrations of nickel (e.g., 1000-3300 microg/g). Much of the research to date on nickel speciation suggests that nickel complexes from wastewater treatment plants are not readily available for biological uptake [Bedsworth, W.W., Sedlak, D.L., 1999. Sources and environmental fate of strongly complexed nickel in estuarine waters: the role of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 926-931, Sedlak, D.L., Phinney, J.T., Bedsworth, W.W., 1997. Strongly complexed Cu and Ni in wastewater effluents and surface runoff. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31(10), 3010-3016, Donat, J.R., Lao, K.A., Bruland, K.W., 1994. Speciation of dissolved copper and nickel in South San Francisco Bay: a multi-method approach. Anal. Chim. Acta. 284, 547-571]. In addition, concentrations of nickel measured in biota by the RMP (0.905-113.0 microg/g dry weight in bivalve tissues) are well below recommended maximum tissue residue levels (220 microg/g wet weight, California state guidelines). Based on this information, regulators have reconsidered the water quality objectives developed for nickel.

  19. Magnetic Materials: Novel Monitors of Long-Term Evolution of Engineered Barrier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Harley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are reliant on the swelling of bentonite in the engineered barrier system as it saturates with groundwater. Assurance of safety therefore requires effective monitoring of bentonite saturation. The time- and fluid-dependent corrosion of synthetic magnets embedded in bentonite is demonstrated here to provide a novel and passive means of monitoring saturation. Experiments have been conducted at 70 °C in which neo magnets, AlNiCo magnets, and ferrite magnets have been reacted with saline (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 solutions and alkaline fluids (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2 solutions; pH = 12 in the presence of bentonite. Nd-Fe-B magnets undergo extensive corrosion that results in a dramatic change from ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic behaviour concomitant with bentonite saturation. AlNiCo magnets in saline solutions show corrosion but only limited decreases in their magnetic intensities, and ferrite magnets are essentially unreactive on the experimental timescales, retaining their initial magnetic properties. For all magnets the impact of their corrosion on bentonite swelling is negligible; alteration of bentonite is essentially governed by the applied fluid composition. In principle, synthetic magnet arrays can, with further development, be designed and embedded in bentonite to monitor its fluid saturation without compromising the integrity of the engineered barrier system itself.

  20. Short-term and long-term Vadose zone monitoring: Current technologies, development, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1999-05-01

    At Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and other DOE sites, field vadose zone observations have shown complex water seepage and mass transport behavior in a highly heterogeneous, thick vadose zone on a variety of scales. Recent investigation showed that severe contamination of soils and groundwater by organic contaminant and nuclear waste occurred because of water seepage and contaminant transport along localized, preferential, fast flow within the heterogeneous vadose zone. However, most of the existing characterization and monitoring methods are not able to locate these localized and persistent preferential pathways associated with specific heterogeneous geologic features, such as clastic dikes, caliche layers, or fractures. In addition, changes in the chemical composition of moving and indigenous solutes, particularly sodium concentration, redox conditions, biological transformation of organic materials, and high temperature, may significantly alter water, chemicals, and bio-transformation exchange between the zones of fast flow and the rest of the media. In this paper, using the data from Hanford and INEEL sites, we will (1) present evidence that central problems of the vadose zone investigations are associated with preferential, fast flow phenomena and accelerated migration of organic and radioactive elements, (2) identify gaps in current characterization and monitoring technologies, and (3) recommend actions for the development of advanced vadose zone characterization and monitoring methods using a combination of hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical techniques.

  1. Compliance and technical feasibility of long-term health monitoring with wearable and ambient technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilahti, Juho; Pärkkä, Juha; Antila, Kari; Paavilainen, Paula; Mattila, Elina; Malm, Esko-Juhani; Saarinen, Ari; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    We developed a system consisting of both wearable and ambient technologies designed to monitor personal wellbeing for several months during daily life. The variables monitored included bodyweight, blood pressure, heart-rate variability and air temperature. Two different user groups were studied: there were 17 working-age subjects participating in a vocational rehabilitation programme and 19 elderly people living in an assisted living facility. The working-age subjects collected data for a total of 1406 days; the average participation period was 83 days (range 43-99). The elderly subjects collected data for a total of 1593 days; the average participation period was 84 days (range 19-107). Usage, technical feasibility and usability of the system were also studied. Some technical and practical problems appeared which we had not expected such as thunder storm damage to equipment in homes and scheduling differences between staff and the subjects. The users gave positive feedback in almost all their responses in a questionnaire. The study suggests that the data-collection rate is likely be 70-90% for typical health monitoring data.

  2. A System for Wireless Power Transfer and Data Communication of Long-Term Bio-Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A system for wireless power transfer and data communication of implantable bio-monitoring systems is presented. The proposed solution uses a servo-controlled power transmitter moved under the animal moving space. An x-y movable magnetic coil transmits the required power with a level able to keep constant the received energy by the bio-sensor system. The power is transferred via the optimized remote powering link at 13.56 MHz. The received AC signal is converted to DC voltage with a passive fu...

  3. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  4. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, August 2003 (NCEI Accession 0127072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  5. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, November 2004 (NCEI Accession 0127073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  6. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June 2006 (NCEI Accession 0127075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  7. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June and November 2005 (NCEI Accession 0127074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  8. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002 (NCEI Accession 0127071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  9. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NCEI Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  10. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006, (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  11. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002-2006 (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  12. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) long-term coral reef monitoring from 2011-10-01 to 2014-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0129268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the LTMMP has ~50 long-term monitoring sites across Saipan, Tinian, and Rota that are surveyed on a rotating biennial basis. Three main habitat types are...

  13. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Liang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge’s abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  14. Bidimensional and Multidimensional Principal Component Analysis in Long Term Atmospheric Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Giussani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric monitoring produces huge amounts of data. Univariate and bivariate statistics are widely used to investigate variations in the parameters. To summarize information graphs are usually used in the form of histograms or tendency profiles (e.g., variable concentration vs. time, as well as bidimensional plots where two-variable correlations are considered. However, when dealing with big data sets at least two problems arise: a great quantity of numbers (statistics and graphs are produced, and only two-variable interactions are often considered. The aim of this article is to show how the use of multivariate statistics helps in handling atmospheric data sets. Multivariate modeling considers all the variables simultaneously and returns the main results as bidimensional graphs that are easy-to-read. Principal Component Analysis (PCA; the most known multivariate method and multiway-PCA (Tucker3 are compared from methodological and interpretative points of view. The article demonstrates the ability to emphasize different information depending on the data handling performed. The results and benefits achieved using a more complex model that allows for the simultaneous consideration of the entire variability of the system are compared with the results provided by the simpler but better-known model. Atmospheric monitoring (SO2, NOx, NO2, NO, and O3 data from the Lake Como Area (Italy since 1992 to 2007 were chosen for consideration for the case study.

  15. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  16. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  17. Long term monitoring of Babesia microti infection in BALB/c mice using nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Paziewska, Anna; Siński, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In this study we report the usefulness of nested PCR for screening of the persistent B. microti infections in rodent hosts. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 100 microl of donor blood infected with B. microti. Infections were detected using microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears. To determine whether B. microti DNA was present in blood and/or spleen tissue, nested PCR was performed targeting a specific fragment of the gene encoding the 18S rRNA. Blood was sampled every 10 days post-infection (dpi) until day 30, after which mice were sampled every 30 days until the end of experiment at 360 dpi. The most extensive parasitaemia (39% of infected erythrocytes) was observed at 10 dpi. Between 20-60 dpi, less then 1% of infected erythrocytes were detected in blood smears, and from 90 dpi onwards, infected erythrocytes were no longer observed. B. microti DNA was successfully amplified from the blood of mice from 10 dpi until 180 dpi, as well as from spleens of infected mice at 10 and 20 dpi. The presented results show that nested PCR is the method of choice for monitoring infections of B. microti in the blood of rodent hosts, and could therefore be a tool for environmental monitoring of naturally infected rodents which are the predominant source of infection for tick vectors.

  18. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  19. [Nocturnal long-term monitoring of lung sounds in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenniger, P; Gross, V; Kunsch, S; Nell, C; Nolte, J E S; Sohrabi, A K; Koehler, U

    2010-04-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common clinical conditions in the developed countries. Particular interest in pulmonary manifestations of this disease has arisen over the last few years. Although the high coincidence between reflux and chronic cough is unquestioned, the proof of a causal correlation is still lacking. In this paper we present the Marburger Lung-Sound-Monitoring as a new method for the detection of nocturnal respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheezing and throat clearing and their temporal correlation with reflux. This method will in future allow us to precisely record and to evaluate the extent and duration of reflux events and their correlation with respiratory symptoms. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  20. Demonstration and Validation of the Geostatistical Temporal-Spatial Algorithm (GTS) for Optimization of Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) of Groundwater at Military and Government Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Validation of the Geostatistical Temporal-Spatial Algorithm (GTS) for Optimization of Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) of Groundwater at Military and... Geostatistical Temporal-Spatial Algorithm (GTS) for Optimization of Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) of Groundwater at Military and Government Sites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT The primary objective of this ESTCP project was to demonstrate and validate use of the Geostatistical Temporal-Spatial (GTS) groundwater

  1. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30 years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and evaluate their applicability for agricultural drought evaluation when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in-situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite-based precipitation estimates. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite-based estimates. Nine statistics were used to evaluate the performance of satellite products to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to

  2. Long-term monitoring of ocean deep convection using multisensors altimetry and ocean color satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Marine; Auger, Pierre-Amael; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude

    2017-02-01

    Deep convection occurs in oceanic regions submitted to strong atmospheric buoyancy losses and results in the formation of deep water masses (DWF) of the ocean circulation. It shows a strong interannual variability, and could drastically weaken under the influence of climate change. In this study, a method is proposed to monitor quantitatively deep convection using multisensors altimetry and ocean color satellite data. It is applied and evaluated for the well-observed Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) case study. For that, a coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical numerical simulation is used to examine the signature of DWF on sea level anomaly (SLA) and surface chlorophyll concentration. Statistically significant correlations between DWF annual indicators and the areas of low surface chlorophyll concentration and low SLA in winter are obtained, and linear relationships between those indicators and areas are established. These relationships are applied to areas of low SLA and low chlorophyll concentration computed, respectively, from a 27 year altimetry data set and a 19 year ocean color data set. The first long time series (covering the last 2 decades) of DWF indicators obtained for the NWMS from satellite observations are produced. Model biases and smoothing effect induced by the low resolution of gridded altimetry data are partly taken into account by using corrective methods. Comparison with winter atmospheric heat flux and previous modeled and observed estimates of DWF indicators suggests that those DWF indicators time series capture realistically DWF interannual variability in the NWMS. The advantages as well as the weaknesses and uncertainties of the method are finally discussed.

  3. Enabling long term monitoring of dopamine using dimensionally stable ultrananocrystalline diamond microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Gaurab; Tan, Chao; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Arumugam, Prabhu U.

    2016-09-01

    Chronic dopamine (DA) monitoring is a critical enabling technology to identify the neural basis of human behavior. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFM), the current gold standard electrode for in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), rapidly loses sensitivity due to surface fouling during chronic neural testing. Periodic voltage excursions at elevated anodic potentials regenerate fouled CFM surfaces but they also chemically degrade the CFM surfaces. Here, we compare the dimensional stability of 150 μm boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BDUNCD) microelectrodes in 1X PBS during ‘electrochemical cleaning’ with a similar-sized CFM. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirm the exceptional dimensional stability of BDUNCD after 40 h of FSCV cycling (∼8 million cycles). The fitting of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data to an appropriate circuit model shows a 2x increase in charge transfer resistance and an additional RC element, which suggests oxidation of BDUNCD electrode surface. This could have likely increased the DA oxidation potential by ∼34% to +308 mV. A 2x increase in BDUNCD grain capacitance and a negligible change in grain boundary impedance suggests regeneration of grains and the exposure of new grain boundaries, respectively. Overall, DA voltammogram signals were reduced by only ∼20%. In contrast, the CFM is completely etched with a ∼90% reduction in the DA signal using the same cleaning conditions. Thus, BDUNCD provides a robust electrode surface that is amenable to repeated and aggressive cleaning which could be used for chronic DA sensing.

  4. Long term Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has recently finallized their reprocessing campaign, using all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2014. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodeticstudies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stationsat or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recentimprovements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) atthe University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow anevaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-yearcombination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes.

  5. Long-term monitoring of PKS0558-504 with Swift: the disc-corona link

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, M; Grupe, D; Brinkmann, W P; Raeth, C

    2013-01-01

    PKS 0558-504 is a highly variable, X-ray bright, radio-loud, Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy with super-Eddington accretion rate and extended jets that do not dominate the emission beyond the radio band. Therefore, this source represents an ideal laboratory to shed some light on the central engine in highly accreting systems and specifically on the link between accretion disc and corona. Here we present the results from a 1.5 year monitoring with Swift XRT and UVOT. The simultaneous coverage at several wavelengths confirms that PKS 0558-504 is highly variable in any band from optical, to UV and X-rays, with the latter showing the largest amplitude changes but with the UV emission dominating the radiative output. A cross-correlation analysis reveals a tight link between the emission in the optical and UV bands and provides suggestive evidence in favor of a scenario where the variability originates in the outer part of the accretion flow and propagates inwards before triggering the activity of the X-ray emitting c...

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhong-Yi; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2013-01-01

    We reported the monitoring results on spectrophotometry, photometry and imaging of comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lulin (1m), Calar Alto (2.2m) and Beijing Astronomical (2.16m) Observatory from April to December 2010. We found that a dust feature at sunward direction was detected starting from the end of September until the beginning of December (our last observation from the Lulin and Calar Alto observatory). Two distinct sunward jet features in the processed images were observed on October 11 and after October 29 until November 2. In parallel, the CN images reveal two asymmetrical jet features which are nearly perpendicular to the Sun-nucleus direction and this asymmetrical features implies that the comet was in a nearly side-on view in late-October and early-November. Additional to the jet features, the average result of the C2-to-CN production rate ratio ranges from 0.7 to 1.5 which places 103P/Hartley 2 as being of typical cometary chemistry. We found that the $r_h$ dependence for the dust production r...

  7. Stability of Caribbean coral communities quantified by long-term monitoring and autoregression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kevin; Edmunds, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Tropical coral reefs exemplify ecosystems imperiled by environmental change. Anticipating the future of reef ecosystems requires understanding how scleractinian corals respond to the multiple environmental disturbances that threaten their survival. We analyzed the stability of coral reefs at three habitats at different depths along the south shore of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, using multivariate autoregression (MAR) models and two decades of monitoring data. We quantified several measures of ecosystem stability, including the magnitude of typical stochastic fluctuations, the rate of recovery following disturbance, and the sensitivity of coral cover to hurricanes and elevated sea temperature. Our results show that, even within a -4 km shore, coral communities in different habitats display different stability properties, and that the stability of each habitat corresponds with the habitat's known synecology. Two Orbicella-dominated habitats are less prone to annual stochastic fluctuations than coral communities in shallower water, but they recover slowly from disturbance, and one habitat has suffered recent losses in scleractinian cover that will not be quickly reversed. In contrast, a shallower, low-coral-cover habitat is subject to greater stochastic fluctuations, but rebounds more quickly from disturbance and is more robust to hurricanes and seawater warming. In some sense, the shallower community is more stable, although the stability arguably arises from having little coral cover left. Our results sharpen understanding of recent changes in coral communities at these habitats, provide a more detailed understanding of how these habitats may change in future environments, and illustrate how MAR models can be used to assess stability of communities founded upon long-lived species.

  8. Long-term monitoring of ULF electromagnetic fields at Parkfield, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, K.N.; Morrison, H.F.; Egbert, G.D.

    2009-08-01

    Electric and magnetic fields in the (10{sup -4}-1.0) Hz band were monitored at two sites adjacent to the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield and Hollister, California from 1995 to present. A data window [2002-2005], enclosing the September 28, 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake, was analyzed to determine if anomalous electric or magnetic fields, or changes in ground conductivity, occurred before the earthquake. The data were edited, removing intervals of instrument malfunction leaving 875 days in the four-year period. Frequent, spike-like disturbances were common, but were not more frequent around the time of the earthquake; these were removed before subsequent processing. Signal to noise amplitude spectra, estimated via magnetotelluric processing showed the behavior of the ULF fields to be remarkably constant over the period of analysis. These first-order plots make clear that most of the recorded energy is coherent over the spatial extent of the array. Three main statistical techniques were employed to separate local anomalous electrical or magnetic fields from the dominant coherent natural fields: transfer function estimates between components at each site were employed to subtract the dominant field, and look deeper at the 'residual' fields; the data were decomposed into principal components to identify the dominant coherent array modes; and the technique of canonical coherences was employed to distinguish anomalous fields which are spatially broad from anomalies which occur at a single site only, and furthermore to distinguish anomalies which are present in both the electric and magnetic fields from those which are present in only one field type. Standard remote reference apparent resistivity estimates were generated daily at Parkfield. A significant seasonal component of variability was observed suggesting local distortion due to variations in near surface resistance. In all cases, high levels of sensitivity to subtle electromagnetic effects were

  9. GUMNET - A new long-term monitoring initiative in the Guadarrama Mountains, Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Volker; Fidel González Rouco, J.; Yagüe Anguis, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    We are announcing a new monitoring network in the Guadarrama Mountains north of Madrid, which is planned to be operational in early 2015. This network integrates atmospheric measurements as well as subsurface observations. It aims at improving the characterization of atmosphere-ground interactions in mountainous terrain, the hydrometeorology of the region, climatic change, and related research lines. It will also provide the meteorological and climate data which form the necessary background information for biological, agricultural and hydrological investigations in this area. Currently, the initiative is supported by research groups from the Complutense and Polytechnical Universities of Madrid (UCM and UPM), the Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), the Spanish National Meteorological Agency (AEMET), and finally the Parque Nacional de la Sierra de Guadarrama (PNSG). This infrastructure forms part of the Campus of Excellence Moncloa, and is supposed to become a focus of local as well as of international research. However, it is not associated with a particular project: data will in principle be available to the scientific and public communities. Also, the integration of new instruments (long or short term) will be welcome. The starting setup is as following: A group of WMO-compatible meteorological station in the central area of the massif will be installed, which include also a subsurface component of boreholes (≡20 m depth), where temperature and moisture will be measured. This core group is complemented by a reference site near El Escorial (including a fixed and a mobile tower for micrometeorological investigations). This setup is embedded in a network of meteorological stations run partly by AEMET and partly by the PNSG, which will provide the information necessary for the characterization of regional meteorology and climate. Finally, part of the data will be made available quasi-online on a central web server in

  10. Stormwater Pollutant Process Analysis with Long-Term Online Monitoring Data at Micro-Scale Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Leutnant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff quality was measured with online turbidity sensors at four common types of small urban subcatchments: (i a flat roof; (ii a parking lot; (iii a residential catchment; and (iv a high-traffic street. Samples were taken to estimate site-specific correlations between total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity. Continuous TSS time series were derived from online turbidity measurements and were used to estimate event loads and event mean concentrations. Rainfall runoff event characteristics were subjected to correlation analysis to TSS loads. Significant correlations were found for rainfall intensities at sites with high imperviousness and decrease with increasing catchment size. Antecedent dry weather periods are only correlated at the parking lot site. Intra-event TSS load distributions were studied with M (V-curves. M (V-curves are grouped at runoff quantiles and statistically described with boxplots. All sites show, in general, a more pronounced first-flush effect. While wash-off of the flat roof tends to be source-limited, the parking lot and high-traffic street sites show a more transport-limited behavior. Wash-off process of the residential catchment appears to be influenced by a composition of different subcatchments.

  11. Aquifers survey in the context of source rocks exploitation: from baseline acquisition to long term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bruno; Rouchon, Virgile; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Producing hydrocarbons from source rocks (like shales: a mix of clays, silts, carbonate and sandstone minerals containing matured organic matter, i.e. kerogen oil and gas, but also non-hydrocarbon various species of chemical elements including sometimes radioactive elements) requires to create permeability within the rock matrix by at least hydraulically fracturing the source rock. It corresponds to the production of hydrocarbon fuels that have not been naturally expelled from the pressurized matured source rock and that remain trapped in the porosity or/and kerogen porosity of the impermeable matrix. Azimuth and extent of developed fractures can be respectively determined and mapped by monitoring the associated induced microseismicity. This allows to have an idea of where and how far injected fluids penetrated the rock formation. In a geological context, aquifers are always present in the vicinity -or on fluid migration paths- of such shale formations: deep aquifers (near the shale formation) up to sub-surface and potable (surface) aquifers. Our purpose will be to track any unsuitable invasion or migration of chemicals specifies coming from matured shales of production fluids including both drilling and fracturing ones into aquifers. Our objective is to early detect and alarm of any anomaly to avoid any important environmental issue. The approach consists in deploying a specific sampling tool within a well to recover formation fluids and to run a panoply of appropriate laboratory tests to state on fluid characteristics. Of course for deep aquifers, such a characterization process may consider aquifer properties prior producing shale oil and gas, as they may contain naturally some chemical species present in the source rocks. One can also consider that a baseline acquisition could be justified in case of possible previous invasion of non-natural fluids in the formation under survey (due to any anthropogenic action at surface or in the underground). The paper aims

  12. Launch Complex 39 Observation Gantry Area (SWMU# 107) Annual Long-Term Monitoring Report (Year 1) Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill W.; Towns, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This document has been prepared by Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. (Geosyntec) to present and discuss the findings of the 2014 and 2015 Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) activities that were completed at the Launch Complex 39 (LC39) Observation Gantry Area (OGA) located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida (Site). The remainder of this report includes: (i) a description of the Site location; (ii) summary of Site background and previous investigations; (iii) description of field activities completed as part of the annual LTM program at the Site; (iv) groundwater flow evaluation; (v) presentation and discussion of field and analytical results; and (vi) conclusions and recommendations. Applicable KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting minutes are included in Attachment A. This Annual LTM Letter Report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under contract number NNK12CA13B, Delivery Order NNK13CA39T project number PCN ENV2188.

  13. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  14. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  15. Short and long term outcomes of 200 patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athanasios; Tsiouris; Gaetano; Paone; Hassan; W; Nemeh; Jamil; Borgi; Celeste; T; Williams; David; E; Lanfear; Jeffrey; A; Morgan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the institutional experience over 8 years with 200 continuous-flow(CF)- left ventricular assist devices(LVAD).METHODS: We evaluated our institution’s LVAD database and analyzed all patients who received a CF LVAD as a bridge to transplant(BTT) or destination therapy from March 2006 until June 2014. We identified 200 patients, of which 179 were implanted with a Heart Mate II device(Thoratec Corp., Pleasanton, CA) and 21 received a Heartware HVAD(Heart Ware Inc., Framingham, MA).RESULTS: The mean age of our LVAD recipients was 59.3 years(range 17-81), 76%(152/200) were males, and 49% were implanted for the indication of BTT. The survival rate for our LVAD patients at 30 d, 6 mo, 12 mo, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years was 94%, 86%, 78%, 71%, 62% and 45% respectively. The mean duration of LVAD support was 581 d(range 2-2595 d). Gastrointestinal bleeding(was the most common adverse event(43/200, 21%), followed by right ventricular failure(38/200, 19%), stroke(31/200, 15%), re exploration for bleeding(31/200, 15%),ventilator dependent respiratory failure(19/200, 9%) and pneumonia(15/200, 7%). Our driveline infection rate was 7%. Pump thrombosis occurred in 6% of patients. Device exchanged was needed in 6% of patients. On multivariate analysis, preoperative liver dysfunction, ventilator dependent respiratory failure, tracheostomy and right ventricular failure requiring right ventricular assist device support were significant predictors of post LVAD survival.CONCLUSION: Short and long term survival for patients on LVAD support are excellent, although outcomes still remain inferior compared to heart transplantation. The incidence of driveline infections, pump thrombosis and pump exchange have declined significantly in recent years.

  16. Long term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in children: Initiation criteria in real life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddeo, A; Moreau, J; Frapin, A; Khirani, S; Felix, O; Fernandez-Bolanos, M; Ramirez, A; Fauroux, B

    2016-09-01

    Long term noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are increasingly used in children but limited information is available on the criteria and conditions leading to the initiation of these treatments. The aim of the study is to describe the objective overnight respiratory parameters and clinical situations that led to the initiation of CPAP/NIV in a pediatric NIV unit. Retrospective analysis of the data of all the children discharged on home CPAP/NIV over a 1 year period. Seventy-six patients were started on CPAP (n = 64) or NIV (n = 12). CPAP/NIV was initiated because of CPAP/NIV weaning failure (Acute group) in 15 patients. None of these patients had an overnight gas exchange or sleep study before CPAP/NIV initiation. In 18 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated on abnormal nocturnal gas exchange alone (Subacute group). These patients had a median of three of the following five overnight gas exchange abnormalities: minimal pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) >50 mmHg, time spent with SpO2 50 mmHg ≥2% of recording time, oxygen desaturation index >1.4/hr. In the last 43 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated after an abnormal sleep study (Chronic group) on a mean of four of the aforementioned criteria and an apnea-hypopnea index >10/hr. In clinical practice, CPAP/NIV was initiated in an acute, subacute and chronic setting with most patients having an association of several abnormal gas exchange or sleep study parameters. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of CPAP/NIV according to the clinical situation and initiation criteria. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:968-974. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Long-term monitoring of sandbars on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert P.; Grams, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 dramatically changed discharge and sediment supply to the downstream Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons. Magnitudes of seasonal flow variation have been suppressed, while daily fluctuations have increased because of hydropower generation. Lake Powell, the upstream reservoir, traps all sediment, leaving the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers as the main suppliers of fine sediment to the system below Glen Canyon Dam. The reduction in sediment supply, along with changes in discharge, have resulted in finesediment deficit (Topping et al., 2000), leading to a decrease in the size and number of alluvial sandbars (Schmidt and Graf, 1990; Schmidt et al., 2004). However, the understanding of these important spatial and temporal changes in sandbars located along the banks of the river have been limited to infrequent measurements mostly made by direct visitation and topographic surveying (Hazel et al., 2010). Aerial photographs are the only data available from which it is possible to evaluate changes in alluvial deposits at a large number of sites and compare recent conditions with those that existed prior to the initiation of ground-based monitoring in the early 1990s. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of Glen Canyon Dam on sandbars by analysis of comprehensive maps of surficial geology that are based on seven sets of aerial imagery taken between 1935 and 1996 for selected reaches in the first 120 km downstream from Lees Ferry, Arizona (Figure 1). These studies showed that the area of exposed sand in eddy-deposition zones was less in the post-dam period than in the pre-dam period (Leschin and Schmidt, 1995; Schmidt et al., 1999b; Sondossi, 2001, Sondossi and Schmidt, 2001, Schmidt et al., 2004). In this study, we extend these analyses to encompass a 74-year period by including maps of sand deposits visible in aerial imagery taken in 2002, 2005, and 2009 for the same reaches that were mapped in the earlier studies. Results

  18. Long-term vegetation monitoring in Great Britain - the Countryside Survey 1978-2007 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Smart, Simon M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.; Norton, Lisa R.; Maskell, Lindsay C.; Howard, David C.; Scott, W. Andrew; Henrys, Peter A.

    2017-07-01

    The Countryside Survey (CS) of Great Britain provides a globally unique series of datasets, consisting of an extensive set of repeated ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 29 years. CS was first undertaken in 1978 to monitor ecological and land use change in Britain using standardised procedures for recording ecological data from representative 1 km squares throughout the country. The same sites, with some additional squares, were used for subsequent surveys of vegetation undertaken in 1990, 1998 and 2007, with the intention of future surveys. Other data records include soils, freshwater habitats and invertebrates, and land cover and landscape feature diversity and extents. These data have been recorded in the same locations on analogous dates. However, the present paper describes only the details of the vegetation surveys. The survey design is a series of gridded, stratified, randomly selected 1 km squares taken as representative of classes derived from a statistical environmental classification of Britain. In the 1978 survey, 256 one-kilometre sample squares were recorded, increasing to 506 in 1990, 569 in 1998 and 591 in 2007. Initially each square contained up to 11 dispersed vegetation plots but additional plots were later placed in different features so that eventually up to 36 additional sampling plots were recorded, all of which can be relocated where possible (unless the plot has been lost, for example as a consequence of building work), providing a total of 16 992 plots by 2007. Plots are estimated to have a precise relocation accuracy of 85 %. A range of plots located in different land cover types and landscape features (for example, field boundaries) are included. Although a range of analyses have already been carried out, with changes in the vegetation being related to a range of drivers at local and national scales, there is major potential for further analyses, for example in relation to climate change. Although the

  19. Relationship of psychological and physiological variables in long-term self-monitored data during work ability rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärkkä, Juha; Merilahti, Juho; Mattila, Elina M; Malm, Esko; Antila, Kari; Tuomisto, Martti T; Saarinen, Ari Viljam; van Gils, Mark; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2009-03-01

    Individual wellness comprises both psychological and physiological wellbeing, which are interrelated. In long-term monitoring of wellness, both components should be included. Work-related stress and burnout are persistent problems in industrial countries. Early identification of work-related stress symptoms and early intervention could reduce individual suffering and improve the working productivity and creativity. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between physiological and psychological variables measured at home by the users themselves or automatically. In all, 17 (3 males and 14 females, age 40-62) people participating in a work ability rehabilitation program (due to work overload) were monitored for three months. Physiological and behavioral variables (activity, bed occupancy, heart rate (HR) and respiration during night, HR during day, blood pressure, steps, weight, room illumination, and temperature) were measured with different unobtrusive wireless sensors. Daily self-assessment of stress, mood, and behaviors (exercise, sleep) were collected using a mobile phone diary. The daily self-assessment of stress and the Derogatis stress profile questionnaire were used as reference for stress status. Results show modest, but significant pooled overall correlations between self-assessed stress level, and physiological and behavioral variables (e.g., sleep length measured with wrist-worn activity monitor: rho = -0.22, p < 0.001, and variance of nightly bedroom illumination: rho = 0.13, p < 0.001). Strong, but sometimes conflicting correlations can be found at individual level, suggesting individual reactions to stress in daily life.

  20. Hydrogeological characterization based on the results of long term monitoring in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, R.; Ohyama, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Saegusa, H.; Takeuchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is now under construction by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area of central Japan. Conceptual design of the MIU consists of two 1,000 m shafts (the Main Shaft and the Ventilation Shaft) and horizontal research galleries. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a base for the research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. The project is being implemented in three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III), with a total duration of 20 years. In Phase I, surface investigations were carried out in a stepwise manner in order to obtain information of the geological environment at the site scale (about 2km square). Geological modeling and simulations of various kinds had been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results. Two NNW-trending faults, which are important for hydrogeological characterization, are included in the model. One of the faults (fault A) strikes through the site in the immediate vicinity of the Main Shaft and another fault (fault B) strikes through the southern part of the MIU construction site. In Phase II, field investigations have been carried out in and around the MIU construction site. For hydrogeological characterization, long term monitoring of hydraulic pressure, surface tilt and self-potential have been carried out on surface and in the research galleries to obtain information on changes of groundwater flow due to shaft excavation. The results of the long term monitoring focused on fault A are as follows: - The hydraulic pressure responses are observed in surface boreholes in and around the MIU construction site and the galleries. The

  1. The chemical signature of a livestock farming catchment: synthesis from a high-frequency multi-element long term monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Aubert

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of human pressures on water quality is difficult. First, there is a high temporal and spatial variability of climate and human activity. Second, chemical elements have their own characteristics mixing short and long term dynamics. High frequency, long-term and multi-element measurements are required. But, such data series are scarce. This paper aims at determining what the hydro-chemical particularities of a livestock farming catchment are in a temperate climatic context.

    It is based on an original and never published time series, from Kervidy-Naizin headwater catchment. Stream chemistry was monitored daily and shallow groundwater roughly every four month, for 10 yr and five elements (nitrate, sulphate, chloride, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon.

    The five elements present strong but different seasonal patterns. Nitrate and chloride present a seasonal flush, all along or at the beginning of the wet season, respectively. Sulphate, organic and inorganic carbon present storm flushes, with constant or decreasing peaks throughout the wet season. These depicted nitrate and chloride patterns are typical of a livestock farming catchment. There, nitrate and chloride coming from organic fertilisation have been accumulating over years in the shallow groundwater. They are seasonally flushed when the groundwater connects to the stream. Sulphate, organic and inorganic carbon patterns do not seem specific to agricultural catchments. These elements are produced each year and flushed by storms. Finally, a generic classification of temporal patterns and elements is established for agricultural catchments. It is based on the distance of the source component to the stream and the dominant controlling process (accumulation versus production. This classification could be applied to any chemical element and help assessing the level of water disturbances.

  2. Long term continuous field survey to assess nutrient emission impact from irrigated paddy field into river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    P balance. N and P surplus are calculated by difference between input and output in a paddy field. As to nutrient balance in 2015 surplus shows minus value between input as fertilizer and output as rice product. However, by taking account of input via irrigation water as nutrient source, N and P input and output balance with errors by 9% and 14%. Results of long term continuous survey suggest that irrigation water is one of nutrient sources in rice cultivation.

  3. Parental monitoring of children's media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Kerr, David C R; Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    findings suggest that parental behaviors related to children's media consumption may have long-term effects on children's BMI in middle childhood. They underscore the importance of targeting parental media monitoring in efforts to prevent childhood obesity.

  4. Monitoring long-term ocean health using remote sensing: A case study of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lim J.; Sarker, Md Latifur Rahman; Zhang, Lei; Siswanto, Eko; Mubin, Ahmad; Sabarudin, Saadah

    2013-10-01

    Oceans play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and climate change, and the most importantly it is a reservoir for plenty of protein supply, and at the center of many economic activities. Ocean health is important and can be monitored by observing different parameters, but the main element is the phytoplankton concentration (chlorophyll-a concentration) because it is the indicator of ocean productivity. Many methods can be used to estimate chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, among them, remote sensing technique is one of the most suitable methods for monitoring the ocean health locally, regionally and globally with very high temporal resolution. In this research, long term ocean health monitoring was carried out at the Bay of Bengal considering three facts i.e. i) very dynamic local weather (monsoon), ii) large number of population in the vicinity of the Bay of Bengal, and iii) the frequent natural calamities (cyclone and flooding) in and around the Bay of Bengal. Data (ten years: from 2001 to 2010) from SeaWiFS and MODIS were used. Monthly Chl-a concentration was estimated from the SeaWiFS data using OC4 algorithm, and the monthly sea surface temperature was obtained from the MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) data. Information about cyclones and floods were obtained from the necessary sources and in-situ Chl-a data was collected from the published research papers for the validation of Chl-a from the OC4 algorithm. Systematic random sampling was used to select 70 locations all over the Bay of Bengal for extracting data from the monthly Chl-a and SST maps. Finally the relationships between different aspects i.e. i) Chl-a and SST, ii) Chl-a and monsoon, iii) Chl-a and cyclones, and iv) Chl-a and floods were investigated monthly, yearly and for long term (i.e 10 years). Results indicate that SST, monsoon, cyclone, and flooding can affect Chl-a concentration but the effect of monsoon, cyclone, and flooding is temporal, and normally reduces over time

  5. Long-term monitoring of rainfed wheat yield and soil water at the loess plateau reveals low water use efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qin

    Full Text Available Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0-200 cm was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m(3. Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i limited rainfall, (ii low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE.

  6. Long-term monitoring of rainfed wheat yield and soil water at the loess plateau reveals low water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Chi, Baoliang; Oenema, Oene

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0-200 cm) was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m(3). Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i) limited rainfall, (ii) low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii) poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE.

  7. Loch Vale Watershed Long-Term Ecological Research and Monitoring Program: Quality Assurance Report, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Eric E.; Baron, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    The Loch Vale watershed project is a long-term research and monitoring program located in Rocky Mountain National Park that addresses watershed-scale ecosystem processes, particularly as they respond to atmospheric deposition and climate variability. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality are made within the watershed and elsewhere in Rocky Mountain National Park. As data collected for the program are used by resource managers, scientists, policy makers, and students, it is important that all data collected in Loch Vale watershed meet high standards of quality. In this report, data quality was evaluated for precipitation, discharge, and surface-water chemistry measurements collected during 2003-09. Equipment upgrades were made at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring site to improve precipitation measurements and evaluate variability in precipitation depth and chemistry. Additional solar panels and batteries have been installed to improve the power supply, and data completeness, at the NADP site. As a result of equipment malfunction, discharge data for the Loch Outlet were estimated from October 18, 2005, to August 17, 2006. Quality-assurance results indicate that more than 98 percent of all surface-water chemistry measurements were accurate and precise. Records that did not meet quality criteria were removed from the database. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality were all sufficiently complete and consistent to support project data needs.

  8. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian Research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, a- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar as observed for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. The POP levels determined in Troll air were compared with 1 concentrations found in earlier measurement campaigns at other Antarctic research stations from the past 18 yr. Except for HCB for which similar concentration distributions were observed in all sampling campaigns, concentrations in the recent Troll samples were lower than in samples collected during the early 1990s. These concentration reductions are obviously a direct consequence of international regulations restricting the usage of POP-like chemicals on a worldwide scale.

  9. Continuous and Long-Term Measurement of Reticuloruminal pH in Grazing Dairy Cows by an Indwelling and Wireless Data Transmitting Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gasteiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the continuous measurement of ruminal pH in grazing dairy cows to monitor the diets effects on ruminal pH value. A novel indwelling pH-measurement and data transmitting system was given to 6 multiparous cows orally. Ruminal pH was measured every 600 sec over a 40 d period. After barn feeding and changeover to pasture, the following 3 treatments (2 cows/treatment were included in the measurement period: continuous grazing (G, continuous grazing plus 4 kg/d of hay fed twice daily (GH, and continuous grazing plus 4 kg/d of concentrate (GC. Ruminal pH decreased significantly (P<0.05 from 6.58±0.15 to pH 6.19±0.19 during feed changeover to pasture. Mean ruminal pH for G, GH, and GC was 6.36, 6.56, and 6.01. Mean 24-h minimum pH was 5.95, 6.20 and, 5.58. The time pH was below 6.3, 6.0, 5.8, and 5.5, for G it was 583, 91, 26, and 3 min/d, for GH it was 97, 12, 0, and 0 min/d and for GC it was 1126, 621, 347, and 101 min/d, respectively. Results were significantly influenced by the diet. The indwelling pH-measurement and data transmitting system is a very useful and proper tool for long-term measurement of ruminal pH in cows.

  10. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long-term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large-scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the Shetland survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry, a range of socio-economic impacts, and perhaps climate change. Currently no such figures are available, although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  11. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-10-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following DOIs: doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry. Currently no such figures are available although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  12. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    La Parola, V; Segreto, A; D'Aì, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High statistics, intensity selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between $\\sim 53$ keV and $\\sim 58$ keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by $\\sim 0.36$ keV/year between the first and the third time interval, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of $\\sim 3\\times 10^{10}$ G/year. The inten...

  13. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Ameli, F; Anghinolfi, M; Ardid, M; Barbarino, G; Barbarito, E; Barbato, F C T; Beverini, N; Biagi, S; Biagioni, A; Bouhadef, B; Bozza, C; Cacopardo, G; Calamai, M; Calí, C; Calvo, D; Capone, A; Caruso, F; Ceres, A; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Cocimano, R; Coniglione, R; Costa, M; Cuttone, G; D'Amato, C; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Luca, V; Deniskina, N; De Rosa, G; di Capua, F; Distefano, C; Enzenhöfer, A; Fermani, P; Ferrara, G; Flaminio, V; Fusco, L A; Garufi, F; Giordano, V; Gmerk, A; Grasso, R; Grella, G; Hugon, C; Imbesi, M; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Leismüller, K P; Leonora, E; Litrico, P; Alvarez, C D Llorens; Lonardo, A; Longhitano, F; Presti, D Lo; Maccioni, E; Margiotta, A; Marinelli, A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Migliozzi, P; Migneco, E; Miraglia, A; Mollo, C M; Mongelli, M; Morganti, M; Musico, P; Musumeci, M; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Orzelli, A; Papaleo, R; Pellegrino, C; Pellegriti, M G; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Pugliatti, C; Pulvirenti, S; Raffaelli, F; Randazzo, N; Real, D; Riccobene, G; Rovelli, A; Saldaña, M; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Sciacca, V; Sgura, I; Simeone, F; Sipala, V; Speziale, F; Spitaleri, A; Spurio, M; Stellacci, S M; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Trasatti, L; Trovato, A; Ventura, C; Vicini, P; Viola, S; Vivolo, D

    2015-01-01

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than one year at the "record" depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than one year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of 40K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bio...

  14. Initial Findings from an Improved GNSS Solution for Long Term Monitoring of New Zealand's Secular and Earthquake Induced Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D. N.; Crook, C.

    2016-12-01

    New Zealand's unique position straddling the Australian and Pacific plate boundary ensures that it experiences both secular tectonic plate motion, and non-secular motions associated with earthquakes. The purpose of the 39 PositioNZ network CORS sites, jointly operated by Land Information New Zealand and GeoNet, are to maintain the national datum as these sporadic and ongoing events occur. Positions and velocities from these sites are integrated into the deformation model which translates between the present ITRF coordinates from GNSS into New Zealand's national datum NZGD2000. The Long Term Monitoring of land movements in New Zealand is carried out through a homogeneous reprocessing of the historical data for 39 CORS sites and 194 IGB08 global reference sites using a double difference strategy. This global solution is computed using Bernese GNSS software and CODE's reprocessed EGSIEM products and Final orbits and earth rotation parameters. A priori troposphere values are interpolated from gridded VMF1G files based on the ECMWF values, and these are mapped using the Vienna Mapping function. The network is aligned to the IGB08 reference frame through the 194 core reference stations using minimal constraints. The results of this reprocessing solution will be presented and discussed. The time series effects of various types of earthquakes will be shown as well as various methods of modelling these time series for datum maintenance. Additionally, the impacts of the new homogeneous processing strategy on the noise, position, and computed velocities will be outlined.

  15. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ardid, M.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F. C. T.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bouhadef, B.; Bozza, C.; Cacopardo, G.; Calamai, M.; Calì, C.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caruso, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Luca, V.; Deniskina, N.; De Rosa, G.; di Capua, F.; Distefano, C.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Flaminio, V.; Fusco, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Giordano, V.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Hugon, C.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leonora, E.; Litrico, P.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pugliatti, C.; Pulvirenti, S.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stellacci, S. M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Ventura, C.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.

    2016-02-01

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the "record" depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of ^{40}K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site.

  16. A long-term and reproducible passive microwave sea ice concentration data record for climate studies and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Peng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A long-term, consistent, and reproducible satellite-based passive microwave sea ice concentration climate data record (CDR is available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation with an initial operation capability (IOC. The daily and monthly sea ice concentration data are on the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC polar stereographic grid with nominal 25 × 25 km grid cells in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere Polar Regions from 9 July 1987 to 31 December 2007 with an update through 2011 underway. The data files are available in the NetCDF data format at http://nsidc.org/data/g02202.html and archived by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC under the satellite climate data record program (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdr/operationalcdrs.html. The description and basic characteristics of the NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea ice concentration CDR are presented here. The CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability as the heritage products to the user communities with the additional documentation, traceability, and reproducibility that meet current standards and guidelines for climate data records. The dataset along with detailed data processing steps and error source information can be found at: doi:10.7265/N5B56GN3.

  17. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de las Zonas Costeras, Gandia (Spain); Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Ventura, C. [INFN Sezione Catania, Catania (Italy); Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Anghinolfi, M.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Sanguineti, M. [INFN Sezione Genova, Genoa (Italy); Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.C.T.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D. [INFN Sezione Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Barbarito, E. [INFN Sezione Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); Beverini, N.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Marinelli, A.; Terreni, G. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, S.; Cacopardo, G.; Cali, C.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; De Luca, V.; Distefano, C.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Litrico, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pulvirenti, S.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Trovato, A.; Viola, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Bouhadef, B.; Flaminio, V.; Raffaelli, F. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Calvo, D.; Real, D. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Capone, A.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita ' ' Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I. [INFN Sezione Bari, Bari (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); D' Amico, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C.M. [INFN Sezione Napoli, Naples (Italy); Enzenhoefer, A.; Lahmann, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ferrara, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M. [INFN Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Lo Presti, D.; Pugliatti, C. [INFN Sezione Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Martini, A.; Trasatti, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Morganti, M. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Accademia Navale di Livorno, Livorno (Italy); Pellegriti, M.G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (IT); Piattelli, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (IT); Taiuti, M. [INFN Sezione Genova, Genoa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Genova, Genoa (IT)

    2016-02-15

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the ''record'' depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of {sup 40}K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site. (orig.)

  18. Long-term monitoring of sleep apnea at home in heart failure patients: preliminary results from the HHH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, G D; Maestri, R; Gobbi, E; Capomolla, S; Campana, C; Emdin, M; Di Lenarda, A; La Rovere, M T; Andrews, D; Johnson, P; Mortara, A; Sleight, P

    2004-01-01

    Sleep apnea is very common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has important implications in terms of morbidity, mortality and clinical management. Home respiratory telemonitoring might constitute a potential low-cost, widely-applicable alternative to traditional polysomnography in the evaluation and long-term monitoring of breathing disorders in these patients. In this paper we briefly describe the technological infrastructure and present preliminary results of the European Community multicountry trial HHH (Home or Hospital in Heart Failure), which is currently testing a novel system for home telemonitoring of cardiorespiratory signals in CHF patients. The recording and transmitting devices are suitable to be self-managed by the patient. We give a detailed report on the prevalence of nocturnal respiratory disorders at the beginning of the one-year follow-up and on their persistency over the following recordings (one per month). These preliminary findings clearly indicate that intermittent home telemonitoring of respiratory signals based on patient's self-management is feasible in CHF patients and the compliance is high. Reported statistics unambiguously confirm the high prevalence of nocturnal breathing disorders in these patients and clearly show that this phenomenon tends to persist over time.

  19. A Long-Term and Reproducible Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Data Record for Climate Studies and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Meier, W. N.; Scott, D. J.; Savoie, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term, consistent, and reproducible satellite-based passive microwave sea ice concentration climate data record (CDR) is available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation with an initial operation capability (IOC). The daily and monthly sea ice concentration data are on the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) polar stereographic grid with nominal 25 km × 25 km grid cells in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere polar regions from 9 July 1987 to 31 December 2007. The data files are available in the NetCDF data format at http://nsidc.org/data/g02202.html and archived by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the satellite climate data record program (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdr/operationalcdrs.html). The description and basic characteristics of the NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea ice concentration CDR are presented here. The CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability as the heritage products to the user communities with the additional documentation, traceability, and reproducibility that meet current standards and guidelines for climate data records. The data set, along with detailed data processing steps and error source information, can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5B56GN3.

  20. Remifentanil for the insertion and removal of long-term central venous access during monitored anesthesia care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burlacu, Crina L

    2012-02-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the analgesic efficacy of three different rates of remifentanil infusion in patients undergoing insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices during monitored anesthesia care and local anesthetic field infiltration. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Operating theatre of an University hospital. PATIENTS: 44 unpremedicated, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, aged 18-65 years, undergoing insertion or removal of a Port-a-Cath or Hickman catheter. INTERVENTIONS: Patients sedated with a propofol target-controlled infusion were randomly allocated to three groups: Group R25 (n = 14), Group R50 (n = 15), and Group R75 (n = 15), to receive remifentanil 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 mug\\/kg\\/min, respectively. Rescue remifentanil 0.5 mug\\/kg was administered for pain scores > 3. The remifentanil infusion rate was maintained constant unless respiratory and\\/or cardiovascular unwanted events occurred, whereupon the rate was adjusted in 0.01 mug\\/kg\\/min decrements as necessary. MEASUREMENTS: Pain scores (primary outcome), sedation, and movement scores (secondary outcomes) were assessed during local anesthetic infiltration of the anterior chest wall and 5 other procedural steps. MAIN RESULTS: All infusion rates had equal analgesic efficacy, as shown by comparable pain scores, number of rescue boluses, and number of patients requiring rescue analgesia. Excessive sedation was associated with the highest remifentanil rate such that Group R75 patients were significantly more sedated than Groups R25 or R50 at selective procedural steps (P < 0.05). More Group R75 patients (6\\/15) required remifentanil rate reduction than did patients from Group R50 (1\\/15) or Group R25 (0\\/14), P < 0.01, most commonly because of respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: For the insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices, all three remifentanil infusion rates proved to be equally analgesic

  1. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  2. Multi-objective optimization of long-term groundwater monitoring network design using a probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yun; Qian, Jiazhong; Wu, Jichun

    2016-03-01

    Optimal design of long term groundwater monitoring (LTGM) network often involves conflicting objectives and substantial uncertainty arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity (K) data. This study develops a new multi-objective simulation-optimization model involving four objectives: minimizations of (i) the total sampling costs for monitoring contaminant plume, (ii) mass estimation error, (iii) the first moment estimation error, and (iv) the second moment estimation error of the contaminant plume, for LTGM network design problems. Then a new probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm (PPGA) coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions to the multi-objective LTGM problems under uncertainty of the K-fields. The PPGA integrates the niched Pareto genetic algorithm with probabilistic Pareto sorting scheme to deal with the uncertainty of objectives caused by the uncertain K-field. Also, the elitist selection strategy, the operation library and the Pareto solution set filter are conducted to improve the diversity and reliability of Pareto-optimal solutions by the PPGA. Furthermore, the sampling strategy of noisy genetic algorithm is adopted to cope with the uncertainty of the K-fields and improve the computational efficiency of the PPGA. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in finding Pareto-optimal sampling network designs of LTGM systems through a two-dimensional hypothetical example and a three-dimensional field application in Indiana (USA). Comprehensive analysis demonstrates that the proposed PPGA can find Pareto optimal solutions with low variability and high reliability and is a promising tool for optimizing multi-objective LTGM network designs under uncertainty.

  3. A multiparametric automatic method to monitor long-term reproducibility in digital mammography: results from a regional screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, G; Ballaminut, A; Contento, G

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to illustrate a multiparametric automatic method for monitoring long-term reproducibility of digital mammography systems, and its application on a large scale. Twenty-five digital mammography systems employed within a regional screening programme were controlled weekly using the same type of phantom, whose images were analysed by an automatic software tool. To assess system reproducibility levels, 15 image quality indices (IQIs) were extracted and compared with the corresponding indices previously determined by a baseline procedure. The coefficients of variation (COVs) of the IQIs were used to assess the overall variability. A total of 2553 phantom images were collected from the 25 digital mammography systems from March 2013 to December 2014. Most of the systems showed excellent image quality reproducibility over the surveillance interval, with mean variability below 5%. Variability of each IQI was 5%, with the exception of one index associated with the smallest phantom objects (0.25 mm), which was below 10%. The method applied for reproducibility tests-multi-detail phantoms, cloud automatic software tool to measure multiple image quality indices and statistical process control-was proven to be effective and applicable on a large scale and to any type of digital mammography system. • Reproducibility of mammography image quality should be monitored by appropriate quality controls. • Use of automatic software tools allows image quality evaluation by multiple indices. • System reproducibility can be assessed comparing current index value with baseline data. • Overall system reproducibility of modern digital mammography systems is excellent. • The method proposed and applied is cost-effective and easily scalable.

  4. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  5. 2002 Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  6. Year 2000 status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key micro invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  7. Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long-term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key microinvertebrates, 1994 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  8. Proposal - Impacts of a changing climate: monitoring the long term persistence and migration of soil salinities in Bayou Sauvage NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal involves the long-term assessment of soil salinity at Bayou Sauvage NWR resulting from the Rapid ecosystem changes resulting from Hurricane Katrina in 2005...

  9. Northern region landbird monitoring program: a program designed to monitor more than long-term population trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Hutto

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Region Landbird Monitoring Program (NRLMP) has been in place for nearly a decade and is designed to allow us to track population trends of numerous landbird species, while at the same time allowing us to investigate the effects of various kinds of land use activity on the occurrence, abundance, or demographics of numerous landbird species. We conduct...

  10. Contradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Ribolzi, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Pierret, Alain; Latsachak, Keoudone; Silvera, Norbert; Pham Dinh, Rinh; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Robain, Henri; Taccoen, Adrien; Sengphaathith, Phouthamaly; Mouche, Emmanuel; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Tran Duc, Toan; Valentin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernisation of agriculture involving rapid and mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability which controls habitats, water resources, and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydrometeorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical southeast Asia since 2000. The GR2M water balance model, repeatedly calibrated over successive 1-year periods and used in simulation mode with the same year of rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses, and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal streamflow to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow led to intricate streamflow patterns: pluri-annual streamflow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual streamflow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantations. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas combined with patches of mix-trees plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration vs. planting) led to opposite changes in streamflow regime. Given that

  11. Vibrio anguillarum Is Genetically and Phenotypically Unaffected by Long-Term Continuous Exposure to the Antibacterial Compound Tropodithietic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul W; Yin, Guangliang; Zhang, Faxing; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Gram, Lone

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing the use of antibiotics in the food production chain is essential for limiting the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One alternative intervention strategy is the use of probiotic bacteria, and bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are capable of antagonizing fish-pathogenic vibrios in fish larvae and live feed cultures for fish larvae. The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), an antiporter that disrupts the proton motive force, is key in the antibacterial activity of several roseobacters. Introducing probiotics on a larger scale requires understanding of any potential side effects of long-term exposure of the pathogen to the probionts or any compounds they produce. Here we exposed the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum to TDA for several hundred generations in an adaptive evolution experiment. No tolerance or resistance arose during the 90 days of exposure, and whole-genome sequencing of TDA-exposed lineages and clones revealed few mutational changes, compared to lineages grown without TDA. Amino acid-changing mutations were found in two to six different genes per clone; however, no mutations appeared unique to the TDA-exposed lineages or clones. None of the virulence genes of V. anguillarum was affected, and infectivity assays using fish cell lines indicated that the TDA-exposed lineages and clones were less invasive than the wild-type strain. Thus, long-term TDA exposure does not appear to result in TDA resistance and the physiology of V. anguillarum appears unaffected, supporting the application of TDA-producing roseobacters as probiotics in aquaculture. It is important to limit the use of antibiotics in our food production, to reduce the risk of bacteria developing antibiotic resistance. We showed previously that marine bacteria of the Roseobacter clade can prevent or reduce bacterial diseases in fish larvae, acting as probiotics. Roseobacters produce the antimicrobial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and we

  12. Long-term monitoring for conservation management: Lessons from a case study integrating remote sensing and field approaches in floodplain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; Albuquerque, António; Martínez-Almarza, Miguel; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo

    2017-02-09

    of a recovery resulting from recent coordinated societal responses to control excessive water extraction in the catchment, highlighting the need for continuing long-term monitoring. The DPSIR framework proved useful as a conceptual tool in analyzing the entire environmental system, while both field and remote sensing approaches complemented each other in quantifying indicator trends, improving the monitoring design and informing conservation plans.

  13. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long-term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; D'Aì, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High-statistics, intensity-selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between ˜53 and ˜58 keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity-selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time, we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by ˜0.36 keV yr-1 between the first and the third time intervals, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of ˜3 × 1010 G yr-1. The intensity-cyclotron energy pattern is consistent between the third and the last time intervals. A possible interpretation for this decay could be the settling of an accreted mound that produces either a distortion of the poloidal magnetic field on the polar cap or a geometrical displacement of the line forming region. This hypothesis seems supported by the correspondence between the rate of the line shift per unit accreted mass and the mass accreted on the polar cap per unit area in Vela X-1 and Her X-1, respectively.

  14. Long-term GPS tracking of ocean sunfish Mola mola offers a new direction in fish monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Sims

    Full Text Available Satellite tracking of large pelagic fish provides insights on free-ranging behaviour, distributions and population structuring. Up to now, such fish have been tracked remotely using two principal methods: direct positioning of transmitters by Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and satellite relay of tag-derived light-level data for post hoc track reconstruction. Error fields associated with positions determined by these methods range from hundreds of metres to hundreds of kilometres. However, low spatial accuracy of tracks masks important details, such as foraging patterns. Here we use a fast-acquisition global positioning system (Fastloc GPS tag with remote data retrieval to track long-term movements, in near real time and position accuracy of <70 m, of the world's largest bony fish, the ocean sunfish Mola mola. Search-like movements occurred over at least three distinct spatial scales. At fine scales, sunfish spent longer in highly localised areas with faster, straighter excursions between them. These 'stopovers' during long-distance movement appear consistent with finding and exploiting food patches. This demonstrates the feasibility of GPS tagging to provide tracks of unparalleled accuracy for monitoring movements of large pelagic fish, and with nearly four times as many locations obtained by the GPS tag than by a conventional Argos transmitter. The results signal the potential of GPS-tagged pelagic fish that surface regularly to be detectors of resource 'hotspots' in the blue ocean and provides a new capability for understanding large pelagic fish behaviour and habitat use that is relevant to ocean management and species conservation.

  15. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes in Odisha, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2013-05-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are important concerns in managing and conserving tropical forests and have global significance. In the Indian context, in the last one century, the forests have undergone significant changes due to several policies undertaken by government as well as increased population pressure. The present study has brought out spatiotemporal changes in forest cover and variation in forest type in the state of Odisha (Orissa), India, during the last 75 years period. The mapping for the period of 1924-1935, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2010 indicates that the forest cover accounts for 81,785.6 km(2) (52.5 %), 56,661.1 km(2) (36.4 %), 51,642.3 km(2) (33.2 %), 49,773 km(2) (32 %) and 48,669.4 km(2) (31.3 %) of the study area, respectively. The study found the net forest cover decline as 40.5 % of the total forest and mean annual rate of deforestation as 0.69 % year(-1) during 1935 to 2010. There is a decline in annual rate of deforestation during 1995 to 2010 which was estimated as 0.15 %. Forest type-wise quantitative loss of forest cover reveals large scale deforestation of dry deciduous forests. The landscape analysis shows that the number of forest patches (per 1,000) are 2.463 in 1935, 10.390 in 1975, 11.899 in 1985, 12.193 in 1995 and 15.102 in 2010, which indicates high anthropogenic pressure on the forests. The mean patch size (km(2)) of forest decreased from 33.2 in 1935 to 5.5 in 1975 and reached to 3.2 by 2010. The study demonstrated that monitoring of long term forest changes, quantitative loss of forest types and landscape metrics provides critical inputs for management of forest resources.

  16. PRIMARY RESULTS OF LONG-TERM DYNAMIC MONITORING OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA OF UNCONTROLLED SEVERE PERSISTENT COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Namazova-Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients registers help obtain the latest information about the clinical course of a disease, safety and effectiveness of the medical technology. Objective: Our aim was to analyze the efficiency and safety of omalizumab with children suffering from uncontrolled severe persistent bronchial asthma (BA according to the data of the developed register. Methods.  A register of patients with severe asthma of uncontrolled course receiving omalizumab in addition to basic therapy has been developed. Results. Results of treatment of 101 children aged 6–17 have been analyzed. The duration of therapy with omalizumab lasted from 1 to 85 months, with a median of 16 (10; 44 months. The drug was used in doses of 75 to 600 mg, with a median of 300 (225; 375 mg. The therapy with omalizumab allowed achieving a better control of the disease (AST test prior to start of therapy — 14 (11; 17 points, in 1 year — 20 (13; 25; p < 0,001; reduction of the volume of daily base therapy (prior to start of therapy, average dose of inhaled corticosteroids in terms of fluticasone was 629 ± 304 mg (n = 15, in 4 years — 524 ± 342 mg; p = 0.065; reduction of the number of aggravations and the need to use short-effectiv   2-agonists.  No adverse systemic effects of the introduction of genetically engineered biological drugs have been found. Conclusion. Register of patients with severe persistent asthma can be used as a tool for long-term  monitoring and integrated assessment of the efficiency and safety of therapy.

  17. Long Term Multilevel Monitoring of the Mass Discharge of Chloroethenes Following Ethanol Flushing at Former Sages Drycleaning Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. H.; Annable, M. D.; Jawitz, J. W.; Cho, J.; Sillan, R. K.

    2006-12-01

    The Sages former drycleaning site in Jacksonville, FL, was the test ground for a pilot scale in-situ alcohol flushing test in 1998. A network of multilevel sampling wells (MLS) was installed in the source area and downgradient to collect aqueous samples before, during, and for six years after the pilot test. The depth level sampling of MLS allowed three dimensional spatial analyses. Multilevel samples were able to estimate the initial and post-remedial PCE architecture at the site. Site characterization determined that hydraulic conductivity decreased with depth. Accordingly, remedial fluids encountered difficulty flushing the deep, low flow zones. Furthermore, once ethanol penetrated the lower depths, it was challenging to recover it in the time frame of this test. The remedial performance was evaluated through comparison of pre and post-remedial groundwater samples and partitioning interwell tracer tests. The ethanol flushing test was effective at removing significant levels of subsurface PCE and favorably reduced the contaminant flux at most MLS locations. One of the benefits of using ethanol as the remedial fluid was the fostering of microbial reductive dechlorination of residual PCE. From long term transect monitoring, the mass discharge of the source zone and downgradient control plane were determined. Once the higher concentrations of unrecovered ethanol were carried away by natural gradient flow, microbial activity and chloroethene flux spiked until four years after the 1998 event. Soon thereafter, dechlorination declined as the ethanol concentrations decreased. While residual PCE dissolution was microbially enhanced, significant levels remained in the source zone at the end of this study. Therefore, a second full scale ethanol flushing took place at the conclusion of this work in 2004. The combination of enhanced solubililization and residual source biotreatment was effective at removing significant PCE mass, reducing PCE flux, and fostering bioremediation

  18. A method for long-term environmental monitoring; Een methodiek voor milieu-monitoring op de lange termijn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bochove, J. [Afdeling Beleidcyclus en Milieumonitoring, Provincie Zeeland, Middelburg (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    An overview is given of the activities of the Dutch Province Zeeland to develop a method for environmental monitoring which follows methodologies used on an international level in order to make use of a clear method and improve the transparency of the monitoring. The basis was formed by the DPSIR-model (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact and Response), developed by the OECD and in use at the European Environment Agency (EEA) [Dutch] Vele organisaties houden zich op een of andere manier bezig met milieumonitoring. De manieren waarop dat gebeurt verschillen van elkaar. De helderheid en doorzichtigheid van de gebruikte systematiek voor de organisaties zelf en voor derden is eveneens nogal variabel. In de provincie Zeeland is actie ondernomen om qua systematiek aan te sluiten bij datgene wat op internationaal niveau is ontwikkeld en om milieumonitoring zo duidelijk en transparant mogelijk te maken. Deze bijdrage zet uiteen waarom en hoe dat is gebeurd en wat die inspanning heeft opgeleverd. In navolging van de Organisatie voor Economische Samenwerking en Ontwikkeling (OESO) werd bij die monitoring vaak het DPSIR model (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact en Response indicatoren). Inmiddels zijn dergelijke indicatorenstelsels en de bijbehorende gegevensverzameling en -bewerking ontwikkeld op Europees niveau (zie de jaarlijkse publicaties van het European Environmental Agency onder de titel Environmental Signals) en ook op nationaal niveau (zie in Nederland de Milieubalansen en aanverwante publicaties). Op provinciaal en lokaal niveau worden eveneens veel milieu(beleids)gegevens verzameld maar de afstemming op de bovengenoemde indicatorstelsels en op de eigen beleidsdoelen laat nog (veel) te wensen over (zie Milieubalans 2004)

  19. Adaptive long-term monitoring of soil health in metal phytostabilization: ecological attributes and ecosystem services based on soil microbial parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Phytostabilization is a promising option for the remediation of metal contaminated soils which requires the implementation of long-term monitoring programs. We here propose to incorporate the paradigm of "adaptive monitoring", which enables monitoring programs to evolve iteratively as new information emerges and research questions change, to metal phytostabilization. Posing good questions that cover the chemical, toxicological and ecological concerns associated to metal contaminated soils is critical for an efficient long-term phytostabilization monitoring program. Regarding the ecological concerns, soil microbial parameters are most valuable indicators of the effectiveness of metal phytostabilization processes in terms of recovery of soil health. We suggest to group soil microbial parameters in higher-level categories such as "ecological attributes" (vigor, organization, stability) or "ecosystem services" in order to facilitate interpretation and, most importantly, to provide long-term phytostabilization monitoring programs with the required stability through time against changes in techniques, methods, interests, etc. that will inevitably occur during the monitoring program. Finally, a Phytostabilization Monitoring Card, based on both ecological attributes and ecosystem services, for soil microbial properties is provided.

  20. Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Andriy A.; Waldman, Jerry; Light, Alexander R.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Giles, Robert H.; Qian, Xifeng; Chandrayan, Neelima; Goodhue, William D.; Nixon, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Operational temperature increase of CW THz QCLs to 77 K has enabled us to employ solid nitrogen (SN2) as the cryogen. A roughing pump was used to solidify liquid nitrogen and when the residual vapor pressure in the nitrogen reservoir reached the pumping system's minimum pressure the temperature equilibrated and remained constant until all the nitrogen sublimated. The hold time compared to liquid helium has thereby increased approximately 70-fold, and at a greatly reduced cost. The milliwatt CW QCL was at a temperature of approximately 60 K, dissipating 5 W of electrical power. To measure the long-term frequency, current, and temperature stability, we heterodyned the free-running 2.31 THz QCL with a CO2 pumped far-infrared gas laser line in methanol (2.314 THz) in a corner-cube Schottky diode and recorded the IF frequency, current and temperature. Under these conditions the performance characteristics of the QCL, which will be reported, exceeded that of a device mounted in a mechanical cryocooler.

  1. Long-term performance of a 20-L continuous flow microbial fuel cell for treatment of brewery wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Chen, Shing; Babanova, Sofia; Phadke, Sujal; Salvacion, Michael; Mirhosseini, Auvid; Chan, Shirley; Carpenter, Kayla; Cortese, Rachel; Bretschger, Orianna

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been shown as a promising technology for wastewater treatment. Integration of MFCs into current wastewater treatment plant have potential to reduce the operational cost and improve the treatment performance, and scaling up MFCs will be essential. However, only a few studies have reported successful scale up attempts. Fabrication cost, treatment performance and operational lifetime are critical factors to optimize before commercialization of MFCs. To test these factors, we constructed a 20 L MFC system containing two 10 L MFC reactors and operated the system with brewery wastewater for nearly one year. Several operational conditions were tested, including different flowrates, applied external resistors, and poised anodic potentials. The condition resulting in the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (94.6 ± 1.0%) was a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 (HRT = 313 h) and an applied resistor of 10 Ω across each MFC circuit. Results from each of the eight stages of operation (325 days total) indicate that MFCs can sustain treatment rates over a long-term period and are robust enough to sustain performance even after system perturbations. possible ways to improve MFC performance were discussed for future studies.

  2. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft; Monitorage a long terme de l'exposition du personnel navigant a bord d'un avion de la compagnie aerienne Czech Airlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Prague (Czech Republic); Ploc, O. [Czech Technical Univ., Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  3. Long-Term Outdoor Reliability Assessment of a Wireless Unit for Air-Quality Monitoring Based on Nanostructured Films Integrated on Micromachined Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Decarli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy, where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  4. Long-term outdoor reliability assessment of a wireless unit for air-quality monitoring based on nanostructured films integrated on micromachined platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccardi, Matteo; Decarli, Massimiliano; Lorenzelli, Leandro; Milani, Paolo; Mettala, Petteri; Orava, Risto; Barborini, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy), where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  5. Long-term energy balance and vegetation water stress monitoring of Mediterranean oak savanna using satellite thermal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dugo, Maria P.; Chen, Xuelong; Andreu, Ana; Carpintero, Elisabet; Gómez-Giraldez, Pedro; Su, Z.(Bob)

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the major hazards faced by natural and cropped vegetation in the Mediterranean Sea Basin. Water scarcity is likely to be worsened under the predicted conditions of climate change, which is expected to make this region both warmer and drier. A Holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is an agro-silvo-pastoral system occupying more than 3 million hectares the Iberian Peninsula and Greece. It consists of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs. This ecosystem is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural economy. A similar ecosystem is worldwide distributed in areas with Mediterranean climate (as California or South Africa) and shares structural and functional properties with tropical savannas in Africa, Australia and South America. Remote sensing time series can assist the monitoring of the energy balance components, with special attention to the evapotranspiration and vegetation water stress over these areas. Long-term data analysis may improve our understanding of the functioning of the system, helping to assess drought impacts and leading to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability of this ecosystem. This work analyzes the evolution the surface energy balance components, mapping the evapotranspiration and moisture stress of holm oak woodlands of Spain and Portugal during the last 15 years (2001-2015). The surface energy balance model (SEBS) has been applied over the Iberian Peninsula on a monthly time scale and 0.05° spatial resolution, using multi-satellite and meteorological forcing data. Modelled energy and water fluxes have been validated using ground measurements of two eddy covariance towers located in oak savanna sites during 3 years, resulting in moderate deviations from observations (10-25 W/m2). The departure of actual ET from the

  6. Comparing State-of-the-Art Evolutionary Multi-Objective Algorithms for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Kollat, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a modified version of Deb's Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which the authors have named the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (Epsilon-NSGAII), at solving a four objective long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM) design test case. The Epsilon-NSGAII incorporates prior theoretical competent evolutionary algorithm (EA) design concepts and epsilon-dominance archiving to improve the original NSGAII's efficiency, reliability, and ease-of-use. This algorithm eliminates much of the traditional trial-and-error parameterization associated with evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) through epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing, and automatic termination. The effectiveness and reliability of the new algorithm is compared to the original NSGAII as well as two other benchmark multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), the Epsilon-Dominance Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (Epsilon-MOEA) and the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2). These MOEAs have been selected because they have been demonstrated to be highly effective at solving numerous multi-objective problems. The results presented in this study indicate superior performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII in terms of the hypervolume indicator, unary Epsilon-indicator, and first-order empirical attainment function metrics. In addition, the runtime metric results indicate that the diversity and convergence dynamics of the Epsilon-NSGAII are competitive to superior relative to the SPEA2, with both algorithms greatly outperforming the NSGAII and Epsilon-MOEA in terms of these metrics. The improvements in performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII over its parent algorithm the NSGAII demonstrate that the application of Epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing with archive injection, and automatic termination greatly improve algorithm efficiency and reliability. In addition, the usability of

  7. Long-term monitoring of fecal steroid hormones in female snow leopards (Panthera uncia during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodzue Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1 estradiol-17β, (2 progesterone and (3 cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1 first housed with a male in all year round and then (2 in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days. The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g (P<0.05. Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g (P<0.05. Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding

  8. Long-term Monitoring of Ecological and Geomorphic Adjustments to Dam Removal in an Upland Mesic Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Doyle, H.; Kynard, B.; Dietrich, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    in response to the major geomorphic changes associated with removal and a subsequent flood. Since then, abundances have generally stablilized or increased, demonstrating the resilience of these species, and the importance of a long-term approach.

  9. Long-term Ocean Bottom Monitoring for Shallow Slow Earthquakes in the Hyuga-nada, Nankai Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Maeda, T.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hyuga-nada region, nearby the western end of the Nankai Trough in Japan, is one of the most active areas of shallow slow earthquakes in the world. Recently, ocean-bottom observation of offshore seismicity near the trench succeeded in detecting shallow tremor. The observed traces contained a complete episode lasting for one month exhibiting similar migration property of deep tremor [Yamashita et al., 2015]. This activity was associated with shallow very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) activity documented by land-based broadband seismic network. The coincidence between tremor and VLFE activities and similarity of their migration pattern show strong resemblance with the episodic tremor and slip episodes; this similarity suggests that the tremor activity in the shallow plate boundary may also be coupled with VLFE and short-term slow slip events in this area. It is important clarifying the seismicity including slow earthquakes to understand the slip behavior at a shallow plate boundary, and to improve assessments of the possibility of tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake that is anticipated to occur at the Nankai Trough. Motivated by these issues, we started long-term ocean-bottom monitoring in this area from May 2014 using 3 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers. In January 2015, we replaced the instruments and obtained the first data which includes minor shallow tremor and VLFE activity on June 1-3, 2014. Preliminary results of data processing show that the shallow tremor activity occurred at the northwestern part of the 2013 activity. The location corresponds the point where the tremors stopped migrating to further north direction and turned sharply eastward in the 2013 activity. On the other hand, clear tremor migration was not found in the 2014 activity. This local activity may imply that regional/small-scale heterogeneous structures such as a subducting sea mount affect the activity pattern. During the 2014 observation, many ordinary earthquakes also

  10. Erosion on tropical rain-forest terrain: a re-evaluation in the light of long-term monitoring, aerial photographic evidence and sediment fingerprinting in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Clarke, Michelle; Sayer, Aimee; Ghazali, Rosmadi; Annammala, Kogila; Chappell, Nick; Douglas, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Rain-forest vegetation is generally considered to be highly protective against erosion, but with disturbance via logging leading to major, but relatively short-lived increases in erosion for a 2-year period until rapid revegetation of slopes has occurred. This paper questions and re-assesses these views using a combination of long-term monitoring, GIS-assisted aerial photograph analysis and multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting in primary rainforest and adjacent terrain that was selectively logged either in 1988-89 or in 1992-93 within the Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In primary forest areas, repeat measurements using the erosion bridge technique over the 20-year period 1990-2010 demonstrate how slopewash rates are significant, but concentrated in extreme events and increasing sharply with slope angle. Continuous monitoring of suspended sediment, coupled with repeat erosion bridge measurement, however, demonstrate that pipe erosion is at least as important even on moderate terrain and landsliding is an important process on steep terrain. In the selectively logged Baru catchment, a combination of long-term monitoring of suspended sediment and repeat measurements at an erosion bridge network has demonstrated that the erosional impact of logging is longer-term than formerly thought, with a major secondary peak in erosion 5-10 years after logging due to road-linked landslides and the decay of logs in debris dams; analysis of current bed-sediment and floodplain cores using a multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting approach demonstrates that sources of sediment are still different to those in primary forest over 20 years after logging ceased. Sediment fingerprinting at the large catchment scale (focussing on the analysis of lateral bench and floodplain sediment cores compared with upstream tributary sediment inputs), together with GIS-assisted analysis of aerial photographic evidence of spatial differences in landslide occurrence, demonstrates the key

  11. Long-term preservation of cone photoreceptors and visual acuity in rd10 mutant mice exposed to continuous environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Ilaria; Novelli, Elena; Strettoi, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    In human patients and animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a gradual loss of rod photoreceptors and decline in scotopic vision are the primary manifestations of the disease. Secondary death of cones and gradual, regressive remodeling of the inner retina follow and progress at different speeds according to the underlying genetic defect. In any case, the final outcome is near-blindness without a conclusive cure yet. We recently reported that environmental enrichment (EE), an experimental manipulation based on exposure to enhanced motor, sensory, and social stimulation, when started at birth, exerts clear beneficial effects on a mouse model of RP, by slowing vision loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate in the same mouse the long-term effects of chronic exposure to an EE and assess the outcome of this manipulation on cone survival, inner retinal preservation, and visual behavior. Two groups of rd10 mutant mice were maintained in an EE or standard (ST) laboratory conditions up to 1 year of age. Then, retinal preservation was assessed with immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy examination, cone counts, and electron microscopy of the photoreceptor layer, while visual acuity was tested behaviorally with a Prusky water maze. rd10 mice are a model of autosomal recessive RP with a typical rod-cone, center to the periphery pattern of photoreceptor degeneration. They carry a mutation of the rod-specific phosphodiesterase gene and undergo rod death that peaks at around P24, while cone electroretinogram (ERG) is extinct by P60. We previously showed that early exposure to an EE efficiently delays photoreceptor degeneration in these mutants, extending the time window of cone viability and cone-mediated vision well beyond the phase of maximum rod death. Here we find that a maintained EE can delay the degeneration of cones even in the long term. Confocal and electron microscopy examination of the retinas of the rd10 EE and ST mice at 1 year of age showed major

  12. The Development of a Long-Term, Continually Updated Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P.; Perez, R.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K.; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, T.; Hemker, K.; Schlemmer, J.; Kivalov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the likelihood of global climatic weather pattern changes and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved and continuously updated global Earth surface solar resource information. Toward this end, a project was funded under the NASA Applied Science program involving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the State University of New York/Albany (SUNY) and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to provide NREL with a global long-term advanced global solar mapping production system for improved depiction of historical solar resources and variability and to provide a mechanism for continual updates of solar resource information. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983. The old version of the ISCCP data provided this information for all the world TMs available geosynchronous satellite systems and NOAA TMs AVHRR data sets at a 30 km effective resolution. This new version aims to provide a new and improved satellite calibration at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will enable NREL to continually update the Earth TM solar resource. Objective and Methods: In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. An assessment of the solar resource values relative to calibration uncertainty and assumptions are presented. Errors resulting assumptions in snow cover and background aerosol

  13. Long-term investigations of summertime chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and continuously observations of vertical particle flux in Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Salter, Ian; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    patterns for the summertime show slightly different results than chlorophyll a. POC flux rates were at least one order of magnitude lower in the CAO than in eastern Fram Strait. Whereas in the CAO ice algae dominate the recognizable flux fraction, fecal material prevailed in eastern Fram Strait traps, pointing towards different systems of organic matter production and modification. These results were also confirmed by the biomarker composition pattern. Since 2014, investigations continue within a greater framework of the Arctic long-term observatory 'Frontiers of Arctic Marine Monitoring' (FRAM) that is established to improve our knowledge by using new developments and proven technologies to enable the recording of environmental and biological data in high temporal and spatial resolution.

  14. Lessons learned from long-term ecosystem research and monitoring in alpine and subalpine basins of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term ecosystem research and monitoring was begun in the Loch Vale watershed of Rocky Mountain National Park in 1983, after extensive survey work to identify the best location. Then, as now, our scientific objectives were to understand natural biogeochemical cycles and variability, so that we could differentiate ecosystem changes from human-caused disturbances, such as atmospheric deposition of pollutants and climate change. We have learned many lessons, often through our mistakes, that are worth passing on. Clear scientific objectives, even for long-term monitoring, are essential. Standardized methods, including rigorous quality assurance procedures should be adhered to from the beginning of the program. All data, even those collected routinely for background records, should be scrutinized and summarized at least once a year. Freely share basic information such as weather, hydrologic, chemical, and descriptive records with other researchers who can build upon your efforts. Use many tools when asking complex ecological questions, in order to minimize bias toward specific results. Publish frequently; long-term studies do not imply there are no interim conclusions or interesting findings. Interpret findings frequently to policy makers and citizens; increased understanding of the environment and human-caused changes may improve natural resource management, and build support for ecological research. And finally, be persistent. Long-term ecological research can be frustrating and difficult to maintain, yet is often the best way to observe and understand ecological change on a meaningful time scale.

  15. Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Carbon Dioxide In The Urban Salt Lake Valley, Utah USA: Source And Long-Term Monitoring Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehleringer, J.; Lai, C.; Strong, C.; Pataki, D. E.; Bowling, D. R.; Schauer, A. J.; Bush, S.

    2011-12-01

    A high-precision, decadal record of carbon isotope ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide has been produced for the urbanized Salt Lake Valley, Utah USA. These data complement a similar time series of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for different locations in the same urban region. This isotopic record includes diurnal and nocturnal observations based on flask (IRMS-based) and continuous (TDL-based) measurement systems. These data reveal repeatable diurnal and seasonal variations in the anthropogenic and biogenic carbon sources that can be used to reconstruct different source inputs. As the Salt Lake Valley is an isolated urban region, the impacts of local anthropogenic inputs can be distinguished from regional patterns as measured by NOAA at the rural Wendover monitoring station 200 km to the west of the Salt Lake Valley. Complementary data, such as vehicle exhaust, emission from power plants and household furnaces, plant and soil organic matter, are also provided to quantify the carbon isotope ratios of the predominant anthropogenic and biogenic sources within the Salt Lake Valley. The combined source and long-term observational values will be made freely available and their utility is discussed for modeling efforts including urban metabolism modeling and atmospheric trace gas modeling.

  16. Study of luminosity and spin-up relation in X-ray binary pulsars with long-term monitoring by MAXI/GSC and Fermi/GBM

    CERN Document Server

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Nakajima, Motoki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between luminosity and spin-period change in X-ray binary pulsars using long-term light curve obtained by the MAXI/GSC all-sky survey and pulse period data from the Fermi/GBM pulsar project. X-ray binaries, consisting of a highly magnetized neutron star and a stellar companion, originate X-ray emission according to the energy of the accretion matter onto the neutron star. The accretion matter also transfers the angular momentum at the Alfven radius, and then spin up the neutron star. Therefore, the X-ray luminosity and the spin-up rate are supposed to be well correlated. We analyzed the luminosity and period-change relation using the data taken by continuous monitoring of MAXI/GSC and Fermi/GBM for Be/X-ray binaries, GX 304$-$1, A 0535$+$26, GRO J1008$-$57, KS 1947$+$300, and 2S 1417$-$624, which occurred large outbursts in the last four years. We discuss the results comparing the obtained observed relation with that of the theoretical model by Ghosh \\& Lamb (1979).

  17. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system.

  18. A long-term monitoring of resistivity variation at the Wushangting mud volcano site in Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P.; Chen, L.

    2007-12-01

    We used a two-dimensional (2D) time-lapse electrical resistivity method in monitoring the activities of mud volcanoes. The mud volcano is a geomorphic feature formed by gases and fluid gushing through fault fissures at the mudstone area. The extensively eruption of fluid in mud volcanoes in the Yanchao area of southwestern Taiwan reveals the activities of the active Chishan Fault. However, there are no direct evidence showing the relationships between erupted gas volumes and fault activities. Through the time-lapse resistivity monitoring in the area, we hope to provide useful information to evaluate the fault activities. Our in-field monitoring site is located at the Wushangting Preservation Zone, which are on the Chishan Fault line in Yanchao. The measuring period is from July 2006 to May 2007, measuring frequency is once a week in the first month and is decreased to about once a month in the following months. The average resistivity at the research site is between 3.36 to 9.43 Ohm-m. During the period, the major changes of resistivity are located between the surface and a depth of 3-m. On December 26th, 2006, three earthquakes occurred as high as 6.7, 6.4, 5.2 at the Richter scale outside the sea of PingTung county, about 100 km southwest from the monitoring site. After the earthquakes, the resistivity is found to be raised up 2 to 5 Ohm-m between the surface and a depth of 3-m. There are a lot of reasons that may cause the changes of resistivity, for example, the temperature, the humidity, the earthquake activities and its subsequent influence, i.e., gas or fluid emission from the subsurface. After examine the weather records during the monitoring period, we suggest that the decrease of resitivity in the monitoring site is most likely to be the subsequent influence of the earthquake activities. Currently, we are continuing the resistivity monitoring surveys and hope to provide more data in order to be compared with the previous observation records.

  19. Long-term autonomous volcanic gas monitoring with Multi-GAS at Mount St. Helens, Washington, and Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P. J.; Ketner, D. M.; Kern, C.; Lahusen, R. G.; Lockett, C.; Parker, T.; Paskievitch, J.; Pauk, B.; Rinehart, A.; Werner, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the USGS Volcano Hazards Program has worked to implement continuous real-time in situ volcanic gas monitoring at volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Alaska. The main goal of this ongoing effort is to better link the compositions of volcanic gases to other real-time monitoring data, such as seismicity and deformation, in order to improve baseline monitoring and early detection of volcanic unrest. Due to the remote and difficult-to-access nature of volcanic-gas monitoring sites in the Cascades and Alaska, we developed Multi-GAS instruments that can operate unattended for long periods of time with minimal direct maintenance from field personnel. Our Multi-GAS stations measure H2O, CO2, SO2, and H2S gas concentrations, are comprised entirely of commercial off-the-shelf components, and are powered by small solar energy systems. One notable feature of our Multi-GAS stations is that they include a unique capability to perform automated CO2, SO2, and H2S sensor verifications using portable gas standards while deployed in the field, thereby allowing for rigorous tracking of sensor performances. In addition, we have developed novel onboard data-processing routines that allow diagnostic and monitoring data - including gas ratios (e.g. CO2/SO2) - to be streamed in real time to internal observatory and public web pages without user input. Here we present over one year of continuous data from a permanent Multi-GAS station installed in August 2014 in the crater of Mount St. Helens, Washington, and several months of data from a station installed near the summit of Augustine Volcano, Alaska in June 2015. Data from the Mount St. Helens Multi-GAS station has been streaming to a public USGS site since early 2015, a first for a permanent Multi-GAS site. Neither station has detected significant changes in gas concentrations or compositions since they were installed, consistent with low levels of seismicity and deformation.

  20. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  1. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  2. The first long-term and continuous measurements of firn mass-balance and compaction on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, I. M.; Behar, A.; de la Peña, S.; Price, S. F.; Desilets, D.; Crowell, J. M.; Thanga, J.; Womack, G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct, continuous measurements of ice sheet surface mass balance are lacking, particularly in the accumulation zone where the surface snow and firn varies in density. Nearly all of our knowledge of surface mass variability comes from snow pit and ice core stratigraphy, providing annual resolution with relatively large uncertainties that are inadequate for constraining meteorological models. Further, little information is available on how the density of the firn layer changes with time, hampering efforts to estimate mass change from altimetry measurements. Since the spring of 2012 we have obtained continuous measurements of changes in firn column density and, since spring 2015, mass balance at multiple sites in the percolation zone of the Jakobshavn Isbrae catchment in western Greenland. Surface mass balance is obtained from both snow scale and cosmic ray sensors, providing cross-validation. Following a description of the multiple technologies employed, we assess variations in compaction and surface mass balance in relation to meteorological variables. We then compare our measurements to model estimates and conclude with recommendations for continued and expanded observational activities.

  3. Prognostic value of intra-operative abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for long-term outcome of hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiping; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of intra-operative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of post-operative outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) is under debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intra-operative AMR changes and long-term post-operative outcome. We monitored intra-operative AMR during microvascular decompression (MVD) in consecutive patients with HFS (n = 104). Patients in this study were divided into two groups based on whether their AMR disappeared or persisted following MVD. Ninety patients were followed-up, and the mean duration from surgery to final follow-up examination was 3.7 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. AMR disappeared during surgery for 80 patients; of these, 74 achieved complete resolution of HFS, five had persistent HFS, and one patient developed a recurrence of HFS. Of the 10 patients with persistent AMR despite effective MVD, eight patients achieved complete resolution, one patient had persistent HFS, and one developed recurrent HFS. The long-term clinical outcome of HFS after MVD did not significantly correlate with intra-operative AMR changes (p = 0.791). Therefore, we suggest that intra-operative AMR monitoring may not be a reliable indicator of long-term post-operative outcome for HFS.

  4. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community.

  5. Long term monitoring of jaguars in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize; Implications for camera trap studies of carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Bart J.; Foster, Rebecca J.; Sanchez, Emma; Gutierrez-González, Carmina E.; Silver, Scott C.; Ostro, Linde E. T.; Kelly, Marcella J.; Kay, Elma; Quigley, Howard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we estimate life history parameters and abundance for a protected jaguar population using camera-trap data from a 14-year monitoring program (2002–2015) in Belize, Central America. We investigated the dynamics of this jaguar population using 3,075 detection events of 105 individual adult jaguars. Using robust design open population models, we estimated apparent survival and temporary emigration and investigated individual heterogeneity in detection rates across years. Survival probability was high and constant among the years for both sexes (φ = 0.78), and the maximum (conservative) age recorded was 14 years. Temporary emigration rate for the population was random, but constant through time at 0.20 per year. Detection probability varied between sexes, and among years and individuals. Heterogeneity in detection took the form of a dichotomy for males: those with consistently high detection rates, and those with low, sporadic detection rates, suggesting a relatively stable population of ‘residents’ consistently present and a fluctuating layer of ‘transients’. Female detection was always low and sporadic. On average, twice as many males than females were detected per survey, and individual detection rates were significantly higher for males. We attribute sex-based differences in detection to biases resulting from social variation in trail-walking behaviour. The number of individual females detected increased when the survey period was extended from 3 months to a full year. Due to the low detection rates of females and the variable ‘transient’ male subpopulation, annual abundance estimates based on 3-month surveys had low precision. To estimate survival and monitor population changes in elusive, wide-ranging, low-density species, we recommend repeated surveys over multiple years; and suggest that continuous monitoring over multiple years yields even further insight into population dynamics of elusive predator populations. PMID:28658274

  6. Higher statistical moments and an outlier detection technique as two alternative methods that capture long-term changes in continuous environmental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arismendi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Central tendency statistics may not capture relevant or desired characteristics about the variability of continuous phenomena and thus, they may not completely track temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches to identify long-term changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal scale. Second, we adapt an outlier detection procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability, patterns in variability through time, and spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal a differentiated vulnerability to both the climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.

  7. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring of nuclear factor of activated T-cell-regulated gene expression in de novo and long-term liver transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herden, Uta; Kromminga, Arno; Hagel, Christine; Hartleb, Jürgen; Nashan, Björn; Sterneck, Martina; Fischer, Lutz

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacodynamic drug monitoring might allow an improved use of immunosuppressive medication in transplant recipients. We assessed whether drug concentrations reflect the effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-regulated cytokines. CsA drug concentrations and expression of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in stimulated blood lymphocytes were determined predose (C0) and 2 hours after (C2) CsA intake in 20 de novo (less than 3 months) and 20 long-term (3 months to 10 years) liver transplant patients. The residual cytokine expression at C2 relative to C0 was calculated. Mean CsA C0 and C2 concentrations were 236 and 776 μg/L in de novo and 100 and 573 μg/L in long-term liver transplant patients, respectively. Two hours after CsA intake, the residual cytokine expression for all cytokines was comparable in both groups (de novo patients mean 16%; long-term patients mean 17%). CsA C2 concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.01) correlation with the residual cytokine expression of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in both de novo and long-term patients, whereas CsA C0 concentrations did not. The data suggest that CsA C2 concentrations, but not C0 concentrations, reflect the effect of CsA on downregulation of cytokine expression in both de novo and long-term liver transplant patients.

  9. Mesoporous fluorocarbon-modified silica aerogel membranes enabling long-term continuous CO2 capture with large absorption flux enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wei, Te-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Shiun

    2013-03-01

    The use of a membrane contactor combined with a hydrophobic porous membrane and an amine absorbent has attracted considerable attention for the capture of CO2 because of its extensive use, low operational costs, and low energy consumption. The hydrophobic porous membrane interface prevents the passage of the amine absorbent but allows the penetration of CO2 molecules that are captured by the amine absorbent. Herein, highly porous SiO2 aerogels modified with hydrophobic fluorocarbon functional groups (CF3 ) were successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane; their performance in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption is discussed. The SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups exhibits the highest CO2 absorption flux and can be continuously operated for CO2 absorption for extended periods of time. This study suggests that a SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups could potentially be used in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption. Also, the resulting hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel membrane contactor is a promising technology for large-scale CO2 absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants.

  10. Polyvinylidene fluoride/siloxane nanofibrous membranes for long-term continuous CO2 -capture with large absorption-flux enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Wang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Hua; Chang, Kai-Shiun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2014-02-01

    In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/siloxane nanofibrous layers that are modified with hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) functional groups and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes, the PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous layer in highly porous FAS-modified membranes can prevent the wetting of the membrane by the amine absorbent; this extends the periods of continuous CO2 absorption and results in a high CO2 absorption flux with a minimum of 500 % enhancement over that of the uncoated membranes. This study suggests the potential use of an FAS-modified PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membrane in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants.

  11. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... for the presence of TMI. No high-risk group for cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction or coronary revascularization during up to 10 years of follow-up could be identified by the detection of TMI. From these results we conclude that a routine search for TMI on serial Holter monitoring cannot be recommended in male...

  12. Passive sampling of wastewater as a tool for the long-term monitoring of community exposure: Illicit and prescription drug trends as a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Harman, Christopher; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2017-09-15

    A passive sampling device, the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS), was calibrated in-situ over a 4-week period in Oslo (Norway) for 10 illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals with the goal of developing an approach for monitoring long-term wastewater drug loads. The calibrations were performed in triplicate using three different overlapping calibration sets under changing environmental conditions that allowed the uncertainty of the sampling rates to be evaluated. All 10 compounds exhibited linear uptake kinetics and provided sampling rates of between 0.023 and 0.192 L d(-1). POCIS were deployed for consecutive 2-week periods during 2012 and 2013 and the calculated time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations used to define different drug use trends. The relative uncertainty related to the POCIS data was approximately 40% and, except for citalopram, 85% of all the long-term measurements of pharmaceuticals were within the confidence interval levels calculated to evaluate the effects of changing environmental conditions on the TWA estimations. POCIS was demonstrated to be sufficiently robust to provide reliable annual drug use estimates with a smaller number of samplers (n = 24) than recommended for active sampling (n = 56) within an acceptable level of sample size related uncertainty POCIS is demonstrated to be a valuable and reliable tool for the long-term monitoring of certain drugs and pharmaceuticals within a defined population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term performance and stability of a continuous granular airlift reactor treating a high-strength wastewater containing a mixture of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carlos; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Carrera, Julián

    2016-02-13

    Continuous feeding operation of an airlift reactor and its inoculation with mature aerobic granules allowed the successful treatment of a mixture of aromatic compounds (p-nitrophenol, o-cresol and phenol). Complete biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, o-cresol, phenol and their metabolic intermediates was achieved at an organic loading rate of 0.61 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Stable granulation was obtained throughout the long-term operation (400 days) achieving an average granule size of 2.0 ± 1 mm and a sludge volumetric index of 26 ± 1 mL g(-1) TSS. The identified genera in the aerobic granular biomass were heterotrophic bacteria able to consume aromatic compounds. Therefore, the continuous feeding regimen and the exposure of aerobic granules to a mixture of aromatic compounds make possible to obtain good granulation and high removal efficiency.

  14. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  15. Revealing the pulsational properties of the V777 Her star KUV 05134+2605 by its long-term monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bognár, Zs; Córsico, A H; Kepler, S O; Győrffy, Á

    2014-01-01

    Context: KUV 05134+2605 is one of the 21 pulsating DB white dwarfs (V777 Her or DBV variables) known so far. The detailed investigation of the short-period and low-amplitude pulsations of these relatively faint targets requires considerable observational efforts from the ground, long-term single-site or multisite observations. The observed amplitudes of excited modes undergo short-term variations in many cases, which makes the determination of pulsation modes difficult. Methods: We re-analysed the data already published, and collected new measurements. We compared the frequency content of the different datasets from the different epochs and performed various tests to check the reliability of the frequency determinations. The mean period spacings were investigated with linear fits to the observed periods, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Inverse Variance significance tests, and Fourier analysis of different period sets, including a Monte Carlo test simulating the effect of alias ambiguities. We employed fully evolutiona...

  16. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  17. Statistical analysis of modal properties of a cable-stayed bridge through long-term structural health monitoring with wireless smart sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Parisa; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of complex structures such as long-span bridges requires dense deployment of sensors. Traditional wired sensor systems are generally expensive and time-consuming to install due to cabling. With wireless communication and on-board computation capabilities, wireless smart sensor networks have the advantages of being low cost, easy to deploy and maintain and therefore facilitate dense instrumentation for structural health monitoring. A long-term monitoring project was recently carried out for a cable-stayed bridge in South Korea with a dense array of 113 smart sensors, which feature the world's largest wireless smart sensor network for civil structural monitoring. This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of the modal properties including natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the monitored cable-stayed bridge. Data analyzed in this paper is composed of structural vibration signals monitored during a 12-month period under ambient excitations. The correlation between environmental temperature and the modal frequencies is also investigated. The results showed the long-term statistical structural behavior of the bridge, which serves as the basis for Bayesian statistical updating for the numerical model.

  18. Historical Prediction Modeling Approach for Estimating Long-Term Concentrations of PM2.5 in Cohort Studies before the 1999 Implementation of Widespread Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Olives, Casey; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D; Larson, Timothy V; Keller, Joshua P; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have used exposure prediction models to estimate the association between long-term residential concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health. Because these prediction models rely on PM2.5 monitoring data, predictions for times before extensive spatial monitoring present a challenge to understanding long-term exposure effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Reference Method (FRM) network for PM2.5 was established in 1999. We evaluated a novel statistical approach to produce high-quality exposure predictions from 1980 through 2010 in the continental United States for epidemiological applications. We developed spatio-temporal prediction models using geographic predictors and annual average PM2.5 data from 1999 through 2010 from the FRM and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks. Temporal trends before 1999 were estimated by using a) extrapolation based on PM2.5 data in FRM/IMPROVE, b) PM2.5 sulfate data in the Clean Air Status and Trends Network, and c) visibility data across the Weather Bureau Army Navy network. We validated the models using PM2.5 data collected before 1999 from IMPROVE, California Air Resources Board dichotomous sampler monitoring (CARB dichot), the Children's Health Study (CHS), and the Inhalable Particulate Network (IPN). In our validation using pre-1999 data, the prediction model performed well across three trend estimation approaches when validated using IMPROVE and CHS data (R2 = 0.84-0.91) with lower R2 values in early years. Model performance using CARB dichot and IPN data was worse (R2 = 0.00-0.85) most likely because of fewer monitoring sites and inconsistent sampling methods. Our prediction modeling approach will allow health effects estimation associated with long-term exposures to PM2.5 over extended time periods ≤ 30 years. Citation: Kim SY, Olives C, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Larson TV, Keller JP, Kaufman JD. 2017. Historical prediction

  19. Long term monitoring of the micro-seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey using template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Bouchon, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The Main Marmara Fault (MMF) represents a 150 km un-ruptured segment of the North Anatolian Fault located below the Marmara Sea. It poses a significant hazard for the large cities surrounding the region and in particular for the megalopolis of Istanbul. The seismic activity has been continuously monitored since 2007 by various seismic networks. For this purpose it represents an extraordinary natural laboratory to study in details the whole seismicity bringing insights into the geometry of the faults systems at depth and mechanical properties at various space-time scales. Waveform similarity-based analysis is performed on the continuous recordings to construct a refined catalog of earthquakes from 2009 to 2014. High-resolution relocation was applied using the double-difference algorithm, using cross-correlation differential travel-time data. Seismic moment magnitudes (Mw) have been computed combining the inversion of earthquake S-wave displacement spectra for the larger events and the estimation of the relative size of multiplets using the singular value decomposition (SVD) thanks the highly coherent waveforms. The obtained catalog of seismicity includes more than 15,000 events. The seismicity strongly varying along the strike and depth exhibits a complex structure that confirms the segmentation of the fault with different mechanical behavior (Schmittbuhl et al., GGG, 2016). In the central part of the Marmara Sea, seismicity is poor and scattered. To the east, in the Cinarcick basin, along the MMF, the seismicity is mainly located around 8-15 km in depth, except at both ends of this basin where the seismicity extends vertically up to surface. In the Yalova and Gemlik region (to the east not on the MMF) the seismicity is distributed over a wide range of depth (from surface to 15 km deep) and is characterized by several clusters vertically elongated. The spatio-temporal evolution of earthquake sequences, which repeatedly occur in specific sub-areas, and the seismic

  20. Continuous Fermentation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum with Partial Cell Recycle as a Long-Term Strategy for Butyric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar C. Clausen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In making alternative fuels from biomass feedstocks, the production of butyric acid is a key intermediate in the two-step production of butanol. The fermentation of glucose via Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid produces undesirable byproducts, including lactic acid and acetic acid, which significantly affect the butyric acid yield and productivity. This paper focuses on the production of butyric acid using Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a partial cell recycle mode to improve fermenter yield and productivity. Experiments with fermentation in batch, continuous culture and continuous culture with partial cell recycle by ultrafiltration were conducted. The results show that a continuous fermentation can be sustained for more than 120 days, which is the first reported long-term production of butyric acid in a continuous operation. Further, the results also show that partial cell recycle via membrane ultrafiltration has a great influence on the selectivity and productivity of butyric acid, with an increase in selectivity from ≈9% to 95% butyric acid with productivities as high as 1.13 g/Lh. Continuous fermentation with low dilution rate and high cell recycle ratio has been found to be desirable for optimum productivity and selectivity toward butyric acid and a comprehensive model explaining this phenomenon is given.

  1. Provision of long-term monitoring and late effects services following adult allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant: a survey of UK NHS-based programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, A; Greenfield, D M; Gilleece, M; Salooja, N; Kenyon, M; Morris, E; Glover, N; Miller, P; Braund, H; Peniket, A; Shaw, B E; Snowden, J A

    2017-06-01

    Despite international guidelines, optimal delivery models of late effects (LE) services for HSCT patients are unclear from the clinical, organizational and economic viewpoints. To scope current LE service delivery models within the UK NHS (National Health Service), in 2014, we surveyed the 27 adult allogeneic HSCT centres using a 30-question online tool, achieving a 100% response rate. Most LE services were led and delivered by senior physicians (>80% centres). Follow-up was usually provided in a dedicated allograft or LE clinic for the first year (>90% centres), but thereafter attrition meant that only ~50% of patients were followed after 5 years. Most centres (69%) had a standard operating procedure for long-term monitoring but access to a LE Multi-Disciplinary Team was rare (19% centres). Access to medical specialities necessary for LE management was good, but specialist interest in long-term HSCT complications was uncommon. Some screening (endocrinopathy, cardiovascular) was near universal, but other areas were more limited (mammography, cervical smears). Funding of extra staff and investigations were the most commonly perceived barriers to implementation of LE services. This survey shows variation in the long-term follow-up of allogeneic HSCT survivors within the UK NHS and further work is warranted to optimize effective, sustainable and affordable models of LE service delivery among this group.

  2. Online Continuous Flow Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry with a Realistic Battery Setup for High-Precision, Long-Term Cycling Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Balázs B; Jozwiuk, Anna; Vračar, Miloš; Sommer, Heino; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-06-16

    We describe the benefits of an online continuous flow differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) method that allows for realistic battery cycling conditions. We provide a detailed description on the buildup and the role of the different components in the system. Special emphasis is given on the cell design. The retention time and response characteristics of the system are tested with the electrolysis of Li2O2. Finally, we show a practical application in which a Li-ion battery is examined. The value of long-term DEMS measurements for the proper evaluation of electrolyte decomposition is demonstrated by an experiment where a Li(1+x)Ni(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 (NMC 532)/graphite cell is cycled over 20 charge/discharge cycles.

  3. A Simple Microfluidic Platform for Long-Term Analysis and Continuous Dual-Imaging Detection of T-Cell Secreted IFN-γ and IL-2 on Antibody-Based Biochip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonné R. Baganizi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization, at the cellular level, of cytokine productions present a high interest for both fundamental research and clinical studies. However, the majority of techniques currently available (ELISA, ELISpot, flow cytometry, etc. have several shortcomings including, notably, the assessment of several cytokines in relation to individual secreting cells and the monitoring of living cell responses for a long incubation time. In the present work, we describe a system composed of a microfluidic platform coupled with an antibody microarray chip for continuous SPR imaging and immunofluorescence analysis of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ secreted by T-Lymphocytes, specifically, and stably captured on the biochip under flow upon continued long-term on-chip culture (more than 24 h.

  4. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette E.

    2015-01-01

    quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU’s Wa-ter Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management ac-tions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differen-tiated N...... precipitation, high concen-tration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 ◦C; (ii) medium net precip-itation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 ◦C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low...... concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air tem-peratures above 5 ◦C. For each type, on-field water manage-ment actions, such as the selection of crop types and in-troduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types...

  5. Long-term monitoring of airborne nickel (Ni) pollution in association with some potential source processes in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Mauulida, Puteri T; Song, Sang-Keun

    2014-09-01

    The environmental behavior and pollution status of nickel (Ni) were investigated in seven major cities in Korea over a 13-year time span (1998-2010). The mean concentrations of Ni measured during the whole study period fell within the range of 3.71 (Gwangju: GJ) to 12.6ngm(-3) (Incheon: IC). Although Ni values showed a good comparability in a relatively large spatial scale, its values in most cities (6 out of 7) were subject to moderate reductions over the study period. To assess the effect of major sources on the long-term distribution of Ni, the relationship between their concentrations and the potent source processes like non-road transportation sources (e.g., ship and aircraft emissions) were examined from some cities with port and airport facilities. The potential impact of long-range transport of Asian dust particles in controlling Ni levels was also evaluated. The overall results suggest that the Ni levels were subject to gradual reductions over the study period irrespective of changes in such localized non-road source activities. The pollution of Ni at all the study sites was maintained well below the international threshold (Directive 2004/107/EC) value of 20ngm(-3).

  6. Results from Long-Term Optical Monitoring of the Soft X-Ray Transient SAX J1810.8-2609

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ling; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the long-term optical observation of the faint soft X-ray transient SAX J1810.8-2609 from OGLE and MOA. We have focused on the 2007 outburst, and also did the cross-correlate between its optical light curves and the quasi-simultaneous X-ray observations from swift. Both the optical and X-ray light curves of 2007 outburst show multi-peak features. Quasi-simultaneous optical/X-ray luminosity shows that both the X-ray reprocessing and viscously thermal emission can explain the observed optical flux. There is a slightly X-ray delay of 0.6+-0.3 days during the first peak, while the X-ray emission lags the optical emission by ~2 days during the rebrightening stage, which suggests that X-ray reprocessing emission contributes significantly to the optical flux in the first peak, but the viscously-heated-disk origin dominates the optical flux during rebrightening. It implies variation of the physical environment of the outer disk, even the source stayed in low-hard state during the whole outburs...

  7. Long-Term X-ray Monitoring of 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258

    CERN Document Server

    Main, D S; Heindl, W A; Swank, J H; Leventhal, M; Mirabel, I F; Rodríguez, L F

    1999-01-01

    We report on long-term observations of the Galactic-bulge black hole candidates 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. 1E 1740.7-2942 has been observed 77 times and GRS 1758-258 has been observed 82 times over the past 1000 days. The flux of each object has varied by no more than a factor of 2.5 during this period, and the indices of the energy spectra have varied by no more than 0.4. The power spectra are similar to other black-hole candidates: flat-topped noise, breaking to a power law. Each object has exhibited a brightening that lasted for several months, and we have a found a time lag between the photon power-law index and the count rate. In both sources, the spectrum is softest during the decline from the brightening. This behavior can be understood in the context of thin-disk and advection-dominated accretion flows coexisting over a wide range of radii, with the implication that both sources have low-mass companions and accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  8. Spatiotemporal distribution of algal and nutrient, and their correlations based on long-term monitoring data in Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Shafer, D. S.; Zhu, J.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication in Lake Taihu - China’s third largest freshwater lake - has led to deterioration of water quality and caused more frequent cyanobacteria blooms at many lake locations in recent years. Eutrophication is thought to be fueled by increased nutrient loading, a consequence of rapid population and economic growth in the region. To understand the spatiotemporal distribution of algal blooms, a database was developed that includes long-term meteorological, hydrological, water quality, and socioeconomic data from the Lake Taihu watershed. The data were collected through various field observations, and augmented with information from local and provincial agencies, and universities. Based on the data, spatiotemporal distributions of, and correlations between, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and water temperature (WT) were analyzed. Results revealed a high degree of correlation between TP and Chl-a concentrations during warm seasons, with high concentrations of both substances present in the northern and northwest portions of the lake. During winter months, Chl-a concentrations were more strongly correlated with WT. Spatial trends in TP and TN concentrations corresponded to observed nutrient fluxes from adjoining rivers in densely populated areas, demonstrating the influence of watershed pollutant loads on lake water quality. Among important questions to be answered is whether wind-driven resuspension of existing nutrients in sediments in this shallow (cyanobacteria blooms to begin. This study identifies other questions, data gaps, and research needs, and provides a foundation for improving lake management strategies.

  9. Long-term monitoring of the onboard aircraft exposure level with a Si-diode based spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurny, F; Dachev, Ts

    2003-01-01

    The radiation fields onboard aircraft are complex (EURADOS, 1996), and several methods are used to characterise them for radiation protection. We have tested a spectrometer based on Si-diode at different sources and accelerator facilities. The energy deposited in the diode is analysed to estimate the contribution of different radiations to dosimetry quantities. The spectrum of energy deposition events onboard aircraft is similar to that registered in the CERN high-energy reference field. We used this similarity to determine the correction factors to appreciate radiation protection quantities from the results of onboard measurements. During 2001-2002, the spectrometer was used to acquire measurements onboard commercial aircraft during five long-term exposures. All necessary flight parameters were acquired; thus permitting calculations of the onboard effective dose and/or ambient dose equivalent by means of both the CARI 6 and the EPCARD codes and comparison with the results of the measurements. It was found that the apparent ambient dose equivalent values from measured data are in reasonable agreement with the results of calculations. Quantitative analysis of this agreement as a function of flight parameters (geomagnetic position, solar activity variations, etc.) is presented. During one flight, an important solar event (GLE 60 on 15 April 2001) was recorded by the spectrometer. In some other cases the measurements during a Forbush decreases were acquired. These extremes were well registered by the equipment and the data obtained are analyzed.

  10. Cyclic variability of the circumstellar disk of the Be star zetaTau - I. Long-term monitoring observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stefl, S; Carciofi, A C; LeBouquin, J B; Baade, D; Bjorkman, K S; Hesselbach, E; Hummel, C A; Okazaki, A T; Pollmann, E; Rantakyrö, F; Wisniewski, J P

    2009-01-01

    Emission lines formed in decretion disks of Be stars often undergo long-term cyclic variations, especially in the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of their primary components. From observations of the bright Be-shell star zeta Tau, the possibly broadest and longest data set illustrating the prototype of this behaviour was compiled from our own and archival observations. It comprises optical and infrared spectra, broad-band polarimetry, and interferometric observations. From 3 V/R cycles between 1997 and 2008, a mean cycle length in H alpha of 1400-1430 days was derived. After each minimum in V/R, the shell absorption weakens and splits into two components, leading to 3 emission peaks. This phase makes the strongest contribution to the variability in cycle length. V/R curves of different lines are shifted in phase. Lines formed on average closer to the central star are ahead of the others. The shell absorption lines fall into 2 categories differing in line width, ionization/excitation potential, and variability of th...

  11. Enterprise tools to promote interoperability: MonitoringResources.org supports design and documentation of large-scale, long-term monitoringprograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Scully, R. A.; Bayer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Individual natural resource monitoring programs have evolved in response to different organizational mandates, jurisdictional needs, issues and questions. We are establishing a collaborative forum for large-scale, long-term monitoring programs to identify opportunities where collaboration could yield efficiency in monitoring design, implementation, analyses, and data sharing. We anticipate these monitoring programs will have similar requirements - e.g. survey design, standardization of protocols and methods, information management and delivery - that could be met by enterprise tools to promote sustainability, efficiency and interoperability of information across geopolitical boundaries or organizational cultures. MonitoringResources.org, a project of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership, provides an on-line suite of enterprise tools focused on aquatic systems in the Pacific Northwest Region of the United States. We will leverage on and expand this existing capacity to support continental-scale monitoring of both aquatic and terrestrial systems. The current stakeholder group is focused on programs led by bureaus with the Department of Interior, but the tools will be readily and freely available to a broad variety of other stakeholders. Here, we report the results of two initial stakeholder workshops focused on (1) establishing a collaborative forum of large scale monitoring programs, (2) identifying and prioritizing shared needs, (3) evaluating existing enterprise resources, (4) defining priorities for development of enhanced capacity for MonitoringResources.org, and (5) identifying a small number of pilot projects that can be used to define and test development requirements for specific monitoring programs.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid markers of neuronal and glial cell damage to monitor disease activity and predict long-term outcome in patients with autoimmune encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, R; Krýsl, D; Bergquist, F; Andrén, K; Malmeström, C; Asztély, F; Axelsson, M; Menachem, E B; Blennow, K; Rosengren, L; Zetterberg, H

    2016-04-01

    Clinical symptoms and long-term outcome of autoimmune encephalitis are variable. Diagnosis requires multiple investigations, and treatment strategies must be individually tailored. Better biomarkers are needed for diagnosis, to monitor disease activity and to predict long-term outcome. The value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal [neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), and total tau protein (T-tau)] and glial cell [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] damage in patients with autoimmune encephalitis was investigated. Demographic, clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, CSF and antibody-related data of 25 patients hospitalized for autoimmune encephalitis and followed for 1 year were retrospectively collected. Correlations between these data and consecutive CSF levels of NFL, T-tau and GFAP were investigated. Disability, assessed by the modified Rankin scale, was used for evaluation of disease activity and long-term outcome. The acute stage of autoimmune encephalitis was accompanied by high CSF levels of NFL and T-tau, whereas normal or significantly lower levels were observed after clinical improvement 1 year later. NFL and T-tau reacted in a similar way but at different speeds, with T-tau reacting faster. CSF levels of GFAP were initially moderately increased but did not change significantly later on. Final outcome (disability at 1 year) directly correlated with CSF-NFL and CSF-GFAP levels at all time-points and with CSF-T-tau at 3 ± 1 months. This correlation remained significant after age adjustment for CSF-NFL and T-tau but not for GFAP. In autoimmune encephalitis, CSF levels of neuronal and glial cell damage markers appear to reflect disease activity and long-term disability. © 2016 EAN.

  13. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yamanashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC. Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1 and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS, Kyoto University (Study 2. We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than

  14. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone.

  15. Practice and Experience of the Establishment of Long Term Mechanism of Continuous Quality Improvement%建立医疗质量持续改进长效机制的实践与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭天林; 欧兵玺; 廖世川; 罗力; 李雪

    2011-01-01

    探讨建立医疗质量持续改进长效机制,确保患者医疗安全,提高患者满意度.坚持将健全组织、完善制度、优化流程、全员培训、全面监控、加强沟通、整改到位等措施,贯穿于基础质量控制、环节质量控制和终末质量控3个环节,是建立医疗质量持续改进长效机制的有效方法.%The establishment of long-term mechanism for continuous improvement of health care quality is explored to ensure the safety of patients, and to improve patient satisfaction. Adhering to a sound organization, improving the system, streamlining business process, training all staff, and enhancing comprehensive monitoring and communication are needed in place corrective measures, such as quality control throughout the base, part of quality control and quality control of the three terminal links, and are effective ways of continuous quality improvement of establishing long-term mechanism.

  16. Testing a simple and low-cost method for long-term (baseline) CO2 monitoring in the shallow subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, H.; Goldberg, T.; Koenen, M.; Visser, W.; Wildenborg, T.; Steeghs, P.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of geological CO2 storage requires monitoring for potential leakage, with an essential part being establishment of baseline CO2 in soil gas. CO2 concentrations and weather parameters were monitored for ∼2 years at three locations in the Netherlands. CO2 concentrations in soil ranged f

  17. Testing a simple and low-cost method for long-term (baseline) CO2 monitoring in the shallow subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, H.; Goldberg, T.; Koenen, M.; Visser, W.; Wildenborg, T.; Steeghs, P.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of geological CO2 storage requires monitoring for potential leakage, with an essential part being establishment of baseline CO2 in soil gas. CO2 concentrations and weather parameters were monitored for ∼2 years at three locations in the Netherlands. CO2 concentrations in soil ranged f

  18. Long-term safety, efficacy and side-effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a one centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Spraul, M; Mühlhauser, I; Gause, R; Berger, M

    1989-07-01

    A follow-up study of 116 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was conducted after 4.5 +/- 0.2 years. The average HbA1c-value of these patients decreased by 1% to 6.7 +/- 0.1% during this observation period. Typical side effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion such as skin inflammation at the catheter insertion site occurred with similar frequency as has been reported previously by other authors. Diabetic ketoacidosis (0.14 per patient year) and disabling hypoglycaemia (0.1 per patient year, including 0.05 hypoglycaemic coma per patient-year) occurred at substantially lower rates than in other comparable studies with Type 1 diabetic patients at a similar degree of metabolic control. Subgroup evaluation suggested that a normal (less than 5.6%) HbA1c-value at follow-up was associated with increased incidence of disabling hypoglycaemia, whereas poor metabolic control (HbA1c greater than 7.5%) was associated with increased rates of skin complications and hospital treatment for ketoacidosis. Thus, under the policies of this diabetes centre, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion has proved to be beneficial to a large proportion of experienced adult Type 1 diabetic patients, who voluntarily had opted for, and continued with, this particular mode of insulin treatment.

  19. Mineral nitrogen in the course of a cash crop and two livestock rotations - first results from the long-term monitoring Trenthorst

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The long-term monitoring Trenthorst, situated near Lübeck in a temperate maritime climate on loamy soils, was established in 2003 and compares two cash crop and three livestock farming systems. We studied the soil mineral nitrogen contents of one cash crop and two livestock farms, specialised in dairy cows and goats/oilseeds resp., with the hypothesis that the livestock farms show a more even course of Nmin in the rotation and a higher rotation mean. The rotation average of Nmin in the cash c...

  20. Performance characteristics and long-term calibration stability of a beam monitor for a proton scanning gantry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporov, D.F., E-mail: nichipor@indiana.ed [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Klyachko, A.V.; Solberg, K.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Zhao, Q. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, 2425 Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A monitor for a uniformly scanned beam was designed and constructed by the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for use in a clinical proton gantry at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. The beam monitor is a thin-walled, wide-aperture ionization chamber, which provides information about dose, beam size, symmetry, flatness, and position. Several characteristics of the monitor's performance were studied, including linearity in dose rate, reproducibility, recombination correction, and dependence on both radiation field size and gantry angle. Additionally, stability of the detector output was analyzed using daily monitor calibrations performed over a period of 21 months. The beam monitor was found to meet design requirements for linearity ({+-}1%), calibration stability ({+-}2%), and stability of response as a function of gantry angle ({+-}1%). Beam monitor calibration statistics also revealed a sine-like yearly trend with a {+-}2% maximum deviation from the average. These and other beam monitor test results are presented and discussed in the context of the detector design. Design changes aimed at further improving the detector's performance characteristics are proposed.

  1. Development of a fully automated network system for long-term health-care monitoring at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, K; Kubota, S; Ikarashi, A; Nogawa, M; Tanaka, S; Nemoto, T; Yamakoshi, K

    2007-01-01

    Daily monitoring of health condition at home is very important not only as an effective scheme for early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases, but also for prevention and control of such diseases. From this point of view, we have developed a prototype room for fully automated monitoring of various vital signs. From the results of preliminary experiments using this room, it was confirmed that (1) ECG and respiration during bathing, (2) excretion weight and blood pressure, and (3) respiration and cardiac beat during sleep could be monitored with reasonable accuracy by the sensor system installed in bathtub, toilet and bed, respectively.

  2. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  3. Ecological Monitoring at Long-Term Study Sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Initial Projects in 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We established two longterm ecological monitoring sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in 1996 and three more will be established between 1997 and 1999. The...

  4. Variability in rainfall at monitoring stations and derivation of a long-term rainfall intensity record in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Joshua; Sankey, Joel B.

    2016-04-11

    In this study, we examine rainfall datasets of varying temporal length, resolution, and spatial distribution to characterize rainfall depth, intensity, and seasonality for monitoring stations along the Colorado River within Marble and Grand Canyons. We identify maximum separation distances between stations at which rainfall measurements might be most useful for inferring rainfall characteristics at other locations. We demonstrate a method for applying relations between daily rainfall depth and intensity, from short-term high-resolution data to lower-resolution longer-term data, to synthesize a long-term record of daily rainfall intensity from 1950–2012. We consider the implications of our spatio-temporal characterization of rainfall for understanding local landscape change in sedimentary deposits and archaeological sites, and for better characterizing past and present rainfall and its potential role in overland flow erosion within the canyons. We find that rainfall measured at stations within the river corridor is spatially correlated at separation distances of tens of kilometers, and is not correlated at the large elevation differences that separate stations along the Colorado River from stations above the canyon rim. These results provide guidance for reasonable separation distances at which rainfall measurements at stations within the Grand Canyon region might be used to infer rainfall at other nearby locations along the river. Like other rugged landscapes, spatial variability between rainfall measured at monitoring stations appears to be influenced by canyon and rim physiography and elevation, with preliminary results suggesting the highest elevation landform in the region, the Kaibab Plateau, may function as an important orographic influence. Stations at specific locations within the canyons and along the river, such as in southern (lower) Marble Canyon and eastern (upper) Grand Canyon, appear to have strong potential to receive high-intensity rainfall that

  5. Long-term effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon changes in continuous corn of northeast China: RothC model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X M; Zhang, X P; Fang, H J; Zhu, P; Ren, J; Wang, L C

    2003-10-01

    Soil organic C (SOC) content can increase by managing land use practices in which the rates of organic C input exceed those of organic C mineralization. Understanding the changes in SOC content of Black soils (mainly Typic Halpudoll) in northeast China is necessary for sustainable using of soil resources there. We used the RothC model to estimate SOC levels of Black soils under monoculture cropping corn in a long-term fertilization trial at Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, China. The model outputs for the changes in SOC were compared with measured data in this long-term fertilization/manure trial. The sound performance of model in simulating SOC changes suggests that RothC is feasible with Black soils in the temperate climatic region of northeast China. The modeled and measured results indicated that the treatment without fertilizer/farmyard manure (FYM) addition led to a continuous decline in SOC during the study period and N and NPK fertilization were inadequate to maintain the SOC levels in the plow layer (upper 20 cm) unless FYM was added under the current conventional management associated with no above-ground crop residues returning into the soil. Soil organic carbon could follow the same path of decline if the same management practices are maintained. Model results indicate that returning above-ground crop residues to the soil from 2002 to 2022 would increase SOC by 26% for the treatment without fertilization addition, 40% for N treatment, 45% for NPK treatment, and 38% and 46% for N and NPK treatments with FYM addition, compared to the levels in the corresponding treatments in 2002. The simulation results suggest that the RothC model is a feasible tool to assess SOC trend under different management practices, and returning above-ground crop residues into the soil would lead to a remarkable increase in SOC of Black soils in the region.

  6. Influences of operating conditions on continuous lactulose synthesis in an enzymatic membrane reactor system: A basis prior to long-term operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitanggang, Azis Boing; Drews, Anja; Kraume, Matthias

    2015-06-10

    Lactulose synthesis was performed in a continuous stirred enzymatic membrane reactor. Each investigated operating condition (agitation, pH, feed molar ratio of lactose to fructose (mL/mF ratio), hydraulic residence time (HRT)) had an influence on reaction performances, in terms of lactulose concentration, productivity and selectivity. Lactulose concentration was maximum at an mL/mF ratio of 1/2. Higher than this ratio, synthesis of galactooligosaccharides was promoted rather than lactulose. At mL/mF ratios lower than 1/2, enzyme inhibition was pronounced to the detriment of lactulose production. At 7 or 9h HRT, higher lactulose concentrations were obtained than at shorter HRTs. Applying an mL/mF ratio of 1/2 and an HRT of 9h in a long-term operation, nearly constant lactulose concentration was reached after 23h and lasted up to 32h with a mean concentration of 14.51±0.07g/L and a reaction selectivity of 0.075-0.080mollactulose/molcons.lactose. After 7d, lactulose concentration reduced by 31%. A continuous synthesis of lactulose at lab-scale was shown to be amenable using a membrane reactor process. Moreover, for process evaluation, this study can bridge the gap between batch laboratory scale and continuous full-scale operation regarding lactulose synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term performance and stability of a continuous granular airlift reactor treating a high-strength wastewater containing a mixture of aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Carlos; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Carrera, Julián, E-mail: julian.carrera@uab.cat

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Aerobic biodegradation of a mixture of aromatics is feasible in a granular reactor. • Applied organic loading rate is a key parameter for an optimal reactor performance. • Stable mature aerobic granules were maintained 400 days in a continuous reactor. • Sphingobium, Cytophaga and Comamonas were the main genera in the aerobic granules. - Abstract: Continuous feeding operation of an airlift reactor and its inoculation with mature aerobic granules allowed the successful treatment of a mixture of aromatic compounds (p-nitrophenol, o-cresol and phenol). Complete biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, o-cresol, phenol and their metabolic intermediates was achieved at an organic loading rate of 0.61 g COD L{sup −1} d{sup −1}. Stable granulation was obtained throughout the long-term operation (400 days) achieving an average granule size of 2.0 ± 1 mm and a sludge volumetric index of 26 ± 1 mL g{sup −1} TSS. The identified genera in the aerobic granular biomass were heterotrophic bacteria able to consume aromatic compounds. Therefore, the continuous feeding regimen and the exposure of aerobic granules to a mixture of aromatic compounds make possible to obtain good granulation and high removal efficiency.

  8. Monitoring and Modelling of the Long-term Effect of Changing Agriculture on Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater and Streams in Small Experimental subsurface dominant watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Ophelie; Hrachowitz, Markus; Ruiz, Laurent; Faucheux, Mikael; Aquilina, Luc; Molenat, Jerome; Durand, Patrick; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Management and prediction of water quality in watersheds is critical especially in agricultural regions. Water quality in watersheds varies in a very broad range of temporal scales, from storm events or diurnal cycles, seasonal cycles, to pluriannual trends. It varies also spatially, with contrasted dynamics of solutes in the soil, the recharge, the groundwater and the streams. This is challenging both in term of monitoring and of modelling. Agricultural watershed are interesting to discriminate short term from long term mechanisms, as most of them experienced drastic changes in agricultural inputs in the past 50 years. Recently, the analysis of long-term stream water quality data sets has allowed improving significantly our understanding of solute residence time in watersheds [1]. However, as historical agricultural practices are usually poorly documented, large assumptions are needed to achieve such exercises. Despite the large amount of research in the past 30 years dedicated to understand and model the dynamics of agricultural-borne diffuse pollution at the watershed level, there is no accepted perceptual model explaining the observed dynamics of water quality simultaneously at all the relevant spatial and temporal scales and a very little number of sites sufficiently documented to test it. We present results from a long-term comprehensive monitoring of agricultural inputs and chemistry of surface water (20 years) and groundwater (10 years) in small experimental watersheds (ORE AgrHys, http://www.inra.fr/ore_agrhys/). Results showed (i) a strong stability in the stream chemistry whereas agricultural inputs in these small watersheds were highly variable from year to year, (ii) a high spatial heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, both laterally along the hillslope and vertically and (iii) contrasted behavior of long-term trends in agricultural inputs and nitrate concentration in groundwater. A simple model was developed, based on linear reservoirs, and run

  9. A national strategy for a long-term monitoring of permafrost and periglacial processes and their relationship to natural hazard prevention in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Bartsch, Annett; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Weyss, Gernot; Riedl, Claudia; Avian, Michael

    2016-04-01

    About 2.5% (~2000 km²) of the national territory of Austria is influenced by permafrost conditions. A slightly smaller area of Austria is additionally affected by deep seasonal frost which is, however, similarly exposed to intensive physical weathering and related geomorphic processes. Currently, 23 skiing resorts, 31 water reservoirs and 42 mountain huts are either directly or indirectly influenced by permafrost and associated processes in Austria as determined from regional permafrost models. Ground thermal changes most likely affect the ground stability and infrastructure in those areas. Therefore, changes in the distribution and characteristics of permafrost and seasonal frost are of high economic and ecological importance. A range of Austrian institutions are interested in systematic permafrost monitoring (several universities, geological surveys, the Austrian torrent and avalanche control agency or several different alpine clubs). However, to date no coordinated monitoring network has been established on a national scale and a strategy for long-term permafrost/periglacial observation did not exist so far. Such a national strategy has been developed in 2015 within the permAT project funded through the StartClim2014-program. During permAT an extensive literature review and data search as well as a workshop with 40 participants (scientists, stakeholder and policy maker) were accomplished. The workshop allowed the integration of national as well as international colleagues into the strategy development. Results of permAT clearly demonstrate that the number of present permafrost/periglacial monitoring sites is far too little in Austria. Only few alpine areas of Austria are well represented by the existing monitoring activities but large areas lack such instrumentations. Furthermore, permafrost boreholes exist at only three sites in central Austria (all contribution to the GTN-P network) and there is a lack of knowledge about thermal conditions and recent changes

  10. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  11. Modelling the long-term soil response to atmospheric deposition at intensively monitored forest plots in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Posch, M.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic soil chemistry model SMART was applied to 121 intensive forest monitoring plots (mainly located in western and northern Europe) for which both element input (deposition) and element concentrations in the soil solution were available. After calibration of poorly known parameters, the mode

  12. Detection of Paroxysms in Long-Term, Single Channel EEG-Monitoring of Patients with Typical Absence Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Troels W.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Groenborg, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Absence seizures are associated with generalized 2.5-5 Hz spike-wave discharges in the EEG. Rarely are patients, parents or physicians aware of duration or incidence of seizures. Six patients were monitored with a portable EEG-device over four times 24 hours to evaluate how easily outpatients...

  13. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  14. Repeatability of riparian vegetation sampling methods: how useful are these techniques for broad-scale, long-term monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc C. Coles-Ritchie; Richard C. Henderson; Eric K. Archer; Caroline Kennedy; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate variability among observers for riparian vegetation data collection methods and data reduction techniques. The methods are used as part of a largescale monitoring program designed to detect changes in riparian resource conditions on Federal lands. Methods were evaluated using agreement matrices, the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric, the...

  15. 77 FR 57545 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Monitoring Data Analysis, Occurrence Forecasts, Binning, and the Microbial Toolbox AGENCY: Environmental... Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting, EPA plans to discuss and solicit public input on data and information... the data and/or information discussed at this meeting during the agency's review of the LT2 rule...

  16. Long-Term Monitoring of Bright Blazars in the Multi-GeV to TeV Range with FACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Temme

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Blazars like Markarian 421 or Markarian 501 are active galactic nuclei (AGN, with their jets orientated towards the observer. They are among the brightest objects in the very high energy (VHE gamma ray regime (>100 GeV. Their emitted gamma-ray fluxes are extremely variable, with changing activity levels on timescales between minutes, months, and even years. Several questions are part of the current research, such as the question of the emission regions or the engine of the AGN and the particle acceleration. A dedicated longterm monitoring program is necessary to investigate the properties of blazars in detail. A densely sampled and unbiased light curve allows for observation of both high and low states of the sources, and the combination with multi-wavelength observation could contribute to the answer of several questions mentioned above. FACT (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first operational telescope using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM, also known as Geigermode—Avalanche Photo Diode, G-APD as photon detectors. SiPM have a very homogenous and stable longterm performance, and allow operation even during full moon without any filter, leading to a maximal duty cycle for an Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT. Hence, FACT is an ideal device for such a longterm monitoring of bright blazars. A small set of sources (e.g., Markarian 421, Markarian 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2344+51.4 is currently being monitored. In this contribution, the FACT telescope and the concept of longterm monitoring of bright blazars will be introduced. The results of the monitoring program will be shown, and the advantages of densely sampled and unbiased light curves will be discussed.

  17. Rehabilitation in COPD: the long-term effect of a supervised 7-week program succeeded by a self-monitored walking program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, T; Brøndum, E; Martinez, G

    2008-01-01

    change in SGRQ +2.0 (p = 0.40). A relative simple and inexpensive 7-week supervised rehabilitation program combined with daily self-monitored training at home was able to maintain significant improvement in exercise tolerance and health status throughout 1 year. Death and hospital admissions due to acute......Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves exercise tolerance and health status, however, these effects have been shown to decline after termination of the rehabilitation program. This study has examined the long-term effect of a 7-week supervised...... rehabilitation program combined with daily self-monitored training at home on exercise tolerance and health status. Two hundred and nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation program were assessed with endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) and the St George's Respiratory...

  18. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.

    2005-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  19. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients Holter recordings varied around 20% ranging between 18 and 27%. Fifty-five of the patients (46%) had TMI on at least 1 of the 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients...... for the presence of TMI. No high-risk group for cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction or coronary revascularization during up to 10 years of follow-up could be identified by the detection of TMI. From these results we conclude that a routine search for TMI on serial Holter monitoring cannot be recommended in male...

  20. Establishing a Long-term 30 Year Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Perez, R.; Schlemmer, J.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    As renewable energy system become more prevalent, improved global long-term, up-to-date records are needed to better understand and quantify the solar resource and variability. Toward this end, a project involving NASA, DOE NREL, SUNY-Albany and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) was initiated to provide NREL with a solar resource mapping production system for improved depiction of global long-term solar resources that provides the capacity for continual updates. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983 at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY and NCDC, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will yield an operational production system for NREL to continually update the Earth's solar resource. In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. Here, a three-year prototype of the anticipated ISCCP data set called GridSat is used to assess the algorithms and demonstrate the production system. GridSat maps together cross-calibrated visible and IR reflectances from all the world's geosynchronous satellites at 10 km and 3-hourly respectively. The results are shown and discussed in comparison to existing solar data products. Additionally, the solar irradiance values are compared to various Baseline Surface Radiation Network surface site measurements and other high quality surface measurements. The statistics of the agreement between the measurements and new satellite estimates are also reviewed. The team is now testing a beta release of the revised ISCCP data set through the NOAA

  1. Combating the Urban Heat Island Effect: Results from a Long-Term Monitoring Study on Urban Green, White, and Black Roofs in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, S. R.; Kong, A. Y.; Hartung, E.; Hsu, B.; Roditi, A.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat island mitigation strategies include increasing urban vegetation and increasing the albedo of impervious surfaces. Vegetated "green" roofs can provide benefits to stormwater management, water quality, energy cost efficiency, and biodiversity in cities, but the body of research on green roofs in the US is not large and cities in the US have been slow to adopt green roofs. On the other hand, "high-albedo" white roofs have been applied more widely through projects such as New York City Cool Roofs. There are several major issues (e.g., albedo decline, product differences, and long-term temperature controls) about green and white roof performance versus typical black roofs with respect to urban heat island mitigation that have yet to be fully addressed. Here, we present data from an on-going, long-term study in New York City in which pilot, urban albedo enhancement and vegetation effects have been monitored at the building-scale since 2007. Although the urban heat island effect can be detected throughout the year, our objective for this paper was to compare green roof vegetation with those of the high-albedo roofs for their ability to reduce the electricity demand for cooling in the summer. Using energy balance methodology across our sites (three), we found that green and white roof membrane temperature peaks are on average 60°F (33°C) and 30° F (17°C), respectively, cooler than black roof temperature peaks, and that these alternative surfaces significantly reduce thermal stress to roof membranes. Interestingly, we found that industrial white membranes [thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM)] stay cleaner longer, thereby, maintaining the high-albedo benefits longer than the painted roofs, which tend to lose their albedo properties rapidly. Results thus far suggest that more long-term research comparing the albedo and cooling benefits of green and white roofs to black roofs is necessary to understand temporal changes to

  2. Long-term monitoring, time delay, and microlensing in the gravitational lens system Q0142-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscoz, A.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C. Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Muñoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100-Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-20

    We present 12 yr of monitoring of the gravitational lens Q0142-100 from the Teide Observatory. The data, taken from 1999 to 2010, comprise 105 observing nights with the IAC80 Telescope. The application of the δ{sup 2} method to the dataset leads to a value for the time delay between both components of the system of 72 ± 22 days (68% confidence level), consistent within uncertainties with the most recent results. With this value in mind a possible microlensing event is detected in Q0142-100.

  3. Vision-based approach for long-term mobility monitoring: Single case study following total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dolatabadi, MSc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a single case study on the feasibility of using a low-cost and portable vision-based system (a Microsoft Kinect sensor to monitor changes in movement patterns before and after a total hip replacement surgery. The primary subject was an older male adult with total hip replacement who performed two different functional tasks: walking and sit-to-stand. The tasks were recorded with a Kinect multiple times, starting from 1 d before the surgery until 9 wk after the surgery. An automated algorithm has been developed to extract the important spatiotemporal characteristics from the video recorded functional tasks (walking and sit-to-stand. Statistical analysis was then performed by TryonC statistic to study changes in spatiotemporal characteristics between different stages before and after the surgery. The statistical analysis indicated significant difference and slight improvement between all measures from the presurgery to each postsurgery date. The study confirmed that the Kinect sensor and an automated algorithm have the potential to be integrated into a patient’s home to monitor changes in mobility during the recovery period.

  4. Long-term X-ray monitoring of LS I +61 303: analysis of spectral variability and flares

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Yupeng; Hadasch, Daniela; Ray, Paul S; Kretschmar, Peter; Rea, Nanda; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    We report on the full analysis of a Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) monitoring of the {\\gamma}-ray binary system LS I +61 303. The data set covers 42 contiguous cycles of the system orbital motion. Analyzing this X-ray monitoring dataset, the largest to date for this source, we report on the variability of the orbital profile and the spectral distribution, and provide strong evidence for an anti-correlation between flux and spectral index (the higher the flux, the harder the spectral index). Furthermore, we present the analysis of two newly discovered ks-timescale flares, which present significant variability also on shorter timescales, and tend to occur at orbital phases between 0.6-0.9. However, a detailed timing analysis of the flares does not show any coherent or quasi-coherent (QPO) structure in their power spectra. We also investigated the possible appearance of the radio super-orbital modulation at X-rays energies, but we could not unambiguously detect such modulatio...

  5. Predictors of Occult Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Cryptogenic Strokes Detected by Long-Term Noninvasive Cardiac Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archit Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Paroxysmal Atrial fibrillation/Flutter (PAF detection rates in cryptogenic strokes have been variable. We sought to determine the percentage of patients with cryptogenic stroke who had PAF on prolonged non-invasive cardiac monitoring. Methods and Results. Sixty-two consecutive patients with stroke and TIA in a single center with a mean age of 61 (+/− 14 years were analyzed. PAF was detected in 15 (24% patients. Only one patient reported symptoms of shortness of breath during the episode of PAF while on monitoring, and 71 (97% of these 73 episodes were asymptomatic. A regression analysis revealed that the presence of PVCs (ventricular premature beats lasting more than 2 minutes (OR 6.3, 95% CI, 1.11–18.92; P=.042 and strokes (high signal on Diffusion Weighted Imaging (OR 4.3, 95% CI, 5–36.3; P=.041 predicted PAF. Patients with multiple DWI signals were more likely than solitary signals to have PAF (OR 11.1, 95% CI, 2.5–48.5, P<.01. Conclusion. Occult PAF is common in cryptogenic strokes, and is often asymptomatic. Our data suggests that up to one in five patients with suspected cryptogenic strokes and TIAs have PAF, especially if they have PVCs and multiple high DWI signals on MRI.

  6. Understanding Abiotic Triggers For Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lakes Using a Long Term In-situ Monitoring Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anne; Hondzo, Miki; Salomon, Christine; Missaghi, Shahram; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are ubiquitous ecological and public health hazards. HAB are made up of potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacteria. The occurrences of toxic HAB are unpredictable and highly spatially/temporary variable in freshwater ecosystems. To study the abiotic triggers for toxic HAB, a research station has been deployed in a eutrophic lake from June-October 2016. This station provides hourly water quality profiles and meteorological (every 5 minutes) monitoring with real time access. Water quality monitoring is performed by an autonomously traversed sonde that provides chemical, physical and biological measurements; including phycocyanin, a light-absorbing pigment distinct to cyanobacteria. The research station is a sentinel for HAB accumulation, prompting focused HAB analysis, including: phytoplankton and toxin composition/concentration, and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates. We will discuss how mixing conditions, temperature stratification, light intensity, surface wind magnitude and energy dissipation mediate a)HAB formation/composition b)toxicity and c)cyanobacteria stratification.The results will help illuminate abiotic processes that trigger HAB accumulation/toxicity, which can direct timely toxic HAB prediction and prevention efforts.

  7. Long-Term X-Ray monitoring of NGC6251: Evidence for a jet-dominated radio galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, M; Sambruna, R M

    2008-01-01

    We present the first X-ray monitoring observations of the X-ray bright FRI radio galaxy NGC6251 observed with RXTE for 1 year. The primary goal of this study is to shed light on the origin of the X-rays, by investigating the spectral variability with model-independent methods coupled with time-resolved and flux-selected spectroscopy. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) Throughout the monitoring campaign, NGC6251 was in relatively high-flux state. 2) The flux persistently changed with fluctuations of the order of ~2 on time scales of 20-30 days. 3) When the hardness ratio is plotted against the average count rate, there is evidence for a spectral hardening as the source brightens; this finding is confirmed by a flux-selected spectral analysis. 4) The fractional variability appears to be more pronounced in the hard energy band (5-12 keV) than in the soft one (2.5-5 keV). 5) 2-month averaged and flux-limited energy spectra are adequately fitted by a power law. A Fe Kalpha line is never statisticall...

  8. Effects of Cotton Straw Incorporation on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Long-Term Continuous Cropping Cotton Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Cheng-zang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of straw incorporation on the content of soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC, microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN and microbial biomass phosphorus(SMBP in the continuous cropping cotton field. Results showed that cotton straw incorporation could increase the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP significantly in different soil layers. Besides, with the time of continuous cropping increasing, the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP were all remarkably raised in the straw incorporation treatment. However, with the time of continuous cropping increasing, the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP were all remarkably declined in the straw removal treatment. In 0~20 cm soil layer, compared with the straw removal, both SMBC content and SMBN content with 5, 10, 15 years continuous cropping treatments in the straw incorporation treatment were increased by 20.8%, 67.2%, 70.4% and 22.2%, 81.2%, 85.4%, respectively, and the SMBP content in the straw incorporation treatment was increased by 22.3%, 81.2%, 85.3%, respectively. Under the cotton straw incorporation, in 0~20 cm soil layer, compared with the 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 years continuous cropping, both SMBC content and SMBN content in 30 years were increased by 116.6%, 86.2%, 101.6%, 28.9%, 8.99% and 114.1%, 82.1%, 99.65%, 27.8%, 7.15%, respectively, and the SMBP content in 30 years was increased by 65.7%, 6.9%, 34.2%, 1.4%, 2.2%, respectively. The content of SMBC, SMBN, SMBP in different soil layers decreased in the order as 0~20 cm> 20~40 cm> 40~60 cm. Consequently, cotton straw incorporation could significantly increase the the content of soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen and microbial biomass phosphorus in the long-term continuous cropping cotton field, besides it could alleviate the negative impact of cotton continuous cropping, so that it would be beneficial to improve the soil quality and soil fertility.

  9. Running biomechanics in a long-term monitored recreational athlete with a history of Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandacka, Daniel; Zahradnik, David; Foldyna, Karel; Hamill, Joseph

    2013-01-28

    This study represented a unique opportunity to understand changes in the human motion biomechanics during basic locomotion within a time interval of 4 years, when the monitored individual regained his original aerobic fitness, running performance and body mass index as prior to the injury. The participant visited the laboratory a month prior to the injury and during 4 years after the surgery. The surgery, subsequent rehabilitation and a 4-year running training programme in the studied recreational athlete did not completely eliminate the consequences of the Achilles tendon rupture. The function muscle deficit is namely manifested by a lower net plantar flexion moment and a lower net-generated ankle joint power during the take-off in the stance phase. The greater dorsal flexion in the affected ankle joint at the first contact with the ground and consequently higher peaks of ground reaction forces during running are consequences of the longer Achilles tendon in the affected lower extremity and weakened calf muscles.

  10. Long-term monitoring of soil microbiological activities in two forest sites in South tyrol in the italian alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Minerbi, Stefano; Schinner, Franz

    2014-09-17

    We monitored microbiological properties in two forest sites over a period of 17 years (1993-2010) within the International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICP IM). The two study sites were located in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps at altitudes of 1,737 m a.s.l. (subalpine site IT01) and 570 m a.s.l. (submontane site IT02). Soil samples were collected in the late spring and autumn of 1993, 2000, and 2010, and were characterized by measuring respiration, key enzyme activities involved in the C, N, P, and S cycles and litter degradation, and the abundance of viable bacterial and fungal populations. Over the study period, an increase in mean annual air temperatures at both sites (+0.6°C and +0.8°C at IT01 and IT02, respectively) was calculated from trendlines. Significantly lower mean annual air temperatures, higher temperature fluctuations, and higher annual precipitation rates were observed at site IT01 than at site IT02. Subalpine site IT01 was characterized by significantly lower microbial activity (respiration, enzymes) and abundance than those at submontane site IT02. The year of sampling had a significant effect on all the parameters investigated, except for nitrification. Fungal abundance decreased consistently over the study period, while no consistent trend was noted among the other parameters investigated. Season only affected a few of the measured microbiological parameters: respiration and bacterial numbers were significantly higher in the spring than in the autumn, while the opposite was noted for xylanase and phosphatase activities. Soil fungi contributed essentially to xylanase and protease activities, while soil bacteria were mainly involved in degradation processes that required the activity of sulfatase.

  11. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  12. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  13. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther; Burmeister, Sönke; Labrenz, Johannes; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Twardak, Anna; Hajek, Michael; Fugger, Manfred; Hofstätter, Christina; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Szabo, Julianna; Stradi, Andrea; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Brabcova, Katerina Pachnerova; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Van Hoey, Olivier; Schoonjans, Werner; Parisi, Alessio; Gaza, Ramona; Semones, Edward; Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Benton, Eric R.; Doull, Brandon A.; Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Boehme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009-2011) and the DOSIS 3D (2012-ongoing) experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195-270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a) the variation in solar activity and (b) the changes in ISS altitude.

  14. Long-term monitoring of orbital modulation and secondary-star irradiation in Nova Cas 1995 (V723 Cas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, P.; Moschini, F.; Munari, U.; Frigo, A.

    2015-11-01

    We present optical spectroscopy collected at seven epochs and BVRCIC photometry obtained at 1227 epochs of nova V723 Cas, covering the time interval between 2007 and 2015. The mean magnitude during this period, stable at ˜3 mag brighter than in quiescence, and the continuous presence of strong [Fe X] and other high-ionization emission lines, indicates that the nuclear burning at the surface of the white dwarf is continuing 20 years past the initial outburst. The light curve shows a large amplitude (2 mag) orbital modulation, which is governed by the visibility of the irradiated side of the secondary star. Our observations do not confirm the reported increase with time of the orbital period of V723 Cas, a period of P=16.638 383 ± 0.000 025 h satisfying equally well all available observations in all bands. Our observations also do not confirm the presence of an additional periodicity around P=15.2397 h from which V723 Cas was classified as an intermediate-polar system.

  15. Automated analysis of long-term bridge behavior and health using a cyber-enabled wireless monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome; Ettouney, Mohammed; van der Linden, Gwen

    2014-04-01

    A worthy goal for the structural health monitoring field is the creation of a scalable monitoring system architecture that abstracts many of the system details (e.g., sensors, data) from the structure owner with the aim of providing "actionable" information that aids in their decision making process. While a broad array of sensor technologies have emerged, the ability for sensing systems to generate large amounts of data have far outpaced advances in data management and processing. To reverse this trend, this study explores the creation of a cyber-enabled wireless SHM system for highway bridges. The system is designed from the top down by considering the damage mechanisms of concern to bridge owners and then tailoring the sensing and decision support system around those concerns. The enabling element of the proposed system is a powerful data repository system termed SenStore. SenStore is designed to combine sensor data with bridge meta-data (e.g., geometric configuration, material properties, maintenance history, sensor locations, sensor types, inspection history). A wireless sensor network deployed to a bridge autonomously streams its measurement data to SenStore via a 3G cellular connection for storage. SenStore securely exposes the bridge meta- and sensor data to software clients that can process the data to extract information relevant to the decision making process of the bridge owner. To validate the proposed cyber-enable SHM system, the system is implemented on the Telegraph Road Bridge (Monroe, MI). The Telegraph Road Bridge is a traditional steel girder-concrete deck composite bridge located along a heavily travelled corridor in the Detroit metropolitan area. A permanent wireless sensor network has been installed to measure bridge accelerations, strains and temperatures. System identification and damage detection algorithms are created to automatically mine bridge response data stored in SenStore over an 18-month period. Tools like Gaussian Process (GP

  16. Long-term monitoring of a PSC box girder bridge: Operational modal analysis, data normalization and structural modification assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Alexandre; Cremona, Christian; Dumoulin, John

    2012-11-01

    For reliable performance of vibration-based damage detection algorithms, it is important to distinguish abnormal changes in modal parameters caused by structural damage from normal changes due to environmental fluctuations. This paper firstly addresses the modeling of temperature effects on modal frequencies of a PSC box girder bridge located on the A1 motorway in France. Based on a six-month monitoring experimental program, modal frequencies of the first seven mode shapes and temperatures have been measured at three hour intervals. Neural networks are then introduced to formulate regression models for quantifying the effect of temperature on modal parameters (frequencies and mode shapes). In 2009, this bridge underwent a strengthening procedure. In order to assess the effect of strengthening on the vibration characteristics of the bridge, modal properties had to be corrected from temperature influence. Thus, the first goal is to assess the changes on the vibration signature of this bridge induced by the strengthening. For this purpose, classical statistical analysis and clustering methods are applied to the data recorded over the period after strengthening. The second goal is to evaluate the influence of temperature effects on the clustering results. It comes that the temperature correction significantly improves the confidence in the novelty detection and in the strengthening efficiency.

  17. Noninvasive Transcutaneous Monitoring in Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Thromboangiitis Obliterans Treated With Intravenous Iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Elio; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Sanctis, Francesco De; Spontoni, Paolo; Nuti, Marco; Dell'Omodarme, Matteo; Ferrari, Mauro; Balbarini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous iloprost (IVI) in outpatients with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) and lower limb noninvasive transcutaneous monitoring (TCM) at follow-up (FU). Ten consecutive patients with TAO underwent IVI therapy. Transcutaneous oxygen (TcPo 2) and carbon dioxide (TcPco 2) determination and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed before and after IVI at 3, 6, and 12 months of FU. Clinical response was positive in 7 patients, whereas 3 nonresponders underwent a second IVI cycle with 1 showing a late positive clinical response. After 12 months of FU, all patients were alive without amputations. Supine and dependent TcP2 levels significantly improved (P < .005). Hallux LDF values showed significant change with the maximal hyperemic test at 44°C (P < .005). Forefoot maximal hyperemic test at 44°C LDF (P < .005) and improved venous arterial reflex (P < .05) showed statistically significant time evolution. We demonstrated some degree of IVI effectiveness and evaluated TCM in patients with TAO.

  18. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-07-01

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term Monitoring on Mrk 501 for Its VHE gamma Emission and a Flare in October 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, B; Bi, X J; Bleve, C; Bolognino, I; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Melcarne, A K Calabrese; Camarri, P; Cao, Z; Cardarelli, R; Catalanotti, S; Cattaneo, C; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Chen, Y; Creti, P; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; Staiti, G DAl; Danzengluobu,; Dattoli, M; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B D Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T; Ding, X H; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F; Giroletti, E; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; James, I; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Li, J Y; Li, X X; Liguori, G; Liu, C; Liu, C Q; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari, S M; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Pagliaro, A; Panareo, M; Panico, B; Perrone, L; Pistilli, P; Ruggieri, F; Salvini, P; Santonico, R; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Stanescu, C; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xu, B; Xue, L; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L; Zhang, P; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q; Zizzi, G

    2012-01-01

    As one of the brightest active blazars in both X-ray and very high energy $\\gamma$-ray bands, Mrk 501 is very useful for physics associated with jets from AGNs. The ARGO-YBJ experiment is monitoring it for $\\gamma$-rays above 0.3 TeV since November 2007. Starting from October 2011 the largest flare since 2005 is observed, which lasts to about April 2012. In this paper, a detailed analysis is reported. During the brightest $\\gamma$-rays flaring episodes from October 17 to November 22, 2011, an excess of the event rate over 6 $\\sigma$ is detected by ARGO-YBJ in the direction of Mrk 501, corresponding to an increase of the $\\gamma$-ray flux above 1 TeV by a factor of 6.6$\\pm$2.2 from its steady emission. In particular, the $\\gamma$-ray flux above 8 TeV is detected with a significance better than 4 $\\sigma$. Based on time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, the broad-band energy spectrum is interpreted as the emission from an electron energy distribution parameterized with a single power-law funct...

  20. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  1. Monitoring of tritium purity during long-term circulation in the KATRIN test experiment LOOPINO using laser Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Sebastian; Schlösser, Magnus; Bornschein, Beate; Drexlin, Guido; Priester, Florian; Lewis, Richard J; Telle, Helmut H

    2012-01-01

    The gas circulation loop LOOPINO has been set up and commissioned at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to perform Raman measurements of circulating tritium mixtures under conditions similar to the inner loop system of the neutrino-mass experiment KATRIN, which is currently under construction. A custom-made interface is used to connect the tritium containing measurement cell, located inside a glove box, with the Raman setup standing on the outside. A tritium sample (purity > 95%, 20 kPa total pressure) was circulated in LOOPINO for more than three weeks with a total throughput of 770 g of tritium. Compositional changes in the sample and the formation of tritiated and deuterated methanes CT_(4-n)X_n (X=H,D; n=0,1) were observed. Both effects are caused by hydrogen isotope exchange reactions and gas-wall interactions, due to tritium {\\beta} decay. A precision of 0.1% was achieved for the monitoring of the T_2 Q_1-branch, which fulfills the requirements for the KATRIN experiment and demonstrates the feasibility ...

  2. Comparison of three methods for long-term monitoring of boreal lake area using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David

    2012-01-01

    Programs to monitor lake area change are becoming increasingly important in high latitude regions, and their development often requires evaluating tradeoffs among different approaches in terms of accuracy of measurement, consistency across multiple users over long time periods, and efficiency. We compared three supervised methods for lake classification from Landsat imagery (density slicing, classification trees, and feature extraction). The accuracy of lake area and number estimates was evaluated relative to high-resolution aerial photography acquired within two days of satellite overpasses. The shortwave infrared band 5 was better at separating surface water from nonwater when used alone than when combined with other spectral bands. The simplest of the three methods, density slicing, performed best overall. The classification tree method resulted in the most omission errors (approx. 2x), feature extraction resulted in the most commission errors (approx. 4x), and density slicing had the least directional bias (approx. half of the lakes with overestimated area and half of the lakes with underestimated area). Feature extraction was the least consistent across training sets (i.e., large standard error among different training sets). Density slicing was the best of the three at classifying small lakes as evidenced by its lower optimal minimum lake size criterion of 5850 m2 compared with the other methods (8550 m2). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the use of additional spectral bands and a more sophisticated method not only required additional processing effort but also had a cost in terms of the accuracy and consistency of lake classifications.

  3. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF MRK 501 FOR ITS VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma} EMISSION AND A FLARE IN 2011 OCTOBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' E. De Giorgi' dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-10

    As one of the brightest active blazars in both X-ray and very high energy {gamma}-ray bands, Mrk 501, is very useful for physics associated with jets from active galactic nuclei. The ARGO-YBJ experiment has monitored Mrk 501 for {gamma}-rays above 0.3 TeV since 2007 November. The largest flare since 2005 was observed from 2011 October and lasted until about 2012 April. In this paper, a detailed analysis of this event is reported. During the brightest {gamma}-ray flaring episodes from 2011 October 17 to November 22, an excess of the event rate over 6{sigma} is detected by ARGO-YBJ in the direction of Mrk 501, corresponding to an increase of the {gamma}-ray flux above 1 TeV by a factor of 6.6 {+-} 2.2 from its steady emission. In particular, the {gamma}-ray flux above 8 TeV is detected with a significance better than 4{sigma}. Based on time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, the broadband energy spectrum is interpreted as the emission from an electron energy distribution parameterized with a single power-law function with an exponential cutoff at its high-energy end. The average spectral energy distribution for the steady emission is well described by this simple one-zone SSC model. However, the detection of {gamma}-rays above 8 TeV during the flare challenges this model due to the hardness of the spectra. Correlations between X-rays and {gamma}-rays are also investigated.

  4. Development and application of GC-MS method for monitoring of long-term exposure to the pesticide cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Vynias, Dionysios; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2014-06-01

    Cypermethrin (CPMN) is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as for domestic purposes. In the present study a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method was developed and validated for the quantitation of CPMN metabolites, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis- and trans- 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1-cyclopropane (cis- and trans- Cl2 CA). The developed method was applied for the monitoring of CPMN metabolites in hair of laboratory animals (rabbits) intentionally exposed per os to CPMN at 40 (low dose) and 80 (high dose) mg/kg weight/day for 16 weeks. The analytical method comprises three main steps: isolation of analytes from hair, analytes derivatization, and subsequent instrumental analysis by GC-MS. The limits of detection ensured by the method are 4.0, 3.9 and 1.0 pg/mg hair for cis-Cl2 CA, trans-Cl2 CA and 3-PBA, respectively. The instrument responce is linear (r(2)  > 0.99) in the investigated concentrations range from 25 to 1000 pg/mg. With and between-run precision as well as accuracy were estimated and found satisfactory. Analytes were efficiently isolated by solid-liquid extraction from hair with recoveries greater than 84.8% for cis-Cl2 CA, 87.2% for trans-Cl2 CA and 96.4% for 3-PBA. Rabbit's hair showed increasing levels for all metabolites (metabolites accumulation in a time and dose dependent manner) over time and in a dose-dependent manner. The developed experimental procedure could be used for biomonitoring of population exposure to CPMN.

  5. Short- and long-term monitoring of underwater sound levels in the Hudson River (New York, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S Bruce; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing body of research on natural and man-made sounds that create aquatic soundscapes. Less is known about the soundscapes of shallow waters, such as in harbors, rivers, and lakes. Knowledge of soundscapes is needed as a baseline against which to determine the changes in noise levels resulting from human activities. To provide baseline data for the Hudson River at the site of the Tappan Zee Bridge, 12 acoustic data loggers were deployed for a 24-h period at ranges of 0-3000 m from the bridge, and four of the data loggers were re-deployed for three months of continuous recording. Results demonstrate that this region of the river is relatively quiet compared to open ocean conditions and other large river systems. Moreover, the soundscape had temporal and spatial diversity. The temporal patterns of underwater noise from the bridge change with the cadence of human activity. Bridge noise (e.g., road traffic) was only detected within 300 m; farther from the bridge, boating activity increased sound levels during the day, and especially on the weekend. Results also suggest that recording near the river bottom produced lower pseudo-noise levels than previous studies that recorded in the river water column.

  6. Long-Term Flux Monitoring of LSI +61 303 at 2.25 and 8.3 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, P; Waltman, E B; Tavani, M; Ghigo, F D

    1997-01-01

    LSI +61 303 is an exotic binary system consisting of a ~10 Msun B star and a compact object which is probably a neutron star. The system is associated with the interesting radio source GT0236+610 that exhibits bright radio outbursts with a period of 26.5 days. We report the results of continuous daily radio interferometric observations of GT0236+610 at 2.25 and 8.3 GHz from 1994 January to 1996 February. The observations cover 25 complete (and 3 partial) cycles with multiple observations each day. We detect substantial cycle-to-cycle variability of the radio emission characterized by a rapid onset of the radio flares followed by a more gradual decrease of the emission. We detect a systematic change of the radio spectral index alpha which typically becomes larger than zero at the onset of the radio outbursts. This behavior is suggestive of expansion of material initially optically thick to radio frequencies, indicating either that synchrotron or inverse Compton cooling are important or that the free-free optic...

  7. Acoustic detection and long-term monitoring of pygmy blue whales over the continental slope in southwest Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Alexander N; McCauley, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    A 9-yr dataset of continuous sea noise recording made at the Cape Leeuwin station of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty hydroacoustic network in 2002-2010 was processed to detect calls from pygmy blue whales and to analyze diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations in their vocal activity. Because the conventional spectrogram correlation method for recognizing whale calls in sea noise resulted in a too high false detection rate, alternative algorithms were tested and the most robust one applied to the multi-year dataset. The detection method was based on multivariate classification using two spectrogram features of transients in sea noise and Fisher's linear discriminant, which provided a misclassification rate of approximately 1% for missed and false detections at moderate sensitivity settings. An analysis of the detection results revealed a consistent seasonal pattern in the whale presence and considerable interannual changes with a steady increase in the number of calls detected in 2002-2006. An apparent diurnal pattern of whales' vocal activity was also observed. The acoustic detection range for pygmy blue whales was estimated to vary from about 50 km to nearly 200 km from the Cape Leeuwin station, depending on the ambient noise level, source level, and azimuth to a vocalizing whale.

  8. Deep Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic Sensing: A Cost Effective, Long-Term Tool for Sequestration Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, Douglas [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Brigham, Russell D. [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Schmidt-Hattenburger, Conny [GFZ German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (Germany); Um, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Petrov, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The proposed system was designed to operate as a permanent, autonomous monitoring and data collection system that can provide much higher temporal data density than can be achieved economically with 3-Dimensional (3D) seismic surveys. It can operate over broad areas for long periods of time providing full 3D data sets on a monthly basis at a very low cost. By borrowing techniques commonly used in marine CSEM, structural information from background seismic surveys can be incorporated into the CSEM modeling to provide high resolution models of CO2 progression within reservoirs. The system uses borehole-based vertical-electric-dipole sources placed at reservoir depths in the formation. The electric and magnetic fields induced by this source are received on the surface using an array of stations. The project was conducted in three phases. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of the system to collect static/reference data at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site in Germany. In Phase I, numerical modeling was used to determine the optimal configurations and requirements for sensor sensitivity and data accuracy. Based on the model results, existing hardware and software were modified. The CSEM system was then field tested at the Ketzin site. The data were imaged and the results were compared with independent studies of the reservoir and overburden geo-electrical characteristics. Phase II demonstrated the ability to provide sensitive, cost-effective measurement of changes in reservoir properties and changes in the overlying formations using a second round of measurements at the Ketzin site. A prototype autonomous recording system was developed and tested as a subset of the measurement points. Phase III of the project quantified the advantages (and disadvantages) of the fully autonomous data collection subsystems by comparing them with repeated measurements made with mobile stations. The Phase III also provided an additional time point in measuring post

  9. Rehabilitation in COPD: the long-term effect of a supervised 7-week program succeeded by a self-monitored walking program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, T; Brøndum, E; Martinez, G;

    2008-01-01

    Questionnaire (SGRQ) at baseline, 0, 3, and 12 months after the program. Sixty-eight (32.5%) patients did not attend the 1-year follow-up. Among the 141 patients who competed the 1-year evaluation, the initial improvement after the 7-week program in the ESWT time was 180 s or 101% (p = 0.001) and in SGRQ 3......Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves exercise tolerance and health status, however, these effects have been shown to decline after termination of the rehabilitation program. This study has examined the long-term effect of a 7-week supervised...... rehabilitation program combined with daily self-monitored training at home on exercise tolerance and health status. Two hundred and nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation program were assessed with endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) and the St George's Respiratory...

  10. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  11. Biodegradation of natural organic matter in long-term, continuous-flow experiments simulating artificial ground water recharge for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Reija E; Kortelainen, Nina M; Langwaldt, Jörg H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2009-01-01

    The role of biodegradation in the attenuation of natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in long-term experiments that simulate artificial ground water recharge (AGR) for drinking water production. Lake water containing 5.8 mg L(-1) total organic carbon (TOC) was continuously fed into an 18.5-m-long sand column. During the 941 d of operation, on average 76 and 81% of TOC was removed within the first 0.6 m and the entire column length, respectively. Large molecular size fractions (approximately 1800-2200 Da) of NOM were removed more efficiently than smaller ones (approximately 250-1400 Da). The biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within the first 0.6 m, measured by the stable inorganic carbon isotope (delta13C) method, depended on temperature and hydraulic load: The extent of mineralization was 32% at 6 degrees C (Day 442) and 38% at 23 degrees C (Day 708) with a 0.3 m3 (m2d)(-1) hydraulic load and 52% at 5.5 degrees C (Day 883) with a 3.1 m3 (m2d) (-1) hydraulic load. The rest of the DOC removal was likely due to entrapment or sorption onto the sand particles. Decreases in DOC and the total cell counts in the water along the column were positively correlated (r = 0.99; P = 0.001). The accumulation of biomass was minor, with the highest concentration amounting to 7.2 mg g(-1) dw of sand. In summary, this study demonstrated that biodegradation has a key role in NOM removal in AGR and is dependent on temperature.

  12. A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Jung; Lu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis, diagnosis, drug

  13. RossiXTE monitoring of 4U 1636-53: I. Long-term evolution and kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Tomaso; Mendez, Mariano; Motta, Sara; Ratti, Eva

    2007-01-01

    We have monitored the atoll-type neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for more than 1.5 years. Our campaign consisted of short (~2 ks) pointings separated by two days, regularly monitoring the spectral and timing properties of the source. During the campaign we observed a clear long-term oscillation with a period of ~30-40 days, already seen in the light curves from the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, which corresponded to regular transitions between the hard (island) and soft (banana) states. We detected kHz QPOs in about a third of the observations, most of which were in the soft (banana) state. The distribution of the frequencies of the peak identified as the lower kHz QPO is found to be different from that previously observed in an independent data set. This suggests that the kHz QPOs in the system shows no intrinsically preferred frequency.

  14. First long-term optical spectro-photometric monitoring of a binary black hole candidate E1821+643: I. Variability of spectral lines and continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Chavushyan, V H; Burenkov, A N; Ilic, D; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Valdes, J R; Patino-Alvarez, V; Leon-Tavares, J; Torrealba, J; Zhdanova, V E

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the first long-term (1990-2014) optical spectro-photometric monitoring of a binary black hole candidate QSO E1821+643, a low-redshift high-luminosity radio-quiet quasar. In the monitored period the continua and H$\\gamma$ fluxes changed for around two times, while the H$\\beta$ flux changed around 1.4 times. We found the periodical variations in the photometric flux with the periods of 1200, 1850 and 4000 days, and 4500 days periodicity in the spectroscopic variations. However, the periodicity of 4000-4500 days covers only one cycle of variation and should be confirmed with a longer monitoring campaign. There is an indication of the period around 1300 days in the spectroscopic light curves, but with small significance level, while the 1850 days period could not be clearly identified in the spectroscopic light curves. The line profiles have not significantly changed, showing an important red asymmetry and broad line peak redshifted around +1000 km s$^{-1}$. However, H$\\beta$ shows broade...

  15. Hair as a long-term retrospective cortisol calendar in orang-utans (Pongo spp.): new perspectives for stress monitoring in captive management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; van Schaik, Carolus P

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the method of hair cortisol analysis is applicable to orang-utans (Pongo spp.) and can help to advance the objective monitoring of stress in non-human primates. Specifically, we examined whether fundamental prerequisites for hair cortisol analysis are given in orang-utans and, subsequently, whether segmental hair analysis may provide a retrospective calendar of long-term cortisol levels. For this, hair samples were examined from 71 zoo-living orang-utans (38 males, mean age=22.5years; 33 females, mean age=24years) for which detailed records of past living conditions were available. Hair samples were cut from defined body regions and were analyzed either in full length or in segments. Results showed that hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were unrelated to age or sex of the individual animal. HCC were found to be higher in orang-utans, with perceived long-term stressful periods (mean HCC=43.6±26.5pg/mg, n=13) compared to animals without perceived stressful periods (19.3±5.5pg/mg, n=55, P40cm. The possibility of obtaining a retrospective calendar of stress-related cortisol changes through hair analysis was further supported by data of three case studies showing close correspondence between the segmental HCC results and keeper reports of stress exposure during the respective time periods. Finally, low within-animal variation in HCC from different body regions (CV%: 14.3) suggested that this method may also be applicable to naturally shed hair, e.g., as found in nests of wild orang-utans and other great apes. Therefore, using HCC may provide an ideal non-invasive tool for both captive management as well as conservation in orang-utans and potentially other great apes.

  16. Long-term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol Chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parworth, Caroline; Fast, Jerome D.; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Timothy R.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Tilp, Alison; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. Over the period of 19 months (Nov. 20, 2010 – June 2012) highly time resolved (~30 min.) NR-PM1 data was recorded. Using this dataset the value-added product (VAP) of deriving organic aerosol components (OACOMP) is introduced. With this VAP, multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix can be performed on long term data to return organic aerosol (OA) factors that are associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. Three factors were obtained from this VAP including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when nitrate increased due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations showed little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increased and were mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were computed by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. From this model there is evidence to support that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  17. Biases encountered in long-term monitoring studies of invertebrates and microflora: Australian examples of protocols, personnel, tools and site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Florentine, Singarayer K; Hansen, Brigita D; Gell, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring forms the basis for understanding ecological change. It relies on repeatability of methods to ensure detected changes accurately reflect the effect of environmental drivers. However, operator bias can influence the repeatability of field and laboratory work. We tested this for invertebrates and diatoms in three trials: (1) two operators swept invertebrates from heath vegetation, (2) four operators picked invertebrates from pyrethrum knockdown samples from tree trunk and (3) diatom identifications by eight operators in three laboratories. In each trial, operators were working simultaneously and their training in the field and laboratory was identical. No variation in catch efficiency was found between the two operators of differing experience using a random number of net sweeps to catch invertebrates when sequence, location and size of sweeps were random. Number of individuals and higher taxa collected by four operators from tree trunks varied significantly between operators and with their 'experience ranking'. Diatom identifications made by eight operators were clustered together according to which of three laboratories they belonged. These three tests demonstrated significant potential bias of operators in both field and laboratory. This is the first documented case demonstrating the significant influence of observer bias on results from invertebrate field-based studies. Examples of two long-term trials are also given that illustrate further operator bias. Our results suggest that long-term ecological studies using invertebrates need to be rigorously audited to ensure that operator bias is accounted for during analysis and interpretation. Further, taxonomic harmonisation remains an important step in merging field and laboratory data collected by different operators.

  18. Developing a protocol for long-term population monitoring and habitat projections for a climate-sensitive sentinel species to track ecosystem change and species range shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, A.

    2016-12-01

    As a response to ongoing climate change, many species have started to shift their ranges poleward and toward higher elevations and mountain environments are predicted to experience especially rapid climatic changes. Because of this, there is likely a greater risk of habitat loss and local extinctions for species at high elevations compared to species at lower elevations. Among those potentially threatened habitat specialists is the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a climate sensitive indicator of climate change effects which may already be experiencing climate driven extirpations. Pikas are considered sentinels, indicators of greater ecosystem change. Changes in their distribution speaks to changes in availability of resources they require and shifts in the environment. Pika presence is closely tied to sub-surface ice features that act as a temperature buffer and water source. Those sub-surface ice features are critical in water cycling and long-term water storage and drive downstream hydrological and ecological processes. Understanding how this species responds to climate change therefore provides a model to inform landscape level conservation and management decisions. Pikas may be particularly vulnerable in parts of Colorado, including Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) and the Niwot Ridge LTER (NWT), where they may face population collapse as habitat suitability and connectivity both decline in response to various possible climate change scenarios, in large part because of cold stress and declining functional connectivity. Because of their potential role as an ecosystem indicator, their risk for decline, and how limitations to their survival likely vary across their range, management groups can use place based models of habitat suitability for pikas or other sentinel species in designing long term monitoring protocols to detect ecosystem responses to climate change. In this project we used remotely sensed data, occupancy surveys, and a random tessellation

  19. Protecting the Health of Astronauts: Enhancing Occupational Health Monitoring and Surveillance for Former NASA Astronauts to Understand Long-Term Outcomes of Spaceflight-Related Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA's ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of e an Astronaut Occupational Health program to include expanded medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks

  20. Effect of broadcast baiting on abundance patterns of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and key local ant genera at long-term monitoring sites in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaught, Melinda K; Wylie, F Ross; Harris, Evan J; Alston, Clair L; Burwell, Chris J; Jennings, Craig

    2014-08-01

    In 2001, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) was identified in Brisbane, Australia. An eradication program involving broadcast bait treatment with two insect growth regulators and a metabolic inhibitor began in September of that year and is currently ongoing. To gauge the impacts of these treatments on local ant populations, we examined long-term monitoring data and quantified abundance patterns of S. invicta and common local ant genera using a linear mixed-effects model. For S. invicta, presence in pitfalls reduced over time to zero on every site. Significantly higher numbers of S. invicta workers were collected on high-density polygyne sites, which took longer to disinfest compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. For local ants, nine genus groups of the 10 most common genera analyzed either increased in abundance or showed no significant trend. Five of these genus groups were significantly less abundant at the start of monitoring on high-density polygyne sites compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. The genus Pheidole significantly reduced in abundance over time, suggesting that it was affected by treatment efforts. These results demonstrate that the treatment regime used at the time successfully removed S. invicta from these sites in Brisbane, and that most local ant genera were not seriously impacted by the treatment. These results have important implications for current and future prophylactic treatment efforts, and suggest that native ants remain in treated areas to provide some biological resistance to S. invicta.

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km. Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011. The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

  2. Long-Term Oceanographic Monitoring in Massachusetts Bay (1989-2006) for Assessment of the Transport and Fate of Sediments and Associated Contaminants.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site LT-A (42 degrees 22.6 minutes N., 70 degrees 47.0 minutes W.; nominal water...

  3. Long-Term Oceanographic Monitoring in Massachusetts Bay (1989-2006) for Assessment of the Transport and Fate of Sediments and Associated Contaminants.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site LT-A (42 degrees 22.6 minutes N., 70 degrees 47.0 minutes W.; nominal water...

  4. Online Dementia Care Training for Healthcare Teams in Continuing and Long-Term Care Homes: A Viable Solution for Improving Quality of Care and Quality of Life for Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Colla J.; Stodel, Emma J.; Casimiro, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, develop, deliver, and evaluate an online dementia care program aimed at enabling healthcare teams deliver better service to residents with dementia in continuing (CC) and long-term care (LTC) facilities. A Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) orientation (Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003) was adopted…

  5. Problems of monitoring and long-term risk assessment for groundwater from high-volume solid waste sites in industrialized and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowska, Irena; Singh, Gulab; Tripathi, Prem S. M.

    1999-12-01

    Despite considerable research effort put into characterizing environmental aspects of disposal and construction with high- volume 'non-hazardous' waste materials, there is still lack of satisfactory knowledge of their life cycle leaching behavior in the actual field conditions. This often results in false- negative errors in the long-term environment impact assessment (EIA) and severe damage to the renewable ground water resources in the area of the disposal sites either in the operational or post-closure period. This statement has been exemplified in two case studies: (1) Powerplant ash pond under operation sited in the Erai River basin (Maharastra, India), with open water circuit; (2) Reclaimed fly ash (FA) pond in a post-closure period at the dewatering stage sited in a sand quarry (Silesia, Poland). In the first case, EIA on the basis of the monitoring of entirely excess water discharged into the river, caused serious failure in preventing deterioration of usable ground water resources in several communities within and down-gradient of the FA pond. The second case study based on screening pore solution along the vertical profiles of the FA pond displayed deep transformation of FA properties in the post-closure period. At this stage, FA acidification and massive heavy metal release from its matrix due to the change of the saturation zone conditions into the vadose zone occurred. These examples clearly show a need of properly designed and operated life cycle screening/monitoring of the large-volume waste sites to provide an early alert to prevent degradation of recoverable ground water resources. Some concepts of cost-effective monitoring/screening for an early alert have been proposed.

  6. FIRST LONG-TERM OPTICAL SPECTRAL MONITORING OF A BINARY BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE E1821+643. I. VARIABILITY OF SPECTRAL LINES AND CONTINUUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Zhdanova, V. E. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Popović, L. Č. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11160 Belgrade 74 (Serbia); Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdés, J. R.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; León-Tavares, J.; Torrealba, J. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, Puebla, México (Mexico); Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kollatschny, W., E-mail: ashap@sao.ru [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We report the results of the first long-term (1990–2014) optical spectrophotometric monitoring of a binary black hole candidate QSO E1821+643, a low-redshift, high-luminosity, radio-quiet quasar. In the monitored period, the continua and Hγ fluxes changed about two times, while the Hβ flux changed about 1.4 times. We found periodical variations in the photometric flux with periods of 1200, 1850, and 4000 days, and 4500-day periodicity in the spectroscopic variations. However, the periodicity of 4000–4500 days covers only one cycle of variation and should be confirmed with a longer monitoring campaign. There is an indication of the period around 1300 days in the spectroscopic light curves, buts with small significance level, while the 1850-day period could not be clearly identified in the spectroscopic light curves. The line profiles have not significantly changed, showing an important red asymmetry and broad line peak redshifted around +1000 km s{sup −1}. However, Hβ shows a broader mean profile and has a larger time lag (τ ∼ 120 days) than Hγ (τ ∼ 60 days). We estimate that the mass of the black hole is ∼2.6 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}. The obtained results are discussed in the frame of the binary black hole hypothesis. To explain the periodicity in the flux variability and high redshift of the broad lines, we discuss a scenario where dense, gas-rich, cloudy-like structures are orbiting around a recoiling black hole.

  7. Long-term progression and therapeutic response of visceral metastatic disease non-invasively monitored in mouse urine using beta-human choriogonadotropin secreting tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Giulio; Emmenegger, Urban; Lee, Christina R; Shaked, Yuval; Folkins, Christopher; Mossoba, Miriam; Medin, Jeffrey A; Man, Shan; Zhu, Zhenping; Witte, Larry; Kerbel, Robert S

    2008-10-01

    Historically, the use of mouse models of metastatic disease to evaluate anticancer therapies has been hampered because of difficulties in detection and quantification of such lesions without sacrificing the mice, which in turn may also be dictated by institutional or ethical guidelines. Advancements in imaging technologies have begun to change this situation. A new method to non-invasively measure tumor burden, as yet untested to monitor spontaneous metastases, is the use of transplanted tumors expressing secretable human beta-chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) that can be measured in urine. We describe examples of beta-hCG-transfected tumor cell lines for evaluating the effect of different therapies on metastatic disease, which in some cases involved monitoring tumor growth for >100 days. We used beta-hCG-tagged mouse B16 melanoma and erbB-2/Her-2-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 models, and drug treatments included metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy with or without a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-targeting antibody (DC101) or trastuzumab, the erbB-2/Her-2-targeting antibody. Both experimental and spontaneous metastasis models were studied; in the latter case, an increase in urine beta-hCG always foreshadowed the development of lung, liver, brain, and kidney metastases. Metastatic disease was unresponsive to DC101 or trastuzumab monotherapy treatment, as assessed by beta-hCG levels. Our results also suggest that beta-hCG levels may be set as an end point for metastasis studies, circumventing guidelines, which have often hampered the use of advanced disease models. Collectively, our data indicates that beta-hCG is an effective noninvasive preclinical marker for the long term monitoring of untreated or treated metastatic disease.

  8. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  9. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  10. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  11. Nonlinear relationships between particulate matter and its gaseous precursors Analysis of long-term air quality monitoring data by means of neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, I B

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear features of the relationships between particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are derived directly from data of long-term routine measurements of NOx, VOC, and total suspended PM. The main idea of the method used for the analysis is creation of special empirical models based on artificial neural networks of the perceptron type. These models which are in essence the nonlinear extension of commonly used linear regression models are believed to provide the best fit for the real nonlinear PM-NOx-VOC relationships under different observed levels of air pollution and various meteorological conditions. It is believed that such models may be useful in context of various scientific and practical problems concerning PM. The method is demonstrated by the example of two empirical models created with independent data-sets collected at two air quality monitoring stations at South Coast Air Basin, California. It is shown that in spite of considerable distance b...

  12. Reports on Polysomnograph Combined with Long-term Video Electroencephalogram for Monitoring Nocturnal Sleep-breath Events in 82 Epileptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of epileptic discharges in sleep of epileptic patients on sleepbreath events. Methods: Polysomnograph (PSG and long-term video electroencephalogram (LTVEEG were used to monitor 82 adult epileptic patients. The condition of paroxysmal events in nocturnal sleep was analyzed, and the epileptiform discharge and effects of antiepileptic drugs were explored. Results: In epileptic group, latency to persistent sleep (LPS and REM sleep latency increased, the proportion of light sleep increased while that of deep sleep decreased, sleep efficiency reduced, nocturnal arousal times increased and apnea hyponea indexes (AHI improved, which demonstrated significant differences by comparison to control group. Periodic leg movements (PLM had no conspicuous differences compared with control group. There were no specific effects of epileptiform discharge and antiepileptic drugs on AHI and PLM indexes. Conclusion: Epileptic patients have sleep structure disorders and sleep-disordered breathing, and arousal, respiratory and leg movement events influence mutually. Synchronous detection of PSG combined with LTVEEG is in favor of comprehensively analyzing the relationship between sleep structures and epilepsy-breath events.

  13. Reports on Polysomnograph Combined with Long-term Video Electroencephalogram for Monitoring Nocturnal Sleep-breath Events in 82 Epileptic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongliang; Jiang Min; Li Yan; Xu Jianyang; Wang Shouyong; Du Junqiu; Shi Xiangsong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of epileptic discharges in sleep of epileptic patients on sleep-breath events. Methods: Polysomnograph (PSG) and long-term video electroencephalogram (LTVEEG) were used to monitor 82 adult epileptic patients. The condition of paroxysmal events in nocturnal sleep was analyzed, and the epileptiform discharge and effects of antiepileptic drugs were explored. Results: In epileptic group, latency to persistent sleep (LPS) and REM sleep latency increased, the proportion of light sleep increased while that of deep sleep decreased, sleep efficiency reduced, nocturnal arousal times increased and apnea hyponea indexes (AHI) improved, which demonstrated significant differences by comparison to control group. Periodic leg movements (PLM) had no conspicuous differences compared with control group. There were no speciifc effects of epileptiform discharge and antiepileptic drugs on AHI and PLM indexes. Conclusion: Epileptic patients have sleep structure disorders and sleep-disordered breathing, and arousal, respiratory and leg movement events inlfuence mutually. Synchronous detection of PSG combined with LTVEEG is in favor of comprehensively analyzing the relationship between sleep structures and epilepsy-breath events.

  14. Long-term tolerability of capnography and respiratory inductance plethysmography for respiratory monitoring in pediatric patients treated with patient-controlled analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen M.; Kim, Andrew Y.; Yaster, Myron; Kudchadkar, Sapna R.; White, Elizabeth; Fackler, James; Monitto, Constance L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation has advocated the use of continuous electronic monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation to preemptively identify opioid-induced respiratory depression. In adults, capnography is the gold standard in respiratory monitoring. An alternative technique used in sleep laboratories is respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). However, it is not known if either monitor is well tolerated by pediatric patients for prolonged periods of time. Aim The goal of this study was to determine whether capnography or RIP is better tolerated in non-intubated, spontaneously breathing pediatric patients being treated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA). Methods Nasal cannula capnography with oral sampling and thoracic and abdominal inductance plethysmography bands were placed along with routine monitors on pediatric patients being treated for acute pain with IVPCA. Study monitors were left in place for as long as they were tolerated by the patient, for a maximum of 24 consecutive hours. If the patient did not wear a particular study monitor for any reason, but tolerated the remaining monitor, participation in the study continued. If the patient would not wear either monitor, participation was terminated. Results Twenty-six patients (18 female, 8 male, average age 10.1 ± 5.5 years) consented to participate, but only 14 patients attempted to wear one or both devices. Among those who wore either device, median time to device removal was 8.33 hours (range 0.3–23.6 hours) for capnography and 23.5 hours (range 0.7–24 hours) for RIP bands. Conclusion Children did not tolerate wearing capnography cannulae for prolonged periods of time, limiting the usefulness of this device as a continuous monitor of ventilation in children. RIP bands were better tolerated; however, they require further assessment of their utility. Until more effective, child-friendly monitors are developed and their utility validated, guidelines

  15. Long-term monitoring of the environmental quality in the Norwegian coastal areas. Data report 1996. Hard bottom study. (Monitoring report no. 689/97); Langtidsovervaaking av miljoekvaliteten i kystomraadene av Norge. Datarapport 1996. Hardbunnsundersoekelser. (Overvaakingsrapport nr 689/97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Are; Green, Norman W.; Moy, Frithjof; Walday, Mats

    1997-12-31

    Commissioned by the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, NIVA in 1990 started a programme for long-term eutrophication monitoring along the coast of Southern Norway. The programme comprises hydro-chemical and biological investigations (hard- and soft-bottom). The investigations are to be repeated annually throughout a period of 10-20 years. This report presents the data from the hard-bottom investigations of 1996. It shows the results from diving transects, registrations of seaweed and beach investigations. The work is part of the Norwegian State Pollution Monitoring Programme. 5 figs., 3 tabs.