WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-span suspension bridges

  1. Progressive collapse susceptibility of a long span suspension bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmati, Pierluigi; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    ones may lead to subsequent failures. In suspension bridges, which are characterized by a relatively low continuity of the system, the damage of the deck may favor a collapse standstill, in case of an early detachment of the deck collapsing section. In the paper, a long span suspension bridge is taken...

  2. Advanced aerostatic analysis of long-span suspension bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the span length of suspension bridges increases, the diameter of cables and thus the wind load acting on them, the nonlinear wind-structure interaction and the wind speed spatial non-uniformity all increase consequently, which may have unnegligible influence on the aerostatic behavior of long-span suspension bridges. In this work, a method of advanced aerostatic analysis is presented firstly by considering the geometric nonlinearity, the nonlinear wind-structures and wind speed spatial non-uniformity. By taking the Runyang Bridge over the Yangtze River as example, effects of the nonlinear wind-structure interaction, wind speed spatial non-uniformity, and the cable's wind load on the aerostatic behavior of the bridge are investigated analytically. The results showed that these factors all have important influence on the aerostatic behavior, and should be considered in the aerostatic analysis of long and particularly super long-span suspension bridges.

  3. A review of long-span suspension bridges: a case of Akashi-Kaikyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of long-span suspension bridges: a case of Akashi-Kaikyo and Runyang ... bridge ever built, and the greatest bridge in the beginning of the new Millennium. These bridges contain remarkable features of novel bridge construction ...

  4. Non-stationary Buffeting Response Analysis of Long Span Suspension Bridge Under Strong Wind Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng Huang; Kongqing Zou

    2016-01-01

    The non⁃stationary buffeting response of long span suspension bridge in time domain under strong wind loading is computed. Modeling method for generating non⁃stationary fluctuating winds with probabilistic model for non⁃stationary strong wind fields is first presented. Non⁃stationary wind forces induced by strong winds on bridge deck and tower are then given a brief introduction. Finally, Non⁃stationary buffeting response of Pulite Bridge in China, a long span suspension bridge, is computed by using ANSYS software under four working conditions with different combination of time⁃varying mean wind and time⁃varying variance. The case study further confirms that it is necessity of considering non⁃stationary buffeting response for long span suspension bridge under strong wind loading, rather than only stationary buffeting response.

  5. Structural health monitoring of long-span suspension bridges using wavelet packet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Youliang; Li Aiqun

    2007-01-01

    During the service life of civil engineering structures such as long-span bridges, local damage at key positions may continually accumulate, and may finally result in their sudden failure. One core issue of global vibration-based health monitoring methods is to seek some damage indices that are sensitive to structural damage. This paper proposes an online structural health monitoring method for long-span suspension bridges using wavelet packet transform (WPT). The WPTbased method is based on the energy variations of structural ambient vibration responses decomposed using wavelet packet analysis. The main feature of this method is that the proposed wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) has the ability to detect structural damage from ambient vibration tests of a long-span suspension bridge. As an example application, the WPES-based health monitoring system is used on the Runyang Suspension Bridge under daily environmental conditions. The analysis reveals that changes in environmental temperature have a long-term influence on the WPES, while the effect of traffic loadings on the measured WPES of the bridge presents instantaneous changes because of the nonstationary properties of the loadings. The condition indication indices VD reflect the influences of environmental temperature on the dynamic properties of the Runyang Suspension Bridge. The field tests demonstrate that the proposed WPES-based condition indication index VD is a good candidate index for health monitoring of long-span suspension bridges under ambient excitations.

  6. Structural health monitoring of long-span suspension bridges using wavelet packet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Youliang; Li, Aiqun

    2007-09-01

    During the service life of civil engineering structures such as long-span bridges, local damage at key positions may continually accumulate, and may finally result in their sudden failure. One core issue of global vibration-based health monitoring methods is to seek some damage indices that are sensitive to structural damage. This paper proposes an online structural health monitoring method for long-span suspension bridges using wavelet packet transform (WPT). The WPT-based method is based on the energy variations of structural ambient vibration responses decomposed using wavelet packet analysis. The main feature of this method is that the proposed wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) has the ability to detect structural damage from ambient vibration tests of a long-span suspension bridge. As an example application, the WPES-based health monitoring system is used on the Runyang Suspension Bridge under daily environmental conditions. The analysis reveals that changes in environmental temperature have a long-term influence on the WPES, while the effect of traffic loadings on the measured WPES of the bridge presents instantaneous changes because of the nonstationary properties of the loadings. The condition indication indices V D reflect the influences of environmental temperature on the dynamic properties of the Runyang Suspension Bridge. The field tests demonstrate that the proposed WPES-based condition indication index V D is a good candidate index for health monitoring of long-span suspension bridges under ambient excitations.

  7. Non-linear buffeting response analysis of long-span suspension bridges with central buckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Aiqun; Zhao, Gengwen; Li, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The rigid central buckle employed in the Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB) was the first time it was used in a suspension bridge in China. By using a spectral representation method and FFT technique combined with measured data, a 3D fluctuating wind field considering the tower wind effect is simulated. A novel FE model for buffeting analysis is then presented, in which a specific user-defined Matrix27 element in ANSYS is employed to simulate the aeroelastic forces and its stiffness or damping matrices are parameterized by wind velocity and vibration frequency. A nonlinear time history analysis is carried out to study the influence of the rigid central buckle on the wind-induced buffeting response of a long-span suspension bridge. The results can be used as a reference for wind resistance design of long-span suspension bridges with a rigid central buckle in the future.

  8. Seismic Response of Long-Span Triple-Tower Suspension Bridge under Random Ground Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ke Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitower suspension bridge is of different style compared to the traditional suspension bridge with two towers, and consequently the dissimilarity of static and dynamic behaviors is distinct. As a special case of multitower suspension bridge, two long-span triple-tower suspension bridges have been constructed in China and the seismic random response of triple-tower suspension bridges is studied in this paper. A nonlinear dynamic analysis finite element model is established in ABAQUS and the Python language is utilized to facilitate the preprocess and postprocess during the finite element analysis. The procedure for random response calculation of structures based on the pseudoexcitation method is presented, with the initial equilibrium state of structure considered, which may be ignored for long-span bridges during calculating of stochastic response. The stationary seismic random responses of triple-tower suspension bridge under uniform excitation in firm, medium, and soft soil conditions and under spatially varying excitation in soft soil are investigated. The distribution of RMS of random responses of displacements and internal forces of the stiffening girder and towers is presented and discussed in detail. Results show that spatially variable ground motions should be considered in the stochastic analysis of triple-tower suspension bridge.

  9. Three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-jun; Sun, Bing-nan; Xiang, Hai-fan

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic stability of the Yichang Suspension Bridge over Yangtze River during erection was determined by three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis, in which the nonlinearities of structural dynamic characteristics and aeroelastic forces caused by large deformation are fully considered. An interesting result obtained was that the bridge was more stable when the stiffening girders were erected in a non-symmetrical manner as opposed to the traditional symmetrical erection schedule. It was also found that the severe decrease in the aerodynamic stability was due to the nonlinear effects. Therefore, the nonlinear factors should be considered accurately in aerodynamic stability analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection.

  10. Three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新军; 孙炳楠; 项海帆

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic stability of the Yichang Suspension Bridge over Yangtze River during erection was determined by three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis, in which the nonlinearities of structural dynamic characteristics and aeroelastic forces caused by large deformation are fully considered. An interesting result obtained was that the bridge was more stable when the stiffening girders were erected in a non-symmetrical manner as opposed to the traditional symmetrical erection schedule. It was also found that the severe decrease in the aerodynamic stability was due to the nonlinear effects. Therefore, the nonlinear factors should be considered accurately in aerodynamic stability analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection.

  11. Three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新军; 孙炳楠; 项海帆

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic stability of the Yichang Suspension Bridge over Yangtze River during erection was determined by three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis, in which the nonlinearities of structural dynamic characteristics and aeroelastic forces caused by large deformation are fully considered. An interesting resuh obtained was that the bridge was more stable when the stiffening girders were erected in a non-symmetrical manner as opposed to the traditional symmetrical erection schedule. It was also found that the severe decrease in the aerodynamic stability was due to the nonlinear effects. Therefore, the nonlinear factors should be considered accurately in aerodynamic stability analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection.

  12. Damage alarming of long-span suspension bridge based on GPS-RTK monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪长青; 王蔓; 田洪金; 冯兆祥; 陈策

    2015-01-01

    Structure damage identification and alarming of long-span bridge were conducted with three-dimensional dynamic displacement data collected by GPS subsystem of health monitoring system on Runyang Suspension Bridge. First, the effects of temperature on the main girder spatial position coordinates were analyzed from the transverse, longitudinal and vertical directions of bridge, and the correlation regression models were built between temperature and the position coordinates of main girder in the longitudinal and vertical directions; then the alarming indices of coordinate residuals were conducted, and the mean-value control chart was applied to making statistical pattern identification for abnormal changes of girder dynamic coordinates; and finally, the structural damage alarming method of main girder was established. Analysis results show that temperature has remarkable correlation with position coordinates in the longitudinal and vertical directions of bridge, and has weak correlation with the transverse coordinates. The 3% abnormal change of the longitudinal coordinates and 5% abnormal change of the vertical ones caused by structural damage are respectively identified by the mean-value control chart method based on GPS dynamic monitoring data and hence the structural abnormalities state identification and damage alarming for main girder of long-span suspension bridge can be realized in multiple directions.

  13. Structural condition assessment of long-span suspension bridges using long-term monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng; Youliang, Ding; Aiqun, Li

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on developing an online structural condition assessment technique using long-term monitoring data measured by a structural health monitoring system. The seasonal correlations of frequency-temperature and beam-end displacement-temperature for the Runyang Suspension Bridge are performed, first. Then, a statistical modeling technique using a six-order polynomial is further applied to formulate the correlations of frequency-temperature and displacement-temperature, from which abnormal changes of measured frequencies and displacements are detected using the mean value control chart. Analysis results show that modal frequencies of higher vibration modes and displacements have remarkable seasonal correlations with the environmental temperature and the proposed method exhibits a good capability for detecting the micro damage-induced changes of modal frequencies and displacements. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from frequency and displacement time series and is well suited for online condition monitoring of long-span suspension bridges.

  14. Thermal correlation analysis of a long-span suspension bridge static responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linren; Chen, Lan; Xia, Yong; Brownjohn, James M. W.

    2016-04-01

    Harsh service environment degenerates the performance of bridges even leads to catastrophic collapse. Structural temperature has been widely recognized as one of the most negative environmental effects on bridges. The structural responses are deeply affected by the variation and distribution of temperatures on bridges. Therefore, identifying the correlations between them is a significant issue for structural safety assessment. In this study, the relationships between the temperature induced static response and the surrounding weather factors are investigated based on the long-term field measurements of a long-span suspension bridge. The correlations of the meteorological parameters between the bridge filed and the nearby weather station, and the relations of structural static responses to the air temperature, are investigated. The results indicate that relationships of meteorological parameters between nearby weather station and the bridge field can be predicted. The correlation between the static responses and the air temperature and is remarkable with high correlation coefficient. The conclusions are expected to provide reference for the design and evaluation of longspan suspension bridges.

  15. Optical measurement system applied to continuous displacement monitoring of long-span suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages Martins, L.; Rebordão, J. M.; Ribeiro, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper provides a general description of main issues related to the design of an optical measurement system applied to continuous displacement monitoring of long-span suspension bridges. The proposed system's architecture is presented and its main components - camera and active targets - are described in terms of geometrical and radiometric characteristics required for long distance measurement of the tridimensional displacement of the stiffness girder in the middle section of the bridge's central span. The intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameterization processes, which support the adopted measurement approach, are explained in a specific section. Since the designed measurement system is intended to perform continuous displacement monitoring in long distance observation framework, particular attention is given to environmental effects, namely, refraction, turbulence and sensor saturation phenomena, which can influence the displacement measurement accuracy. Finally, a measurement uncertainty method is discussed in order to provide a suitable solution for the determination of the accuracy related to the proposed measurement approach.

  16. Dimensional field testing of an optical measurement system in a long-span suspension bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages Martins, Luis F.; Rebordão, José Manuel; Ribeiro, Álvaro S.

    2015-05-01

    The dimensional field testing activity described in this paper allowed measuring the vertical and transverse dynamic displacement related to the main span (with a dimension equal to 1012 meters) central section of a long-span suspension bridge - the 25th of April Bridge (P25A), in Lisbon (Portugal) - using an optical system composed by high focal length lens (600 mm), digital image sensor and active infrared LED targets. Maximum values of 0,53 m and 0,29 m were obtained for the vertical and transverse displacements without rail traffic on the P25A. Passenger train circulation on the bridge's lower rail deck increased the vertical displacement up to 1,69 m. The applied measuring system was subjected to an in situ calibration procedure (SI traceable), showing maximum deviations close to 1,3 mm with an expanded measurement uncertainty (in a 95% confidence interval) around 3,0 mm, in a favorable observation scenario (winter season with low vertical thermal gradient in the atmosphere). Field studies of optical phenomena such as atmospheric refraction and beam wandering effect by turbulence were also performed, aiming the validation of developed refraction correction models and the quantification of targets image coordinates dispersions (0,13 pixel in winter season a 0,56 pixel during summer season).

  17. Structural observation of long-span suspension bridges for safety assessment: implementation of an optical displacement measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages Martins, L.; Rebordão, J. M.; Silva Ribeiro, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of an optical displacement measurement system in the observation scenario of a long-span suspension bridge and its contribution for structural safety assessment. The metrological background required for quality assurance of the measurements is described, namely, the system's intrinsic parameterization and integration in the SI dimensional traceability chain by calibration, including its measurement uncertainty assessment.

  18. Accurate stress analysis on rigid central buckle of long-span suspension bridges based on submodel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB) with the main span of 1490 m is the longest bridge in China and the third longest one in the world. In this bridge the rigid central buckle is employed for the first time in the mid-span of the suspension bridge in China. For such a super-long-span bridge, the traditional finite element (FE) modeling technique and stress analysis methods obviously cannot satisfy the needs of conducting accurate stress analysis on the central buckle. In this paper, the submodel method is in- troduced and for the first time used in analyzing the stresses of the central buckle. After an accurate FE submodel of the central buckle was specially established according to the analysis results from the whole FE model, the connection technique between the two-scale FE models was realized and the ac- curate stresses of the central buckle under various vehicle load cases were then conducted based on the submodel method. The calculation results were testified to be accurate and reliable by the field measurements, which show the efficiency and reliability of the submodel method on analyzing the mechanical condition of the central buckle of long-span suspension bridges. Finally, the working be- havior and mechanical characteristics of the central buckle of the RSB under vehicle loads were ana- lyzed based on the calculation and measurement results. The results obtained in this paper can provide theoretic references for analyzing and designing the rigid central buckle in long-span suspension bridges in future.

  19. Influence of apparent wave velocity on seismic performance of a super-long-span triple-tower suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main characteristics of seismic waves, apparent wave velocity has great influence on seismic responses of long-span suspension bridges. Understanding these influences is important for seismic design. In this article, the critical issues concerning the traveling wave effect analysis are first reviewed. Taizhou Bridge, the longest triple-tower suspension bridge in the world, is then taken as an example for this investigation. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge is established in ABAQUS, and the LANCZOS eigenvalue solver is employed to calculate the structural dynamic characteristics. Traveling wave effect on seismic responses of these long-span triple-tower suspension bridges is investigated. Envelopes of seismic shear force and moment in the longitudinal direction along the three towers, relative displacements between the towers and the girder, and reaction forces at the bottoms of the three towers under different apparent wave velocities are calculated and presented in detail. The results show that the effect of apparent wave velocity on the seismic responses of triple-tower suspension bridge fluctuates when the velocity is lower than 2000 m/s, and the effects turn stable when the velocity becomes larger. In addition, the effects of traveling wave are closely related to spectral characteristics and propagation direction of the seismic wave, and seismic responses of components closer to the source are relatively larger. Therefore, reliable estimation of the seismic input and apparent wave velocity according to the characteristics of the bridge site are significant for accurate prediction of seismic responses. This study provides critical reference for seismic analysis and design of long-span triple-tower suspension bridges.

  20. Dynamic Strain Sensing in a Long-Span Suspension Bridge Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinian; Zhu, Yan-Jin; Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Zhu, Songye; Xu, You-Lin; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2011-06-01

    Optical fiber sensors are ideal for monitoring continuous deterioration conditions of civil infrastructure, especially of long-span bridges. Typically, a network of sensors is used to measure the strains or low frequency vibrational response of the structure. In this work, we demonstrate dynamic spectral demodulation of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor responses with a stabilized Michelson interferometer for monitoring mechanical strains in a model of long-span bridge. A series of experiments has been performed, including the measurements of the natural resonant modes of the model bridge, impact response of a bridge member and acoustic emissions in a fractured aluminum bar. The experimental results not only reveal that dynamic spectral demodulation of FBG strain responses at frequencies extending up to about 3.5 MHz is possible, but also suggest that the method may be suitable for monitoring high frequency mechanical strains in civil structures that result from cracking or impact loading, thus providing a tool for local detection of structural damage.

  1. Aerodynamic stability of long span suspension bridges with low torsional natural frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Styrk; Johansson, Jens; Brandt, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Classical flutter of suspended bridge decks can be avoided if the torsional frequencies are lower than the vertical. Wind tunnel tests of single boxes and twin box section models with torsional natural frequencies above and below the vertical frequency has been conducted. Flutter was avoided in a....... In order to design aerodynamically stable suspension bridges with low torsional natural frequencies it is suggested to increase the mass moment of inertia and provide adequate torsional stiffness by the main cables spacing....

  2. Aerodynamic stability of long span suspension bridges with low torsional natural frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Styrk; Johansson, Jens; Brandt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Classical flutter of suspended bridge decks can be avoided if the torsional frequencies are lower than the vertical. Wind tunnel tests of single boxes and twin box section models with torsional natural frequencies above and below the vertical frequency has been conducted. Flutter was avoided in all....... In order to design aerodynamically stable suspension bridges with low torsional natural frequencies it is suggested to increase the mass moment of inertia and provide adequate torsional stiffness by the main cables spacing....

  3. Damper placement for seismic control of super-long-span suspension bridges based on the first-order optimization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Billie; F; SPENCER

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the anti-earthquake performances of super-long-span suspension bridges, effective devices should be employed to control the seismic response of key sections. In this paper, four kinds of assessment functions for seismic response control effect are formulated based on the mechanism of seismic response control with dampers and the seismic response characteristics of long-span suspension bridges. A new optimal placement method of dampers using penalty function and first-order optimization theory is then proposed. Runyang suspension bridge (RSB) with a main span of 1490 m is then taken as an example. After seismic response time-history analyses on RSB using different placements of dampers, the analysis results are optimized by employing the optimal placement method and the optimal placements of dampers with the four assessment functions are then achieved respectively. Comparison of the four optimal control effects show that different assessment functions can lead to different optimal placements when the number of dampers is certain, but all placements of dampers can reduce the seismic response of RSB significantly. The selection of assessment functions and damper optimal placement should be determined by the structural characteristics and by what is considered in the structures. Results also show that the first-order optimization is an effective method on determining the optimal placement of dampers.

  4. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  5. Application of AN Automated Wireless Structural Monitoring System for Long-Span Suspension Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, M.; Lynch, J. P.; van der Linden, G. W.; Hipley, P.; Sheng, L.-H.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes an automated wireless structural monitoring system installed at the New Carquinez Bridge (NCB). The designed system utilizes a dense network of wireless sensors installed in the bridge but remotely controlled by a hierarchically designed cyber-environment. The early efforts have included performance verification of a dense network of wireless sensors installed on the bridge and the establishment of a cellular gateway to the system for remote access from the internet. Acceleration of the main bridge span was the primary focus of the initial field deployment of the wireless monitoring system. An additional focus of the study is on ensuring wireless sensors can survive for long periods without human intervention. Toward this end, the life-expectancy of the wireless sensors has been enhanced by embedding efficient power management schemes in the sensors while integrating solar panels for power harvesting. The dynamic characteristics of the NCB under daily traffic and wind loads were extracted from the vibration response of the bridge deck and towers. These results have been compared to a high-fidelity finite element model of the bridge.

  6. Vibration control of tower of long span suspension bridge; Chodai tsuribashi shuto no seishin gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, H.; Miyazaki, M. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, M. [Bridge and Offshore Engineering Association, Tokyo (Japan); Fumoto, K. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    This paper describes the vibration control during the erection of 8P main tower of Kurushima-ohashi Bridge. Since the body of tower crane and the crane post were adjacent to the main tower, stability against wind due to the change of separation flow was worried. Response characteristics and design data for the damper were obtained through the wind tunnel tests. Since the vibration characteristics change in each erection step, generation of vortex excitation was examined in various modes. An active mass damper (AMD) was applied to the tower surface radial bending primary vibration, of which natural frequency changes in a wide range at the wind velocity below working limit, and the other vibration modes. A tuned mass damper (TMD) was also used in the mode where large damping energy is required under the high wind velocity and high frequency conditions. For the rolling pendulum type AMD, a servo-motor driving carriage moves on the frame rail, and a restitutive force is obtained with rotating the fan type rolling element pin-supported on the carriage. The natural frequency of AMD can be adjusted by fan shaped plural weight plates. Variable gain type DVFB control was employed, in which displacement and velocity of the damper are used as the control output. Sufficient functions could be obtained. 7 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for long span suspension bridge under a rapid stream; Kyuchoryuka ni okeru chodai tsuribashi no hokoketa chokka tsuri koho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakao, T.; Koga, N. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-20

    Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for a long span suspension bridge, which is to be constructed over the Kurushima Channel, an international route, has been investigated. For the construction of suspension bridge over channels, the overhang construction is generally employed. Bridge girder perpendicular construction, in which unit girder block is lifted from a carrier barge and directly constructed by means of lifting beams located at main cable, is a superb method in terms of cost, time, and safety. It is necessary to stay the carrier barge during the anchoring of girder block and lifting beams. Mooring of the carrier barge is required under a rapid stream, which results in the trouble of under way ships. A propulsion positioning system has been developed for the bridge girder carrier barge, by which the position/propulsion of four thrusters equipped at each corner of the barge can be automatically controlled. Thus, the perpendicular construction of bridge girder has been developed, in which mooring is not required even under the rapid stream. The position of barge can be maintained within a range of {plus_minus}2.5 m even under a rapid stream with a speed of 3 kn. The quick joint can be certainly connected for about one minute in the horizontal movement within {plus_minus}2.5 m and vertical movement within 0.5 m. For this perpendicular construction, the construction time can be shortened to around 16 to 17 minutes, which has been usually taken for three hours. 2 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Dynamic response of a long span suspension bridge and running safety of a train under wind action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Weiwei; XIA He; XU Youlin

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic analysis model of a wind-train-bridge system is established.The wind excitations of the system are the buffeting and self-excited forces simulated in time domain using measured aerodynamic coefficients and flutter derivatives.The proposed formulations are then applied to a long rail-cum-road suspension bridge.The dynamic responses of the bridge and the train under wind action are analyzed.The results show that the lateral and rotational displacements of the bridge are dominated by wind,while the vertical by the gravity loading of the moving train.The running safeties of the train vehicles are much affected by wind.Under wind conditions of 30-40 m/s,the offioad factors,derail factors and overturn factors of the train vehicles exceed the safety allowances,to which great attention should be paid.

  9. State-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Haifan; GE Yaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the state-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China with emphases on recent long-span bridge projects,bridge deck configuration and material,design codes of long-span bridges and improvement of aerodynamic performance.The recent long-span bridge projects include thirty-eight completed suspension bridges,cable-stayed and arch bridges with a main span over 400 m,and eighteen major bridges are under construction.The bridge deck configuration and material,with prestressed concrete decks,steel-concrete composite decks and steel box decks together with several popular cross-sections,are presented.The third part briefly outlines four design codes,including static and dynamic design for highway long-span bridges,and the recent engineering experiences gained from several aerodynamic vibration control projects of long-span bridges are shared in the last part.

  10. Parameters analysis for assistant cables of system for transient main cable and catwalk of long-span suspension bridges at construction stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengli; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    On the basis of static, dynamic and transient analysis for the prestressing cable structures, the parameters to control the vibration of the system for transient main cables and catwalk of some long-span suspension bridge at the construction stages with the assistant cables are investigated adopting the method of the finite element considering the geometry nonlinearity. The review and prospect to control vibration with assistant cables are summarized, the finite element modeling of the system for transient main cables and catwalk is established, and the influence of the position of the assistant cables, disposed fashion and the tensile forces upon the critical frequencies of the system for transient main cables and catwalk is researched. At the same time, the effect of the damp and the tensile forces of the assistant cables on the equivalent damping ratio of the system for transient main cables and catwalk inside and outside the plane is studied and the effect to control the vibration of the system is analysed. In the end, the influence of the transformation for the tensile forces about assistant cables upon those of the transient main cables and catwalk is also investigated. Results show that, to increase the critical frequencies of the system, the assistant cables should be laid vertically with the main cables and be located in interim span or between the tower and interim span, and to increase the amount of the assistant cables can increase the critical frequencies ,and to increase the rigidities of the assistant cables can improve the ones of the transient main cables but decrease the anti-torsion ability of the catwalks, and to increase the damp of the assistant cables can improve the vibration of the transient main cables inside and outside the plane but the result is little outside the plane, and in addition the effect of the rigidities of the assistant cables is larger outside the plane but is little inside the plane. The results also show that the

  11. Construction Technology of Long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method and the ......A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method...

  12. 国内大跨径悬索桥锚碇锚固系统比较研究%The Compare and Investigation of Anchor System for Anchorage of Domestic Long-Span Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 鲜亮; 姚志安

    2011-01-01

    The anchor system for anchorage of suspension bridge plays an important controlling role in overall safety of structure . The paper mainly compares the different anchor system for anchorage of domestic long-span suspension bridge, and Makes an investigation on durability 、reliability and economy, which can be used for reference on adoption for future anchor system for anchorage of long-span suspension bridge.%悬索桥锚碇锚固系统在保证结构整体安全上具有重要控制作用.主要对我国目前大跨径悬索桥锚固系统不同体系作了比较,并对各种体系的耐久性、可靠性及经济性等方面进行了研究,为今后大跨径悬索桥锚固系统体系的采用提供了借鉴.

  13. Long span cable supported bridges - present technology and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The activity within the field of long-span cable supported bridges has never been larger than at the end of the 20th century. The technology is well advanced to cope with the present challenges but it is also approaching its limits so if the trend towards ever increasing spans continues...... into the next century, further developments are required to ensure that the bridges will be stable, durable and constructible....

  14. Study of the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinjun; Sun Hailing

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of span length,the bridge tends to be more flexible,and the wind stability be-comes an important problem for the design and construction of super long-span cable-stayed bridges. By taking a super long-span cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 400 m as example,the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of the bridge are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear aerostatic and aerodynamic stability analy-sis,and the results are compared with those of a suspension bridge with a main span of 1 385 m,and from the aspect of wind stability,the feasibility of using cable-stayed bridge in super long-span bridge with a main span above 1 000 m is discussed. In addition,the influences of design parameters including the depth and width of the girder,the tower structure,the tower height-to-span ratio,the side-to-main span ratio,the auxiliary piers in the side span and the anchorage system of stay cables,etc on the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of su-per long-span cable-stayed bridges are investigated numerically;the key design parameters are pointed out,and also their reasonable values are proposed.

  15. Safety distance for bearing members of long-span suspension bridge in highway fire%大跨径悬索桥承重构件公路火灾安全距离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 董晓明; 胡兆同

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence of highway fire on long-span suspension bridges and fill in the blank of suspension bridge fire research, combining structure fire analysis, an indirect coupling method was chosen to carry out the thermal-structure coupling analysis. Taking a 300 MW vehicle fire as an example, ANSYS was used to build the fire coordinate model of different section of a typi-cal suspension bridge. On the basis of fire research domestic and abroad, basing on the Ingason H. square growth model and taking the safety distance for cable bearing component of the long-span sus-pension bridge in highway fire as a research object, a numerical simulation for the safety distance of suspender cable and main cable was performed to reduce project risk and ensure the safety and sta-bility of the bridge. A thermal release rate mathematical model which suits highway fire study was put forward; The safety distance model in highway fire was established, and the size of combustion heat source and heat release rate of unit area were determined; With the thermal-structure coupling analysis, the fire safety distance for suspender cable and main cable of different diameters (0. 4 ~1. 0 m) were determined. The research results can provide some scientific basis for the fire resist-ance design of long-span suspension bridges.%为研究公路火灾对大跨径悬索桥带来的影响,弥补悬索桥火灾研究的空白,结合结构火灾分析的特点,确定选择间接耦合法进行热-结构耦合分析。以300 MW 车辆火灾为例,运用 ANSYS 有限元程序,建立了悬索桥不同断面的火灾坐标模型,在总结国内外火灾研究工作的基础上,基于 Ingason H.平方增长模型,以典型的大跨径悬索桥缆索承重构件的公路火灾安全距离为研究对象,以降低工程风险、保证大跨径悬索桥结构的安全性和稳定性为研究目标,对大跨径悬索桥吊索和主缆安全距离进行数值模拟,提出

  16. Synthetical condition assessment of long span suspension bridge based on closeness degree and FAHP%基于贴近度与模糊层次分析的大跨悬索桥综合状态评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彤; 李爱群; 赵大亮; 王浩

    2007-01-01

    Based on the theory of pattern recognition, the concept of closeness degree between fuzzy sets is brought into the condition assessment of long span bridges. Using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP),a mathematical model of a multi-objective assessment of a long span suspension bridge is set up. An example is given to show the procedure in the synthetical condition assessment of the Runyang Suspension Bridge, which includes the hierarchical division, the definition of factor weights and fuzzy membership functions, and the calculation of closeness degrees, etc. The assessment combines both the data from the health monitoring system and the manual tests. The classification of evaluation items as well as the calculation of deterministic and nondeterministic items is presented. Compared with the traditional method of point rating, this method can better describe the discreteness of monitoring data and the fuzziness in the condition assessment.%基于模式识别理论,将模糊集贴近度的概念引入大跨桥梁状态评估中,利用模糊层次分析,建立起大跨悬索桥多目标评估的数学模型.以润扬大桥悬索桥的综合状态评估为例,介绍了评估的基本程序,包括评估指标的层次划分、指标权重的确定、模糊集隶属函数的定义以及贴近度的计算等.评估综合了健康监测系统的采集数据和人工监测结果2方面的信息,同时还给出了评估指标的分类方法和确定性指标、不确定性指标的计算方法.与传统的专家打分法相比,该方法更好地体现了监测信息的离散性、不确定性和评估过程的模糊性.

  17. Force transmission mechanism and fatigue behavior of a pin-connection anchor of hanger for a long-span suspension bridge; Chodai tsurihashi no hanga ropu pin teichakubu hokyo kozo no chikara no dentatsu kiko to hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, H. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Fujii, Y. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Kagawa (Japan); Ono, S. [Construction Method and Machinery Research Inst. of J.C.M.A, Shizuoka (Japan); Miki, C. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-21

    In a long-span suspension bridge having a stiffening truss, a large angular bend of a hanger occurs due to the relative displacement of a main cable and a stiffening girder occurring during a storm. This paper describes the production of a life size specimen with importance attached to a fixed portion of a one-way pin which is in a severe stress condition, and the measurement of the stress condition of a fixing plate and a reinforcing plate near a pin hole of a pin fixing structure, the contact condition of the pin with the pin hole and the bending stress of the pin. The paper further describes a fatigue test conducted in a stormy weather condition. The results of an investigation into two types of contact condition of the pin and pin hole clearly show that the pin is in a one-side contact state during a storm, not in a uniform contact state even in a normal condition due to the unevenness of the inner surface of the pin hole. Therefore, the load of the hanger is not evenly transmitted to the connection plate and reinforcing plate. Consequently, it is necessary to discuss in the future the size and quality of a weld at which the connection plate and reinforcing plate are joined together so as to attain reliable transmission of the load. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 大跨人行悬索桥非线性静风稳定性分析%Nonlinear aerostatic stability analysis of a long-span suspension pedestrian bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓锋; 管青海; 胡兆同; 李加武; 刘健新

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear aerostatic stability of a 420m-main-span suspension pedestrian bridge was analysed numerically.Based on aerostatic coefficients of the main girder measured in wind tunnel tests,nonlinear influences caused by the structure and aerostatic load were analysed by using incremental double iteration method.The results conclude as follows:the structure deformation varying with wind speed shows obvious nonlinearity,and the aerostatic instability mode is of the characteristic of space deformation of bending-twisting coupling mode;comparing with the highway bridge,the torsional stiffness of the bridge due to main cables accounts for a greater proportion of the stiffness of the long-span suspension pedestrian bridge.The critical wind velocity and the reason of aerostatic instability can be got by tracing the stress in the main cable with the variation of wind speed;nonzero initial wind attack angle can reduce the critical wind speed;central buckles and anti-wind cables can raise the critical wind speed.The aerostatic instability mode after the installation of central buckles is the bending-twisting coupling mode of main girder,and the aerostatic instability mode after adding the measure of anti-wind cables is the local structural buckling due to the wind cables and hangers stress relaxation.The results are beneficial to the further research of long span narrow bridge aerostatic stability.%基于风洞试验所测加劲梁静力三分力系数,在综合考虑静风荷载非线性、结构几何非线性基础上,采用双重迭代计算分析方法对主跨420 m大跨窄人行悬索桥进行静风稳定性全过程分析。结果表明,结构变形随风速变化呈明显非线性,静风失稳形态弯曲扭转空间耦合变形特征显著;较公路桥大跨人行悬索桥主缆提供的扭转刚度比重更大,跟踪两主缆跨中应力随风速变化情况可定义静风失稳临界风速及与分析静风失稳原因;非零初始风攻角会降

  19. Impact Coefficient Analysis of Long-Span Railway Cable-Stayed Bridge Based on Coupled Vehicle-Bridge Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Yongle Li; Shifu Dong; Yulong Bao; Kejian Chen; Shizhong Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Compared with medium and small span bridges, very limited attention has been paid on the research of the impact coefficient of long-span railway bridges. To estimate the impact effects of long-span railway bridges subjected to moving vehicles, a real long-span railway cable-stayed bridge is regarded as the research object in this study, and a coupled model of vehicle-bridge system is established. The track irregularities are taken as the system excitation and the dynamic responses of the vehi...

  20. Stochastic finite element analysis of long-span bridges with CFRP cables under earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Özlem Çavdar; Alemdar Bayraktar; Süleyman Adanur; Hasan Basri Başaǧa

    2010-06-01

    Stochastic seismic analysis of long-span bridges with Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) cables are presented in this study through combination of the advantages of the perturbation based stochastic finite element method (SFEM) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. Jindo cable-stayed and Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Second Bosporus) suspension bridges are chosen as an example. Carbon fibre reinforced polymer cable (CFRP) and steel cables are used separately, in which the cable’s cross sectional area is determined by the principle equivalent axial stiffness. Geometric nonlinear effects are considered in the analysis. Uncertainties in the material are taken into account and Kocaeli earthquake in 1999 is chosen as a ground motion. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are validated by comparing with results of MCS method. It can be stated that using of CFRP cables in long-span bridges subjected to earthquake forces is feasible.

  1. Non-Flutter Design Principle for long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Starch Øvre, Michele

    velocity for a thin airfoil shows an asymptotical behavior. In traditional bridge design the torsional-to-vertical frequency ratio is increased to obtain higher flutter wind velocities. In the present study, we investigate, what we will label the non-flutter design principle, in which the torsional...

  2. Coating of long span bridges; Chotaikyo no toso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanishi, H. [Nippon Paint Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-15

    A composite anti-corrosion coating method (zinc rich primer + epoxy resin primer + polyurethane resin primer) was used for the Seto Ohashi Bridge. The anti-corrosion coating system in the Akashi Ohashi Bridge is the same as described above. This paper mainly describes the coating in a Honshu-Shikoku linking bridge. In the coating system, product blasting is used as rough coating. In the whole process, coating is basically performed at the factory. The anti-corrosion against a friction junction plane and splice plate is also carried out. For example, a rustproof bolt is used in the easy-to-corrode part. Coating is performed to obtain a thick film of more than 200 {mu}m. The edge of a member is rounded. The zinc dust in a zinc rich primer performs sacrifice anti-corrosion. The outside-air isolation film uses an epoxy resin primer that is excellent in water resistance and chemical resistance. This film improves the anti-corrosion effect by isolating the moisture or corrosive substance that permeates through the coated film from the outside air. If the weather resistance of the fluoroethylene resin primer used instead of a polyurethane resin primer has final coating quality as expected, the maintenance cycle in an offshore bridge can be more extended than the current cycle of about 10 to 15 years. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Measurement of Temperature Fields in Long Span Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Římal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with assesing of the influence of climate temperatures on deformations and stresses in a cross section of the Nusle Bridge. The main purpose is to describe the measurement of the thermal fields, to compare measured and computed temperature fields, and to provide a real estimation of the stresses that occur.

  4. Buffeting response of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds. Part 2: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. L.; Zhu, L. D.

    2005-03-01

    The finite-element-based framework for buffeting analysis of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds has been presented in Part 1 of this paper. The framework is now applied to the Tsing Ma Suspension Bridge in Hong Kong as a case study. The wind velocities and bridge responses measured by the Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS) of the bridge during Typhoon Sam in 1999 are first analyzed to find the skew wind characteristics surrounding the bridge, the modal damping ratios and acceleration responses of the bridge. The buffeting responses of the bridge under skew winds during Typhoon Sam are then computed using the wind characteristics and modal damping ratios measured from the field and the aerodynamic coefficients and flutter derivatives of the bridge deck and tower measured from the wind tunnel under skew winds. The computed acceleration responses of the bridge deck and cable are finally compared with the responses measured from the field. The comparison is found to be satisfactory in general and the case study forms a good practical demonstration for the verification of the proposed method for buffeting analysis of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds.

  5. Seismic spatial effects on dynamic response of long-span bridges in stationary inhomogeneous random fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家浩; 张亚辉; 赵岩

    2004-01-01

    The seismic analysis of long-span bridges subjected to multiple ground excitations is an important problem.The conventional response spectrum method neglects the spatial effects of ground motion, and therefore may result in questionable conclusions. The random vibration approach has been regarded as more reliable. Unfortunately, so far,computational difficulties have not yet been satisfactorily resolved. In this paper, an accurate and efficient random vibration approach - pseudo excitation method (PEM), by which the above difficulties are overcome, is presented. It has been successfully used in the three dimensional seismic analysis of a number of long-span bridges with thousands of degrees of freedom and dozens of supports. The numerical results of a typical bridge show that the seismic spatial etfects, particularly the wave passage effect, are sometimes quite important in evaluating the safety of long-span bridges.

  6. Seismic spatial effects on dynamic response of long-span bridges in stationary inhomogeneous random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiahao, Lin; Yahui, Zhang; Yan, Zhao

    2004-12-01

    The seismic analysis of long-span bridges subjected to multiple ground excitations is an important problem. The conventional response spectrum method neglects the spatial effects of ground motion, and therefore may result in questionable conclusions. The random vibration approach has been regarded as more reliable. Unfortunately, so far, computational difficulties have not yet been satisfactorily resolved. In this paper, an accurate and efficient random vibration approach — pseudo excitation method (PEM), by which the above difficulties are overcome, is presented. It has been successfully used in the three dimensional seismic analysis of a number of long-span bridges with thousands of degrees of freedom and dozens of supports. The numerical results of a typical bridge show that the seismic spatial effects, particularly the wave passage effect, are sometimes quite important in evaluating the safety of long-span bridges.

  7. Damage Detection for Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ling; Li Aiqun; Miao Changqing; Wang Yonglan

    2006-01-01

    Based on the updated finite-element model of a cable-stayed bridge, this study investigates the technique of identifying damage existing in cable or girder by means of numerical simulation. The modal analysis is performed to identify the changes in modal frequencies and curvatures caused by damage, and the static analysis is executed to detect the influence of damage on cable force. The results indicate a relatively significant decrease in frequencies of lower vertical bending modes due to the damage in cable and little change of frequencies due to damage in girder. Different sensitivities to the location of damaged cable are observed from the frequency changes of different bending modes, which can be used to initially locate the damaged cable. The damage in either cable or girder can be further localized by the most significant change in curvature of girder. The damage occurred in a cable produces a remarkable change in force of nearby cables, whereas the damage in girder brings little change of cable forces. In addition, a pragmatic approach for localizing the damage in girder or cable is proposed based on a comprehensive utilization of the changes in frequency of vertical bending modes, modal curvature of girder, and force in cables.

  8. Research development of digital maintenance and management system for long-span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yuan; HUANG Qiao; SUN Yong-ming

    2009-01-01

    Digital cable-stayed bridge maintenance and management system (DCBMS) was developed for the need of maintenance and management of long-span cable-stayed bridges. In this paper, the major functions and theoretical application of eight modules were systematically stated with the background of Harbin Songhua River cable-stayed bridge, which include data management module, inspection and measurement module, assessment module, finite element analysis module, disease diagnosis and prediction module, maintenance module, query module and help module. By analyzing and calculating the data from manual inspection database, basic database and health monitoring subsystem, DCBMS can accomplish the functions like life prediction, disease diagnosis, comprehensive assessment, maintenance and management of bridges. Therefore, the maintenance and management of long-span cable-stayed bridges can be made digital, professional and scientific. By running this system, a real-time and specific technical guidance can be provided for the maintainers and managers of longspan cable-stayed bridges.

  9. Seismic performance evaluation for super-long span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Aijun; Wu Shouchang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the capacity/demand (C/D) analysis of bridge components, and life cycle and performance based seismic design principles, a practical approach is developed for the seismic performance evaluation of super-long span cable-stayed bridges. According to the approach, the seismic performance evaluation of the Sutong Bridge, which is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m, is completed, and the practicality of the approach is validated. The earthquake resistance level for super-long span cable-stayed bridges is discussed, including the earthquake level, its corresponding structural performance and check indices. And a set of formula for capacity/demand ratio calculation of bridge components is proposed.

  10. Computer Simulation of Dynamic Interactions Between Vehicle and Long Span Box Girder Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gong; Moe S.Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Moving vehicle loads,associated with roadway traffic can induce significant dynamic effects on the structural behaviours of bridges,especially for long-span bridges.The main objective of current research is to study traffic induced dynamic responses of long-span box-girder bridges.The finite element method has been employed in this study to obtain a three-dimensional mathematical model for the bridge system.For vehicle-bridge dynamic interaction analysis,the vehicle is modeled as a more realistic three-axle,six-wheel system,and the corresponding dynamic interaction equations have been derived.The bridge-vehicle inter- action is affected by many factors.The current study has been focused on such factors as:vehicle speed, vehicle damping ratio,multiple traffic lanes,mass ratio of vehicle and bridge,and dynamic characteristics of bridge.Case studies have been conducted to investigate these factors by using several box girder bridge examples including Confederation Bridge,the longest box girder bridge in the world.

  11. The Response of Long-Span Bridges to Low Frequency, Near-Fault Earthquake Ground Motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, David; Astaneh-Asl, A.; Larsen, S.C.; Hutchings, Larry

    2009-02-27

    Historical seismic hazard characterizations did not include earthquake ground motion waveforms at frequencies below approximately 0.2 Hz (5 seconds period). This resulted from limitations in early strong motion instrumentation and signal processing techniques, a lack of measurements in the near-field of major earthquakes and therefore no observational awareness, and a delayed understanding in the engineering community of the potential significance of these types of motions. In recent years, there is a growing recognition of the relevance of near-fault, low frequency motions, particularly for long-period structures such as large bridges. This paper describes a computationally based study of the effects of low frequency (long-period) near-fault motions on long-span bridge response. The importance of inclusion of these types of motions for long span cable supported bridges is demonstrated using actual measured broad-band, near-fault motions from large earthquakes.

  12. A Summary Review of Correlations between Temperatures and Vibration Properties of Long-Span Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The shift of modal parameters induced by temperature fluctuation may mask the changes of vibration properties caused by structural damage and result in false structural condition identification. Thoroughly understanding the temperature effects on vibration properties of long-span bridges becomes an especially important issue before vibration-based damage detection methodologies are applied in real bridges. This paper presents an overview of current research activities and developments in the field of correlations between temperatures and vibration properties of long-span bridges. The theoretical derivation methods using classical structural dynamics and closed-form formulations are first briefly introduced. Then the trend analysis methods that are intended to extract the degree of variability in vibration property under temperature variation for different bridges by numerical analysis, laboratory test, or field monitoring are reviewed in detail. Following that, the development of quantitative models to quantify the temperature influence on vibration properties is discussed including the linear model, nonlinear model, and learning model. Finally, some promising research efforts for promoting the study of correlations between temperatures and vibration properties of long-span bridges are suggested.

  13. Deployment of a Smart Structural Health Monitoring System for Long-Span Arch Bridges: A Review and a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengshun; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Xu; Dong, Lili; Qian, Yuanhao

    2017-09-19

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of the SHM technology that has been applied to long-span bridges. The deployment of a SHM system is introduced. Subsequently, the data analysis and condition assessment including techniques on modal identification, methods on signal processing, and damage identification were reviewed and summarized. A case study about a SHM system of a long-span arch bridge (the Jiubao bridge in China) was systematically incorporated in each part to advance our understanding of deployment and investigation of a SHM system for long-span arch bridges. The applications of SHM systems of long-span arch bridge were also introduced. From the illustrations, the challenges and future trends for development a SHM system were concluded.

  14. Impact Coefficient Analysis of Long-Span Railway Cable-Stayed Bridge Based on Coupled Vehicle-Bridge Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with medium and small span bridges, very limited attention has been paid on the research of the impact coefficient of long-span railway bridges. To estimate the impact effects of long-span railway bridges subjected to moving vehicles, a real long-span railway cable-stayed bridge is regarded as the research object in this study, and a coupled model of vehicle-bridge system is established. The track irregularities are taken as the system excitation and the dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge system are calculated. The impact effects on main girder, stayed cable, bearings, and bridge tower are discussed at various vehicle speeds. The results show that different components of the long-span railway cable-stayed bridge have different impact coefficients. Even for each part, the impact coefficient is also different at different local positions. It reveals that the impact coefficients in the actual situation may have significant differences with the related code clauses in the present design codes.

  15. Seismic spatial effects on long-span bridge response in nonstationary inhomogeneous random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiahao, Lin; Yahui, Zhang; Yan, Zhao

    2005-06-01

    The long-span bridge response to nonstationary multiple seismic random excitations is investigated using the PEM (pseudo excitation method). This method transforms the nonstationary random response analysis into ordinary direct dynamic analysis, and therefore, the analysis can be solved conveniently using the Newmark, Wilson-θ schemes or the precise integration method. Numerical results of the seismic response for an actual long-span bridge using the proposed PEM are given and compared with the results based on the conventional stationary analysis. From the numerical comparisons, it was found that both the seismic spatial effect and the nonstationary effect are quite important, and that both stationary and nonstationary seismic analysis should pay special attention to the wave passage effect.

  16. Seismic spatial effects on long-span bridge response in nonstationary inhomogeneous random fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jiahao; Zhang Yahui; Zhao Yan

    2005-01-01

    The long-span bridge response to nonstationary multiple seismic random excitations is investigated using the PEM (pseudo excitation method). This method transforms the nonstationary random response analysis into ordinary direct dynamic analysis, and therefore, the analysis can be solved conveniently using the Newmark, Wilson-θ schemes or the precise integration method. Numerical results of the seismic response for an actual long-span bridge using the proposed PEM are given and compared with the results based on the conventional stationary analysis. From the numerical comparisons, it was found that both the seismic spatial effect and the nonstationary effect are quite important, and that both stationary and nonstationary seismic analysis should pay special attention to the wave passage effect.

  17. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwei Chen; Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach...

  18. Epoxy asphalt concrete paving on the deck of long-span steel bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Gang; YANG Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is the first systematic research in the world on the composition design of epoxy asphalt concrete as pav- ing material. Material characteristics and service perform- ance of mixture, fatigue resistance characteristics of epoxy asphalt concrete by the fatigue test of complex beam have also been described. This research indicates that epoxy asphalt concrete is a good type of paving material. Research results have been applied successfully in the paving of steel deck of the Second Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (SNYRB). It provides a new paving type for long-span steel bridges of China and has a bright application prospect.

  19. Buffeting response of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds. Part 1: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. D.; Xu, Y. L.

    2005-03-01

    A finite-element-based framework for buffeting analysis of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds is developed in the frequency domain utilizing the linear quasi-steady theory and the strip theory of aerodynamics in conjunction with the pseudo excitation method. A set of universal expressions for six components of buffeting forces is first derived in association with oblique cross-sections of bridge components, in which the buffeting forces are formed with respect to the wind coordinate system and then converted to those with respect to the structural coordinate system. Skew mean wind and three orthogonal components of velocity fluctuations can thus be easily handled without any further decomposition. The coherence between velocity fluctuations of wind turbulence at any two arbitrary spatial points is considered in the global wind coordinate system rather than in the global structural coordinate system. Aeroelastic stiffness and damping matrices due to self-excited forces are then taken into consideration in terms of the 18 flutter derivatives with respect to the oblique cross-sections. The pseudo-excitation method is finally employed to solve efficiently the fully coupled 3D buffeting problem of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds with the effects of multi-modes and spatial modes, inter-mode coupling and aerodynamic coupling, and the interaction among major bridge components being naturally included.

  20. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  1. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  2. Recent research and applications of numerical simulation for dynamic response of long-span bridges subjected to multiple loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Chen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  3. Newly developed high performance structural steels for long span bridge construction; Chotaikyo ni shiyosareru shinkozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-15

    This paper reports new steels for long span bridge construction with the thick steel plate as a main part. On the basis of the high-tension steel utilizing technology examined around 1965, a reheated, quenched-and-tempered martensitic steel plate (HT690) was used for the Onaruto Bridge and Seto Ohashi Bridge in a Honsyu-Shikoku linking project. Moreover, a larger number of quenched martensitic high-tension steel plates (HT670 and HT780) were used for the Yojima Bridge together with existing SM400, SM490, SM520, and SM570 steel plates. The lately built Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi Bridge that is 1990 m between struts is longest in the world. The newly developed steel plate (HT780) for a bridge girder of which weldability was improved for lightening was used actually. To reduce the welding cost or improve the welding environment, this steel plate decreased the preheating temperature for weld cracking prevention in a heat-affected zone from about 100degC to 50degC or less. A new wire (of 1800Mpa in tensile strength) was also used for a cable. In future, the bridge girder will be economically and rationally manufactured by the development of design and construction methods that fully draw the characteristics of the new steel. 33 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  5. A Combined Geophysical/Engineering Approach for the Seismic Safety of Long-Span Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäcke, Andreas; Stempniewski, Lothar; Richwalski, Sandra M.; Parolai, Stefano; Milkereit, Claus; Wang, Rongjiang; Bormann, Peter; Roth, Frank

    The spatial distribution of the resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover in the Cologne area was estimated by the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method using ambient noise measurements. A comparison with the eigenfrequencies of selected long-span bridges crossing the Rhine river indicated an overlap in frequency and therefore potential damage in the case of an earthquake. Consequently, we conducted a dynamic vulnerability analysis using the finite-element method. In addition to accelerograms from design spectra, ground motion scenarios with sources located on the most proximate fault (Erft fault) were simulated using a numerical hybrid method that takes into account source, path, and site effects. The results indicated that due to the low frequency content of these scenarios, consistently higher responses - compared to the recommended loads in the German seismic code - were obtained at all selected bridges. Usage of both scenarios revealed specific failure mechanisms. While cable supported bridges seem to be secure, grave failure was detected for a box girder bridge.

  6. A comparative study between China and U.S. on seismic design philosophy and practice of a long span arch bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yan; George C Lee; Fan Lichu; Hu Shide

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first of a series of case studies on the seismic design of long span bridges (cablestayed bridges, suspension bridges and arch bridges) under a cooperative research project on seismic behavior and design of highway bridges between the State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University and the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, University at Buffalo. The objective of this series of case studies is to examine the differences and similarities on the seismic design practice of long span bridges in China and the U.S., to identify research needs and to develop design guidelines beneficial to bridge engineers in both countries. Unlike short to medium span bridges, long span bridges are not included in most seismic design specifications, mainly because they are location dependent and structurally unique. In this paper, an available model of a steel tied half through arch bridge with a main span of 550m in China is discussed. Analysis is focused on comparisons of the seismic responses due to different ground motions. Seismic design criteria and seismic performance requirements for long span bridges in both countries were first introduced and compared, and then three near field earthquake records with large vertical components were selected as the excitations to examine the seismic behavior and seismic vulnerability of the bridge. Results show that (1) the selected near field ground motions cause larger responses to key components (critical sections) of the bridge (such as arch rib ends) with a maximum increase of more than twice those caused by the site specific ground motions; (2) piers, longitudinal girders and arch crowns are more vulnerable to vertical motions, especially their axial forces; and (3) large vertical components of near field ground motions may not significantly affect the bridge's internal forces provided that their peak acceleration spectra ordinates only appear at periods

  7. A smart model of a long-span suspended bridge for wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, S.; Diana, G.; Fossati, L.; Ripamonti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Traditional aeroelastic models rely only on good mechanical design and accurate crafting in order to match the required structural properties. This paper proposes an active regulation of their structural parameters in order to improve accuracy and reliability of wind tunnel tests. Following the design process steps typical of a smart structure, a damping tuning technique allowing to control a specific set of vibration modes is developed and applied on the aeroelastic model of a long-span suspended bridge. Depending on the testing conditions, the structural damping value can be adjusted in a fast, precise and repeatable way in order to highlight the effects of the aerodynamic phenomena of interest. In particular, vortex-induced vibration are taken into consideration, and the response of a bridge section to vortex shedding is assessed. The active parameter regulation allows to widen the pattern of operating conditions in which the model can be tested. The paper discusses the choice of both sensors and actuators to be embedded in the structure and their positioning, as the control algorithm to obtain the desired damping. Experimental results are shown and results are discussed to evaluate the performance of the smart structure in wind dunnel tests.

  8. Control of wind-induced vibration of long-span bridges and tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ming

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid increase in scales of structures,research on controlling wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,such as long-span bridges and super-tall buildings,has been an issue of great concern.For wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,vibration frequencies and damping modes vary with wind speed.Passive,semiactive,and active control strategies are developed to improve the windresistance performance of the structures in this paper.The multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) system is applied to control vertical bending buffeting response.A new semiactive lever-type tuned mass damper (TMD) with an adjustable frequency is proposed to control vertical bending buffeting and torsional buffeting and flutter in the whole velocity range of bridge decks.A control strategy named sinusoidal reference strategy is developed for adaptive control of wind-induced vibration of super-tall buildings.Multiple degrees of freedom general building aeroelastic model with a square cross-section is tested in a wind tunnel.The results demonstrate that the proposed strategies can reduce vibration effectively,and can adapt to wind-induced vibration control of large-scale structures in the uncertain dynamic circumstance.

  9. Modal identification of long-span Runyang Bridge using ambient responses recorded by SHMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI QingGuo; LI AiQun; HAN XiaoLin; MIAO ChangQing

    2009-01-01

    Runyang Bridge is a newly built cable-supported bridge that crosses the Yangtze River in China.The bridge is composed of one suspension bridge and one cable-stayed bridge.During the construction of the bridge,a structural health monitoring system(SHMS)was installed,which was designed by the Southeast University.Since the bridge was open to traffic,quantities of structural ambient responses have been recorded by the SHMS.And,it's really important to extract structrural information from these records for health monitoring.This paper presents the study on modal identification of the bridge.The dynamic properites including modal frequencies,mode shapes and damping ratios are extracted from the ambient responses.Two identification methods are employed including the enhanced frequency domain decomposition and the stochastic subspace identification.The identified modal parameters from the two methods are compared.Results show that modal frequencies and mode shapes from the two methods are almost the same while the damping ratios are different.

  10. Modal identification of long-span Runyang Bridge using ambient responses recorded by SHMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Runyang Bridge is a newly built cable-supported bridge that crosses the Yangtze River in China.The bridge is composed of one suspension bridge and one cable-stayed bridge.During the construction of the bridge,a structural health monitoring system(SHMS)was installed,which was designed by the Southeast University.Since the bridge was open to traffic,quantities of structural ambient responses have been recorded by the SHMS.And,it’s really important to extract structrural information from these records for health monitoring.This paper presents the study on modal identification of the bridge.The dynamic properites including modal frequencies,mode shapes and damping ratios are extracted from the ambient responses.Two identification methods are employed including the enhanced frequency domain decomposition and the stochastic subspace identification.The identified modal parameters from the two methods are compared.Results show that modal frequencies and mode shapes from the two methods are almost the same while the damping ratios are different.

  11. Comparison between field measurement and theoretical analysis results for a long-span suspension bridge's wind-induced vibration responses%某大跨悬索桥风振响应现场实测与理论对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 欧进萍

    2013-01-01

    结合东海某大跨悬索桥健康监测系统,同步实测桥面处风速及加劲梁与吊索风振加速度响应,采用统计方法及频谱分析对结构响应长期实测数据进行分析;探讨结构构件风振响应实际特性;将强风作用下加劲梁响应实测值与抖振分析理论结果进行对比研究.结果表明,加劲梁的RMS响应与垂直桥面平均风速基本呈线性关系,加劲梁响应以低频为主,动力特性随风速增大变化不大;吊索振动主要为高频涡振,迎风侧吊索响应明显高于背风侧吊索响应;由于大跨度悬索桥抖振响应计算及实测过程受复杂与不确定因素影响,理论分析结果明显大于实测值.%Based on the structural health monitoring system installed on a long-span suspension bridge,the simultaneous wind speeds at the bridge deck and the wind-induced acceleration responses of the stiffening girder and hangers were recorded.The actual characteristics of the wind-induced vibrations and the comparison between the theoretical results and the measured responses were discussed.The results indicated that the RMS of acceleration responses of the stiffening girder have a linear relationship with the average wind speeds vertical to the bridge deck; and their dynamic characteristics are stable with increase in wind speed; the dynamic response of the hanger under wind is a higher frequency resonance and the resonance frequency increases with increase in wind speed; the buffeting responses with theoretical analysis are significandy greater than the measured ones,the buffeting analysis still needs more refinements.

  12. On flutter stability of decks for super long-span bridge; Cho chodai tsurihashi hogoko no furatta anteika ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hamazaki, H. [Fuji Research Inst. Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshizumi, F. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Graduate School

    1996-04-21

    In recent years, with the development of high strength steel, long span suspension-bridge becomes possible, furthermore, with the progress of welding technology, the horizontal deformation and torsional deformation of the deck increase owing to the reduction of energy dissipation due to sliding friction. Because of this, super long-span bridge is easy to get vibrated by wind, stability measures having more excellent wind resistance become necessary. In this study, aiming at controlling the pattern of air flow around the sections of box-form girder of super long-span bridge, studied were conducted on deck sections having more excellent flutter stability. Studied were conducted on the relationship between torsional vibration and flexible vibration coupled with unsteady aerodynamic force coefficience at the occurrence of flutter and the occurring mechanism of the flutter was cleared. The characteristics of the aerodynamic force of box-form girder having oval section, rectangle section with center barrier, anti-triangle section and tandem oval section respectively were studied and the results were reported. 10 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Wind resistance challenges and fundamental research on long-span bridges%大跨度桥梁抗风技术挑战与基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项海帆; 葛耀君

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of long span bridges in China, this paper focused on some engineering projects related to wind resistance challenges on three types of long span bridges, including flutter instability and control of suspension bridges, wind induced vibration of cable-stayed bridges and control of wind-rain induced cable vibration, vortex shedding vibration and control of arch bridges, and the refinements on aerodynamic flutterand buffeting of super long span bridges. It can be concluded that the intrinsic limit of span length due to aerodynamic stability is about 1 500 m for a traditional suspension bridge, and beyond or even approaching this limit, designers should be prepared to improve aerodynamic stability. The long-span cable-stayed bridges with a 1 000 m main span have high enough critical flutter speed, but the main aerodynamic concern is rain-wind induced vibration of long stay cables. Except one example of vortex-induced vibration, long-span arch bridges have no wind resistance problems. The fundamental research on wind resistance of long-span bridges was also introduced with the full-mode flutter analysis method as 3D bridge flutter precise analysis, the bridge buffeting frequency-domain analysis under skew wind action, the bridge flutter and buffeting reliability evaluation method based on second order theory and first passage theory, and the unveiling of bridge flutter evoluation process, generation mechanism and control law.%以我国30年大跨度桥梁的快速发展为研究背景,对3种大跨度桥梁的抗风技术挑战进行了基础性研究和应用性研究,着重探讨了悬索桥的颤振性能及其控制、斜拉桥风振性能与拉索风雨振控制、拱式桥涡激共振及其控制、特大桥梁风振精细化理论等一系列抗风关键问题.研究结果表明:悬索桥的颤振稳定性跨径上限约为1 500m,超过甚至接近这一上限时,必须采取措施改善加劲梁的抗风稳定性;千米级大跨度斜

  14. Aseismic structure of the foundations of super long span bridges; Cho chodai kyoryo no kiso ni motomerareru taishin kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagata, M. [Honshu Shikoku Bridge Authority, Kobe (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Oriental Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-20

    All the long span bridges that are planned across the straits on the second national expressway, are essential foundations on the deep sea bottom or on the bedrock overlaid with deep sediments, moreover have longer spans than the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, furthermore are under severe condition that superstructure reaction force is increased with the enlarged spans. Consequently, aseismic stability greatly influences the specifications of the foundations. Although, in a long span bridge foundation like this, it is possible to design and execute on subsequent of same type with Akashi Kaikyo Bridge which is going to execute now, it is evident that the cost of construction increases widely per unit length. In this paper, the concept of an aseismic structure for the foundations of super long span bridges based on the principle of earthquake countermeasures is described. In particular, authors have devised a new type of foundation for the deep sea, named as a `platform`, with a weight about half that of conventional one. The feasibility of this new foundation rests on the surveying, designing and construction technologies acquired from the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge project and on research and development extending over several years. 25 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Study on Fatigue Behavior of Anchorage of Cable and Girder of Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A full scale model test is done and a FEM model is established toinvestigate the fatigue behavior of the Nancha cable-stayed bridge of the Nanjing Second Yangtz River Bridge, a long span steel bridge with a main span of 628 m. The results of test and FEM are analyzed and compared. It is shown that they are in good agreement. It is verified that the fatigue characteristic of the anchorage structure of cable and girder of the bridge satisfies the requirements specified by Chinese, British and American codes.

  16. Geometry control of long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during construction through finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yan, Quan-sheng; Li, Jian; Hu, Min-yi

    2016-04-01

    In bridge construction, geometry control is critical to ensure that the final constructed bridge has the consistent shape as design. A common method is by predicting the deflections of the bridge during each construction phase through the associated finite element models. Therefore, the cambers of the bridge during different construction phases can be determined beforehand. These finite element models are mostly based on the design drawings and nominal material properties. However, the accuracy of these bridge models can be large due to significant uncertainties of the actual properties of the materials used in construction. Therefore, the predicted cambers may not be accurate to ensure agreement of bridge geometry with design, especially for long-span bridges. In this paper, an improved geometry control method is described, which incorporates finite element (FE) model updating during the construction process based on measured bridge deflections. A method based on the Kriging model and Latin hypercube sampling is proposed to perform the FE model updating due to its simplicity and efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to a long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during its construction. Results show that the method is effective in reducing construction error and ensuring the accuracy of the geometry of the final constructed bridge.

  17. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  18. Some studies on structural planning of long-span cable stayed bridge; Choshikan shachokyo no kozo keikaku ni kansuru 2,3 no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-20

    Feasibility of cabled-stayed bridges with 1000m-grade spans is discussed while re-examining the plan for constructing a Great Tatara Bridge to connect Honshu and Shikoku, Japan, and in this process various tasks and questions are isolated. Some which will be problems in designing the new bridge structure are taken up, including the load-bearing capability of the bridge as a whole, vibration of long cables, resistance to long-period earthquakes, and accuracy management during the construction work. Findings are stated below. A cable-stayed bridge is not significantly different from a suspension bridge and is sufficiently feasible until the span exceeds 1500m. When the span is longer, however, the bridge beam cross section needs be designed very prudently in view of the great axial force and wind load to be imposed on it. Effective for the assurance of load-bearing capability for a long-span cabled-stayed bridge is a structure in which load is elastically confined in the direction of the bridge axis. In connection with vibration damping for very long cables, it is verified that a new dimpled cable suits the purpose of suppressing wind load from increasing without reduction in damping effect. 28 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Seismic response of steel suspension bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Astaneh-Asl, A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Performing accurate, realistic numerical simulations of the seismic response of long-span bridges presents a significant challenge to the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology. Suspension bridges in particular represent some of the largest and most important man-made structures and ensuring the seismic integrity of these mega-structures is contingent on accurate estimations of earthquake ground motions and accurate computational simulations of the structure/foundation system response. A cooperative, multi-year research project between the Univ. of California and LLNL was recently initiated to study engineering and seismological issues essential for simulating the response of major structures. Part of this research project is focused on the response of the long-span bridges with the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge serving as a case study. This paper reports on the status of this multi-disciplinary research project with emphasis on the numerical simulation of the transient seismic response of the Bay Bridge.

  20. Suspension Bridge Flutter for Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, T.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Active vibration control of long span suspension bridge flutter using separated control flaps (SFSC) has shown to increase effectively the critical wind speed of bridges. In this paper, an SFSC calculation based on modal equations of the vertical and torsional motions of the bridge girder including...

  1. A Simple Analytical Approach to the Aeroelastic Stability Problem of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the aeroelastic stability problem of long-span cable-stayed bridges under an approaching crosswind flow. Starting from a continuous model of the fan-shaped bridge scheme with both H- or A-shaped towers, critical states of the coupled wind-structure system are identified by means of a variational formulation, accounting for torsional and flexural (vertical and lateral) bridge oscillations. The overall bridge dynamics is described by introducing simple mechanical systems with equivalent stiffness properties and, under the assumption of a prevailing truss-like bridge behavior, analytical estimates for dominant stiffness contributions are proposed. Several case studies are discussed and comparisons with experimental evidences as well as with available analytical and numerical results are presented. The proposed simplified approach proves to be consistent and effective for successfully capturing the main wind-bridge interaction mechanisms, and it could be considered as a useful engineering tool for the aeroelastic stability analysis of long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  2. Health Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-Span Bridges Based on Sensing and Data Analysis: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianting; Li, Xiaogang; Xia, Runchuan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hong

    2017-03-16

    Aimed at the health monitoring and evaluation of bridges based on sensing technology, the monitoring contents of different structural types of long-span bridges were defined. Then, the definition, classification, selection principle, and installation requirements of the sensors were summarized. The concept was proposed that new adaptable long-life sensors could be developed by new theories and new effects. The principle and methods to select controlled sections and optimize the layout design of measuring points were illustrated. The functional requirements were elaborated on about the acquisition, transmission, processing, and management of sensing information. Some advanced concepts about the method of bridge safety evaluation were demonstrated and technology bottlenecks in the current safety evaluation were also put forward. Ultimately, combined with engineering practices, an application was carried out. The results showed that new, intelligent, and reliable sensor technology would be one of the main future development directions in the long-span bridge health monitoring and evaluation field. Also, it was imperative to optimize the design of the health monitoring system and realize its standardization. Moreover, it is a heavy responsibility to explore new thoughts and new concepts regarding practical bridge safety and evaluation technology.

  3. Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction on Seismic Performance of Long-Span Bridge Tested by Dynamic Substructuring Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyun Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limitations of testing facilities and techniques, the seismic performance of soil-structure interaction (SSI system can only be tested in a quite small scale model in laboratory. Especially for long-span bridge, a smaller tested model is required when SSI phenomenon is considered in the physical test. The scale effect resulting from the small scale model is always coupled with the dynamic performance, so that the seismic performance of bridge considering SSI effect cannot be uncovered accurately by the traditional testing method. This paper presented the implementation of real-time dynamic substructuring (RTDS, involving the combined use of shake table array and computational engines for the seismic simulation of SSI. In RTDS system, the bridge with soil-foundation system is divided into physical and numerical substructures, in which the bridge is seen as physical substructures and the remaining part is seen as numerical substructures. The interface response between the physical and numerical substructures is imposed by shake table and resulting reaction force is fed back to the computational engine. The unique aspect of the method is to simulate the SSI systems subjected to multisupport excitation in terms of a larger physical model. The substructuring strategy and the control performance associated with the real-time substructuring testing for SSI were performed. And the influence of SSI on a long-span bridge was tested by this novel testing method.

  4. Health Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-Span Bridges Based on Sensing and Data Analysis: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the health monitoring and evaluation of bridges based on sensing technology, the monitoring contents of different structural types of long-span bridges were defined. Then, the definition, classification, selection principle, and installation requirements of the sensors were summarized. The concept was proposed that new adaptable long-life sensors could be developed by new theories and new effects. The principle and methods to select controlled sections and optimize the layout design of measuring points were illustrated. The functional requirements were elaborated on about the acquisition, transmission, processing, and management of sensing information. Some advanced concepts about the method of bridge safety evaluation were demonstrated and technology bottlenecks in the current safety evaluation were also put forward. Ultimately, combined with engineering practices, an application was carried out. The results showed that new, intelligent, and reliable sensor technology would be one of the main future development directions in the long-span bridge health monitoring and evaluation field. Also, it was imperative to optimize the design of the health monitoring system and realize its standardization. Moreover, it is a heavy responsibility to explore new thoughts and new concepts regarding practical bridge safety and evaluation technology.

  5. Topographic effects on seismic response of long-span rigid-frame bridge under SV seismic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; ZHAO Cheng-gang; QU Tie-jun

    2008-01-01

    Seismic ground motions of two neighboring mountains and the free surface between them are calculated under the SV seismic waves with three different incident angles. The results are then taken as the inputs of multi-point seismic excitations for the foundation of a long-span bridge built over the valley in the analysis considering the inte-grated influence of traveling wave and topography. On the basis of a dynamic analytical method, a finite element model is created for the seismic responses of a four-span rigid-frame bridge of 440 m. The pier-top displacement and the pier-bottom internal force of the bridge are calculated. Then the results are compared with those considering traveling-wave effect only. The conclusions can serve as a seismic design reference for the structures located on the complex mountain topography.

  6. Numerical simulation of aerodynamic derivatives and critical wind speed for long-span bridges based on simplified steady wind field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dabo; Ou, Jinping

    2007-06-01

    Combining the computational fluid dynamics-based numerical simulation with the forced vibration technique for extraction of aerodynamic derivatives, an approach for calculating the aerodynamic derivatives and the critical flutter wind speed for long-span bridges is presented in this paper. The RNG k-ɛ turbulent model is introduced to establish the governing equations, including the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations, for solving the wind flow field around a two-dimensional bridge section. To illustrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach, a simple application to the Hume Bridge in China is provided, and the numerical results show that the aerodynamic derivatives and the critical flutter wind speed obtained agree well with the wind tunnel test results.

  7. Numerical simulation of aerodynamic derivatives and critical wind speed for long-span bridges based on simplified steady wind field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Dabo; Ou Jinping

    2007-01-01

    Combining the computational fluid dynamics-based numerical simulation with the forced vibration technique for extraction of aerodynamic derivatives, an approach for calculating the aerodynamic derivatives and the critical flutter wind speed for long-span bridges is presented in this paper. The RNG κ-ε turbulent model is introduced to establish the governing equations, including the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations, for solving the wind flow field around a two-dimensional bridge section. To illustrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach, a simple application to the Hume Bridge in China is provided, and the numerical results show that the aerodynamic derivatives and the critical flutter wind speed obtained agree well with the wind tunnel test results.

  8. Topographic effects on seismic response of long-span rigid-frame bridge under SV seismic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Gang; Qu, Tie-Jun

    2008-05-01

    Seismic ground motions of two neighboring mountains and the free surface between them are calculated under the SV seismic waves with three different incident angles. The results are then taken as the inputs of multi-point seismic excitations for the foundation of a long-span bridge built over the valley in the analysis considering the integrated influence of traveling wave and topography. On the basis of a dynamic analytical method, a finite element model is created for the seismic responses of a four-span rigid-frame bridge of 440 m. The pier-top displacement and the pier-bottom internal force of the bridge are calculated. Then the results are compared with those considering traveling-wave effect only. The conclusions can serve as a seismic design reference for the structures located on the complex mountain topography.

  9. Aerostatic Stability of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges: Parametric Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程进; 江见鲸; 肖汝诚; 项海帆

    2003-01-01

    The increasing span of cable-stayed bridges has focused more attention on the aerostatic stability of the design and construction of such bridges. This paper presents a new method to analyze the nonlinear aerostatic stability of cable-stayed bridges including all three components of the wind load and the geometric nonlinearity. The analysis was used to investigate the effects of the wind angle of incidence, the wind load of individual bridge elements, the sagging of cable elements, the changes of tower height and the changes of side span length on the aerostatic stability of cable-stayed bridges. The results show that the wind angle of incidence and the wind loads on the cables have an important effect on the aerostatic stability of cable-stayed bridges.

  10. GPS Dynamic Monitoring Experiment and Result Analysis of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For the sake of timely appraising the working condition of the bridge, measuring the dynamic characteristics of the bridge structure is very important and necessary. A GPS dynamic monitoring test was carried out in the Wuhan Baishazhou Bridge, which is one of the longest span cable-stayed bridges having been built in China. This paper introduces the experimental implementing scheme and data processing method. The vibration characteristics of the middle span of cable-stayed bridge are availably obtained by use of the spectral analytic approach. The measuring results are very identical to the theoretical designed values. The research demonstrates that, with GPS receiver of the high sampling rate and suitable data processing method, the vibration characteristics of the bridge structure can be determined with high accuracy.

  11. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-ye Tian; Meng-lin Lou

    2014-01-01

    The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due t...

  12. Instrumentation for durability monitoring of a long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X. G.; Ni, Y. Q.; Zhou, H. F.; Ko, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper outlines the design of an instrumentation system for durability monitoring of the world's longest cable-stayed bridge: the Sutong Bridge with a central span of 1088 m. As part of the Structural Health Monitoring And Safety Evaluation System (SHMASES) for the Sutong Bridge, the durability monitoring system is designed to monitor the corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. The sensors for durability monitoring include two categories. The first category refers to the sensors to monitor the causes leading to corrosion, such as temperature and relative humidity. The second category is electrode assemblies which are used to monitor the end results of corrosion. Data from the sensory system are then periodically collected using a portable or remotely computerized data acquisition system. The collected data from this system will provide useful information on maintenance and repair of concrete structures, and are envisaged to be incorporated into the reliability-based safety evaluation system developed for the Sutong Bridge

  13. Stability of dynamic response of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Antonio; Ardito, Raffaele; Guerrieri, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The potential occurrence of internal parametric resonance phenomena has been recently indicated as a potential contributory cause of the appearance of critical dynamic states in long-span suspension bridges. At the same time, suspension bridges, in view of their flexibility, are prone to aeroelastic response, such as vortex shedding, torsional divergence and flutter. In this paper, a non-linear dynamic model of a suspension bridge is devised, with the purpose of providing a first attempt toward a unified framework for the study of aeroelastic and internal resonance instabilities. Inspired by the pioneering work of Herrmann and Hauger, the analyses have been based on a linearized formulation that is able to represent the main structural non-linear effects and the coupling given by aerodynamic forces. The results confirm that the interaction between aeroelastic effects and non-linear internal resonance leads to unstable conditions for wind speeds which can be lower than the critical threshold for standard aeroelastic predictions.

  14. Online automatic identification of the modal parameters of a long span arch bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Cunha, Álvaro; Caetano, Elsa

    2009-02-01

    The "Infante D. Henrique" bridge is a concrete arch bridge, with a span of 280 m that crosses the Douro River, linking the cities of Porto and Gaia located in the North of Portugal. This structure is being monitored by a recently installed dynamic monitoring system that comprises 12 acceleration channels. This paper describes the bridge structure, its dynamic parameters identified with a previously developed ambient vibration test, the installed monitoring equipment and the software that continuously processes the data received from the bridge through an Internet connection. Special emphasis is given to the algorithms that have been developed and implemented to perform the online automatic identification of the structure modal parameters from its measured responses during normal operation. The proposed methodology uses the covariance driven stochastic subspace identification method (SSI-COV), which is then complemented by a new algorithm developed for the automatic analysis of stabilization diagrams. This new tool, based on a hierarchical clustering algorithm, proved to be very efficient on the identification of the bridge first 12 modes. The results achieved during 2 months of observation, which involved the analysis of more than 2500 datasets, are presented in detail. It is demonstrated that with the combination of high-quality equipment and powerful identification algorithms, it is possible to estimate, in an automatic manner, accurate modal parameters for several modes. These can then be used as inputs for damage detection algorithms.

  15. Coupled Vibration of Long-Span Railway Curved Girder Bridges and Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Deshan; Li Qiao

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a long curved girder bridge is represented with a three-dimensional curved finite element model. Each 4-axle vehicle is modeled by a dynamic system of 35 degrees of freedom. The random irregularities of the track are generated from a power spectral density function under the given track condition. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through the contact forces between the wheels and track. Then based on these models, the coupled equations of motion are solved by applying the time-integration and iteration techniques to the coupled system. The proposed formulation and the associated computer program are then applied to a real curved girder bridge. The dynamic responses of the bridge-vehicle system and the derailments and offload factors related to the riding and running safeties of vehicles are computed. The results show that the formulation presented in this paper can well predict dynamic behaviors of both bridge and train with reasonable computation efforts.

  16. Numerical computation for aeroelastic stability of long-span bridges; Kyoryo taifu anteisei no kaisekiteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Uejima, H.; Tokushige, M.; Iwasaki, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    As bridges increase their size, verifying their aeroelastic stability becomes necessary for design purposes. This paper describes mainly a technology to estimate analytically the aeroelastic stability of bridges. Taking up four kinds of responses as the objects of assessing the aeroelastic stability, the paper introduces analytical approaches to each response. Comparison was made on the analytical values with wind tunnel experiment values, in which reasonability of the analytical approach was verified. Aeroelastic responses consist of (1) static transformation due to wind load, (2) gust response, (3) flutter, and (4) vortex-excited vibration. The item (1) is a static phenomenon of transformation due to steady-state air force generated by a mean component in wind velocity acting on a bridge. The item (2) is a dynamic phenomenon in which irregular vibration is caused as a result of variable component in the wind velocity acting on the bridge. The item (3) increases sharply the amplitude of vibration as a result of small increase in the wind velocity, which is caused once a vibration is generated. The item (4) is a dynamic phenomenon in which a bridge vibrates resonantly due to Karman`s vortex street. The analytic values derived by using respective analytic programs agreed well with the results derived from wind tunnel experiments. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Static behaviors of long-span cable-stayed bridge; Chodai shachokyo no seiteki kyodo ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu [Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan). Graduate School; Yamaguchi, H.; Ito, M. [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-21

    In this study, incremental equation of cable-stayed bridge is formulated by finite element method taking the geometrical nonlinear analysis into account. Then, as an example of designing a bridge with 1500m span, setting up the initial tension, analysis of in-plane behavior caused by live loads as well as analysis of the behavior against wind caused by out-of-plane wind load that are necessary for designing a bridge with 1500m span are carried out. The main results obtained through the study are as follows. As for the cable stayed bridge with 1500m center super long-span having supplementary supporting points between the side arms, the geometrical non-linearity caused by the in-plane design live loads is not remarkable. The effects of wind which acts on girders on analysis of the behaviors against wind are different depending on the aerodynamic performance of the girder and in the case of high wind speed, strong effects on the behavior against wind of the in-plane and screws generate. As the changing of tension of the cable makes influences on the force of in-plane cross section and on displacement of the girder, if the wind speed is very high, the analysis results of the behaviors against wind of in-plane and screws of the cable-stayed bridge may be different depending on in what manner the wind load on the cable to be treated. 16 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Performances of super-long span prestressed cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and RPC girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhi; Fan Fenghong; Ren Liang

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the applicability of advanced composite carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and ultra-high performance concrete reactive powder concrete (RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges , taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge with steel girders and steel cables as an example,a new cable-stayed bridge in the same span with RPC girders and CFRP cables was designed,in which the cable’s cross section was determined by the principle of equivalent cable capacity and the girder’s cross section was determined in virtual of its stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the methods of finite element analysis,the comparative analysis of these two cable-stayed bridge schemes about static performances,dynamic performances,stability and wind resis-tance behavior were carried out. The results showed that it was feasible to form a highly efficient,durable concrete cable-stayed bridge with RPC girders and CFRP cables and made its applicable span range expand to 1 000 m long around.

  19. RESEARCH ON THE ASEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF LONG-SPAN CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE WITH DAMPING EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Fangwen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main beam of a cable-stayed bridge with a floating system may have a larger longitudinal displacement subject to earthquake effect. Thus, seismic control and isolation are crucial to bridge safety. This paper takes Huai’an Bridge, which has elastic coupling devices and viscous dampers set at the joint of the tower and the beam, as the research background. Its finite element model is established, and the elastic stiffness of elastic coupling devices and damper parameters are analyzed. Viscous damper and elastic coupling devices are simulated using Maxwell model and spring elements, and their damping effects are analyzed and compared through structural dynamic time-history analysis. Results show that viscous damper and elastic coupling device furnished at the joint of tower and beam of a cable-stayed bridge tower beam can effectively reduce the longitudinal displacement of the key part of the construction subject to earthquake effect, perfect the internal force distribution, and improve the aseismic performance. Between the two, viscous damper has better damping effects.

  20. Stability Analysis of Long-Span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge with Thin-Wall Pier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bo; SHI Ya-nan; ZHU Hong-ping; GUO Wen-zeng; CHEN Yong

    2008-01-01

    During cantilever cast in construction of high-pier and large-span continuous rigid frame bridges, structural stability in the longest cantilevered stage is very important. Based on a practical design case of a large-span continuous rigid frame bridge in Wuhan, the longest span stability coefficient is calculated with linear-buckling and nonlinear-buckling methods, respectively. The influences of both geometrical nonlinearity and the dual nonlinearity of material and geometry are considered. Numerical results indicate that the nonlinear solution is necessary to stability analysis because linear buckling loads axe much higher than those of nonlinear buckling. Thus, the edge fiber yield criterion is more convenient and faster than ultimate loading criterion when estimating nonlinear stability of structure, and can be used easily in the initial engineering design.

  1. Minimum depth of soil cover above long-span soil-steel railway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Abdulrazagh, Parisa Haji

    2013-12-01

    Recently, soil-steel bridges have become more commonly used as railway-highway crossings because of their economical advantages and short construction period compared with traditional bridges. The currently developed formula for determining the minimum depth of covers by existing codes is typically based on vehicle loads and non-stiffened panels and takes into consideration the geometrical shape of the metal structure to avoid the failure of soil cover above a soil-steel bridge. The effects of spans larger than 8 m or more stiffened panels due to railway loads that maintain a safe railway track have not been accounted for in the minimum cover formulas and are the subject of this paper. For this study, two-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses of four low-profile arches and four box culverts with spans larger than 8 m were performed to develop new patterns for the minimum depth of soil cover by considering the serviceability criterion of the railway track. Using the least-squares method, new formulas were then developed for low-profile arches and box culverts and were compared with Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code formulas. Finally, a series of three-dimensional (3D) finite element FE analyses were carried out to control the out-of-plane buckling in the steel plates due to the 3D pattern of train loads. The results show that the out-of-plane bending does not control the buckling behavior of the steel plates, so the proposed equations for minimum depth of cover can be appropriately used for practical purposes.

  2. Dynamic Performance Analysis of the Towers of a Long-Span Bridge Based on GPS Monitoring Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the parameter identification and the dynamic performance of a long-span bridge tower based on the output of a global positioning system (GPS health monitoring system. The random decrement (RD algorithm is used to estimate the tower displacement impulse response. Three methods are applied to extract the dynamic performance including least squares complex exponential (LSCE method, Hilbert envelope method (HEM, and eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA. Results reveal that the HEM and LSCE method are more suitable to extract fundamental frequency and modal and damping ratios of the tower. Furthermore, the dynamic properties and statistical time series analysis of the GPS measurements illustrate that the traffic loads have a high significant impact on the semistatic and dynamic performances.

  3. Full implementations of structural health monitoring systems for long-span bridges and large-span domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, full implementations of structural health monitoring systems for long-span bridges and large-span domes are introduced. The frameworks of the health monitoring systems are introduced. The types and locations of sensors are also presented. The data acquisition system, including scheme of data acquisition system, strategies of collecting data, instrument and software used in the data acquisition system, is described. The data transmitting system, data management system and warning system are also designed. Based on the data collected by the structural health monitoring systems, response and dynamic properties of the structures, and the loads are statistically analyzed. Finite element (FE) model is updated based on the measured data by structural health monitoring.

  4. 大跨径桥梁施工控制不确定因素分析%Analysis of the Uncertain Factors of Long Span Bridge Construction Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志学

    2014-01-01

    There are many uncertain factors affecting the bridge construction quality in the process of long-span bridge construction. This article mainly analyzes the temperature eff-ect, temperature load and some control methods of the long-span bridge construction, and reduces the influence of unc-ertain factors on the quality of long-span bridges.%在大跨径桥梁施工过程中,有许多不确定因素影响着桥梁的施工质量。本文对温度效应、温度载荷以及大跨径桥梁施工过程中的一些控制方法进行了分析,降低了不确定因素对大跨径桥梁的质量影响。

  5. Dynamic analysis and modal test of long-span cable-stayed bridge based on ambient excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-song; YAN Dong-huang

    2007-01-01

    To study the stifilless distilbution of girder and the method to identify modal parameters of cable-stayed bridge, a simplified dynamical finite element method model named three beams model was established for the girder with double ribs.Based on the simplified model four stiffness formulae were deduced according to Hamilton principle.These formulae reflect well the contribution of the flexural, shearing, free torsion and restricted torsion deformation, respectively.An identification method about modal parameters was put forward by combining method of peak value and power spectral density according to modal test under ambient excitation.The dynamic finite element method analysis and modal test were carried out in a long-span concrete cable-stayed bridge.The results show that the errors of frequencies between theoretical analysis and test results are less than 10%mostly,and the most important modal parameters for cable-stayed bridge are determined to be the longitudinal floating mode, the first vertical flexural mode and the first torsional mode, which demonstrate that the method of stifiness distribution for three beams model is accurate and method to identify modal parameters is effective under ambient excitation modal test.

  6. Proposal and study of a long-span composite cable-stayed bridge with new hybrid girder; Atarashii gosei kozo shuketa wo mochiita chodai fukugo shachokyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Hishiki, Y.; Furuichi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    A hybrid or mixed structure (composite structures) are a matter of increasing concern which takes in each advantage of steel and concrete. A field of bridges is no exception, with the plan and construction carried out for the new type of composite bridge, such as a composite cable-stayed bridge and a composite extra dose bridge as a long span bridge, and a composite truss bridge and a corrugated steel plate web bridge as a medium-span bridge, with technological development becoming active in this field. In such a technological trend, a hybrid two-girder structure was devised, a structure consisting of a concrete filled steel pipe for a girder and a precast (PC) floor plate for a floor board, as the girder structure of a long-span cable-stayed bridge in the subject research; also, applicability was examined using, as an example, the composite cable-stayed bridge with hybrid girders employed for the span. This paper reports the result of the analysis of the entire system, the analysis made for the purpose of examining the characteristic and the feasibility of this hybrid girder. The analysis revealed the structural feasibility of the long-span composite cable-stayed bridge using two hybrid girders of concrete-filled steel pipes thus devised. (NEDO)

  7. Longitudinal force in continuously welded rail on long-span tied arch continuous bridge carrying multiple tracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bin; DAI Gong-lian; GUO Wen-hua; XU Qing-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Considering arch rib, lateral brace, suspender, girder, pier and track position, the model for the interaction between long-span tied arch continuous bridge and multiple tracks was established by using steel-concrete composite section beam element to simulate concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) arch rib, using the beam element with rigid arm to simulate the prestressed concrete girder and using nonlinear bar element to simulate longitudinal constraint between track and bridge. Taking a (77+3×156.8+77) m tied arch continuous bridge with four tracks on the Harbin-Qiqihar Passenger Dedicated Line as an example, the arrangement of continuously welded rail (CWR) was explored. The longitudinal force in CWR on the tied arch continuous bridge, the pier top horizontal force and torque due to the unbalance load case, were analyzed under the action of temperature, vertical live load, train braking and wind load. Studies show that, it can significantly reduce track displacement to set the track expansion devices at main span arch springing on both sides; the track stress due to arch temperature variation can reach 40.8 MPa; the track stress, pier top horizontal force and torque are related to the number of loaded tracks and train running direction, and the bending force applied to unloaded track is close to the loaded track, while the braking force applied to unloaded track is 1/4 to 1/2 of the loaded track; the longitudinal force of track due to the wind load is up to 12.4 MPa, which should be considered.

  8. Ultimate strength analysis of long-span cable-stayed bridges; Chodai chachokyo no shukyoku kyodo kaiseki to kyodo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, X.; Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan)] Nagai, M. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)

    1998-07-21

    Recently, span of cable-stayed bridges has been getting loner and longer, present situation is that cable-stayed bridges with span 600 to 800m class have been built inside and outside the country, and accurate determination of its ultimate strength has been an important problem statistically. However, concrete design method for evaluating load bearing stress of long-span cable-stayed bridge. Particularly of the main beam whose axial stress is dominating, has not been established so far. As for cable-stayed bridge, even for long-span, effect of plasticization of cross section on ultimate strength is severe because there is little effect of geometric nonlinearity and it is thought that accurate evaluation of ultimate strength only by elastic finite potential analysis is difficult. Accordingly, it is necessary to study the behavior by using combined nonlinear analysis considering the nonlinearity of the material in order to evaluate the safety and economy to long-span cable-stayed bridge. In this report, 3 dimensional analysis method was formularized taking into account the combine nonlinearity of multi-box girder and analysis program of ultimate strength behavior of long-span cable-stayed bridge was developed. 19 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-ye Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due to the traveling wave resonance. A new traveling wave excitation method that can simplify the multisupport excitation process into a two-support excitation process is developed.

  10. Numerical simulation of highway fire transient space temperature field of bearing elements of long-span suspension bridge%大跨径悬索桥缆索承重构件公路火灾的瞬态空间温度场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 万祥斌; 董晓明

    2015-01-01

    文章在国内外火灾研究工作的基础上,基于Ingason H平方增长模型,提出了适用于公路桥梁火灾研究的热释放率数学模型;根据建立的公路火灾物理模型,通过数值模拟给出公路火灾下悬索桥主缆、吊索表面温度及热流密度随火灾的发展过程而变化的规律公式,并建立了承重构件瞬态空间温度场。同一火灾场景下,不同直径的吊索可以采用相同的瞬态空间温度场;不同直径的主缆在不同位置具有相同的温度θt2时,可以采用相同的瞬态空间温度场。该研究成果可为今后大跨径悬索桥的抗火设计提供科学依据。%By reviewing and analyzing fire studies conducted at home and abroad ,and based on the Ingason H Square Growth Model ,several kinds of thermal release rate mathematical models are put forward ,which are suitable for the fire studies of highway bridges .Based on the established physical model of highway fire ,the trend of how the surface temperature and heat flux density of main and suspender cables of suspension bridge change with fire situation is observed through the numerical simulation .And the transient space temperature field of bearing elements is established .Under the same conditions of fire accident ,the same transient space temperature field can be applied to suspender cables with different diameters ;the same transient space temper‐ature field can be applied to main cables with different diameters when they have the same θt2 at different places .The research results can provide scientific basis for the fire resistance design of long‐span suspension bridge .

  11. Analysis on influence of seismic travelling wave effect on semi-active control for long-span rigid-continuous bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xing-jun; LI Xiao-jun; ZHOU Guo-liang

    2006-01-01

    The analysis approach of semi-active control for long-span rigid-continuous bridge under seismic travelling wave input is established. Magnetorheological dampers are set on the positions of the bridge bearings. The semi-active control calculation and analysis are performed for a five-span rigid-continuous bridge under seismic travelling waves with different apparent surface velocities. The results indicate that travelling wave effect remarkably influences the uncontrolled seismic responses, the semi-active control seismic responses and vibration control effects for the long-span rigid-continuous bridge. It is disadvantageous to the responses of the beams and the piers under the travelling wave input with lower apparent surface velocity, and travelling wave effect can decrease the vibration control effects evidently. Therefore, the travelling wave effect should be considered for the selection of the parameter values of semi-active control system in order to get the designing control effect.

  12. a Method for the Extraction of Long-Term Deformation Characteristics of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridges Using High-Resolution SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H. G.; Liu, L. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Natural causes and high-speed train load will result in the structural deformation of long-span bridges, which greatly influence the safety operation of high-speed railway. Hence it is necessary to conduct the deformation monitoring and regular status assessment for long-span bridges. However for some traditional surveying technique, e.g. control-point-based surveying techniques, a lot of human and material resources are needed to perform the long-term monitoring for the whole bridge. In this study we detected the long-term bridge deformation time-series by persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) technique using the high-resolution SAR images and external digital elevation model. A test area in Nanjing city in China is chosen and TerraSAR-X images and Tandem-X for this area have been used. There is the Dashengguan bridge in high speed railway in this area as study object to evaluate this method. Experiment results indicate that the proposed method can effectively extract the long-term deformation of long-span high-speed railway bridge with higher accuracy.

  13. A METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF LONG-TERM DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-SPAN HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY BRIDGES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Jia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural causes and high-speed train load will result in the structural deformation of long-span bridges, which greatly influence the safety operation of high-speed railway. Hence it is necessary to conduct the deformation monitoring and regular status assessment for long-span bridges. However for some traditional surveying technique, e.g. control-point-based surveying techniques, a lot of human and material resources are needed to perform the long-term monitoring for the whole bridge. In this study we detected the long-term bridge deformation time-series by persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR technique using the high-resolution SAR images and external digital elevation model. A test area in Nanjing city in China is chosen and TerraSAR-X images and Tandem-X for this area have been used. There is the Dashengguan bridge in high speed railway in this area as study object to evaluate this method. Experiment results indicate that the proposed method can effectively extract the long-term deformation of long-span high-speed railway bridge with higher accuracy.

  14. Evaluation of damping property of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges; Chodai PC shachokyo no gensui tokusei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanobe, S.; Niihara, Y.; Minami, H.; Kono, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    As to the dynamic design in the antiseismic design of PC cable-stayed bridges, evaluation of damping is important. Since it is difficult to evaluate damping property theoretically and analytically, a lot of studies have not been made about how to set up damping coefficients. In this study, using analytical models of existing long-span PC cable-stayed bridges, to clarify causes of damping of long-span PC cable-stayed bridge, the rate of strain energy in each member was examined. Equivalent damping coefficients of each member, effects of friction in movable bearing, and effects of basically radiational damping were studied. The correspondence with the results of the vibration experiments conventionally made were studied. (translated by NEDO)

  15. TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND REFINEMENT RESEARCH ON WIND RESISTANCE OF LONG-SPAN BRIDGES%大跨度桥梁抗风的技术挑战与精细化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛耀君

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of long span bridges in China in past three decades, this paper presented technical challenges of wind resistance on three type long-span bridges, including flutter instability and control of suspension bridges, wind induced vibration of cable stayed bridges and control of wind-rain induced cable vibration, vortex induced vibration and control of arch bridges, and the refinements on aerodynamic flutter and buffeting of super long span bridges. It can be concluded that the intrinsic limit of a span length due to aerodynamic stability is about 1,500m for suspension bridges, and beyond or even approaching this limit, designers should be prepared to improve its aerodynamic stability. The cable-stayed bridges with a main span over 1000m have high enough critical flutter speed, but the main aerodynamic concern is the rain-wind induced vibration of long stay cables. Except one example of vortex-induced vibration, long-span arch bridges have no wind resistance problem. The refinement research on wind resistance of long-span bridges was also introduced with a full-mode flutter analysis method, the bridge buffeting frequency-domain analysis under skew wind action, the bridge flutter and buffeting reliability evaluation method based on second order theory and first passage theory, and the unveiling of a bridge flutter evolution process, generation mechanism and control law.%以我国30年大跨度桥梁的快速发展为研究背景,对三种大跨度桥梁的抗风技术挑战进行了分析,着重探讨了悬索桥的颤振性能及其控制、斜拉桥风振性能与拉索风雨振和拱式桥涡激共振及其控制,并提出了特大桥梁风振精细化理论和方法.研究结果表明:悬索桥的颤振稳定性跨径上限约为1500 m,超过甚至接近这一上限时,必须采取措施改善加劲梁的抗风稳定性;千米级大跨度斜拉桥仍具有足够高的颤振临界风速,其主要抗风问题是长拉索的风雨振动;大跨

  16. Study on wind resistant design of long-span bridges based on field observation result; Dotai kansoku kekka ni motozuku chodaikyo no taifu sekkei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuchi, H.; Tada, K.; Kitagawa, M.

    1996-07-21

    Based on records of strong wind and bridge response to the 19th typhoon in 1991 and 13th typhoon in 1993 at the Onaruto Bridge and the Minami Bisan-Seto Bridge as well as results of numerical analysis, the validity of wind resistant design was investigated. The validity of current wind resistant design was confirmed for the intensity of turbulence and the power spectrum among the natural wind properties. The spatial correlation property was expressed better by Karman`s correlation equation than by usual exponential function equation. The bridge response value was evaluated well by using Karman`s correlation equation, as to bridge response properties, and especially the gust response properties. It was more rational to apply Karman`s correlation equation rather than usual exponential equation to the wind resistant design of long-span bridges. It was suggested that the evaluation of the wind load in the wind resistant design can be reduced. Accordingly, the design of long-span bridges, whose structures can be determined by the wind load, can be rationalized. 20 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  18. The Design and Analysis of Long-Span and Low-Depth Prestressed Composite Steel-Concrete Beam Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊平; 黄海云; 黄道沸

    2002-01-01

    The design scheme of long-span and low-depth composite steel-concrete beams is introduced, and the methods of avoiding the cracking of concrete deck in the negative moment regions are proposed. Moreover, significant exploration for problems of the composite beams has been made, such as optimizing construction steps to regulate the stress, applying jacking technique to exert prestress on the concrete deck, investigating the uplifting force principle of the shear connectors by means of model test and non-linear finite element analysis, and pointing out the countermeasure to reduce tension force of the shear connectors.

  19. Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.

  20. Application of Wireless Monitoring System to Structural Health Monitoring of Long-Spanned Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-cheng; QI Xin; Li Qiao

    2007-01-01

    The remote monitoring system applied to the construction control and health monitoring of the Nanjing Third Yangtze River Bridge is introduced. The system makes it possible to get the structure capabilities and environmental parameters of the bridge at the predetermined moment. It sends the collected data over a long distance to an assigned position for display and analysis. The related methods and working condition of the wireless monitoring system are discussed. The measured data during 48 h are employed to determine the feasibility for the closure of the bridge.

  1. The random field model of the spatial distribution of heavy vehicle loads on long-span bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhicheng; Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic model based on Markov random field is proposed to model the spatial distribution of vehicle loads on longspan bridges. The bridge deck is divided into a finite set of discrete grid cells, each cell has two states according to whether the cell is occupied by the heavy vehicle load or not, then a four-neighbor lattice-structured undirected graphical model with each node corresponding to a cell state variable is proposed to model the location distribution of heavy vehicle loads on the bridge deck. The node potential is defined to quantitatively describe the randomness of node state, and the edge potential is defined to quantitatively describe the correlation of the connected node pair. The junction tree algorithm is employed to obtain the systematic solutions of inference problems of the graphical model. A marked random variable is assigned to each node to represent the amplitude of the total weight of vehicle applied on the corresponding cell of the bridge deck. The rationality of the model is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation of a learned model based on monitored data of a cable-stayed bridge.

  2. Nonlinear Stability Analysis of Long-Span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge with Thin-Wall High Piers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Peng Yuancheng; Long Xiaohong; Liao Ping

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing the current finite element program ANSYS, two types of finite element models (FEM), the beam model (BM) and shell model (SM), are established for the nonlinear stability analysis of a practical rigid frame bridge-Longtanhe Great Bridge. In these analyses, geometrical and material nonlinearities are simultaneously taken into account. For geometrical nonlinearity, updated Lagrangian formulations are adopted to derive the tangent stiffness matrix. In order to simulate the nonlinear behavior of the plastic hinge of the piers, the multi-lines spring element COMBIN39 is used in the SM while the bilinear rotational spring element COMBIN40 is employed in the BM. Numerical calculations show that satisfying results can be obtained in the stability analysis of the bridge when the double coupling nonlinearity effects are considered. In addition, the conclusion is significant for practical engineering.

  3. Health monitoring data analysis and comparison of prototype and laboratorial model for long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ou; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Since 2004, Shandong Binzhou Yellow River highway bridge health monitoring (SHM) system has started to operate. Abundance data has been acquired during these years. To make full use of these data, a 1/40 scale laboratorial model has been built based on the design information of Shandong Binzhou Yellow River highway bridge. And a health monitoring system of the laboratorial model, which included loading system, local response monitoring subsystem and global response monitoring subsystem, has been designed and implemented. The dynamic performance of bridge model and prototype has been compared and the error analysis has been provided also. The numeric simulation of cable damage localization utilizing damage location vectors (DLVs) has been demonstrated. And the results indicated that using DLVs to localize the cable damage is feasible and accurate. The goal of these efforts is to utilize the convenience of the laboratorial environment to obtain the structural information in ideal state which is hard to get in field.

  4. 基于UHPC的超大跨径桥梁优化设计%Optimal Design of Ultra-long Span Bridge Based on UHPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫军祥

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problems in long span bridge of conventional concrete, such as easily cracking of box girder, limited span (under 300 m), Ultra-high Performance Concrete (UHPC) has been introduced to the design of ultra-long span bridge. A new type structure of continuous box girder contain thin-wall structure and dense diaphragm plates has been design. Obtain the optimal distance is 4m of dense diaphragm plates and optimal span ratio is 0.6 through performance analysis and optimization design. Research finding the UHPC bridge has the advantages of strong sustainability, long service life through contrastive analysis of UHPC bridge design scheme and entity arch bridge. The design of UHPC bridge provide a new method for ultra-long continuous box girder bridge.%为了解决常规混凝土下大跨径桥梁出现的箱梁易开裂,主跨径难以突破300 m等问题,将超高性能混凝土(ultra-high performance concrete,UHPC)引用至超大跨径的桥梁设计当中,形成了一种集薄壁结构、密集横隔板箱梁于一体的新型连续梁结构,并对横隔板参数和跨径比进行优化,确定最佳横隔板间隔为4 m,跨径比为0.6。将UHPC箱体桥梁设计方案与某实体桥梁进行对比分析,发现UHPC桥梁具有可持续性强、使用寿命长等优点,为超大跨径连续箱体桥梁设计提供了一个新的方法。

  5. Research of the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges%超大跨度斜拉桥空气静力和动力稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新军; 孙海凌

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of span length,the cable-stayed bridge tends to be a more slen-der structural system,and consequently the wind stability becomes an important problem for its design and construction. Three-dimensional nonlinear aerostatic and aerodynamic stability anal-ysis of long-span bridges is used to investigate the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of a su-per long-span cable-stayed bridge with main span of 1 400 m,and the results are compared with those of a suspension bridge with the similar main span,and considering from the aspect of wind stability,the availability of using the cable-stayed bridge in super long-span bridges whose main span exceeds 1 000 m is discussed. In addition,parametric analysis on the aerostat-ic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges is conducted including the depth and width of the girder,structure style of the tower,the tower’s height-to-span ratio,the ratio of side span to main span,the auxiliary piers in the side span and the anchorage system of stay cables etc,and the key design parameters are pointed out,and also their reasonable values are proposed. The results show that as compared to the suspension bridge with the same main span,the cable-stayed bridge has greater structural stiffness,and becomes more stable under the static and dynamic wind action,and consequently becomes a favorable structural system for super long-span bridges whose main span exceeds 1 000 m;the super long-span cable-stayed bridge becomes more aerostatically and aerodynamically stable under the cases that the girder depth is increased,the girder width is decreased,the inverse Y-shaped tower is used,the tow-er’s height is increased,the side span is shortened,the auxiliary piers are installed in side span and the stayed cables are partially earth-anchored.%随着斜拉桥跨度的持续增长,结构更趋于轻柔,风作用下的结构稳定性已成为超千米主跨斜拉桥设计和研究的重要问题。采用

  6. Structural Behavior of a Long-Span Partially Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridge during Installation of a Key Segment by Thermal Prestressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyo Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated structural behavior of long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges with a main span length of 810 m that use a new key segment closing method based on a thermal prestressing technique. A detailed construction sequence analysis matched with the free cantilever method (FCM was performed using a three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge. The new method offers an effective way of connecting key segments by avoiding large movements resulting from the removal of the longitudinal restraint owing to the asymmetry of axial forces in the girders near the pylons. The new method develops new member forces through the process of heating the cantilever system before installing the key segment and cooling the system continuously after installing key segments. The resulting forces developed by the thermal process enhance the structural behavior of partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges owing to decreased axial forces in the girders.

  7. Multi-mode coupled flutter numerical simulation for TMD control of long-span bridges%大跨度桥梁多模态耦合颤振的TMD控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸣祥; 王建国; 汪权

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the methodology and parameter study of TMD control for long-span bridges. The differential equations governing the motion of the structure with TMDs are established in the mode space, in which the effects of aerodynamic self-excited force are taken into account. The revised automatic analysis for multimode-coupled flutter,which is the single parameter searching method with- out iterations,is adapted for the flutter control analysis of structure-TMDs system based on the complex modal theory. Taking a three-tower suspension bridge being built crossing the Yangtze River for a nu- merical example,the flutter analysis of the original bridge and flutter control analysis of bridge-TMDs system are performed. The TMD parameters are discussed for influence of critical wind speed.%推导了装有TMD的结构在气动自激力作用下的动力微分方程,基于模态空间中多模态耦合颤振分析手段,运用考虑安装TMD的多模态自动分析法对结构-TMD系统进行了颤振分析和TMD控制分析,使多模态自动分析法能适用于TMD颤振控制分析,避免了双参数搜索和迭代计算,提高了计算效率。对某在建三塔悬索桥进行了原结构颤振分析和TMD-结构颤振频域分析,探讨TMD控制参数对颤振临界风速的影响。

  8. A Proposal for 4000m-span Cable-stayed Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a compound bridge of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges with 4000 m super-long-span over the Tsugaru Strait, Japan. Near to the main towers, cable-stayed bridges and prestressed concrete decks are proposed. It is helpful to enhance rigidity and endure the great axial compression force. In the center of the span, suspension bridges and steel box decks are stiffened by trusses, it can reduce self-weigh and the space between girders, thus contribute to aero-elastic stability. RCFT main tower, RC shell pier and RCFT jacket foundation can enhance rigidity and reduce self-weigh. As a result, the live-dead load ratio of proposal is 0.05 and it is equivalent to 2500m-span suspension bridge.

  9. Effects of fundamental factors on coupled vibration of wind-rail vehicle-bridge system for long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明金; 李永乐; 汪斌

    2016-01-01

    In a wind-vehicle-bridge (WVB) system, there are various interactions among wind, vehicle and bridge. The mechanism for coupling vibration of wind-vehicle-bridge systems is explored to demonstrate the effects of fundamental factors, such as mean wind, fluctuating wind, buffeting, rail irregularities, light rail vehicle vibration and bridge stiffness. A long cable-stayed bridge which carries light rail traffic is regarded as a numerical example. Firstly, a finite element model is built for the long cable-stayed bridge. The deck can generally be idealized as three-dimensional spine beam while cables are modeled as truss elements. Vehicles are modeled as mass-spring-damper systems. Rail irregularities and wind fluctuation are simulated in time domain by spectrum representation method. Then, aerodynamic loads on vehicle and bridge deck are measured by section model wind tunnel tests. Eight vertical and torsional flutter derivatives of bridge deck are identified by weighting ensemble least-square method. Finally, dynamic responses of the WVB system are analyzed in a series of cases. The results show that the accelerations of the vehicle are excited by the fluctuating wind and the track irregularity to a great extent. The transverse forces of wheel axles mainly depend on the track irregularity. The displacements of the bridge are predominantly determined by the mean wind and restricted by its stiffness. And the accelerations of the bridge are enlarged after adding the fluctuating wind.

  10. Using BIM to Improve the Design and Construction of Bridge Projects: A Case Study of a Long-span Steel-box Arch Bridge Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wenping Liu; Hongling Guo; Heng Li; Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    More and more mega-complex bridge projects are being or will be built worldwide. At the same time, the design and construction of such projects involve more and more challenges, e.g., complex structural designs, complicated construction environments, etc. This research study aims to apply BIM (Building Information Modelling) to bridge projects to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of design and construction. Through the analysis of the characteristics of bridge projects and relevant, as...

  11. Influence of central buckle on suspension bridge dynamic characteristics and driving comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王达; 邓扬; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    The central buckle, which is often used in a suspension bridge, can improve bridges’ performance in the actual operation condition. The influence of the central buckle on natural vibration characteristics and bridge-deck driving comfort of a long-span suspension bridge is studied by using a case study of Siduhe Suspension Bridge in China. Based on the finite element software ANSYS and independently complied program, the influence of the central buckle on the structure force-applied characteristics of a long-span suspension bridge has been explored. The results show that the huge increases of natural frequencies can result in the presence of central buckles because of the increases of bending and torsional rigidities. The central buckle basically makes the stiffening girders and cables within the triangular area covered as a relatively approximate rigid area. Hence, the central buckle can reduce the torsional displacement of the main girder. However, the increases of bending and torsional rigidities have little influence on the impact factor, which is obtained by using vehicle-bridge coupled vibration analysis. This means that the central buckle has little effect on the comfort indices. In addition, it is found that the central buckle can enhance the bridge deck’s driving stability due to the decrease of the torsional displacements of the main girder.

  12. Case Study on 4000 m-span Cable-stayed Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the case studies for a cable-stayed suspension bridges proposed over the Tsugaru Strait, Japan. Center Bridge is designed as a compound bridge of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges with 4000 m super-long-span. Case studies about the effects of cable-stayed bridge length, the design of sub-cable, height and stiffness of main tower, type of foundation and length of side span on displacement were carried out. With appropriate design of above parameters, the compound bridge can reduce horizontal displacement of main tower and vertical deflection in the central portion and enhance resistance to partial loading. The study reports the results based on these case studies.

  13. A型高墩大跨混凝土连续刚构桥地震反应影响分析%Impact Analysis of Seismic Response A Type High Pier and Long Span Concrete Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思孝; 夏修身; 李锐

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable characteristics of A type high pier and long span concrete continuous rigid frame bridge are high pier, larye span, massive girder and pier. This paper analyzes the influence of P-delta effect, the traveling wave effect on the A type high pier and long-span continuous rigid frame bridge seismic response of concrete and elastic plastic re-sponse characteristics of earthquake, it also discusses the seismic ductility design method of A type high pier and long span concrete continuous rigid frame bridge. The results showed that: A type continuous rigid frame bridge with high piers on seismic design limited ductility is reasonable, P-delta has little effect on type A high pier and long-span continu-ous rigid frame bridge’s response in earthquake, which cauld be ignared in design; traveling wave effect on the A type high pier and long-span continuous rigid frame bridge response earthquake should be combined with a specific type of bridge and bridge site selection. Reasonable seismic wave velocity and proper travelling wave speed should be selected in analysis. The research could sexve as a reference for high pier and long-span Railway Bridge design.%A型高墩大跨混凝土连续刚构桥的显著特点是墩高、跨度大、梁体及墩身质量巨大。文章分析了P-Δ效应、行波效应对A型高墩大跨混凝土连续刚构桥地震反应的影响及弹塑性地震反应特点,探讨了A型高墩大跨混凝土连续刚构桥的延性抗震设计方法。结果表明: A型高墩连续刚构桥按有限延性的抗震设计比较合理,P-Δ效应对A型高墩大跨连续刚构桥地震反应的影响较小,设计中可以忽略;行波效应对A型高墩大跨连续刚构桥地震反应的影响应结合具体的桥型、桥址场地类别,选取合理的地震动、恰当的行波速度进行分析。

  14. Using BIM to Improve the Design and Construction of Bridge Projects: A Case Study of a Long-span Steel-box Arch Bridge Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more mega-complex bridge projects are being or will be built worldwide. At the same time, the design and construction of such projects involve more and more challenges, e.g., complex structural designs, complicated construction environments, etc. This research study aims to apply BIM (Building Information Modelling to bridge projects to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of design and construction. Through the analysis of the characteristics of bridge projects and relevant, associated problems, a BIM-based solution to improving design and construction is developed, including conceptual design optimization, detailed design optimization, the optimization of construction sequences, construction scheduling, construction management, and construction process monitoring. Furthermore, a real-life bridge project is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the BIM-aided approach to design and construction. It is shown that BIM has the potential to improve the design and construction of bridge projects. It is expected that this research could contribute to the extensive application of BIM in mega-complex bridge projects to aid in design and construction in the future.

  15. Accurate stress analysis on rigid central buckle of Ions-span suspension bridges based on submodel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; LI AiQun; GUO Tong; MA Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB) with the main span of 1490 m is the longest bridge in China and the third longest one in the world. In this bridge the rigid central buckle is employed for the first time in the mid-span of the suspension bridge in China. For such a super-long-span bridge, the traditional finite element (FE) modeling technique and stress analysis methods obviously cannot satisfy the needs of conducting accurate stress analysis on the central buckle. In this paper, the submodel method is introduced and for the first time used in analyzing the stresses of the central buckle. After an accurate FE submodel of the central buckle was specially established according to the analysis results from the whole FE model, the connection technique between the two-scale FE models was realized and the accurate stresses of the central buckle under various vehicle load cases were then conducted based on the submodel method. The calculation results were testified to be accurate and reliable by the field measurements, which show the efficiency and reliability of the submodel method on analyzing the mechanical condition of the central buckle of long-span suspension bridges. Finally, the working behavior and mechanical characteristics of the central buckle of the RSB under vehicle loads were analyzed based on the calculation and measurement results. The results obtained in this paper can provide theoretic references for analyzing and designing the rigid central buckle in long-span suspension bridges in future.

  16. Torsional instability in suspension bridges: The Tacoma Narrows Bridge case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Gianni; Gazzola, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    All attempts of aeroelastic explanations for the torsional instability of suspension bridges have been somehow criticised and none of them is unanimously accepted by the scientific community. We suggest a new nonlinear model for a suspension bridge and we perform numerical experiments with the parameters corresponding to the collapsed Tacoma Narrows Bridge. We show that the thresholds of instability are in line with those observed the day of the collapse. Our analysis enables us to give a new explanation for the torsional instability, only based on the nonlinear behavior of the structure.

  17. Identification Method of Flutter Derivative of Long-span Bridge in Tandem with Uncertain Aerodynamic Interference Effect%不确定气动干扰效应影响下并列大跨度桥梁颤振导数识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝志文; 李友祥; 陈政清

    2011-01-01

    将处于自然风中一前一后并列布置的大跨度桥梁相互之间可能存在的不确定相互气动干扰处理成随机气动干扰,并归入到紊流风随机激励中,采用基于模态参数识别的随机子空间识别方法,开发了桥梁断面颤振导数识别的专用程序,并以具有理论解的Theodorsen平板为例,通过系统响应数值仿真和颤振导数识别,验证了该方法的可靠性。针对实际大跨度桥梁,设计了并列节段模型试验悬挂系统,开展了紊流风和随机气动干扰效应下的并列大跨度桥梁节段模型风洞试验,将迎风、背风侧桥梁断面的颤振导数结果与均匀流、紊流风中单个桥梁断面颤振导数值进行了对比。结果表明:背风侧桥梁对迎风侧桥梁的颤振导数影响很小,而迎风侧桥梁对背风侧桥梁的颤振导数有较大影响;该研究方法为存在这种随机气动干扰的并列大跨度桥梁颤振导数识别提供了一个较为合理的途径。%Uncertain interactive aerodynamic interference of two long-span bridges in tandem which located very closely in turbulent wind was treated as stochastic aerodynamic interference, and was included into stochastic turbulent wind excitation. Based on the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method of modal parameter identification, specified program of flulter derivative of bridge section was developed. Taking Theodorsen thin plate with theoretical solution as example, the method was validated through system response simulation and identification of flutter derivative. Aimed at practical long-span bridge, suspension system of sectional model test in tandem was designed. Wind tunnel test of sectional model of long-span bridge in tandem under turbulent wind and stochastic aerodynamic interference effect was carried out. Flutter derivative results of windward and leeward bridge section got by the test were compared with flutter derivative value of single

  18. Galloping comparative analysis for transient main cables of suspension bridge during construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengli; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Haiting; Chen, Huai

    2011-04-01

    The cross-sectional shapes of two construction projects for the transient main cables are non-circular cross-sections during construction of the long-span suspension bridge, so the transient main cables can experience galloping instabilities. The galloping coefficients of the several representative cases of two construction projects for the transient main cables without wind-resistant measures for the long-span suspension bridge were investigated for the first time by means of the CFD method, referring to an erecting suspension bridge. Results show that for the project 1, at the early stages of the main cables construction, the galloping instabilities can occur, but at the later stages of that, the galloping instabilities cannot occur. For the project 2, there exists a lot of wind attack angles whose galloping coefficients are less than 0 at the whole construction stages. From the perspective for galloping instability the project 1 is better 2.Through the analysis and comparison the galloping performance of two kinds of construction projects for the transient main cables, the advantage and disadvantage for two construction projects is explained theoretically from the perspective for whether can result in the galloping instability.

  19. Reduction of seismic response long-span PC cable-stayed bridge by passive dampers; Damper ni yoru saidai PC shachokyo no jishinji oto no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Yamanobe, S.; Niihara, Y. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-31

    It is important in designing a PC cable-stayed bridge to properly estimate the seismic response of the bridge for reduction of the response. In this paper, an improvement of the seismic resistance of PC cable-stayed bridges when dampers are installed between the deck and piers and lateral vibration of the deck is restricted is investigated using a time history response model. PC cable-stayed bridges with a span length of 400 m, particularly two types of bridges of harp and semi-harp are investigated and the following is found by analyzing the case where there are installed hysteresis type dampers (with 1 cm yield displacement and secondary rigidity assumed to be 1/10 times that of initial rigidity, the initial rigidity being parametrically changed.) or viscous type dampers (a damping factor is changed.) The result shows that the dampers can reduce the seismic response of a PC cable-stayed bridge and that a semi-harp configuration of stay cables where stay cable members are substantially vertically arranged is more effective than a harp configuration for the seismic performance of PC cable-stayed bridges. The damper partly bear inertial force of the bridge upon earthquake whereby tension of the stay cable members is reduced and bending moment of the deck is reduced. There is existing an optimum characteristic value of the damper concerning the bending moment of the piers. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 大跨度桥式起重机平衡台车开裂原因分析%Cracking Analysis for Load Dividing Dolly of Long-span Bridge Type Crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈驰中; 罗会信

    2011-01-01

    Bridge Type Crane is widely applied hoisting and conveying machine in the manufacturingenterprise. Cracks were found on the load dividing dolly of a long-span bridge type Crane. Bymaking nondestructive inspection and dynamic stress testing on dolly, the causes of cracks on loaddividing dolly were analyzed, that provided the basic reference for the crane's later strengtheningproject.%桥式起重机是生产企业中应用非常普遍的一种起重运输机械.在大跨度桥式起重机的平衡台车上发现裂纹.通过对起重机平衡台车进行无损探伤以及动载应力测试,分析造成平衡台车裂纹产生的力学原因,为其提供了后期加固方案的依据.

  1. Simulation Study on Train-Induced Vibration Control of a Long-Span Steel Truss Girder Bridge by Tuned Mass Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train-induced vibration of steel truss bridges is one of the key issues in bridge engineering. This paper talks about the application of tuned mass damper (TMD on the vibration control of a steel truss bridge subjected to dynamic train loads. The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (NYRB is taken as the research object and a recorded typical train load is included in this study. With dynamic finite element (FE method, the real-time dynamic responses of NYRB are analyzed based on a simplified train-bridge time-varying system. Thereinto, two cases including single train moving at one side and two trains moving oppositely are specifically investigated. According to the dynamic characteristics and dynamic responses of NYRB, the fourth vertical bending mode is selected as the control target and the parameter sensitivity analysis on vibration control efficiency with TMD is conducted. Using the first-order optimization method, the optimal parameters of TMD are then acquired with the control efficiency of TMD, the static displacement of Midspan, expenditure of TMDs, and manufacture difficulty of the damper considered. Results obtained in this study can provide references for the vibration control of steel truss bridges.

  2. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis...

  3. Full scale monitoring of wind and traffic induced response of a suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheynet Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full-scale analysis of wind and traffic-induced vibrations of a long-span suspension bridge in complex terrain. Several wind and acceleration sensors have been installed along the main span on Lysefjord Bridge in Norway. In the present study, three days of continuous records are analysed. Traffic-induced vibrations are dominant at low and moderated wind speed, with non-negligible effects on the overall bridge response for heavy vehicles only. Traffic and wind-induced vibrations are compared in terms of root mean square of the acceleration response, and three simples approaches are proposed to isolate records dominated by wind-induced vibration. The first one relies on the separation of nocturnal and diurnal samples. The second one is based on the evaluation of the time-varying root mean square of the acceleration response. The last one evaluates the relative importance of the high frequency domain of the acceleration bridge response. It appears that traffic-induced vibrations may have to be taken into account for the buffeting analysis of long-span bridge under moderated wind.

  4. Condition Assessment on Thermal Effects of a Suspension Bridge Based on SHM Oriented Model and Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out the condition assessment on temperature distribution and thermal effects of a long span suspension bridge. The structural health monitoring (SHM oriented data analysis is first performed and several indices are developed to process the time-varying temperature, displacement, and strain responses. An analytical procedure based on heat transfer theory is presented to determine the temperature distributions within the bridge. The fine finite element models of the deck plate, the cross frame, and the bridge tower are constructed for thermal analysis. A new approach to the thermal-structural coupling analysis of long span bridges is proposed to examine the structural thermal effects. The feasibility and validity of the proposed data process method and the new approach for thermal-structural coupling analysis are examined through detailed numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared with the field measurement data obtained from the long-term monitoring system of the bridge and they show a very good agreement, in terms of temperature distribution in different time and in different seasons. This exercise verifies the accuracy of the heat transfer analysis employed and the effectiveness and validity of the proposed approaches for data processing and thermal-structural coupling analysis.

  5. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering,and the structural health monitoring system(SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement.In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge(RSB),two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SHMS of RSB.In August 2005,Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu,the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses.In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory,the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics,the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck,and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed.Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques,and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  6. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; LI AiQun; GUO Tong; XIE Jing

    2009-01-01

    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering, and the structural health monitoring system (SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement. In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB), two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SliMS of RSB. In August 2005, Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu, the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses. In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory, the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics, the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck, and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed. Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques, and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  7. 大跨度连续下承式钢箱拱桥设计%Design of Long-Span Continuous Through Type Steel Box Arch Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国普; 李斐然

    2016-01-01

    为满足桥梁的景观和功能要求,小浪底坝后保护区交通桥上部结构采用(95+152+95) m三跨连续下承式钢箱拱结构。主梁为预应力混凝土π形梁,采用钢管桩+贝雷梁法施工。拱肋为钢箱提篮拱,结构用钢采用Q345D钢板,先工厂预制再现场焊接成型。吊索采用7根φ15.2环氧喷涂无粘结钢绞线,缠包后热挤HDPE ,抗拉强度标准值1860 M Pa。下部结构采用柱式台、倒V形实体薄壁墩、高桩承台、钻孔灌注桩基础。采用非线性程序TDV进行计算分析,结果表明,该桥的强度、刚度和稳定性以及抗震性能均满足规范要求。%To meet the landscape and function requirements proposed , the transportation bridge in the conservation area behind the Xiaolangdi Dam adopts a three‐span continuous through type steel box arch bridge structure with span arrangement of (95+152+95) m .The main girder is the prestressed concrete π‐shaped girder ,constructed by the combined use of steel tube piles and bailey truss .T he arch ribs are the steel box basket handle arches .T he predominant material used for the structure is the Q345D steel plate ,and all the components are prefabricated in the factory and transported to the bridge site for welding to take shape .Each hanger consists of 7φ15 .2 epoxy non‐binding steel strands ,extruded with HDPE after wrapping .The hanger has a standard tensile strength of 1 860 MPa .The substructure of the bridge incorporates column‐type abutments ,in‐versed V‐shaped solid thin‐wall piers ,high‐rise pile caps and bored piles .The non‐linear program TDV was used to do calculation .The results of the calculation demonstrate that the strength ,ri‐gidity ,reliability and anti‐seismic performance of the bridge all meet the code requirements .

  8. Analysis of Common Aerodynamic Measures for Wind Resistant Design of Long Span Bridges%大跨度桥梁抗风设计常用气动措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长灿; 詹昊

    2015-01-01

    为提高大跨度桥梁的抗风性能,对该类桥梁抑制涡激共振和提高颤振稳定性的常用气动措施及其机理进行初步分析。桥梁涡激共振和颤振稳定性与旋涡的产生和漂移有关,因此气动优化的一般原则是改善结构迎风面和背风面的气动外形以延缓或避免流动分离、减小分离涡尺度、阻碍旋涡漂移路径。抑制桥梁涡激振动一般采用设置倒角、安装风嘴和优化风嘴形状、安装导流板等气动措施;提高桥梁颤振稳定性一般采用安装风嘴和优化风嘴形状、安装稳定板和气动翼板等气动措施。研究表明采用气动措施后,大跨度桥梁的气动性能得到改善。%To improve the wind resistant performance of long span bridges ,the common aero‐dynamic measures and their mechanism for suppressing the vortex‐induced resonance and for im‐proving the flutter stability of the bridges are preliminarily analyzed .Since the vortex‐induced res‐onance and flutter stability of the bridges are correlated with the vortex generation and vortex drift ,the general principle of optimizing the aerodynamic measures is to improve the windward and leeward structural aerodynamic profiles in order to delay or avoid the flow separation ,reduce the separated vortex scales and impede the vortex drift paths .As regards the aerodynamic measures for suppressing the vortex‐induced vibration of the bridges ,the rounded corners and wind fairings are generally installed ,the shapes of the wind fairings are optimized and the guide vanes are in‐stalled while as regards the measures for improving the flutter stability ,the wind fairings are gen‐erally installed ,the shapes of the wind fairings are optimized and the stabilizers and aerodynamic wing plates are installed .Researches indicate that the aerodynamic performance of the long span bridges can be improved after these measures have been taken .

  9. 大跨桥梁健康监测系统设计构成及其进展%Designed Components and Development of Health Monitoring Systems for Long Span Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王戒躁; 钟继卫; 王波

    2009-01-01

    With the constant construction of the new types of long span, lightweight and flexible structure bridges, the safety and durability of the bridges in operation state have attracted great concern from engineering circle and the real-time structural health monitoring and the near real-time structural safety evaluation of the bridges have also become the hot research subjects in the engineering and academic circles. The contents and components of the monitoring and evaluation systems are presented herewith, the current research of the monitoring and evaluation systems for some major bridges at home and abroad are reviewed, the state-of-the-art, development tendency and prospecting of the monitoring system and evaluation items are described and the research findings of the monitoring system for Wuhan Yangluo Changjiang River Bridge are particularly analyzed.%随着大跨、轻、柔等新型桥型的不断建造,桥梁结构运营状态的安全性及耐久性受到工程界高度重视.大跨度桥梁的实时结构健康监测和近实时结构安全评估工作也成为工程界及学术界研究的热点问题.介绍桥梁健康监测与评估系统的内容及系统构成,简要回顾国内外大型桥梁健康监测与评估系统的研究现状,阐述桥梁健康监测与评估项目的发展现状、趋势及前景,并重点分析武汉阳逻长江大桥健康监测系统的研究成果.

  10. Improving the Dynamics of Suspension Bridges using Active Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Improving the dynamics of suspension bridge using active control is discussed in this paper. The main dynamic problem with long suspension bridges is the aeroelastic phenomenon called flutter. Flutter oscillations of a bridge girder is a stability problem and the oscillations are perpendicular...

  11. Research on Construction Technology for No. 0 Section of Four-track Long Span Rigid Frame Bridge%四线大跨度刚构桥0号段施工技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞俊

    2015-01-01

    刚构桥梁中0号段作为悬臂梁施工的起点,在悬臂施工、运营中是应力最集中、应力变化最复杂的梁节段,其施工质量控制全桥质量,也影响梁体后期使用运营。文章结合目前国内四线铁路单T最大跨度刚构桥,系统研究了大跨度刚构桥“长、高、大”0号段模板、托架设计与施工、混凝土浇筑工艺、线形与应力监测分析,解决“长大”0号段施工中难题,取得的施工技术成果值得同类工程借鉴。%No. 0 section of rigid frame bridge, as the starting point of cantilever beam construction, is of the most con-centrated stress and the most complex stress variation in the cantilever construction and operation, its construction quality controls the full bridge quality, it also affects the post operation of beam body. Combined with the current four-track sin-gle T rigid frame railway bridge with maximum span in China, formwork, design and construction of bracket, concrete pouring process, linear and stress monitoring analysis of long, high, large No. 0 section of long-span rigid frame bridge are systematically studied, the problems during construction of long and large No. 0 section are resolved,the achieve-ments of construction technology can provide reference for similar engineering.

  12. Aerodynamic stability study of a long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge. Aerodynamic behavior of edge box girder under uniform flow; Chodai PC shachokyo no taifu anteisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Ichiyoryuchu ni okeru edge girder keishiki no kuriki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, T. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    In recent years, the construction of long-span bridges is on the increase. Prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges are dynamically very efficient structures of relatively low cost that blend in well with the landscape. Maintenance is also easy. Consequently, the adoption of edge box girders for cable-stayed bridges is increasing worldwide, but problems related to the aerodynamic stability of the structure have emerged. The aerodynamic stability of edge box girders for a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was investigated under uniform flow conditions by conducting several wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the section of the bridge deck was optimized to prevent torsional flutter within an angle of attack varying from -5 to +5 degrees. It is therefore possible to guarantee the aerodynamic stability of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. (author)

  13. 青藏高原大跨度铁路连续刚构桥温度效应研究%Study on Temperature Effect of Long-span Continuous Rigid Frame Railway Bridges in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆祥

    2014-01-01

    分析大跨度连续桥梁温度应力的影响,以拉日铁路雅鲁藏布江三号特大桥为例进行研究。采用 Midas Civil计算软件,对箱型截面的大跨度桥梁成桥后,在温度梯度作用下,对梁体的最大应力进行分析计算。采用 Midas FEA计算软件,分析箱型截面冬季施工养护期间,在箱体内部温度和高于外部温度的实测值下,分析单个现浇块体的应力值,为养护温度的设定提供参考依据。计算结果表明:温度对桥梁的应力影响较大,在西藏地区的温度变化快,温度较低的条件下,桥梁的抗裂能力能够满足当地气候条件。冬季施工期间,箱体内外养护温度差较大时会产生拉应力,必须合理的控制内外温度差和拉应力值,保证混凝土养护期间不开裂。%Analysis of the influence of temperature stress in long-span continuous bridge,in order to investigate this issue,take the 3rd Super Bridge of Brahmaputra as an example.Using the Mi-das Civil software to analyse the maximum stress of the the long-span bridge with box section af-ter completing bridge under the effect of the temperature gradient.Using the Midas FEA software to analyse the stress of the individual cast-in-place block,in the condition that the internal meas-ured temperature is higher than the external measured temperature during construction and main-tenance stage in winter,which can provide a reference for the settings of curing temperature.The calculation result shows that temperature has a great influence on the stress of bridge.In the con-dition of rapid temperature change and low temperature in Tibet,the crack resistance of the bridge can meet the local climatic conditions.During construction in winter,there would be tensile stress generated when curing temperature difference is large enough,so it is necessary to control the temperature difference between internal and external reasonable and tensile stress.ensured that the

  14. 大跨度桥梁各态历经脉动风场的数值模拟分析%Numerical study on ergodic fluctuating wind field of long-span bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑恒斌; 颜全胜; 王卫锋; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the spectral representation method with proper orthogonal decomposition ( POD) , considering the features of fluctuating wind field of long-span bridges, a reduction simulated formula of fluctuating wind field, which considered the cross-spectral density matrix as the POD object, was deduced. The equation of end error calculation based on the energy criterion was adopted to estimate the rational truncation item number of eigenvalues. And by introducing the double-indexing of the frequencies, the simulation of ergodic time domain series was achieved. Also, the Fast Fourier Transform was adopted to improve calculation efficiency, and the improved formula based on the Fast Fourier Transform was deduced in order to program expediently. In addition, the algorithm was applied to simulate the beam stochastic wind field of a long-span railway continuous rigid frame bridge. The auto-power spectral density and cross-power spectral density of the simulated time domain samples show good agreement with target spectrum, which can verify the effectiveness and correctness of the algorithm. Finally, the algorithm resultant velocity of wind field was analyzed. Results indicate that the key point of influencing the algorithm calculation efficiency is the POD velocity of matrix.%基于本征正交分解(proper orthogonal decomposition,POD)的谱表示法,结合大跨度桥梁脉动风场的特点,推导出一种以互谱密度矩阵为POD对象的脉动风场模拟简化公式.采用以能量评判为准则的误差精确公式,对特征值合理截断阶数进行估计.引入双索引频率,实现了模拟样本的各态历经性.采用快速傅里叶变换(fast Fourier transform,FFT)对算法加速,给出了简化模拟公式在FFT算法下的具体表达式,便于程序编制.利用该法模拟了一座大跨度铁路连续刚构桥的主梁脉动风场,所得样本自功率谱和互功率谱均与目标谱吻合良好,验证了该方法的有效性和正确性.对

  15. 高墩大跨连续刚构桥的稳定性分析%Analysis of Stability of Long-span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge with High Pier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 田山坡; 禚一

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes: The highway in western China or the remote region needs to cross over rivers and valleys and passes the regions with complex terrains due to the limitation of topographical condition . For this reason, the long -span continuous rigid frame bridge with high pier becomes more and more and the height of the bridge increases from several decameters to hundreds of meters. With increases of the pier height and the span length, the research on the stability of such kind of bridge is becoming more and more important. Research conclusions:Taking the long - span continuous rigid frame bridge with(90 + 168+90) m high pier in Shanxi province as the engineering background, the basic principle related to the structure stability is discussed and the stability of the high pier, the stability of the longest cantilever during construction and the stability in complete stage of the bridge are analyzed. From the calculation results it can be seen that for the bridge presented in this paper, the temperature effect has a little influence on the high pier stability, the wind load along the bridge axial direction has the most negative impact on the structure stability in the construction stage of the longest cantilever, and during the complete stage of the bridge, the lane load and the load of the crowded people set on the middle span has the most negative impact on the bridge stability. Furthermore, wind has a little influence and the influence of the temperature effect can be ignored in this stage. The calculation results also show this bridge has a good stability during its construction process and in the complete stage of bridge. The calculation and analysis processes presented in this paper can provide the reference to the similar works.%研究目的:西部地区及偏远地区受地形条件的限制,修建公路时常需要跨越河流、沟谷等复杂地形,因此高墩大跨连续刚沟桥的修建日益增多,其墩高也由原来的几十米提

  16. Behaviors of super-long span prestressed cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and UHPC girder%CFRP拉索预应力超高性能混凝土斜拉桥力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 任亮; 凡凤红

    2012-01-01

    To discuss the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cables and reactive powder concrete ( RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges, taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge using steel girder and steel cables as example, a cable-stayed bridge with the same span using RPC (reactive powder concrete) as the girder and advanced composite material CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) as the cable was designed, in which the cable cross section was determined by the principles of equivalent cable strength and the beam cross section was determined considering the stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the method of finite element analysis, the comparative study of these two structures on their static properties, dynamic properties, stability and wind resistance were carried out. The results show that it is feasible for using RPC as the girder and CFRP as the cable so as to form a highly efficient, durable cable-stayed bridge of concrete structure and make its applicable span reach about 1 000 m long.%为了探讨碳纤维复合材料(carbon fiber reinforced polymer,CFRP)和超高性能活性粉末混凝土(reactive powder concrete,RPC)在超大跨度斜拉桥中应用的可行性,以主跨1008m的大跨度钢主梁斜拉桥设计方案为例,采用拉索的等强度原则将原桥钢索替换成CFRP索,考虑截面刚度、截面应力和局部稳定等要求,将原桥钢主梁替换成RPC主梁,拟订了一座等跨度的CFRP拉索、RPC主梁斜拉桥方案.采用有限元法分别对两种方案结构的静力特性、动力特性、稳定性能以及抗风性能等进行了分析与比较.结果表明:从结构受力性能角度而言,采用超高性能混凝土主梁和CFRP拉索构成千米级跨度混凝土斜拉桥的结构体系是可行的.

  17. Fragility analysis of long span continuous rigid frame bridge under multi-support excitations%多点地震激励下大跨连续钢构桥易损性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉涛; 杨庆山; 刘阳冰

    2013-01-01

    Due to wave passage effect, incoherence effect, local effect and other factors in seismic ground motion, the internal force and deformation of long span continuous rigid framed bridges will be error-estimated when seismic responses analysis is performed under identical support ground motion excitations. A Monte Carlo simulation method was used to establish the random sample for the system of large-span continuous rigid frame bridge under ground motion excitation, by means of considering the uncertainties of structural material and ground motion, both for identical support ground motion excitations and multiple support ground motion excitations. The ductility ratio of piers was defined as the index of damage state of the bridge. The seismic fragility analysis was carried out under the two different modes of excitations and the fragility curves of the bridge were given based on the damage state definition. The peak acceleration relationship between the two different modes of excitations was obtained under the same level damage.%针对地震动存在行波效应、场地效应、不相干效应等因素,分析大跨连续钢构桥在一致地震激励输入响应时结构内力和变形会被偏估问题,考虑结构及地震动不确定性,采用蒙特卡罗方法建立一致激励与多点激励两种工况下大跨连续钢构桥-地震动系统随机样本.以桥墩位移延性比表示桥梁破坏状态阶段,对桥梁易损性进行分析,给出大跨连续钢构桥结构的易损性曲线,得到同样程度破坏的多点地震激励与一致地震激励下加速度峰值关系.

  18. Computation simulation of the nonlinear response of suspension bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D.B.; Astaneh-Asl, A.

    1997-10-01

    Accurate computational simulation of the dynamic response of long- span bridges presents one of the greatest challenges facing the earthquake engineering community The size of these structures, in terms of physical dimensions and number of main load bearing members, makes computational simulation of transient response an arduous task. Discretization of a large bridge with general purpose finite element software often results in a computational model of such size that excessive computational effort is required for three dimensional nonlinear analyses. The aim of the current study was the development of efficient, computationally based methodologies for the nonlinear analysis of cable supported bridge systems which would allow accurate characterization of a bridge with a relatively small number of degrees of freedom. This work has lead to the development of a special purpose software program for the nonlinear analysis of cable supported bridges and the methodologies and software are described and illustrated in this paper.

  19. Dynamic Stability of Long-Span CFST Arch Bridge under Action of Near-Fault Ground Motions%近断层地震作用下大跨CFST拱桥的动力稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢帆; 祝兵; 赵灿晖

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the dynamic stability performances of long-span CFST ( concrete-filled steel tubular) arch bridges under the action of near-fault ground motions, an arch bridge with a 132 m main span was taken as the engineering background, and seismic records of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, China were set as transverse inputs. The incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) was adopted to determine the critical load of dynamic instability. To increase the efficiency of IDA, the parallel high-performance numerical computing was employed. In addition, the problem of strengthening IDA curve cluster convergence was discussed. The research result shows that near-fault pulse-like ground motions are likely to bring about a great damage and result in nonlinear dynamical limit-load instability, and the corresponding critical load is decreased evidently. Weighted average peak ground acceleration, an new intensity measure, can make the discreteness of IDA curve cluster be improved significandy to avail to reveal the dynamic instability characteristics of CFST arch bridges caused by near-fault ground motions.%为研究大跨度CFST(钢管混凝土)拱桥在近断层地震作用下的动力稳定性能,以主跨132 m的下承式钢管混凝土拱桥为工程背景,以台湾集集地震记录作为横向输入,采用动态增量分析(IDA)方法,对动力失稳临界荷载的确定进行了探讨.为提高IDA的分析效率,采用了高性能数值计算并行处理方法.此外,还讨论了加强IDA曲线簇收敛的问题.结果表明:脉冲型近震可导致非线性极值动力失稳,失稳临界荷载明显降低;采用加权平均加速度峰值作为地震强度指标,能显著改善IDA曲线簇的离散性,有利于揭示近断层地震对钢管混凝土拱桥造成动力失稳的特点.

  20. Evaluation of Seismic Performance of Long Span Continuous Girder Bridges Based on Seismic Isolation Design%基于减隔震设计的大跨度连续梁桥抗震性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贞新; 刘高

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear time history analysis method is adopted to analyze dynamic characteristics and seismic performance based on long span continuous girder bridges with spans of 89 m, 170 m and 89 m in high intensity region. The good hysteretic, energy-dissipation characteristics and self-restoring ability of double curvature seismic isolation bearings are simulated as well as the friction energy-dissipation characteristics of sliding bearing and damping energy-dissipation characteristics of dampers. Analytical results indicate that seismic performance can basically meet the expected design goal; seismic isolation device of double curvature spherical supports and dampers can adjust dynamic characteristics, reduce seismic response, dissipate earthquake energy and guarantee the safety of the structure.%基于高烈度区的某大跨度连续梁桥(89 m+170 m+89 m),采用非线性时程分析法进行结构动力特性及抗震性能分析.全桥均采用三维梁单元建立空间模型,对于双曲面球形减隔震支座的滞回耗能特性和自恢复功能,活动支座的摩擦耗能以及固定销剪断后的效应进行了模拟,同时模拟了阻尼器的阻尼耗能作用.研究结果表明:采用双曲面球形减隔震支座及桥台处纵向阻尼器后,结构的反应得到了很好的控制,确保了高烈度区结构的抗震安全性.

  1. Vibration characteristics and damage detection in a suspension bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Wasanthi R.; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Theanh

    2016-08-01

    Suspension bridges are flexible and vibration sensitive structures that exhibit complex and multi-modal vibration. Due to this, the usual vibration based methods could face a challenge when used for damage detection in these structures. This paper develops and applies a mode shape component specific damage index (DI) to detect and locate damage in a suspension bridge with pre-tensioned cables. This is important as suspension bridges are large structures and damage in them during their long service lives could easily go un-noticed. The capability of the proposed vibration based DI is demonstrated through its application to detect and locate single and multiple damages with varied locations and severity in the cables of the suspension bridge. The outcome of this research will enhance the safety and performance of these bridges which play an important role in the transport network.

  2. 关于大跨径连续刚构桥中跨合拢时常见问题的效应验算%The Effect Check of Problems in Closing the Middle Span of Long-Span Continuous Rigid-Frame Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    The rationality of the force and smoothly of linearity which are high pier and long span continu‐ous rigid-frame bridge to its structure are the control points during the construction of bridge .In order to neglect the structural system of bridge under construction not follow the construction order during the con‐struction of long span bridge .T hese problems usually neglected by the field technical managers ,and these neg‐lected problems can influence the stress of long span rigid frame bridge before closing the span .%高墩大跨径的连续刚构桥对其结构受力的合理性及线性的平顺,成为施工过程中的控制重点。在大跨径桥梁施工过程中常常忽视在建桥梁的结构体系,而没有严格按照施工顺序进行施工。这些常被现场技术管理人员所忽略的问题,通常会影响到大跨径刚构桥在最终合拢前的受力。

  3. Analysis of Static, Dynamic and Seismic Performance of Long Span Irregular-Shape Pedestrian Cable-Stayed Bridge%大跨人行异型斜拉桥静、动力及抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世明; 赵顺波; 李晓克

    2012-01-01

    为研究异型斜拉桥结构安全,静、动力以及抗震性能是否满足规范要求,以某大跨人行异型斜拉桥为工程背景,采用MIDAS Civil有限元分析软件,结合桥梁施工方法,对结构进行了考虑混凝土的收缩、徐变、温度等作用的静力特性及动力特性、空气动力稳定以及抗震性能分析.结果表明:塔、梁各截面承载力均满足规范要求;结构基本周期比较短,能减少结构的地震位移,但对桥塔底部受力不利,主梁竖向弯曲的第1阶频率不符合规范(大于3 Hz)要求,需要进行特殊设计,自振特性表现出明显的相互耦合的特点,随着频率的提高,结构扭转所占比重增大,对该桥的横向稳定不利;空气动力稳定良好;在E1地震作用下,结构的应力响应较小,结构刚度较大.%To study the structural safety of long span irregular-shape pedestrian cable-stayed bridge and to check if the static, dynamic and seismic performance of the bridge can meet the relevant requirements in the codes, an actual pedestrian cable-stayed bridge of the same type was cited as an example. By means of the finite element analysis software MIDAS Civil and with reference to the construction methods to be used for the bridge, the static and dynamic characteristics, the aerodynamic stability and seismic performance of the structure were analyzed, taking into account of the action of concrete shrinkage, creep and temperatures. The results of the analysis indicate that the bearing capacity of various sections of the pylon and girder of the structure can meet the requirements in the codes, the basic period of the structure is short and can reduce the displacement of the structure caused by earthquake, but it is unfavorable to the force conditions of the pylon footing. The 1st order frequency of vertical bending of the main girder does not meet the requirements (greater than 3 Hz) in the codes and should be specially dealt with in the design. The

  4. Aerodynamic stability of cable-stayed-suspension hybrid bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jun; SUN Bing-nan

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional nonlinear aerodynamic stability analysis was applied to study the aerodynamic stability of a cable-stayed-suspension (CSS) hybrid bridge with main span of 1400 meters, and the effects of some design parameters (such as the cable sag, length of suspension portion, cable plane arrangement, subsidiary piers in side spans, the deck form, etc.) on the aerodynamic stability of the bridge are analytically investigated. The key design parameters, which significantly influence the aerodynamic stability of CSS hybrid bridges, are pointed out, and based on the wind stability the favorable structural system of CSS hybrid bridges is discussed.

  5. 大跨桥梁振动的杠杆调谐质量阻尼器控制策略评价%Performance Assessment of Lever-type Tuned Mass Damper for Long-span Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春祥

    2005-01-01

    根据建立的LT-TMD-结构系统的动力放大系数解析式,讨论了LT-TMD的动力特性(包括冲程).数值结果表明,LT-TMD和传统的TMD具有相同的控制有效性和冲程;然而,LT-TMD比传统的TMD具有更大的最优调谐频率比和更小的最优阻尼比.LT-TMD的关键优点是可通过移动支撑的位置来限制LT-TMD弹簧的静力和动力伸长而保持其控制有效性和冲程不变.鉴于此 ,LT-TMD可能是控制大跨桥梁振动的一种较好的策略.%Employing the derived analytical expressions for the dynamic magnification fact ors of the lever-type tuned mass damper (LT-TMD) structure system, the perform ance assessment (including the stroke displacement) of the LT-TMD is carried ou t. The numerical results indicate that the LT-TMD may achieve the same effectiv eness and stroke displacement as the tuned mass damper (TMD). However, the LT-T MD needs higher optimum tuning frequency ratio and lesser optimum damping r atio with reference to the TMD. A key advantage of the LT-TMD, compared to the TMD, is that the static stretching of the spring of the LT-TMD may be adjuste d in accordance with the practical requirements through changing the locations o f the support while maintaining the same effectiveness and stroke displacement a s the TMD. In view of this, the LT-TMD may be a better choice for suppressing t he vibrations of long-span bridges with the consequence but not permitting a la rge static stretching of the spring in practical implementation.

  6. Excitation of Arch and Suspension Bridges by Subwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hiwatashi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A force generation method using a subwire for arch and suspension bridges is proposed. The subwire is connected to the arch or the cable of the bridge through rollers. The uniform force produced by pulling and releasing the pretensioned subwires acts on the bridge as an externalforce. A new device called “the resonance force generator” is also developed to excite the bridges by applying a small force. To verify the proposed concept, a stress ribbon bridge was excited with the resonance force generator.

  7. Mathematical models for suspension bridges nonlinear structural instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzola, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a detailed and up-to-the-minute survey of the various stability problems that can affect suspension bridges. In order to deduce some experimental data and rules on the behavior of suspension bridges, a number of historical events are first described, in the course of which several questions concerning their stability naturally arise. The book then surveys conventional mathematical models for suspension bridges and suggests new nonlinear alternatives, which can potentially supply answers to some stability questions. New explanations are also provided, based on the nonlinear structural behavior of bridges. All the models and responses presented in the book employ the theory of differential equations and dynamical systems in the broader sense, demonstrating that methods from nonlinear analysis can allow us to determine the thresholds of instability.

  8. Smart suspension systems for bridge-friendly vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghong; Tan, Chin An; Bergman, Larry A.; Tsao, T. C.

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, the effects of using semi-active control strategy (such as MR dampers) in vehicle suspensions on the coupled vibrations of a vehicle traversing a bridge are examined in order to develop various designs of smart suspension systems for bridge-friendly vehicles. The bridge-vehicle coupled system is modeled as a simply supported beam traversed by a two-degree-of-freedom quarter-car model. The surface unevenness on the bridge deck is modeled as a deterministic profile of a sinusoidal wave. As the vehicle travels along the bridge, the system is excited as a result of the surface unevenness and this excitation is characterized by a frequency defined by the speed of travel and the wavelength of the profile. The dynamic interactions between the bridge and the vehicle due to surface deck irregularities are obtained by solving the coupled equations of motion. Numerical results of a passive control strategy show that, when the lower natural frequency of the vehicle matches with a natural frequency (usually the first frequency) of the bridge and the excitation frequency, the maximum response of the bridge is large while the response of the vehicle is relatively smaller, meaning that the bridge behaves like a vibration absorber. This is undesirable from a bridge design viewpoint. Comparative studies of passive and semi-active controls for the vehicle suspension are performed. It is demonstrated that skyhook control can significantly mitigate the response of the bridge, while ground-hook control reduces the tire force impacted onto the bridge.

  9. Long-term assessment of an autonomous wireless structural health monitoring system at the new Carquinez Suspension Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Kim, Junhee; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome P.; van der Linden, G. W.; Jacob, Vince; Thometz, Ed; Hipley, Pat; Sheng, Li-Hong

    2011-04-01

    A dense network of sensors installed in a bridge can continuously generate response data from which the health and condition of the bridge can be analyzed. This approach to structural health monitoring the efforts associated with periodic bridge inspections and can provide timely insight to regions of the bridge suspected of degradation or damage. Nevertheless, the deployment of fine sensor grids on large-scale structures is not feasible using wired monitoring systems because of the rapidly increasing installation labor and costs required. Moreover, the enormous size of raw sensor data, if not translated into meaningful forms of information, can paralyze the bridge manager's decision making. This paper reports the development of a large-scale wireless structural monitoring system for long-span bridges; the system is entirely wireless which renders it low-cost and easy to install. Unlike central tethered data acquisition systems where data processing occurs in the central server, the distributed network of wireless sensors supports data processing. In-network data processing reduces raw data streams into actionable information of immediate value to the bridge manager. The proposed wireless monitoring system has been deployed on the New Carquinez Suspension Bridge in California. Current efforts on the bridge site include: 1) long-term assessment of a dense wireless sensor network; 2) implementation of a sustainable power management solution using solar power; 3) performance evaluation of an internet-enabled cyber-environment; 4) system identification of the bridge; and 5) the development of data mining tools. A hierarchical cyber-environment supports peer-to-peer communication between wireless sensors deployed on the bridge and allows for the connection between sensors and remote database systems via the internet. At the remote server, model calibration and damage detection analyses that employ a reduced-order finite element bridge model are implemented.

  10. Active aerodynamic stabilisation of long suspension bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Henrik Ditlev; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the addition of actively controlled appendages (flaps) attached along the length of the bridge deck to dampen wind-induced oscillations in long suppension bridges. A novel approach using control systems methods for the analysis of dynamic stability is presented. In order to ma...

  11. Active aerodynamic stabilisation of long suspension bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Henrik Ditlev; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the addition of actively controlled appendages (flaps) attached along the length of the bridge deck to dampen wind-induced oscillations in long suppension bridges. A novel approach using control systems methods for the analysis of dynamic stability is presented. In order to ma...

  12. Line-shape calculation method for suspension bridge catwalk considering different states of bearing cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Xinpeng; Zhang Zhaoxia; Yao Qingtao

    2012-01-01

    The line-shape of catwalk of long-span suspension bridge is obtained by using the segmental catenary method to carry out the iterative calculation, where all the bearing cables are considered as one cable, and transversal passages and gantry are treated as nodes which divide the catwalk into several segments. The difference of line-shape and force between catwalk bearing cable and gantry bearing cable is not usually considered, but the line-shape of two kinds of cables is actually inconsistent because of the constraints from gantries. Based on the segmental catenary method, considering the different states of bearing cables ( DSB calculation method), fine calculation is carried out. This method is applied to the design of a suspension bridge' s catwalk, and is compared with the traditional calculation method. It is obtained that the result is more reasonable and accurate by the coordination calculation method considering different states for two kinds of load-bearing cables, which is worth considering in the nrocess of design and optimization for catwalk.

  13. Research on seasonal correlation of wavelet packet energy spectrum and temperature of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YouLiang; LI AiQun; SUN Jun; DENG Yang

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish an environmental-condition-normalized structural damage alarming method, the seasonal correlation analysis of wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) and temperature of Runyang Suspension Bridge is performed by means of the 236-day health monitoring data. The analysis results reveal that the measured WPES has remarkable seasonal correlation with the environmental tempera-ture. The seasonal change of environmental temperature accounts for the variation of the damage alarming parameter Ip of the dominant frequency bands with an averaged variance of 200%. The statis-tical modeling technique using a 6th-order polynomial is adopted to formulate the correlation between the WPES and temperature, on the basis of which the abnormal changes of measured damage alarming parameter Ip are detected using the mean value control chart. It is found that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from the time series of WPES and exhibit good capa-bility for detecting the damage-induced 10% variances of the damage alarming parameter Ip. And the proposed WPES-based method is superior the modal frequency and hence is more suitable for online real-time damage alarming for long-span bridges.

  14. Research on seasonal correlation of wavelet packet energy spectrum and temperature of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish an environmental-condition-normalized structural damage alarming method,the seasonal correlation analysis of wavelet packet energy spectrum(WPES)and temperature of Runyang Suspension Bridge is performed by means of the 236-day health monitoring data.The analysis results reveal that the measured WPES has remarkable seasonal correlation with the environmental tempera-ture.The seasonal change of environmental temperature accounts for the variation of the damage alarming parameter Ip of the dominant frequency bands with an averaged variance of 200%.The statis-tical modeling technique using a 6th-order polynomial is adopted to formulate the correlation between the WPES and temperature,on the basis of which the abnormal changes of measured damage alarming parameter Ip are detected using the mean value control chart.It is found that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from the time series of WPES and exhibit good capa-bility for detecting the damage-induced 10% variances of the damage alarming parameter Ip.And the proposed WPES-based method is superior the modal frequency and hence is more suitable for online real-time damage alarming for long-span bridges.

  15. Aerodynamic challenges in span length of suspension bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Haifan; GE Yaojun

    2007-01-01

    The potential requirement of extreme bridge spans is firstly discussed according to horizontal clearances for navigation and economical construction of deep-water foundation. To ensure the technological feasibility of suspen- sion bridges with longer spans, the Static estimation of feasi- ble span length is then made based on current material strength and weight of cables and deck. After the performances of the countermeasures for raising the aerodynamic stability are reviewed, a trial design of a 5 000 m suspension bridge, which is estimated as a reasonable limitation of span length, is finally conducted to respond to the tomorrow's challenge in span length of suspension bridges with the particular aspects, including dynamic stiffness, aerodynamic flutter and aerostatic stability.

  16. Optimization Analysis Model of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hangers of self-anchored suspension bridge need to be tensioned suitably during construction. In view of this point, a simplified optimization calculation method of cable force for self-anchored suspension bridge has been developed based on optimization theories, such as minimum bending energy method, and internal force balanced method, influence matrix method. Meanwhile, combined with the weak coherence of main cable and the adjacently interaction of hanger forces, a simplified analysis method is developed using MATLAB, which is then compared with the optimization method that consider the main cable's geometric nonlinearity with software ANSYS in an actual example bridge calculation. This contrast proves the weak coherence of main cable displacement and the limitation of the adjacent cable force influence. Furthermore, a tension program that is of great reference value has been developed; some important conclusions, advices, and attention points have been summarized.

  17. Study on control of cantilever construction of long-span continuous rigid frame bridges%大跨连续刚构桥悬臂施工控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭立强; 刘超; 王冲

    2015-01-01

    随着连续刚构桥施工技术的不断进步,悬臂浇筑成为在实际工程中使用最为广泛的一种连续刚构桥施工方法。在悬臂施工过程中,由于桥梁结构存在由静定结构转变为超静定结构的过程,因此在施工过程中要注意对桥梁线型、内力、预拱度以及挠度等因素进行施工过程监控,以满足桥梁结构的要求。%In recent years, with the continuous progress of the construction technology of continuous rigid frame bridge, cantilever pouring are widely used in practical engineering as a continuous rigid frame bridge construction method. There is a process for bridge structure to change from static structure to hyperstatic struc-ture in the process of the cantilever construction. Therefore, attention should be paid to the bridge linear, in-ternal forces, camber and deflection factors during the construction in order to meet the requirements of the bridge structure.

  18. 大跨径梁桥长期挠度的控制技术研究%Control Technology of Long-term Deflection for Long-span Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新哲

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of large-span girder bridge, based on the problems of long-term deflection in large-span girder bridge, put forward the causes of long-term deflection and control measures by an example of a bridge, to provide reference for the relevant project officers.%文章就大跨梁桥发展概况进行了剖析,针对大跨梁桥长期挠度的问题现象,以某大桥为例提出了长期挠度成因及控制措施新途径,以供相关工程人员参考.

  19. Buffeting Response of Suspension Bridge Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Truc; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper presents the calculation of the root mean square (RMS) response of a suspension bridge using separate control flaps (SCF) in turbulence conditions. It is assumed that the mean wind velocity is not large enough to cause coupled vibrations and that single mode buffeting response...... is of interest. The RMS response is determined on the basis of the equation of motion, which is formulated stochastically according to the wind random turbulence components. It is further assumed that the sum of the motion-induced forces and the buffeting-induced forces from the girder and the flaps is computed...

  20. 基于支持向量机的高墩大跨桥梁体系可靠度计算%Computation of Structural System Reliability of High-Rise Pier and Long Span Bridge Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士福; 康海贵; 郑元勋; 李玉刚

    2012-01-01

    为解决高墩大跨桥梁结构体系可靠度求解过程中失效模式复杂、极限状态方程无法显式表达等问题,提出一种基于支持向量机(SVM)分类技术的体系可靠度计算方法.该方法采用拉丁超立方抽样法产生样本库,通过重复筛选构造一个精确的SVM分类器函数(而不是构造功能函数本身的响应面函数),然后采用蒙特卡罗法进行数值模拟计算体系失效概率.以济邵高速公路逢石河特大桥为例验证了采用该方法计算高墩大跨桥梁体系可靠度的实用性,计算结果表明该桥体系可靠度满足设计要求.%To cope with the problems that the failure modes in the solving process of structural system reliability of high-rise pier and long span bridge are complicated and the limit state e-quations can not be displayed and expressed, a method for computation of the system reliability based on the support vector machine (SVM) classification technique is proposed. The proposed method can generalize the sample bank, using the Latin hypercube sampling method and can construct a precise SVM classifier function (rather than the response surface function of the structure function itself) by repeated screening and the numerical simulation and computation of the system failure probability are accordingly carried out, using the Monte Carlo method. By way of example of the Fengshi River Bridge on Jiyuan-Shaoyuan Expressway, the practicability of the method for computation of the system reliability of the high-rise pier and long span bridge is verified and the results of the computation prove that the system reliability of the bridge can meet the design requirements

  1. Application of Large-diameter and Long-span Micro-expansive Pumping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this article the high strength micro-expansive concrete that has been applied on big-diameter and long-span steel arch bridge is researched. The applications show that the concrete has some merits,such as good fluidity, low bleeding ratio and no segregation, low slump loss, high early strength and high later strength, micro-expansion etc.

  2. Research on the stiffening girder erection sequence of three-tower suspension bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Runqing; Luo Xiheng

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the conventional two-tower suspension bridge, the three-tower suspension bridge has obviously different characteristics in structural performance because of the extra middle tower and main span. The construction sequence for the stiffening girder is significantly different between the three-tower suspension bridge and the two-tower suspension bridge. The tangential angle of the main cable is one of the controlling factors of the stiffening girder erection stage for a suspension bridge. According to 5 feasible cases for the stiffening girder erection scheme in Taizhou Bridge, the research about the tangential angle in each case mentioned above was made, and some factors that should be taken into account for the erection scheme of stiffening girder were pointed out.

  3. 大跨钢桁拱钢-混组合桥面板极限承载力试验%Experiment on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Steel and Concrete Composite Deck Slab of Long Span Steel Truss Arch Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢彭真; 赵人达; 任剑

    2012-01-01

    To assess the ultimate bearing capacity of the steel-concrete composite deck slab subject to highway load, ultimate bearing capacity tests were carried out. According to Saint Venant Principle, by taking the part steel-concrete deck slab in column area with positive and negative bending moments as finite element models of the actual bridge, the study focused on the ultimate bearing capacity of the steel-concrete deck slab in column area with positive and negative bending moments for 2 composite deck slab specimens (model A and model B). The results show that tensile failure has occurred in the concrete slab of model A. The upper and lower flange plates of I beam, web plate and longitudinal reinforcement have not yielded under ultimate load, but steel bottom plate, PBL and lateral reinforcement have yielded before failure. The failure load of model A is 1 750 kN. As for model B, concrete slab has compression failure, PBL has yielded before failure, and the failure load of model B is 2 200 kN. Research results provide reference for design calculation of the ultimate bearing capacity of steel-concrete composite deck slab.%为评估钢一混组合桥面板结构在公路荷栽作用下的极限承载力,对其进行极限承载力性能试验研究。根据圣维南原理,选取正负双向弯矩受力的立柱区部分桥面板作为实桥的有限元分析模型,并试验制作了2个等尺模型试件A和B,用于考察钢一混组合桥面板正负双向弯矩区的极限承载力性能。试验结果表明:模型A混凝土板被拉坏,工.字钢上下翼缘板、腹板以及纵向钢筋始终未屈服,PBL、钢底板以及横向钢筋均在破坏之前屈服,模型A的破坏荷载为1750kN;模型B混凝土板被压坏,PBL在破坏之前屈服,模型B的破坏荷载为2200kN。研究结果可为钢一混组合桥面板极限承栽能力设计计算提供参考。

  4. The mechanical response of multi-tower continuous-span suspension bridge deck pavement based on whole bridge analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongtao; Zhang Chenchen; Hu Jing; Qian Zhendong

    2011-01-01

    The effect of multiple span suspension structure on the mechanical response of bridge deck pavement was studied, and finite element analysis (FEM) of stress and strain of pavement according to the bridge floor system features of super-long and high flexibility was made. Meanwhile, the FEM results were compared with those of the single span suspension structure. Three-stage analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is developed to analyze the mechanical response including whole bridge analysis, partial beams section analysis and orthotropic plate analysis. The most unfavorable load position was determined by the numerical solutions acquired from each stage to study the main mechanical index of multiple span suspension structure. The FEM results showed that the mechanical response numerical solutions by using the three-stage AHP are greater than those by simplified boundary condition, and the force condition of multiple span suspension structure is worse than that of the single span suspension structure.

  5. Assessment of Structural Damage of a Long Span Continuous Rigid-Frame Bridge with Bursting Cracks in Its Bottom Slab%某大跨径连续刚构桥底板崩裂后的结构损伤评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学常; 杨植春

    2015-01-01

    为评估某大跨径预应力混凝土连续刚构桥[跨度为(96+132+96) m ]底板崩裂后(崩裂长度最长为26.0 m ,崩裂厚度最大达30 cm )的结构损伤程度,确定合理的处理方案,采用M I‐DAS Civil 2010建立全桥有限元模型,分析了桥梁各种损伤量化参数,建立了损伤模型,对损伤前、后主梁的顶、底板应力进行计算分析。结果表明,在主力+附加力作用下,损伤后主梁底板出现拉应力(0.25 M Pa ),桥梁损伤较为严重,不能满足《铁路桥涵钢筋混凝土和预应力混凝土结构设计规范》的设计要求。建议后续不仅要对崩裂底板进行修复,而且要对桥梁进行全面的加固改造(如设置体外预应力,增加顶板厚度等),以提高其整体刚度和承载力,保证桥梁结构后续运营的安全。%To assess the structural damage degree of a long span prestressed concrete continu‐ous rigid‐frame bridge with span arrangement (96 m+132 m+96 m) with bursting cracks in its bottom slab (the maximum bursting crack length and depth respectively being 26 .0 m and 30 cm) and to determine the rational scheme for handling the cracks ,the MIDAS Civil 2010 was used to set up the finite element model for the w hole bridge of the bridge and the various quantitative pa‐rameters of the damage of the bridge were analyzed .The damage models were set up as well and the stress of the top and bottom slabs of the main girder of the bridge before and after the bridge was damaged was calculated and analyzed .The results of the calculation and analysis indicate that under the action of the main force+additional forces ,the tensile stress (0 .25 M Pa) occurs in the bottom slab of the damaged bridge ,the damage of the bridge is rather severe and can not meet the design requirements in the Code for Design on Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structure of Railw ay Bridge and Culvert .It is hence proposed that the

  6. Estimation of Fundamental Frequency of Multi-Pylon Suspension Bridges%多塔连跨悬索桥基频估算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王本劲; 马如进; 陈艾荣

    2011-01-01

    近年来,在跨海大桥的兴建中,多塔连跨悬索桥的方案引起了越来越多的关注.但由于中间桥塔处约束较弱,其动力特性与中塔刚度紧密相关,现有规范中的基频估算公式无法适用.基于能量原理,提出了适用于多塔连跨悬索桥的基频估算方法,最后给出了中塔刚度变化下的算例结果比较.结果表明,该估算方法有较高的精度,可为实际工程提供参考.%As long-span cross-sea bridges being constructed in recent years, multi-pylon suspension bridges attract increasing attention. However, because of the weak constrains of the mid - pylon, the dynamic characteristics is highly related to the rigidity of the mid-pylon, and the existing fundamental frequency estimation formula in current code is not available. Based on the energy principle, a new formula that can be applied to multi-pylon suspension bridges was proposed. Then the estimating results with respect to the changing rigidity of mid-pylon was given, which showed that the proposed formula has enough accuracy to be utilized in practical projects.

  7. Study of Vertical Seismic Response of Concrete Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 石磊; 张哲

    2004-01-01

    Based on the variational prineiple of incomplete generalized potential energy with large deflection, the vertical nonlinear vibrational differential equation of self-anchored suspension bridge is presented by taking the effect of coupling of flexural and axial action into consideration. The linear vertical equation is obtained by omitting the nonlinear term, and the pseudo excitation method(PEM). Taking the self-anchored concrete suspension bridge over Lanqi Songhua river for an example, the expected peak responses of main beam, towers and cables are calculated. And the seismic spatial effects on vertical seismic response of self-anchored suspension bridges are discussed.

  8. Modelling of nonlinear bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity: a convolution based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu T.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative bridge decks exhibit nonlinear behaviour in wind tunnel studies which has placed increasing importance on the nonlinear bridge aerodynamics/aeroelasticity considerations for long-span bridges. The convolution scheme concerning the first-order kernels for linear analysis is reviewed, which is followed by an introduction to higher-order kernels for nonlinear analysis. A numerical example of a longspan suspension bridge is presented that demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed scheme.

  9. A numerical study on the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lonetti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A generalized numerical model for predicting the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges considering both geometric and material nonlinearities is proposed. The bridge is modeled by means of a 3D finite element approach based on a refined displacement-type finite element approximation, in which geometrical nonlinearities are assumed in all components of the structure. Moreover, nonlinearities produced by inelastic material and second order effects in the displacements are considered for girder and pylon elements, which combine gradual yielding theory with CRC tangent modulus concept. In addition, for the elements of the suspension system, i.e. stays, hangers and main cable, a finite plasticity theory is adopted to fully evaluate both geometric and material nonlinearities. In this framework, the influence of geometric and material nonlinearities on the collapse bridge behavior is investigated, by means of a comparative study, which identifies the effects produced on the ultimate bridge behavior of several sources of bridge nonlinearities involved in the bridge components. Results are developed with the purpose to evaluate numerically the influence of the material and geometric characteristics of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges with respect also to conventional bridge based on cablestayed or suspension schemes

  10. Dynamic Response of the Suspension Spans of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D; Astaneh-Asl, A; Larsen, S; Hutchings, L

    2005-11-03

    The dynamic response of the suspension spans of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) have been numerically modeled in a case-study to investigate the effects of long-period, near-field ground motions on flexible suspension bridges. The structural simulation model used in the study was developed as a special purpose computer program tailored to efficiently simulate the nonlinear response of cable supported bridges. The simulation model includes a number of special element technologies and solution algorithms that enable efficient nonlinear analysis of suspension bridges. The ground motions used in the study were site specific synthetic records for a Mw=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault at 12-15 km distant, and actual measured near-field records from the Izmit Turkey (1999) and Chi-Chi Taiwan (1999) earthquakes. These records include near- and far-field broad-band motions for three components. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that low frequency waveforms associated with near-field motions can place a significant demand on the structural systems of suspension bridges, and must be accounted for in suspension bridge analysis and design.

  11. Experimental and numerical studies on precise damage localization of a long-span steel truss bridge model%大跨度钢桁桥模型的精细化损伤定位模拟和试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安永辉; 欧进萍

    2011-01-01

    在役大跨钢桁桥数日众多,其杆件往往较长,所以识别出损伤杆并找出局部损伤所处位置对安全评定和加固尤为重要。针对这一问题,参考我国在役钢桁梁桥,基于健康监测的试验目的和相似理论设计制作了贝雷梁式筒支钢桁桥Benchmark模型。根据其结构形式、具体尺寸,并经试验结果修正,建立了基准Matlab有限元模型。环境激励下,首先隔离一个三角形子结构为研究对象,基于随机损伤定位向量(SDLV)法识别出损伤杆后通过在其上附加传感器的方法来定位局部损伤。其次,由于SDLV法要求桁架待测区间内所有节点均为测点,花费较大而不便于应用。文中还初步探讨了基于部分节点数据的SDLV法的可能性。数值和试验结果均表明,SDLV法不但能识别损伤杆,还能对局部损伤进行精细化定位,效果良好,为进一步探讨基于部分测点的损伤识别奠定了基础。%Large numbers of long-span steel truss bridges with long bars are in service. Therefore, it is imperative for their safety assessment and maintenance to obtain damaged bars and the location of local damage. To solve this problem, a simply supported bailey steel truss bridge Benchmark model for health monitoring was designed and constructed according to the highway and railway bi-purpose steel truss bridges employed in China. Based on structure form and detailed dimensions, a Matlab finite element model was established as the reference model due to the perfect match of the modal parameters with experimental results. Under ambient excitation, a triangular substructure was separated as a research object. Firstly, based on the Stochastic Damage Locating Vector (SDLV) method, the damaged bar was detected and additional sensors were installed on it to identify the local damage. Secondly, conventional SDLV method needs information from all nodes in a truss structure or a substructure of

  12. 行波及相干效应对超千米跨度斜拉桥多维多点随机地震响应的影响%The Influence of Traveling Wave and Coherent Effects on Multi-dimensional and Multi-point Random Seismic Response of Super Long Span Cable Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晨阳; 郑史雄; 陈航; 张金

    2016-01-01

    为了研究行波及相干效应对超千米跨度公铁两用斜拉桥地震响应的影响,基于通用有限元软件ANSYS,借助高效的虚拟激励法分别得到考虑两种效应的结构地震响应值,通过对比研究,结果表明:(1)仅考虑行波效应时,在视波速取500 m/s工况下,主梁纵向位移和竖向位移出现最大均方根值,行波效应对主梁纵向位移响应影响最为显著;(2)仅考虑相干效应时,主梁纵向位移和横向位移在部分相干工况下出现最大均方根值,主梁跨中横向位移的均方根值为0.274 m,较一致激励(完全相干)增大了126.4%;(3)两种效应对结构1号边墩、2号辅助墩和3号主塔的不同地震响应的影响程度存在较大差异,需具体响应具体分析。通过各具体工况下的结果对比,得出超大跨度斜拉桥地震响应分析考虑行波和相干效应十分必要的结论。%In order to study the influence of traveling wave and coherent effects on seismic response of the super long span railway double purpose cable stayed bridge, the seismic response of the structures with two effects are obtained with the aid of the efficient virtual excitation method based on the general finite element software ANSYS. The results of the comparative study show that:( 1 ) when only the traveling wave effect is considered, the effect of the traveling wave on the longitudinal displacement of the main beam is the most significant, while the apparent wave velocity of 500 m/s is taken with the maximum root mean square value of both the longitudinal displacement and the vertical displacement of the main beam;( 2 ) when only the coherence effect is considered, the longitudinal displacement and transverse displacement of the main beam appear under partially coherent conditions, the root mean square value of the transverse displacement of the main beam is 0. 274 m, and the uniform excitation ( totally coherent) increases by 126. 4%; ( 3 ) the seismic responses of

  13. Limit span of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension cooperation system bridge based on strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe ZHANG; Huili WANG; Sifeng QIN; Xiaomeng GE

    2009-01-01

    The limit span of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge is deduced. The relations among the geometrical parameters, loads and material characteristics are also analyzed. Based on the material strength and commonly used materials, the limit spans of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges with concrete girder or steel girder under vertical static load are discussed in detail.The corresponding upper limit spans and the effect of the factors on the span are given. The results indicate that increasing rise-span ratio, height-span ratio and cable-stayed segment length or reducing the second dead load could increase the cooperation system span.

  14. Investigations concerning seismic response control of self-anchored suspension bridge with MR dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menggang YANG; Zhengqing CHEN; Jianhua HU

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate the seismic response of selfanchored suspension bridges, equations of motion governing the coupled system of bridge- magneto-rheological (MR) dampers subject to seismic excitation are formulated by employing the phenomenological model of MR dampers. A corresponding computer program is developed and employed for studying the seismic response control of a self-anchored suspension bridge with a main span of 350 m. The effect of variable current and number of dampers on seismic response control is investigated. The numerical results indicate the longitudinal displacement of the tower top and bridge girder decrease with the increase in input current and number of MR dampers attached longitudinally at the tower-girder connections, and the internal forces of the tower are effectively attenuated as well. It appears that small electronic current (0.5 A in this study) may sufficiently attenuate the seismic responses for practical engineering applications.

  15. A numerical study on the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Lonetti; Arturo Pascuzzo

    2016-01-01

    A generalized numerical model for predicting the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges considering both geometric and material nonlinearities is proposed. The bridge is modeled by means of a 3D finite element approach based on a refined displacement-type finite element approximation, in which geometrical nonlinearities are assumed in all components of the structure. Moreover, nonlinearities produced by inelastic material and second order effects in the displace...

  16. Temperature Distribution in a Long-Span Aircraft Hangar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yongzhong; BAI Yin; SHI Yongjiu; ZHU Dan; WANG Yuanqing

    2008-01-01

    Long-span aircraft hangars have features which differ from other large structural systems. The temperature stresses due to temperature variations often greatly impact the mechanical performance of the structure. The paper presents an analysis of the heat transfer processes and factors which influence the temperature distribution. The AMECO-A380 aircraft hangar at the Beijing Capital International Airport was selected as a practical example to illustrate the use of finite volume analysis to calculate the temperature field taking into account meteorological conditions, solar radiation, heat convection, etc. The temperature distribution and the variation of the length of the upper and lower chords of the grid structure roof were ana-lyzed to develop guidelines for the temperature distributions in very large aircraft hangars. The results show that the temperature effect will be large for long-span hangars, and the temperature stresses due to non-uniform temperatures should be analyzed to guarantee the structural safety of large aircraft hangars.

  17. Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui-Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed.

  18. parametric modeling and computing of multi-tower suspension bridge based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhaoxiang; Zhao An; Song Jianyong; Yang Yun

    2012-01-01

    Based on FEM (finite element method) program ANSYS and the OpenGL graphics, this paper develops the parametric modeling module and the computing module of the multi-tower suspension bridge, the modules being embedded into the ANSYS system, and the parametric modeling module parameters can be entered by way of interface, which can fast establish a multi-tower suspension bridge model. Calculation module can establish load conditions for the features of road bridge and specifications, in which multiple conditions can be defined and solved automatically. Postprocessing part of the solution also serves the results of the subtotals and selects the output, so that the results of the output and finishing work have become more convenient and easier, and also the results can be saved in word, excel and other different file types.

  19. Full scale strain monitoring of a suspension bridge using high performance distributed fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; He, Shaoyang; Li, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigated field monitoring of a 1108 m suspension bridge during an assessment load test, using integrated distributed fibre-optic sensors (DFOSs). In addition to the conventional Brillouin time domain analysis system, a high spatial resolution Brillouin system using the differential pulse-width pair (DPP) technique was adopted. Temperature compensation was achieved using a Raman distributed temperature sensing system. This is the first full scale field application of DFOSs using the Brillouin time domain analysis technique in a thousand-meter-scale suspension bridge. Measured strain distributions along the whole length of the bridge were presented. The interaction between the main cables and the steel-box-girder was highlighted. The Brillouin fibre-optic monitoring systems exhibited great facility for the purposes of long distance distributed strain monitoring, with up to 0.05 m spatial resolution, and 0.01 m/point sampling interval. The performance of the Brillouin system using DPP technique was discussed. The measured data was also employed for assessing bridge design and for the assessment of structural condition. The results show that the symmetrical design assumptions were consistent with the actual bridge, and that the strain values along the whole bridge were within the safety range. This trial field study serves as an example, demonstrating the feasibility of highly dense strain and temperature measurement for large scale civil infrastructures using integrated DFOSs.

  20. Calculations in bridge aeroelasticity via CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brar, P.S.; Raul, R.; Scanlan, R.H. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The central focus of the present study is the numerical calculation of flutter derivatives. These aeroelastic coefficients play an important role in determining the stability or instability of long, flexible structures under ambient wind loading. A class of Civil Engineering structures most susceptible to such an instability are long-span bridges of the cable-stayed or suspended-span variety. The disastrous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge in the recent past, due to a flutter instability, has been a big impetus in motivating studies in flutter of bridge decks.

  1. Calculation method on shape finding of self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HAN; Zhengqing CHEN; Shidong LUO; Shankui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on the spatial model, a reliable and accurate calculation method on the shape finding of self anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was studiedin this paper. On the principle that the shape of the main cables between hangers is catenary, the iteration method of calculating the shapes of the spatial main cables under the load of hanger forces was deduced. The reasonable position of the saddle was determined according to the shape and the theoretical joint point of the main cables. The shapes of the main cables at completed cable stage werecalculated based on the unchanging principle of the zero-stress lengths of the main cables. By using a numerical method combining with the finite element method, one self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was analyzed. The zero-stress length of the main cables, the position of the saddle, and the pre-offsetting of the saddle of the self-anchored suspension bridge were given. The reasonable shapes of the main cables at bridge completion stage and completed cable stage were presented. The results show that the shape-finding calculation method is effective and reliable.

  2. Erosion of the safe basin for the transversal oscillations of a suspension bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Mario S.T. de; Viana, Ricardo L.; Grebogi, Celso

    2003-11-01

    The time evolution of the lowest order transversal oscillation mode of a suspension bridge is studied by means of a piecewise-linear forced and damped one-dimensional oscillator, in which the loss of smoothness is due to the asymmetric response of the bridge hangers with respect to stretching and compression. If the midpoint roadbed deflection is outside a specified safe region, the bridge is supposed to collapse. We analyze the relative area of the safe basin, or the fraction of initial conditions in the phase space for which the bridge does not collapse with respect to the damping and forcing parameters. The safe basin erosion is enhanced by the appearance of incursive fingers caused by the exponential accumulation of safe basin lobes towards an invariant manifold of a periodic orbit which undergoes a homoclinic bifurcation.

  3. Numerical simulation of flows around long-span flat roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ying; WU Yue; SHEN Shi-zhao

    2005-01-01

    Long-span roof with span larger than height always has a complicated three-dimensional curve. Wind pressure on the roof is often influenced not only by the atmospheric turbulence, but also by the "signature" turbulence provoked in the wind by the structure itself. So it is necessary to study characteristics of flows around the roof. In this paper, three-dimensional numerical simulation of wind-induced pressure has been performed on a long-span flat roof by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software--FLUENT. The flow characteristics are studied by considering some parameters, such as wind direction, span-height ratio, roof pitch, flow characteristics, roughness of terrain. The simulation is based upon the Reynolds-averaged equations, in which Reynolds stress equation model (RSM) and SIMPLE technology (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) have been used. Compared with wind tunnel tests, the computational results have good agreement with the experimental data. It is proved that the results are creditable and the method is feasible.

  4. Application of Gliding Scaffold System In Cable-Stayed Bridge Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bao-chu; ZHANG Zhe; Chang Fu-ping

    2005-01-01

    Gonghe bridge is a double level cable-stayed concrete bridge with a single-cable-plane of single cable tower. Its span is 114+120 m and a whole length of 236 m. The gliding scaffold equipment is used for the first time in the long span cable-stayed bridge construction to reduce the construction time limit. In the process of construction, to make sure a safe connection among concrete objects with different ages, the single-supporting and single-suspension system is adopted before the concrete pouring. While the double-supporting and single-suspension system is applied after concrete pouring. These construction systems with gliding scaffold equipment are first introduced in long span cable-stayed bridge and presented in detail[1]. The practice shows that these gliding scaffold systems have many advantages over the traditional ones.

  5. Lyapunov-Based Control for Suppression of Wind-Induced Galloping in Suspension Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif B. Almutairi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suppression of galloping in a suspension bridge due to wind loads. The galloping phenomenon can be destructive due to the high-amplitude oscillations of the structure. Two controllers are proposed to generate the control force needed to suppress the vertical galloping in the suspended cables and in the bridge deck. SIMULINK software is used to simulate the controlled system. The simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well. In addition, the performance of the system with the proposed controllers is compared to the performance of the system controlled with a tuned mass damper.

  6. Multiple-support seismic response of Bosporus Suspension Bridge for various random vibration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Adanur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about the spatial variability effects of ground motions on the dynamic behavior of a suspension bridge by a random vibration based spectral analysis approach and two response spectrum methods. Bosphorus Suspension Bridge built in Turkey and connects Europe to Asia in Istanbul is selected as a numerical example. The spatial variability of ground motions between the support points is taken into account with a coherency function that characterizes the incoherence, wave-passage and site-response effects. Power spectral density function and response spectrum values used in random vibration analyses are determined depending on the recordings of August 17, 1999, Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake. From the results, it can be observed that the structural responses for each random vibration analysis depend largely on the intensity and frequency contents of power spectral density functions.

  7. Fatigue stress monitoring and analyses for steel box girder of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Zhaoxia LI; Baijian WU

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of fatigue stress of steel bridge is a key issue of bridge health monitoring and safety assessment. This paper aims to find out the strain history features of the girder components of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RYSB) under vehicle and environmental loading during its first year of service based on the strain-history data recorded by structural health monitoring system installed in the bridge. The fatigue stress spectrums of steel box girders under normal traffic load, heavy trucks and typhoon loads were studied as well as the correlation between varying strain and temperature based on real-time monitoring of temperature histories. The results show that, monitoring on local strain in health monitoring systems of RYSB can effectively provide the information on fatigue stresses. The range of the equivalent fatigue stress on the monitoring location of the bridge is currently low, mainly due to varying traffic loading and temper-ature. There exists significant correlation between varying temperature and mean value of fatigue stress. Effect of the passing of heavy trucks on bridge fatigue is quite signifi-cant since the value of the cumulative fatigue damage generated by heavy trucks is 10 to 100 times larger than that by normal traffic. Therefore, the effect on fatigue cumulative damage due to heavy trucks or overloaded vehicles needs to be monitored and paid much attention to.

  8. Real-time kinematic PPP GPS for structure monitoring applied on the Severn Suspension Bridge, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu; Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Li, Xingxing; Hancock, Craig Matthew

    2017-09-01

    GPS is widely used for monitoring large civil engineering structures in real time or near real time. In this paper the use of PPP GPS for monitoring large structures is investigated. The bridge deformation results estimated using double differenced measurements is used as the truth against which the performance of kinematic PPP in a real-time scenario for bridge monitoring is assessed. The towers' datasets with millimetre level movement and suspension cable dataset with centimetre/decimetre level movement were processed by both PPP and DD data processing methods. The consistency of tower PPP time series indicated that the wet tropospheric delay is the major obstacle for small deflection extraction. The results of suspension cable survey points indicate that an ionospheric-free linear measurement is competent for bridge deformation by PPP kinematic model, the frequency domain analysis yields very similar results using either PPP or DD. This gives evidence that PPP can be used as an alternative method to DD for large structure monitoring when DD is difficult or impossible because of large baseline lengths, power outages or natural disasters. The PPP residual tropospheric wet delays can be applied to improve the capacity of small movement extraction.

  9. Torsional and longitudinal vibration of suspension bridge subject to aerodynamic forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. U.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a dynamic model of suspension bridge governed by a pair of coupled partial differential equations which describe both torsional and longitudinal vibration of the road bed. The vertical and torsional motions are coupled through a nonlinear operation with the nonlinearity arising from loss of tension in the vertical cables supporting the decks. We study the impact of wind forces on the stability of motion of this system both in the absence and presence of viscous and structural damping. The results are illustrated by numerical simulation.

  10. Development of a new-type super-long bridge; Chochotaikyo ni tekigoshita shinkeishiki kyoryo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K.; Shimodoio, H.; Saito, T.; Nogami, C.; Oryu, T.; Morikawa, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    In order to realize large strait-crossing projects in the near future, it is necessary to develop a new type of super-long span bridge, which has a superior aerodynamic stability and is cost effective. We have been proposed a new type of suspension bridge using a 2-box and 1-box combined girder to apply to such a project And this time, we propose the cable stayed suspension bridge using a 2- box and 1-box combined girder aiming for improvement of aerodynamic stability with increase of torsional rigidity. This paper describes the performance of this cable stayed suspension bridge obtained from aerodynamic analysis. As a result, it can be confirmed that this newly developed cable stayed suspension system has fine characteristics and shows more potential for economical construction than the early proposed suspension system. (author)

  11. Software development of modeling assistant for continuous suspension bridges with multi-pylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Jianchi; Chen Ke; Chen Yunhai; Lu jianming

    2012-01-01

    Building a reasonable and accurate finite element model is the first and critical step for structural analysis of complicated bridge. In this article, modeling assistant for continuous suspension with multi-pylon is developed based on ~ Net platform, with VB. Net, C# language and OpenGL graphic technique. With parameterized modeling method, finite element model of this kind of bridge can be built quickly and accurately, and multi-type element modeling with uniform parameters is realized. With advanced graphic technique, three-dimensional model graph can be real-timely previewed for intuitive data check. With an example of practice project, the accuracy and feasibility of this modeling method and practicality of this software are verified.

  12. Energy conservation research of dehumidification system for main cable anticorrosion of suspension bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ce; Fan Liangkai; Feng Zhaoxiang; Pen Guanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the main cable anticorrosion for suspension bridge is described, and operating principles and composition of main cable dehumidification system are analyzed. An idea using the waste heat of high temperature outlet air of dehumidification system to heat up regeneration air of rotary-type dehumidifier is put forward in this paper. The concrete scheme is to install a heat exchanger on air-out pipeline of roots blower and air-in pipeline of regeneration electric heater of rotary dehumidifier. Air preheated by the heat exchanger enters regeneration electric heater of rotary-type dehumidifier. Energy conservation of main cable dehumidification system for the Yangtze River highway bridge is calculated, and the results show that energy conservation rate can reach 44 %.

  13. Study on effects of environmental temperature on dynamic characteristics of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Changqing; Chen Liang; Feng Zhaoxiang

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of three-tower and two-span suspension bridge are analyzed at different global temperatures. An equivalent cable inner force method is proposed to consider temperature effects and to study the effects of environmental temperature on dynamic characteristics of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge. The result demonstrates that the effects of temperature can not be neglected in static or dynamic analysis of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge. The relationship between temperature and frequency is negative. The effects of temperature should be taken into account in experimental modal analysis of long-span bridges and damage identification.

  14. 大跨度预应力混凝土连续刚构桥动力特性及P-Δ效应分析%Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics and P-Δ Effects of Long-Span Continuous Pre-Stressed Concrete Rigid-Frame Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝金

    2011-01-01

    以某已建成的连续刚构桥为研究对象,采用Midas/civil 2010有限元程序,建立连续刚构桥有限元模型,分析了连续刚构桥采用钢筋混凝土双薄壁实心墩、双薄壁空心墩和单柱式空心墩三种截面形式的动力特性和分别在纵向地震和横桥向地震作用下结构的PΔ效应。研究结果表明:三种不同截面类型的桥梁自振频率依次增大,不同的桥墩截面形式使桥梁结构的振型序列发生变化;在三种桥墩截面形式下,考虑P-Δ效应后,对纵向地震响应的影响显著而对横向地震响应的影响较小,但P-Δ效应并不影响桥梁结构的时程曲线趋势。%With a completed continuous rigid-frame bridge as the object of our research,the finite element program Midas/civil 2010 is used to help establish a finite element calculating model for the continuous rigid-frame bridge.The dynamic characteristics and P-Δ effects of the continuous rigid frame bridge respectively with the double thin-walled solid pillars,the double thin-walled hollow pillars and the single-column hollow pillar respectively under the action of the longitudinal earthquake and the bridge-crossing earthquake are analyzed in the paper.The research results show that the self-vibration frequencies of the three kinds of bridges increase in turn.The mode shape sequence changes with the different cross-section types of the pier.With all the three different cross-section types taken into consideration,the influence of the P-Δ effects on the longitudinal seismic response is obvious while the influence of the P-Δ effects on the lateral seismic response is comparatively small.However,the P-Δ effects have no impact on the trend of the time-history curve.

  15. Dynamic Responses of Long-Span Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Broken Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zheng-chun; LI Li; FANG Qin-han; LONG Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    A macroscopic finite element modeling approach was proposed to calculate the vibration of a tower-line system subjected to broken wires with software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. In the finite element model, not only the nonlinearity of wires and suspension insulators are considered, but also the support towers are included. The incremental and iterative approaches are combined by applying the unbalanced loads incrementally during each iteration cycle. The approach was illustrated with an example of a Hanjiang-River long-span transmission line system subjected to a shield wire and a conductor failure, respectively. The analysis results showed that the proposed dynamic simulation approach can demonstrate the kinetic process of the tower-line system subjected to wire ruptures: The frequencies of line components were lower and densely distributed, but the frequencies of tower components were higher and sparsely distributed. Anyhow, the dynamic effects of wire ruptures on tower-line system could not be ignored in analysis of tower-line system subjected wire failures.

  16. Spatial Mechanical Properties Analysis of Segment No. 0 of Long Span High Speed Railway Pre-stressed Concrete Continued Rigid Frame Bridge%大跨高速铁路连续刚构桥0号块空间力学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大亮; 苏国明; 王志贤

    2012-01-01

    以某大跨高铁连续刚构桥为研究对象,利用有限元程序ANSYS建立了该桥桥墩0号块的空间有限元计算模型,分析了0号块成桥运营阶段横截面的应力分布规律。结果表明,该桥桥墩0号块各部位均满足规范要求,位于横隔板处的截面,其翼缘板端部应力集中和剪力滞后现象较严重。计算结果已为该桥设计提供了依据,对同类桥梁0号块设计具有参考价值。%Taking a long bridge as an example in the paper, the finite element analysis program ANSYS is applied to estab- lish a three-dimensional solid finite element computational model of segment No. 0, the laws of stress distribution in the cross sections of the box girders are analyzed under operation stage. The results show that the stress of segment No. 0 are in good agreement with the current codes except the manhole part of the diaphragm. The results have been used for the design of the bridge and can be of great benefit for the similar projects.

  17. Wind Tunnel Experiments with Active Control of Bridge Section Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    the flutter wind velocity for future ultra-long span suspension bridges. The purpose of the wind tunnel experiments is to investigate the principle to use this active flap control system. The bridge section model used in the experiments is therefore not a model of a specific bridge but it is realistic......This paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section model where movable flaps are integrated in the bridge girder so each flap is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. This active control flap system is patented by COWIconsult and may be used to increase...... compared with a real bridge. Five flap configurations are investigated during the wind tunnel experiments and depending on the actual flap configuration it is possible to decrease or increase the flutter wind velocity for the model....

  18. Analysis and assessment of bridge health monitoring mass data—progress in research/development of "Structural Health Monitoring"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI AiQun; DING YouLiang; WANG Hao; GUO Tong

    2012-01-01

    The "Structural Health Monitoring" is a project supported by National Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No.50725828).To meet the urgent requirements of analysis and assessment of mass monitoring data of bridge environmental actions and structural responses,the monitoring of environmental actions and action effect modeling methods,dynamic performance monitoring and early warning methods,condition assessment and operation maintenance methods of key members are systematically studied in close combination with structural characteristics of long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges.The paper reports the progress of the project as follows.(1) The environmental action modeling methods of long-span bridges are established based on monitoring data of temperature,sustained wind and typhoon.The action effect modeling methods are further developed in combination with the multi-scale baseline finite element modeling method for long-span bridges.(2) The identification methods of global dynamic characteristics and internal forces of cables and hangers for long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are proposed using the vibration monitoring data,on the basis of which the condition monitoring and early warning methods of bridges are developed using the environmental-condition-normalization technique.(3) The analysis methods for fatigue loading effect of welded details of steel box girder,temperature and traffic loading effect of expansion joint are presented based on long-term monitoring data of strain and beam-end displacement,on the basis of which the service performance assessment and remaining life prediction methods are developed.

  19. Active Control of Long Bridges Using Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The main problem in designing ultra-long span suspension bridges is flutter. A solution to this problem might be to introduce an active flap control system to increase the flutter wind velocity. The investigated flap control system consists of flaps integrated in the bridge girder so each flap...... is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. Additional aerodynamic derivatives are shown for the flaps and it is shown how methods already developed can be used to estimate the flutter wind velocity for a bridge section with flaps. As an example, the flutter wind velocity is calculated for different flap...... configurations for a bridge section model by using aerodynamic derivatives for a flat plate. The example shows that different flap configurations can either increase or decrease the flutter wind velocity. for optimal flap configurations flutter will not occur....

  20. The dynamics of polymer bridge formation and disruption and its effect on the bulk rheology of suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Prasad S; Berg, John C

    2012-12-11

    Bridge-flocculated colloidal gels are used in many important processes and products such as gel casting for advanced ceramics, precursor inks for 3D printing, and waste treatment strategies. An important aspect of polymer bridged gels that makes them excellent candidates for these applications is the precise control it affords for control of rheological properties. Recent studies have shown that adhesion between bridged surfaces increases with time as the number of polymer bridges formed grows. However, the consequences of the dynamics of these processes toward bulk rheological properties have not been studied. Here we investigate the link between the dynamics of polymer bridging and disruption and bulk rheology in dense colloidal silica particle suspensions flocculated by polyethylene oxide (PEO). Microscale pull-off force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM) show that upon repeated disruption and establishment of bridged contact, the adhesion between the surfaces is reduced. During contact disruption, the polymer chains bridging the two surfaces are stretched leading to chain scission. On the re-establishment of contact, these fragmented polymer chains are unable to fully re-establish the adhesion. Macroscale measurements using oscillatory rheology show that this reduced adhesion results in reduction of both the storage modulus and the yield stress. If the slurry is subjected to high shear for long periods, polymer chain scission is amplified, and the fragmented polymer chains are unable to bridge the particles again, resulting in free-flowing slurries.

  1. Parametric study on responses of a self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of a hanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenliang; Jiang, Meng; Huang, Cailiang

    2014-01-01

    The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.

  2. Parametric Study on Responses of a Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge to Sudden Breakage of a Hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.

  3. Study on correlations of modal frequencies and environmental factors for a suspension bridge based on improved neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By using of long-term monitoring data of Runyang Suspension Bridge,the improved back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs) are formulated for modeling the correlations between modal frequencies and environmental conditions including wind,temperature and vehicle load.Then,with the correlation models the environmental effects on modal frequencies are quantified and the abnormal changes of measured frequencies are detected by means of the hypothesis tests.Analysis results reveal that BPNN-based correlation models improved by both early stopping and Bayesian regularization techniques exhibit excellent generalization capability.And the developed correlation models can effectively reduce the environmental variability in modal frequencies.The t-test method provides a good capability to detect the damage-induced 0.16% and 0.12% abnormal changes of the 5th and 6th modal frequencies,respectively.Hence,the proposed method is suitable for real-time monitoring of suspension bridge conditions.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Unloaded Cable of Suspension Bridge%悬索桥空缆状态数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左宪章; 李林; 肖军

    2012-01-01

    本文主要介绍悬索桥空缆状态数值分析方法.主要包括:基于无应力状态分析法和悬链线理论求解悬索桥空缆线形的数值迭代方法;等高、不等高悬链线求解方法及利用matlab编制相应程序实现空缆线形数据的求解.%This paper focuses on the introduction of numerical analysis method of unloaded cable of suspension bridge. Mainly includes: analysis based on stress-free, solving numerical iterative method of unloaded cable shape of suspension bridge with catenary theory;Catenary solution method with equal height and unequal height as well as preparing the corresponding program by using matlab to achieve the solution of unloaded cable shape data.

  5. Simplified Analytical Method for Optimized Initial Shape Analysis of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges and Its Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Rag Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analytical method providing accurate unstrained lengths of all structural elements is proposed to find the optimized initial state of self-anchored suspension bridges under dead loads. For this, equilibrium equations of the main girder and the main cable system are derived and solved by evaluating the self-weights of cable members using unstrained cable lengths and iteratively updating both the horizontal tension component and the vertical profile of the main cable. Furthermore, to demonstrate the validity of the simplified analytical method, the unstrained element length method (ULM is applied to suspension bridge models based on the unstressed lengths of both cable and frame members calculated from the analytical method. Through numerical examples, it is demonstrated that the proposed analytical method can indeed provide an optimized initial solution by showing that both the simplified method and the nonlinear FE procedure lead to practically identical initial configurations with only localized small bending moment distributions.

  6. Prediction of extreme wind velocity at the site of the Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang DENG; You-liang DING; Ai-qun LI; Guang-dong ZHOU

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a distribution free method for predicting the extreme wind velocity from wind monitoring data at the site of the Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB),China using the maximum entropy theory.The maximum entropy theory is a rational approach for choosing the most unbiased probability distribution from a small sample,which is consistent with available data and contains a minimum of spurious information.In this paper,the theory is used for estimating a joint probability density function considering the combined action of wind speed and direction based on statistical analysis of wind monitoring data at the site of the RSB.The joint probability distribution model is further used to estimate the extreme wind velocity at the deck level of the RSB.The results of the analysis reveal that the probability density function of the maximum entropy method achieves a result that fits well with the monitoring data.Hypothesis testing shows that the distributions of the wind velocity data collected during the past three years do not obey the Gumbel distribution.Finally,our comparison shows that the wind predictions of the maximum entropy method are higher than that of the Gumbel distribution,but much lower than the design wind speed.

  7. Research on dynamic characteristics model test scheme for middle pylon of multi-pylon multi-span suspension bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yufeng; Zhang Dachang

    2012-01-01

    Multi-pylon multi-span suspension bridge is a new type super flexible structure system, and the rigidity design of middle pylon is one of the main difficult technical issues. Due to the requirements of longitudinal rigidity, the structural form and the corresponding foundation type of middle pylon are different from those of the ordinary steel pylon, and the complicated dynamic characteristics make the calculation quite difficult. In this article, exploration has been made in selection of similarity ratio and model materials, section simulation, restriction conditions simulation, fixing of mass blocks, fabrication scheme and testing method by taking into account different construction and working conditions such as restriction conditions and working environment of a three-pylon suspension bridge, to conduct the test experimental design of the dynamic behavior of the middle pylon, with the purpose to reveal its dynamic characteristics and make comparison and analysis with theoretical assumptions, to provide basis for anti-wind and anti-seismic design and reference for the design and research of three-pylon two-span suspension bridges in the future.

  8. Minimum depth of soil cover above long-span soil-steel railway bridges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Abdulrazagh, Parisa Haji

    2013-01-01

    .... The currently developed formula for determining the minimum depth of covers by existing codes is typically based on vehicle loads and non-stiffened panels and takes into consideration the geometrical...

  9. Reability based design optimization of long-span bridges uneder flutter constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, Ibuki

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen] Se ha aplicado optimización probabilista (RBDO) a puentes colgantes de gran vano considerando condiciones de flameo mediante tres métodos diferentes cuyas denominaciones anglosajonas son Reliability Index Approach, Performance Measure Approach y Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment. Se considera la existencia de incertidumbre en la velocidad extremal de viento en el emplazamiento del puente, y en las funciones de flameo obtenidas experimentalmente en ...

  10. 带有挑臂的双层钢桁悬索桥颤振性能风洞试验%Wind tunnel test for flutter stability of double-deck truss girder suspension bridge with cantilever beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向活跃; 李永乐; 武兵

    2014-01-01

    为了提高加劲梁的颤振性能,针对某三塔两跨公铁两用悬索桥进行了节段模型风洞试验,探讨了多种气动措施对加劲梁颤振临界风速的影响。结果显示,在三种风攻角下,常规气动措施如增加上下桥面板中央稳定板、铁路道板及检修道开槽等措施降低了加劲梁的颤振临界风速,封闭铁路挑臂并给合上桥面板上、下中央稳定板后,加劲梁在三种风攻角下的颤振性能均大幅提高,使颤振临界风速满足要求。相关结论可为类似桥梁断面的颤振优化提供借鉴。%To improve the flutter stability of stiffened girder, the sectional model wind tunnel tests of a long span highway-railway suspension bridge with two main spans and three towers were carried out. A variety of aerodynamic measures on the flutter stability were explored. The results indicate that conventional aerodynamic measures such as the upper and lower central stabilizer, slotting rail road board and railway maintenance road reduce the critical flutter wind speed in three attack angle cases, while the flutter stability is increased significantly after closing the railway cantilever and u-sing the upper and lower central stabilizer in upper deck, which meets the requirement of standard. The conclusions can provide some references for similar bridge cross-section in the optimization of flutter stability.

  11. Risk Analysis and Countermeasures on Stage of Large Span Self - anchored Suspension Bridge Construction%大跨度自锚式悬索桥建设阶段风险分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 张傅洋

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: All risks existing design and construction were recognized on design scheme of main bridge of Yangmeizhou bridge and structure system innovation using engineering risk assessment method and main risk factors were put forward. According to risk occurrence probability and risk loss, grade judgment of bridge risks was given. At last, preventive measures to reduce and control risk were proposed.Research conclusions; Four items of main risk factors were showed in this design by risk identification, namely? Structure system innovation risk of Long - span Self - anchored Suspension Bridges, adverse weather condition risk on construction safety,? Box beam? Multiple points incremental launching construction risk on deformation and stability, boats accidental collision risk on temporary piers during construction. According to risk occurrence probability and risk loss,the whole risk level belongs to the second grade, which could be accepted, and preventive measures should been put into implement to promote the safety of bridge construction.%研究目的:针对杨梅洲大桥主桥设计方案和结构体系创新,采用工程风险评估方法,对设计和施工中存在的各种风险进行识别,提出主要风险因素、风险发生概率和风险损失,给出本桥风险等级判别,提出降低和控制风险的防范措施.研究结论:(1)通过风险识别,提出了4项主要风险因素,即:大跨度自锚式悬索桥结构体系创新风险、恶劣气候条件对施工安全的影响风险、箱梁多点顶推施工对结构变形稳定的安全影响风险、施工期间通航船只对江中临时支墩的偶然碰撞风险;(2)根据风险发生概率和风险损失,确定了本桥的风险等级为Ⅱ级中度风险;(3)通过制定应对策略、采取抗风险措施等方法,可以达到将本桥建设风险降到最低程度、保证安全实施的目标.

  12. Management of long span partially edentulous maxilla with fixed removable denture prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahilan I Jeyavalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a long span partially edentulous maxilla with tooth supported prosthesis is challenging because of inherent anatomic limitations and unfavourable biomechanics present after the loss of teeth. A tooth supported fixed-removable prosthesis is a treatment option for restoration of such long span partially edentulous maxillary arches. This prosthesis meets the requirements for esthetics, phonetics, comfort, and hygiene, as well as favourable biomechanical stress distribution to the remaining natural tooth abutments. This article presents a procedure for fabrication of a fixed-removable prosthesis that has cement-retained custom cast bar metal substructure and a ball attachment retained removable superstructure prosthesis.

  13. Seismic studies of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaneh-Asl, A; Larsen, S; McCallen, D

    1999-08-17

    Computational simulation plays a central role in the engineering analysis and design of major bridge structures and accurate simulations are essential for the development of earthquake resistant and economical structural designs. This paper describes new methodologies and computational tools which have recently been developed for simulating earthquake ground motions and the seismic response of cable supported bridges. The simulation tools are described and an example application for an important long-span suspension bridge is demonstrated. The application portion of the study has particular focus on the potential damaging effects of long period displacement pulses and permanent ground displacements which can occur when a bridge is located in the near-field of a major earthquake fault.

  14. Design recommendations for long span composite slabs with deep profiled steel sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Daniels, B.J.; Hove, B.W.E.M. van; Koukkari, H.; Stark, J.W.B.; Schuurman, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the ECSC research project `Steel intensive shallow floor construction', design recommendations for long span composite slabs with deep profiled steel deck have been drafted. These deep profiled steel sheets have depths of at least 200 mm. Test results and design recommendations are

  15. Design recommendations for long span composite slabs with deep profiled steel sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Daniels, B.J.; Hove, B.W.E.M. van; Koukkari, H.; Stark, J.W.B.; Schuurman, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the ECSC research project `Steel intensive shallow floor construction', design recommendations for long span composite slabs with deep profiled steel deck have been drafted. These deep profiled steel sheets have depths of at least 200 mm. Test results and design recommendations are presen

  16. Design recommendations for long span composite slabs with deep profiled steel sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Daniels, B.J.; Hove, B.W.E.M. van; Koukkari, H.; Stark, J.W.B.; Schuurman, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the ECSC research project `Steel intensive shallow floor construction', design recommendations for long span composite slabs with deep profiled steel deck have been drafted. These deep profiled steel sheets have depths of at least 200 mm. Test results and design recommendations are presen

  17. Full-scale measurements of dynamic response of suspension bridge subjected to environmental loads using GPS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many larger and taller engineering structures than in the past. These structures are commonly designed to be more flexible. Thus, they are sensitive to severe wind gust and earthquake tremor. For the dynamic response prediction, finite element (FE) modal updating and structural health monitoring, the dynamic characteristics of a structure are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this paper is to show an emerging tool-the real time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS), which is used to measure and monitor the low-frequency vibration of Dalian BeiDa Bridge, a medium span suspension bridge. The modal analysis is firstly performed on the developed three-dimensional FE model according to the original blue prints of the bridge to provide the analytical frequencies and mode shapes. The field ambient vibration tests using the accelerometers on the bridge deck are conducted just prior to the use of the GPS system in order to validate the FE model. And then, the calibration test is done to assess the dynamic displacement measurement accuracy of the GPS in three orthogonal directions. The GPS signal properties, such as the amplitude, standard deviations (STD), power spectral density (PSD), and probability density functions (PDF), are studied in details. After that, a structural health monitoring system based on the GPS is devised and installed on the bridge to provide real-time measurement of deck movement. The output-only modal parameter identification is carried out by using the Periodogram method to investigate the responses of the bridge. The result shows that the spectral densities of the displacements measured by the GPS correspond well with the results by the FEM analysis and the accelerometer vibration test. It is concluded that the GPS method is reliable and useful to clarify the ambient vibration response behaviors of the flexible structures. The integration of the GPS and accelerometer methods results in a hybrid arrangement

  18. Crossing the Suspension Bridge: Navigating the Road from School Suspension to College Success--How Some Students Have Overcome the Negative Implications of School Suspension to Bridge the Road to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Chris J.; McNees, Heather; Stickl, Jaimie; Banner, Justin H.; Hewitt, Kimberly K.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-school suspensions for middle and high school students can have negative, long-lasting consequences. Researchers have documented that suspensions have a negative impact on academic development, increase likelihood of dropping out of school, and are associated with a stronger likelihood that students will be involved in the legal system.…

  19. Load-carrying capacity test of a long-span timber truss

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Varum, Humberto; Ramisote, Vitor; Costa, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behavior of existing timber trusses in order to improve the knowledge that may support engineers in the definition of more adequate restoration interventions in old buildings, particularly of long-span timber structures, as industrial or monumental constructions. For this purpose, a cyclic load-carrying test was carried out on a full-scale timber planar truss rescued from an old industrial roof structure. Before the tests, an accurate geometrical characte...

  20. Comprehensive long-span paired-end-tag mapping reveals characteristic patterns of structural variations in epithelial cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Axel M; Yao, Fei; Inaki, Koichiro; Lee, Wah Heng; Ariyaratne, Pramila N; Teo, Audrey S M; Woo, Xing Yi; Zhang, Zhenshui; Zhao, Hao; Ukil, Leena; Chen, Jieqi P; Zhu, Feng; So, Jimmy B Y; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Poh, Wan Ting; Zawack, Kelson F B; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Gao, Song; Li, Guoliang; Kumar, Vikrant; Lim, Hui Ping J; Sia, Yee Yen; Chan, Chee Seng; Leong, See Ting; Neo, Say Chuan; Choi, Poh Sum D; Thoreau, Hervé; Tan, Patrick B O; Shahab, Atif; Ruan, Xiaoan; Bergh, Jonas; Hall, Per; Cacheux-Rataboul, Valère; Wei, Chia-Lin; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Sung, Wing-Kin; Bourque, Guillaume; Liu, Edison T; Ruan, Yijun

    2011-05-01

    Somatic genome rearrangements are thought to play important roles in cancer development. We optimized a long-span paired-end-tag (PET) sequencing approach using 10-Kb genomic DNA inserts to study human genome structural variations (SVs). The use of a 10-Kb insert size allows the identification of breakpoints within repetitive or homology-containing regions of a few kilobases in size and results in a higher physical coverage compared with small insert libraries with the same sequencing effort. We have applied this approach to comprehensively characterize the SVs of 15 cancer and two noncancer genomes and used a filtering approach to strongly enrich for somatic SVs in the cancer genomes. Our analyses revealed that most inversions, deletions, and insertions are germ-line SVs, whereas tandem duplications, unpaired inversions, interchromosomal translocations, and complex rearrangements are over-represented among somatic rearrangements in cancer genomes. We demonstrate that the quantitative and connective nature of DNA-PET data is precise in delineating the genealogy of complex rearrangement events, we observe signatures that are compatible with breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, and we discover that large duplications are among the initial rearrangements that trigger genome instability for extensive amplification in epithelial cancers.

  1. Wind Pressure Characteristics at Windward Side of Long-Span Cantilevered Roof by Wind Tunnel Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Rong; LIAO Hai-li; LI Ming-shui

    2009-01-01

    A rigid mode of long-span cantilevered roof was tested in wind tunnel.By analyzing the relation between wind angle and wind pressure coefficient and the relation between wind angle and wind shape factor,we found that 90° is the most disadvantageous wind angle.Furthermore,the fluctuation of wind pressure at the windward edge was reflected by power spectrum density (PSD) and coherence function.The correlation coefficients of measuring points on outer and inner surfaces verifys that the largest lift force was produced at 90°.

  2. Communicating long-span timber structures with 3D computer visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Janols, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    One of the reasons for the low amount of timber in construction is a general lack of knowledge about timber engineering and how timber can be used to its full advantage. In this thesis the focus is 3D computer visualisation (3D VIZ) of non-residential long-span timber structures, used for storage, industry and sports where 3D VIZ is defined as a process where a 3D-model is enhanced with environmental information e.g. texture maps and realistic light effects. An area of interest is the possibi...

  3. Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Multi-loading Suspension Bridges Considering Nonlinear Accumulative Damage%考虑非线性累积损伤的大跨多荷载桥梁的疲劳可靠度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志为; 徐幼麟

    2014-01-01

    针对大跨多荷载桥梁疲劳损伤累积非线性过程中的大量不确定性,对火车、汽车与风荷载作用下的大跨悬索桥,利用连续损伤模型提出了一个疲劳可靠度评估方法。首先,在连续损伤模型基础上,对模型参数进行分析;然后,根据工程应用的需要,适当简化疲劳模型,在连续损伤模型中引入合适的随机变量,定义疲劳可靠度分析的极限状态函数,假定多种未来可能的交通荷载和荷载增长模式,利用蒙特卡洛方法产生随机变量并计算失效概率;最后以香港青马大桥为例,讨论了该桥在不同荷载状况下使用120年后的疲劳失效概率。研究发现:若保持当前的交通状态,桥梁可保持良好状况,但未来交通荷载的快速增长会导致结构提前失效。%Taking into account uncertainties in the nonlinear process of fatigue damage accumulation for fatigue reliability analysis of multi-loading long-span bridges,a fatigue reliability assessment method for a long suspension bridge under combined highway,railway,and wind loadings was proposed using a continuum damage model (CDM ). First,the CDM based on continuum damage mechanics was briefly introduced,and main model parameters were analyzed. Then,a simplified CDM was proposed for further application to bridge structures. A limit state function for fatigue reliability analysis based on CDM was defined by introducing proper random variables into the CDM. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS)was adopted to generate the random variables and to calculate the failure probability. Finally, the Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong was taken as a case study,and the failure probabilities of the bridge at the end of 120 years were estimated for different loading scenarios. The results indicate that the health condition of the bridge in fatigue is satisfactory under the current traffic conditions,but attentions should be paid to future traffic growth because it

  4. Ultimate Seismic Resistance Capacity for Long Span Lattice Structures under Vertical Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiya Taniguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic resistance capacities of frame structures have been discussed with equilibrium of energies among many researchers. The early one is the limit design presented by Housner, 1956; that is, frame structures should possess the plastic deformation ability equivalent to an earthquake input energy given by a velocity response spectrum. On such studies of response estimation by the energy equilibrium, the potential energy has been generally abandoned, since the effect of self-weight or fixed loads on the potential energy is negligible, while ordinary buildings usually sway in the horizontal direction. However, it could be said that the effect of gravity has to be considered for long span structures since the mass might be concerned with the vertical response. In this paper, as for ultimate seismic resistance capacity of long span structures, an estimation method considering the potential energy is discussed as for plane lattice beams and double-layer cylindrical lattice roofs. The method presented can be done with the information of static nonlinear behavior, natural periods, and velocity response spectrum of seismic motions; that is, any complicated nonlinear time history analysis is not required. The value estimated can be modified with the properties of strain energy absorption and the safety static factor.

  5. Static and Dynamic Analyses of Long-Span Spatial Steel-Cable-Membrane Hybrid Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁阳; 彭翼; 李忠献

    2003-01-01

    With the increment of the complexity of structural systems and the span of spatial structures, the interactions between parts of the structures, especially between some flexible substructures, become too complex to be analyzed clearly. In this paper, taking an actual gymnasium of a long-span spatial steel-cable-membrane hybrid structure as the calculation model, the static and dynamic analyses of the hybrid structures are performed by employing the global analysis of the whole hybrid structure and the substructural analysis of the truss arch substructure, the cable-membrane substructure, etc. In addition, the comparison of stresses and displacements of structural members in the global and substructural analyses is made. The numerical results show that serious errors exist in the substructural analysis of the hybrid structure, and the global analysis is necessary for the hybrid structure under the excitation of static loads and seismic loads.

  6. Wind-induced vibration control of long-span power transmission towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Peng; LI Li; HU Liang-xia

    2009-01-01

    We investigated wind-induced vibration control of long-span power transmission towers based on a case study of the Jingdongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen 1000 kV transmission line project in P. R. China. The height of the cup tower is 181 m with a ground elevation of 47 m, which makes it a super flexible and wind-sensitive structure. Therefore, we should analyze the wind-resistant capacity of the system. We simulated applicable transverse fluctuating wind velocity field, developed a lead-rubber damper (LRD) for controlling wind-induced vibration of long-span transmission towers, deduced LRD calculation model parameter, and researched the best layout scheme and installation method of LRD. To calculate the wind-induced response of tower-line coupling system in seven layout schemes, we used the time history analysis method, and obtained the efficiencies of wind-induced vibration control. LRD deformation research proved that the damp of all LRDs was efficient under the designed wind velocity when they were laid along the edge of tower heads. We studied the controlling efficiency resulting from only applying stiffness to the tower poles where the dampers used to be laid under the designed wind velocity. The results show that the controlling efficiency was not ideal when the stiffness is increased on the poles only. Therefore, LRD should contribute to both the stiffness and damp of a structure to effectively reduce the dynamic response of a tower-line coupling system under strong winds. We also discussed the controlling efficiency of LRD under static winds. The results show that there was little difference between displacements derived by the finite element time history method and those obtained by static wind method conducted by a design institute. This means the simulation on space relevant wind velocity field was accurate and reasonable.

  7. 10 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator lasers (EMLs) for long-span transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Randal A.; Sahara, Richard T.

    2002-12-01

    Development toward a low-cost 10Gbit/s module is presented. We focus on four key issues for transmission lasers: 1) Optical sources with integrated laser and modulator often involve four our more separate growths. We demonstrate a strain-compensated AlGaIn-As-based monolithic source with uses a single overgrowth. EMLs with a complex-coupled DFB grating provide high sidemode suppression ration (SMSR>50dB), high single-mode yield, and excellent immunity to optical reflection. 2) A new method for characterizing complex-coupled gratings allows us to determine the gain-grating component of DFBs (or EMLs) beyond threshold. Gain grating strength will drop with spatial holeburning. This method allows one to measure gain-grating strength at any power. 3) We investigate the effect of reflection-induced chirp. Theory and experiment show that EMLs and other integrated photonic sources can be 100-1000 times more resistant to feedback if a strong (κrL=6) grating is used instead of the type of gratings typically used. This supports the growing trend that isolator-free transmission lasers are practical. It also permits integration of amplifiers or other elements with the laser. 4) Chirp-free transmission is non-optimum for long-span transmission. A number of different types of fiber currently exist, and EMLS can be made with the capability of adjustable chirp. Thus, a single EML can suit each of these fiber types (e.g. SMF-28, LEAF, zero-dispersion, and MetroCor). We investigate the effects of dispersion on non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data from these EMLs. Bit error ratios (BER) are theoretically and experimentally analyzed for optimum chirp for long spans without dispersion-compensation.

  8. Finite element of multilayer surfacing systems on orthotropic steel bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, A.; Tzimiris, G.

    2013-01-01

    Light weight orthotropic steel bridge decks have been widely utilized for bridges in seismic zones, movable bridges and long span bridges. In the last three decades, severe problems were reported in relation to asphaltic surfacing materials on orthotropic steel deck bridges. Earlier investigations h

  9. 独塔空间缆索自锚式悬索桥动力特性研究%Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Single-Tower SelfAnchored Suspension Bridges with Spatial Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉田; 马宗志; 姜福香

    2011-01-01

    To study the dymamic characteristics of single-tower self-anchored suspension bridges with spatial cables, the Dagu River Shipping Channel Bridge (a self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables and with span arrangement (80 + 190 + 260 + 80) m) of Qingdao Bay Bridge was cited as an example, the finite element analysis software MIDAS Civil 2006 was used to establish the three-dimensional model for the whole bridge and the 10 orders of the natural vibration characteristcs of the bridge were caculated. The anlaysis of the dynamic characteristics reveals that in addition to the vibration characteristics of suspension bridges, the self-anchored suspension bridge also has the vibration characteristics of cable-stayed bridges, the global siffness of the bridge decreases to some extent as compared to that of a gound-anchored suspension bridge and the natural period of vibration of the bridge therefore becomes rather long.%为了研究独塔空间缆索自锚式悬索桥动力特性,以青岛海湾大桥大沽河航道桥[跨径(80+190+260+80)m的空间缆索自锚式悬索桥]为背景,利用MIDAS Civil 2006有限元分析软件建立全桥三维模型,计算出其前10阶自振特性.通过对其动力特性进行分析发现,该自锚式悬索桥除了具有悬索桥的振动特性之外,还有斜拉桥的振动特性;自锚式悬索桥的整体刚度相比地锚式悬索桥有所降低,因而其固有周期较长.

  10. Wind Vibration Study of Long-span Steel Arch Structure of Beijing Capital International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dai; MA Jun; ZHU Zhong-yi; LIU Jie

    2005-01-01

    The wind-induced dynamic response of long-span light-weight steel arch structure of the global transportation center (GTC) of Beijing Capital International Airport was studied. A composite technique with combination of WAWS(Weighted Amplitude Wavelet Superposition) and FFT(Fast Fourier Transformation) was introduced to simulate wind velocity time series of hundreds of spatial points simultaneously. The structural shape fac tors of wind load was obtained from wind tunnel model test. The wind vibration factor based on structural displacement response was investigated. After comparing the computational results with wind tunnel model test data, it was found out that the two results accord with each other if wind comes from 0° direction angle, but are quite different if wind comes from 180° direction angle in the area blocked off by airport terminals. The possible reasons of this difference were analyzed. Haar wavelet was used to transform and analyze wind velocity time series and structural wind-induced dynamic responses. The relationship between exciting wind loads and structural responses was studied in time and frequency domains.

  11. The Lateral Compressive Buckling Performance of Aluminum Honeycomb Panels for Long-Span Hollow Core Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of critical buckling in the structural analysis and design of the new long-span hollow core roof architecture proposed in this paper (referred to as a “honeycomb panel structural system” (HSSS, lateral compression tests and finite element analyses were employed in this study to examine the lateral compressive buckling performance of this new type of honeycomb panel with different length-to-thickness ratios. The results led to two main conclusions: (1 Under the experimental conditions that were used, honeycomb panels with the same planar dimensions but different thicknesses had the same compressive stiffness immediately before buckling, while the lateral compressive buckling load-bearing capacity initially increased rapidly with an increasing honeycomb core thickness and then approached the same limiting value; (2 The compressive stiffnesses of test pieces with the same thickness but different lengths were different, while the maximum lateral compressive buckling loads were very similar. Overall instability failure is prone to occur in long and flexible honeycomb panels. In addition, the errors between the lateral compressive buckling loads from the experiment and the finite element simulations are within 6%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the nonlinear finite element analysis and provides a theoretical basis for future analysis and design for this new type of spatial structure.

  12. 悬索桥对VTS雷达信号的影响分析%Impact of the Suspension Bridge on VTS Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母德伟; 黄晓冠; 韩述; 张培

    2015-01-01

    桥梁的建设将遮挡雷达站微波信号的传输,在大桥附近水域将会形成一定的雷达盲区,导致 VTS中心无法掌握该水域的水上交通动态,不能对水上船舶现场进行连续跟踪,也不能对该水域进行有效的监控与指挥,给船舶通航带来了安全隐患。因此,应了解桥梁建设对 VTS雷达站的影响,注意桥区监管设施的改善。文中结合悬索桥特点,应用建立的数学模型计算分析悬索桥对 VTS雷达信号遮挡的盲区范围,为船舶监控及桥区通航安全提供技术支撑。%The bridge will block the transmission of the microwave signal which comes from the radar station,the formation of certain radar near the bridge will be unable to be grasped by the VTS center, and VTS center cannot continuously track ships on the water scene or monitor ships effectively,which bring safe trouble to ships.Therefore,the impact of bridge construction on VTS radar station and the facility improvement of bridge district supervision should be understood.Combining with the charac-teristics of suspension bridge and the created mathematical model,the blind area of VTS radar signal being sheltered by suspension bridge is calculated and analyzed.It will provide the technical support for the navigation safety and the ship monitoring.

  13. Long Span Connecting Bridge's Pushover Analysis%大跨度连续刚构桥的Pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶光耀; 刘廷望; 曹云强

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了Pushover分析方法的基本原理和加载模式,对某大跨度连续刚构桥实体工程分别采用五种常用的荷载模式进行了全桥结构纵向和横向的Pushover分析,并对其进行了抗震性能评价,算例分析结果可为同类桥梁工程的抗震设计提供参考.

  14. The multilayer and wide-deck vibrating screen based on the innovative long-span vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Xu, Zonglin; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Minghong

    2017-09-01

    The multilayer and wide-deck innovative single plasmid vibration screen is applicable to the petroleum drilling and the other relevant industries. The structural features and advantages of the components are illustrated, and the innovative long-span vibration exciter together with the steel rope saddle block flexible coupling is emphatically analyzed. Two engineering examples are provided to make the explanation.

  15. Flutter Derivatives Identification and Aerodynamic Performance of an Optimized Multibox Bridge Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhida Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bridge deck sections used for long-span suspension bridges have evolved through the years, from the compact box deck girders geometrical configurations to twin-box and three-box bridge decks sections. The latest generation of split and multiple-box bridge decks proved to have better aerodynamic behavior; thus further optimization methods are sought for such geometrical configurations. A new type of multibox bridge deck, consisting of four aerodynamically shaped deck boxes, two side decks for the traffic lanes and two middle decks for the railway traffic, connected between them by stabilizing beams, was tested in the wind tunnel for identifying the flutter derivatives and to verify the aerodynamic performance of the proposed multibox deck. Aerodynamic static force coefficients were measured for the multibox bridge deck model, scaled 1 : 80, for Reynolds numbers up to 5.1 × 105, under angles of attack between −8° and 8°. Iterative Least Squares (ILS method was employed for identifying the flutter derivatives of the multibox bridge deck model, based on the results obtained from the free vibration tests and based on the frequency analysis the critical flutter wind speed for the corresponding prototype of the multibox bridge was estimated at 188 m/s.

  16. 悬索桥主缆线形确定的常用精确解析算法比较及电算高效实现方法研究%Comparison on common precise numerical analytical algorithms to determine main cables' curve shape in suspension bridges and study on highly effective methods of computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景天虎; 李桅; 李青宁; 张品乐

    2011-01-01

    . Both categories of analytical algorithms to determine main cables' curve shape have very high precision of engineering as far as the determination of curve shape finished state of suspension bridges is concerned, but the method to determine weight intensity loads of main cables in the 2nd categories of analytical ones are more precise and nearer to actual cases, so the 2nd one is preferred choice in actual computations of suspension bridges. In addition, highly effective methods of computers are presented to solve a lot of transcendental equations and recurrence operations involved in by the two big categories of analytical algorithms. Finally, an example to determine main cables' curve shape of the middle span in a super-long span suspension bridge is given to validate the analysis in this paper.

  17. Suspension bridge with floor slab using precast PC slab; Yukaban ni purekyasuto PC burokku wo mochiita tsuribashi {center_dot} shinonome sakurabashi/tochigiken mibumachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-10

    As part of park improvement project of across of Kuro River flowing through Mibu Town of Tochigi Prefecture, a suspension bridge with floor plate using precast PC slab was erected. The size of floor block used is 5.5-7.5m in width, 2.5m in length, 14cm in thickness. 38 of these blocks were linked, resin was poured into joint, and stress was applied in bridge axis direction after hardening of resin. By prestressing, these floor slab had performance as reinforcing beam in normal loading condition, high rigidity of floor slab demonstrated excellent vibration stability. and enabled emergency vehicle traffic while this bridge is exclusively pedestrian use in normal time. Erection work was carried out in low water period of the river. Since the river can be reclaimed in low water period, most of erection work was carried out on land. Furthermore, utilizing advantages of precast slab, construction from erection of main tower to bridge completion was finished in only 3 months. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Construction Technique of Long-Span Shallow-Buried Tunnel Considering the Optimal Sequence of Pilot-Tunnel Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Jin; Yang Liu; Changxi Yang; Zhicheng Tan; Jianyang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Construction technique considering the optimal sequence of pilot-tunnel excavation was investigated in order to ensure the safety of construction process of long-span shallow-buried tunnel. Firstly, optimal comparisons of the effect of different sequence of pilot-tunnel excavation on the ground settlement were implemented by the numerical analysis. Secondly, an optimal construction method was determined and applied to the construction of a practical tunnel. Some key issues and procedure of th...

  19. Advanced structural materials for the suspension bridge solution of the project to establish a permanent link over the strait of Gibraltar; Materiales estructurales para la solucion puente, relacionados con el proyecto de enlace fijo a traves del estrecho de Gibraltar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligo Esteve, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    In 1995, the Spanish-moroccan Mixed Committee for the Gibraltar Strait Fixed Link selected the excavated tunnel solution, as preferred to the suspension bridge one. This was based on detailed scientific and technical studies. Nonetheless, further geology studies on the tunnel layout have detected sections of difficult excavation, which would entail increases in the length, the term of execution and the cost of the tunnel. Taking this into account, and due to the important technology development in bridge construction that has taken place over the last 20 years, the paper presents a state-of-the-art of the most advanced structural materials (high performance concrete, ultra-high performance concrete, suspension cables, structural steel, reinforcing and prestressing steel, stainless steel) available for an eventual reconsideration of the suspension bridge solution for the Gibraltar Strait Fixed Link. (Author)

  20. Effect of vehicle weight on natural frequencies of bridges measured from traffic-induced vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recently, ambient vibration test (AVT) is widely used to estimate dynamic characteristics of large civil structures. Dynamic characteristics can be affected by various environmental factors such as humidity, intensity of wind, and temperature. Besides these environmental conditions, the mass of vehicles may change the measured values when traffic-induced vibration is used as a source of AVT for bridges. The effect of vehicle mass on dynamic characteristics is investigated through traffic-induced vibration tests on three bridges; (1) three-span suspension bridge (128m+404m+128m), (2) five-span continuous steel box girder bridge (59m+3@95m+59m), (3) simply supported plate girder bridge (46m). Acceleration histories of each measurement location under normal traffic are recorded for 30 minutes at field. These recorded histories are divided into individual vibrations and are combined into two groups according to the level of vibration; one by heavy vehicles such as trucks and buses and the other by light vehicles such as passenger cars. Separate processing of the two groups of signals shows that, for the middle and long-span bridges, the difference can be hardly detected, but, for the short span bridges whose mass is relatively small, the measured natural frequencies can change up to 5.4%.

  1. 南平闽江大桥斜拉桥挂篮设计与施工技术%The Design and Construction Technology of Suspension Cradle of Nanping Minjiang Cable-stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向海

    2011-01-01

    Based on the practical construction experience of Minjiang Bridge of Nanping City Fujian Province,this paper refers to the main technical solutions and application of front-fulcrum suspension cradle in cable-stayed bridge and the design and construction technology of the suspension cradle.%结合福建省南平市闽江大桥工程实际情况,主要介绍了前支点挂篮在斜拉桥施工中的应用、挂篮的设计与施工技术,以及关键技术问题的解决。

  2. Design of Concrete Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge of Wusong Bridge in Jilin City%吉林市雾凇大桥混凝土自锚式悬索桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 唐贺强; 宁伯伟

    2011-01-01

    The main bridge of the Wusong Bridge in Jilin City is a 5-span continuous concrete self-anchored suspension bridge with span arrangement (35+68+150+68+35) m. A summarized account of the design and calculation of the main bridge is presented herewith. On the bridge, the transverse and vertical bearings and the longitudinal dampers are arranged in between the stiffening girder and towers. The girder is of a concrete 3-cell single box section, the depth of a typical segment of the girder is 2.5 m and towards the anchorage sections at the side spans, the segments of the girder gradually change into a depth of 6.5 m. A tower of the bridge is a concrete portal frame structure that is 54 m in height and the tower columns and the cross beams on the towers are all of rectangular hollow sections. Beneath a tower pier are the pile caps of separation type and each pile cap is supported by 9 nos. of Φ2.0 m bored piles. The main cables are respectively made up of Φ5.1 mm galvanized high strength steel wires and the hanger cables are of Φ7.0 mm low relaxation galvanized high strength parallel steel wires. In the design, the finite element software MIDAS Civil 2006, the nonlinear analysis software BNLAS for suspension bridge and the plane program SCDS are employed to calculate and analyze the bridge. The results of the calculation and analysis indicate that all checking calculation made for the bridge can conform to the relevant requirements in the codes.%吉林市雾凇大桥主桥为(35+68+150+68+35)m五跨连续混凝土自锚式悬索桥,综述该桥主桥设计与计算.该桥塔梁间设置横、竖向支座和纵向阻尼器;加劲梁采用单箱三室混凝土截面,标准段梁高2.5 m,在边跨锚固段渐变至6.5 m;桥塔采用门形框架混凝土结构,高54 m,塔身及横梁均采用矩形空心截面;桥塔墩下部采用分离式承台,单个承台布置9根φ2.0 m钻孔灌注桩;主缆采用φ5.1 mm镀锌高强钢丝,吊索采用φ7.0 mm低松弛镀锌高强

  3. 马鞍山三塔悬索桥抗震性能研究%Research of Seismic Performance of Ma'anshan Three-pylon Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜斌; 朱宇; 李建中

    2009-01-01

    According to the structural importance of Ma' anshan three-pylon suspension bridge, a seismic fortification criterion under two kinds of earthquake action probability level was determined and the corresponding target of seismic performance was brought out based on the design of the bridge. Ground motion parameters at the site of the bridge were obtained from the seismic risk analysis report, and the seismic response analysis of the bridge was undergone accordingly by means of the seismic response spectnun method and the nonlinear seismic time-history dynamic method to study the dynamic character and response under earthquake action. The optimization measures of the bridge seismic performance were determined based on the analytical result. It is concluded that the bridge seismic response under earthquake action can be decreased and the capability-demand ratio can be increased by using reasonable hydraulic damper to enhance the seismic performance and safety of the bridge.%以马鞍山三塔悬索桥的工程设计为背景,根据大桥结构的重要性确定了桥梁在两种概率水平的地震作用下的设防标准,并提出了相应的性能目标.根据桥址处地震危险性分析研究报告所给定的地震动数据对大桥进行反应谱分析和非线性动力时程分析,研究该桥的动力特性和地震反应特点,根据分析结果研究确定优化桥梁的抗震性能措施.经过计算分析比较得出,通过加设合理的液压阻尼装置可以减小结构在地震作用下的结构响应,提高全桥结构的能力需求比,增强了该桥的抗震性能水平,有利于桥梁结构在地震中的安全.

  4. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  5. Market-based control strategy for long-span structures considering the multi-time delay issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongnan; Song, Jianzhu; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    To solve the different time delays that exist in the control device installed on spatial structures, in this study, discrete analysis using a 2 N precise algorithm was selected to solve the multi-time-delay issue for long-span structures based on the market-based control (MBC) method. The concept of interval mixed energy was introduced from computational structural mechanics and optimal control research areas, and it translates the design of the MBC multi-time-delay controller into a solution for the segment matrix. This approach transforms the serial algorithm in time to parallel computing in space, greatly improving the solving efficiency and numerical stability. The designed controller is able to consider the issue of time delay with a linear controlling force combination and is especially effective for large time-delay conditions. A numerical example of a long-span structure was selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented controller, and the time delay was found to have a significant impact on the results.

  6. First-passage probability of the deflection of a cable-stayed bridge under long-term site-specific traffic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Naiwei Lu; Mohammad Noori; Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Long-span bridges suffer from higher traffic loads and the simultaneous presence of multiple vehicles, which in conjunction with the steady traffic growth may pose a threat to the bridge safety. This study presents a methodology for first-passage probability evaluation of long-span bridges subject to stochastic heavy traffic loading. Initially, the stochastic heavy traffic loading was simulated based on long-term weigh-in-motion measurements of a highway bridge in China. A computational frame...

  7. Study on Removal Method of Inclined Bents and Effect of Tuned Mass Damper of Long-span Cable-stayed Bridge(Megami Bridge)

    OpenAIRE

    北原, 雄一

    2009-01-01

    長大斜張橋の計画において架設工法を決定する場合,架設地点の地形状況,気候等の現地条件および使用可能な架設技術を基に,その橋梁に最も適した架設工法が決定される.さらに長大斜張橋では,主桁架設にバランシング工法が採用されることが多いので,架設時の耐風安定性の検討も不可欠となる.このように多くの検討すべき事項が架設工法に影響を与えるため,過去の長大斜張橋の架設に関する技術情報では不十分であり架設地点の状況に応じた検証が必要となる.  このため,本研究は,長崎県の長崎湾に架設された女神大橋を研究対象として架設地点に応じた斜ベントの撤去工法の実証と架設系,完成系における制振装置の効果検証を目的とする....

  8. Study on dynamic response of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts using scaled model shaking table tests and numerical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of scaled-model shaking table tests and its simulation analyses using dynamic finite element method were performed to clarify the dynamic behaviors and the seismic stability of embedded corrugated steel culverts due to strong earthquakes like the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The dynamic strains of the embedded culvert models and the seismic soil pressure acting on the models due to sinusoidal and random strong motions were investigated. This study verified that the corrugated culvert model was subjected to dynamic horizontal forces (lateral seismic soil pressure) from the surrounding ground,which caused the large bending strains on the structure; and that the structures do not exceed the allowable plastic deformation and do not collapse completely during strong earthquake like Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The results obtained are useful for design and construction of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts in seismic regions.

  9. 基于实测数据的润扬大桥悬索桥全寿命评估随机温度场模拟%Simulation of stochastic temperature field for Runyang suspension bridge life-cycle evaluation based on monitoring data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广东; 李爱群; 丁幼亮; 王高新

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic temperature field simulation method for steel box-girder bridge based on moni-toring data is developed to provide sufficient temperature data for life-cycle evaluation.First, the least square estimation and hypothesis testing are employed to analyze the statistical data of monitoring tem-perature and thermal diffeernce of the flat steel-box girder of the Runyan g suspension bridge ( RSB) in five years.Then, a numerical inverse transform sampling method is proposed to simulate sam ple series with the complex statistical model, and the life-cycle stochastci temperature field of the flat steel-box gir der is simulated.The results show that the monitoring temperature of the falt steel-box girder can be described by the we ighted sum of two normal distributions, while the thermal diference among test points can be presented by the weighted su m of the Weibull distribution and the normal distribution. Teh probability distribution function of the sample simulate d by the numercial i nevr set ransform sam-pling method agrese well with the target probability distribution function.T he simulated temperature field can accurately describe the etmperature field's characteristics of the flat steel box-g irder.There-fore, the numerical inverse rt ansform samlping method can accurately simulate the life-cycle stochas tic temperature field of the flat steel box girder of the long-span suspension bridge.%为了得到桥梁全寿命评估的温度数据,提出了一种基于实测数据的钢箱梁桥随机温度场模拟方法。首先,采用最小二乘估计和假设检验,对润扬大桥悬索桥扁平钢箱梁为期5年的实测温度和温差进行了统计分析;然后,提出了一种复杂统计模式下样本序列模拟的数值逆变换抽样方法,并建立了扁平钢箱梁的全寿命评估随机温度场。研究结果表明:扁平钢箱梁实测温度服从2个正态分布的加权和,实测温差则服从1个Weibull分布和1个正态分

  10. Closure technique for the hybrid girder cable stayed bridge of Edong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Minghu; Tan Hao; Xu GuoPing; Zhao Canhui

    2012-01-01

    Based on Edong Yangtze River Bridge, which is the second longest hybrid girder cable stayed bridge with 926 m long main span, the influencing factors and crucial techniques of the main span closure method for long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridge are studied. After theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation and practical test, the loading assistant closure method is employed in Edong Yangtze River Bridge. The loading assistant closure method, with better thermal adaptability and less influence on bridge line and the forced status, can meet the requirements of the unstressed state control method. Based on the mentioned advantages, the loading assistant closure method is applicable to long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridges. The conclusion can provide a reference for the further design of the similar brid~es.

  11. Study of Superstructure of Two-Lane Suspension Bridge with Integral Cross Section%整体式断面双车道索道桥上部结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景天虎; 马小龙; 刘均利; 莫时旭

    2016-01-01

    为寻求整体式断面双车道索道桥上部结构的可行布置形式,采用考虑索梁组合结构几何非线性的空间有限元法,对几种桥面系构造方案的结构特性进行研究。研究结果表明:对于双车道索道桥,活载单车道偏载是比活载双车道同时偏载更为不利的荷载工况;在活载作用下,整个桥面系在横桥向不再保持线性变位;简单地采用横向线性扩展车道宽度的措施来构造双车道索道桥上部结构方案,将很难满足结构横倾稳定性要求;主索在横桥向的不同分布是影响索道桥结构抗扭能力的最主要因素;在桥面中央布置适量的主索对优化横梁内力分布状况是有益的。%To find a rational superstructure configuration for two‐lane suspension bridges with integral cross section ,the spatial finite element method taking into consideration of non‐linearity of cable‐beam composite structure was employed and the structural features of different bridge deck system schemes were studied .The results of the study demonstrate that for a two‐lane suspension bridge ,the load case of single‐lane unbalanced live loads is much more unfavorable than that of two‐lane unbalanced live load .Under the action of live loads ,the overall bridge deck system no longer exhibits linear variation in the transverse bridge direction .To form the superstructure of the two‐lane suspension bridge simply via linear expansion of traffic lanes in the transverse direc‐tion is hard to meet the demands of the transverse overturning stability of the structure .How to arrange the main cables in the transverse direction is the key concerning the torsional capacity of a suspension bridge .Installing a proper amount of main cables in the central part of the bridge deck is good to optimize the internal force distribution in the floor beams .

  12. 马鞍山长江公路大桥悬索桥先导索过江施工技术%River-Crossing Construction for Pilot Ropes of Suspension Bridge of Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛; 朱小金

    2015-01-01

    马鞍山长江公路大桥左汊主桥为主跨2×1080 m的三塔两跨悬索桥,主缆牵引系统采用先导索过江架设,先导索设计总长2600 m ,分2段,每段1300 m。针对桥址江面宽、悬索桥需两跨过江、跨越长江“黄金航道”、安全要求高、工期紧等因素,对先导索过江方案进行比选,确定该桥先导索采用飞艇过江牵引方案架设。采用T C08X‐2.4G型遥控氦气飞艇牵引先导索,选用φ2 mm迪尼玛绳作为一级导索,采用被动放索装置的力矩电机被动放出先导索。首先由北岸向中塔飞行过江,形成北跨初级牵引系统;然后由中塔向南岸飞行,形成南跨初级牵引系统;最后由人工和卷扬机配合完成1~5级先导索替换,完成先导索过江。飞艇牵引过程中,进行飞行控制、先导索垂度控制和安全控制,保证先导索飞艇过江顺利实施。实践表明,在长江江面不封航情况下,采用飞艇过江牵引方案可以实现先导索安全可靠过江。%The left main bridge of the Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge is a three‐tower suspension bridge with two main spans each of 1 080 m. The traction system for the main cables was erected by using pilot ropes which needed threading across the river .The pilot rope had a total design length of 2 600 m ,which was divided into two sections ,each measuring 1 300 m . Given the fact that the river is wide at the bridge site ,the suspension bridge needs two main spans to cross the river ,more critically ,the suspension bridge crosses the golden navigation channel of Changjiang River ,its safety requirements are demanding and construction schedule is tight ,it is determined via scheme comparison and selection that the pilot ropes be erected by using airship to guide the ropes to cross the river .The TC08X‐2 .4G remote‐controlled helium airship was adopted to guide the pilot ropes .Theφ2 mm Dyneema rope was used as the first

  13. 基于 TMD 的多跨折形人行吊桥的振动控制研究%Research on vibration control of multi-span zigzag-shaped pedestrian suspension bridge based on TMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘礼昕; 盛宏玉

    2015-01-01

    文章建立了多跨折形钢结构人行吊桥模型,通过有限元软件 ANSYS进行模态分析和人行荷载作用下的动力时程分析。结果表明,该桥在人行荷载作用下振动响应过大,影响结构的正常使用。在吊桥的跨中位置安装调频质量阻尼器(tuned mass damper ,TMD)进行减振控制,通过计算选取最优的 TMD参数。对比相同人行荷载作用下安装TMD装置和未安装TMD装置桥梁的动力响应,结果表明 TMD能有效减轻吊桥的振动响应。%In this paper ,a model of multi‐span zigzag‐shaped pedestrian suspension bridge made of steel material is set up .The modal analysis and dynamic time‐history analysis under the pedestrian loads are presented by using the finite element software ANSYS .The results show that the vibration re‐sponse of the bridge under the pedestrian loads is too big and will influence the functions of the struc‐ture .To control the vibration level ,the tuned mass dampers(TMD) are installed on mid‐span of the suspension bridge by selecting optimal TMD parameters based on calculation .The vibration responses of the bridge with and without TMD device under the same pedestrian loads are calculated and com‐pared .The results show that TMD can reduce the vibration response of the suspension bridge effec‐tively .

  14. 贵港市同济大桥自锚式悬索桥总体设计%Overall Design of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge of Tongji Bridge in Guigang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛雄; 高宝峰

    2016-01-01

    The main bridge of the Tongji Bridge in Guigang City ,with span arrangement of (50+140+280+140+50) m ,is a self‐anchored suspension bridge that has a main span of 280 m and bridge deck width of 37 .5 m .The main suspended girders are the multiple cells single box steel structures ,erected by incremental launching method with maximum launching spans of 2 × 85 m .The two end spans adopt the prestressed concrete structures .The towers are lotus‐shaped sin‐gle‐column towers without cross beam above the deck .The tower looks like an H‐shaped frame structure in plan ,quite elegant aesthetically ,and the minimum stable and safe coefficient of the bridge structure is 6 .4 .The main cables are composed of prefabricated parallel steel wire strands , the standard tensile strength of the steel wires is no less than 1 670 MPa .The strength safety coef‐ficient of the main cable is 2 .71 ,greater than the prescribed 2 .5 ,which meet the code require‐ments .T he hanger cables and the cable clamps are linked by pin connection .T he main cable sad‐dles are fully‐cast structures ,between the saddle base and the saddle pedestal plate ,sliding friction sets are installed .%贵港市同济大桥主桥为主跨280 m的自锚式悬索桥,桥跨布置为(50+140+280+140+50) m ,桥面宽37.5 m。悬吊跨主梁为单箱多室钢箱梁,采用顶推法施工,最大顶推跨径2×85 m。两端锚跨采用预应力混凝土结构。桥塔采用独柱式“荷花”造型,桥面以上塔柱不设置横梁,横向呈“H”形框架结构,景观造型新颖美观,桥塔结构最小稳定安全系数6.4。主缆采用预制平行钢丝索股,钢丝抗拉强度标准值为1670MPa,主缆强度安全系数2.71大于2.5,满足规范要求;吊索及索夹为销接式结构,主索鞍为全铸式结构,鞍底与底座座板间设滑动摩擦副。

  15. Optimum Design of Multilayer Asphalt Surfacing Systems for Orthotropic Steel Deck Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    Orthotropic steel decks are widely utilized in long span bridges, movable bridges and shorter span road and rail bridges due to their favourable properties. These properties are low deadweight, large plastic reserves in case of overload and aesthetic advantages. Nowadays, more than 1000 orthotropic

  16. A two-tiered self-powered wireless monitoring system architecture for bridge health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Lynch, Jerome P.; Galchev, Tzeno; Flynn, Michael; Hipley, Patrick; Jacob, Vince; van der Linden, Gwendolyn; Mortazawi, Amir; Najafi, Khalil; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Sheng, Li-Hong; Sylvester, Dennis; Thometz, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Bridges are an important societal resource used to carry vehicular traffic within a transportation network. As such, the economic impact of the failure of a bridge is high; the recent failure of the I-35W Bridge in Minnesota (2007) serves as a poignant example. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be adopted to detect and quantify structural degradation and damage in an affordable and real-time manner. This paper presents a detailed overview of a multi-tiered architecture for the design of a low power wireless monitoring system for large and complex infrastructure systems. The monitoring system architecture employs two wireless sensor nodes, each with unique functional features and varying power demand. At the lowest tier of the system architecture is the ultra-low power Phoenix wireless sensor node whose design has been optimized to draw minimal power during standby. These ultra low-power nodes are configured to communicate their measurements to a more functionally-rich wireless sensor node residing on the second-tier of the monitoring system architecture. While the Narada wireless sensor node offers more memory, greater processing power and longer communication ranges, it also consumes more power during operation. Radio frequency (RF) and mechanical vibration power harvesting is integrated with the wireless sensor nodes to allow them to operate freely for long periods of time (e.g., years). Elements of the proposed two-tiered monitoring system architecture are validated upon an operational long-span suspension bridge.

  17. A comparison of the accuracy of polyether, polyvinyl siloxane, and plaster impressions for long-span implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoods-Moonsammy, Vyonne J; Owen, Peter; Howes, Dale G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the capacity of different impression materials to accurately reproduce the positions of five implant analogs on a master model by comparing the resulting cast with the stainless steel master model. The study was motivated by the knowledge that distortions can occur during impression making and the pouring of casts and that this distortion may produce inaccuracies of subsequent restorations, especially long-span castings for implant superstructures. The master model was a stainless steel model with five implant analogs. The impression materials used were impression plaster (Plastogum, Harry J Bosworth), a polyether (Impregum Penta, 3M ESPE), and two polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) materials (Aquasil Monophase and Aquasil putty with light-body wash, Dentsply). Five impressions were made with each impression material and cast in die stone under strictly controlled laboratory conditions. The positions of the implants on the master model, the impression copings, and the implant analogs in the subsequent casts were measured using a coordinate measuring machine that measures within 4 μm of accuracy. Statistical analyses indicated that distortion occurred in all of the impression materials, but inconsistently. The PVS monophase material reproduced the master model most accurately. Although there was no significant distortion between the impressions and the master model or between the impressions and their casts, there were distortions between the master model and the master casts, which highlighted the cumulative effects of the distortions. The polyether material proved to be the most reliable in terms of predictability. The impression plaster displayed cumulative distortion, and the PVS putty with light body showed the least reliability. Some of the distortions observed are of clinical significance and likely to contribute to a lack of passive fit of any superstructure. The inaccuracy of these analog materials and procedures suggested

  18. APPRAISAL OF SAFETY ABOUT LONG SPAN STEEL STRUCTURE BRIDGE%某大跨钢结构天桥安全性鉴定要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白碧波; 余林森

    2013-01-01

    以某商务中心大跨钢结构天桥工程的结构安全性鉴定为例,依据GB/T 50344-2004《建筑结构检测技术标准》对天桥工程的结构构件进行抽样检测,同时参照GB 50292-1999《民用建筑可靠性鉴定标准》和GB 50205-2001《钢结构工程施工质量验收规范》对结构安全性进行鉴定分析,以铜结构构件安全性能检测鉴定的全过程来明确钢结构安全性鉴定的要点,对类似钢结构工程的结构安全性鉴定具有重要的参考意义.

  19. 高墩大跨连续刚构桥的Pushover分析%Pushover analysis of high pier and long span continuous steel bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青宁; 高依强; 朱坤

    2013-01-01

    Pushover法作为一种非线性静立分析方法,在基于结构位移/性能的抗震思想下有更为广泛的应用前景.结合工程实例,对高墩大跨连续刚构桥进行Pushover分析,其结果与非线性时程分析法比较,结果表明该方法对桥梁结构有较好的适用性和发展潜力.

  20. 大跨人行拱桥的结构稳定与振动分析%Structural Stability and Vibration Analysis of Long Span Pedestrian Arch Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宗保; 虞险峰; 丁烽; 肖海波

    2012-01-01

    随着城市建设的日益发展,人们对城市人行桥的景观要求越来越高,人行拱桥有朝轻巧、大跨化方向发展的趋势,其稳定性及人致振动问题也日渐显著。对某大跨上承式钢管桁架人行拱桥进行了稳定性和人致振动分析,并对该桥进行了舒适度评价,供此类桥梁设计时参考借鉴。

  1. APPLICATION OF ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE TO PEDESTRIAN CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHI-DONG LEE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC, which enables reducing the cross sectional dimension of the structures due to its high strength, is expected in the construction of the super-long span bridges. Unlike conventional concrete, UHPC experiences less variation of material properties such as creep and drying shrinkage and can reduce uncertainties in predicting time-dependent behavior over the long term. This study describes UHPC’s material characteristics and benefits when applied to super-long span bridges. A UHPC girder pedestrian cable-stayed bridge was designed and successfully constructed. The UHPC reduced the deflections in both the short and long term. The cost analysis demonstrates a highly competitive price for UHPC. This study indicates that UHPC has a strong potential for application in the super-long span bridges.

  2. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions

  3. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  4. Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...... of the analytical prediction methods. In this paper, an analytical model that departs from the strip assumption is used to describe the gust loading on a thin airfoil. A parallel is drawn between the analytical model and direct measurements of gust loading on motionless closed-box girder bridge decks. Empirical...

  5. Trust-region based instantaneous optimal semi-active control of long span spatially extended structures with MRF-04K damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wei; Li Zhongxian; Ding Yang

    2008-01-01

    In the field of civil engineering,magnetorheological fluid (MRF) damper-based semi-active control systems have received considerable attention for use in protecting structures from natural hazards such as strong earthquakes and high winds.In this paper,the MRF damper-based semi-active control system is applied to a long-span spatially extended structure and its feasibility is discussed.Meanwhile,a _trust-region method based instantaneous optimal semi-active control algorithm (TIOC) is proposed to improve the performance of the semi-active control system in a multiple damper situation.The proposed TIOC describes the control process as a bounded constraint optimization problem,in which an optimal semi active control force vector is solved by the trust-region method in every control step to minimize the structural responses.A numerical example of a railway station roof structure installed with MRF-04K dampers is presented.First,a modified Bouc-Wen model is utilized to describe the behavior of the selected MRF-04K damper.Then,two semi-active control systems,including the well-known clipped-optimal controller and the proposed TIOC controller,are considered.Based on the characteristics of the long-span spatially extended structure,the performance of the control system is evaluated under uniform earthquake excitation and traveUing-wave excitation with different apparent velocities.The simulation results indicate that the MR fluid damper-hased semi-active control systems have the potential to mitigate the responses of full-scale long-span spatially extended structures under earthquake hazards.The superiority of the proposed TIOC controller is demonstrated by comparing its control effectiveness with the clipped-optimal controller for several different cases.

  6. Trust-region based instantaneous optimal semi-active control of long-span spatially extended structures with MRF-04K damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Li, Zhongxian; Ding, Yang

    2008-12-01

    In the field of civil engineering, magneto rheological fluid (MRF) damper-based semi-active control systems have received considerable attention for use in protecting structures from natural hazards such as strong earthquakes and high winds. In this paper, the MRF damper-based semi-active control system is applied to a long-span spatially extended structure and its feasibility is discussed. Meanwhile, a trust-region method based instantaneous optimal semi-active control algorithm (TIOC) is proposed to improve the performance of the semi-active control system in a multiple damper situation. The proposed TIOC describes the control process as a bounded constraint optimization problem, in which an optimal semiactive control force vector is solved by the trust-region method in every control step to minimize the structural responses. A numerical example of a railway station roof structure installed with MRF-04K dampers is presented. First, a modified Bouc-Wen model is utilized to describe the behavior of the selected MRF-04K damper. Then, two semi-active control systems, including the well-known clipped-optimal controller and the proposed TIOC controller, are considered. Based on the characteristics of the long-span spatially extended structure, the performance of the control system is evaluated under uniform earthquake excitation and travelling-wave excitation with different apparent velocities. The simulation results indicate that the MR fluid damper-based semi-active control systems have the potential to mitigate the responses of full-scale long-span spatially extended structures under earthquake hazards. The superiority of the proposed TIOC controller is demonstrated by comparing its control effectiveness with the clipped-optimal controller for several different cases.

  7. Steel bridge deck pavement design index analysis of the highway bridge in Maanshan Yangtze River%马鞍山长江公路大桥钢桥面铺装设计指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹成根; 王民; 张昭

    2014-01-01

    对马鞍山长江公路大桥钢桥面铺装技术难点进行了分析,并确定了设计要求。参考国内类似结构的多种大跨径悬索桥钢桥面铺装设计指标,从使用条件、工程实践及试验研究等角度出发,对比分析了钢桥面铺装设计指标。结合该桥整体结构变形和荷载响应特性,制定了钢桥面铺装结构层设计指标。该研究成果对改善钢桥面铺装的结构性能和提高钢桥面铺的使用寿命具有重要的意义。%By analyzing technical difficulties of Maanshan Yangtze River highway bridge steel bridge deck pavement,the design requirements are determined.Considering do-mestic similar structures of long-span steel bridge deck pavement design index of sus-pension bridges,the operation conditions,engineering practice and experimental studies are compared.According to the overall structure deformation,load response characteris-tics,design index for steel bridge deck pavement structure layer,research achievements of scientific improvement are obtained,which can improve the performance and increase the service life of the steel bridge deck pavement structure.This work has important significance.

  8. Efficacy of adding a supporting implant in stress distribution of long-span fixed partial dentures: a 3D finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurbaji Mozayek, Rami; Allaf, Mirza; B. Abuharb, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long span is seen in many clinical situations. Treatmentplanning options of these cases are difficult and may require FPD, RPD or ISP. Each option has its own disadvantages, including mechanical problems, patient comfort and cost. This article will evaluate the stress distribution of a different treatment option, which consists of adding a single sup-porting implant to the FPD by using 3D finite element analysis. Methods. Three models, each consisting of 5 units, were created as follows: 1. Tooth Pontic Pontic Pontic Tooth; 2. Tooth Pontic Implant Pontic Tooth; 3. Tooth Pontic Pontic Implant Tooth. An axial force was applied to the prostheses by using 3D finite element method and stresses were evaluated. Results. The maximum stress was found in the prostheses in all the models; the highest stress values in all the shared components of the models were almost similar. Stress in implants was lower in the second model than the third one. Conclusion. Adding a supporting implant in long-span FPD has no advantages while it has the disadvantages of complicating treatment and the complications that may occur to the implant and surrounding bone. PMID:27429723

  9. Design and Analysis of Main Saddle Structure for Self-anchored Suspension Bridge with Spatial Cables%空间缆索悬索桥主鞍座结构设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建慧; 李爱群; 袁辉辉; 李喜平

    2009-01-01

    以南京江心洲大桥为工程背景,对空间缆索自锚式悬索桥主鞍座的相关问题进行研究.以大型通用有限元程序为平台,采用二次开发技术,建立精细化有限元模型,在此基础上采用合理的加载模式对其进行空间受力分析,并阐述与空间主鞍座相匹配的主缆切点简化修正方法.结果表明:空间主缆在成桥状态对主鞍座横向力的作用会造成鞍槽外侧壁应力大于内侧壁的应力;主缆横向体积力会对主鞍座压紧装置和鞍体产生梯度分布的竖向挤压力;自锚式悬索桥体系转换过程中缆索的几何非线性效应显著,体现在空缆到成桥状态主缆与主鞍座空间切点位置会有较大的变化.%Based on the Jianxinzhou Bridge in Nanjing, the issues related to the main saddle of the serf-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables were studied. Refinement finite element model was established with secondary development technology based on the platform of general finite element program, reasonable load pattern was used for its spatial mechanical analysis, and the spatial main cable tangenty point correction method which matched with the main saddle was also discussed. The result shows that (1) external lateral wall stress of saddle groove is higher than the internal wall stress because of the role of lateral force from the main cable in the ~mished bridge state; (2) horizontal volume force of the main cable can generate a gradient distribution of vertical extrusion pressure on the saddle clamping device and the main saddle body; (3) the geometric nonlinear effect of self-anchored suspension bridge cable system in the constroction process is significant, which reflects from that the spatial tangent point position of main cable with main saddle changes a lot from free cable to finished cable state.

  10. 悬索桥板桁结合型加劲梁剪力滞计算的简化方法%Simplified Calculation Method for Shear Lag of Plate and Truss Composite Stiffening Girder of Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锐利; 颜智法; 唐茂林; 朱军颖

    2015-01-01

    T he simplified calculation method for the shear lag of floor system of the plate and truss composite stiffening girder of suspension bridge was researched in the light of the shear lag characteristics of such type of the structure because the work load of modeling for calculating the shear lag ,using the plate and shell finite element method was enormous and the working efficiency was low .In the simplified method ,the truss in the floor system was converted into a continuous thin‐wall girder by the equivalent beam method and the finite element model of the single main girder suspension bridge that could consider the shear deformation influences w as set up .Based on the variational calculus ,the loading influential intervals that considered the structural geometric nonlinearity influences were taken as the span length of an equivalent simply‐supported girder ,the live load ,suspender forces and bearing reaction forces acting on the intervals were taken as the loads and the shear lag under the action of the combination load was solved on the principle of su‐perposition .By way of example of a railway suspension bridge to be built ,the ANSYS was used to set up the plate and shell finite element model for the w hole bridge of the bridge and the calculation of the shear lag of the model w as analyzed and compared to that implemented by the simplified method .The results of the analysis and comparison proved that the simplified method has high cal‐culation accuracy .%针对采用板壳有限元方法计算悬索桥板桁结合型加劲梁桥面系剪力滞的建模工作量巨大、效率低下的情况,根据该类结构剪力滞的特性,研究其简化计算方法。该方法采用换算梁法将板桁结合桥面系桁梁换算为连续薄壁梁;建立能够考虑剪切变形影响的单主梁悬索桥有限元模型;以变分法为基础,将考虑了结构几何非线性影响的加载影响区间作为等效简支梁的跨

  11. 既有朝阳嘉陵江大桥接触网悬挂安装研究%Study on the Suspension and Installation of OCS on Existing Chaoyang Jialing River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范荣鑫

    2014-01-01

    To electrify the existing non-electrified railway is a major trend for Chinese railway construction. Suspension and installation design of OCS (overhead contact system) on existing railway is a key link in electrification transformation for the project. In this paper, we studied a special suspension and installation mode for the existing Chaoyang Jialing River Bridge in Chongqing, which reduced the investment outlay and shortened the construction period.%既有非电化铁路电气化扩能改造是当下中国铁路建设的重要方向。既有铁路桥上接触网悬挂安装设计是既有铁路电气化改造的重要一环,本文针对重庆枢纽既有朝阳嘉陵江大桥开展了接触网特殊悬挂安装研究,为国家重点建设项目节省了投资,缩短了建设工期。

  12. Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko

    2016-07-01

    Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.

  13. 大跨度连续钢桁栱梁施工测量技术研究%The Construction Survey Technolog of Long Span Continuous Steel Truss Archtruss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍

    2016-01-01

    With the characters of large span,strong rigidity of steel beam member,much final closures and so on,the construction survey technology of long-span continuous steel truss arch is becoming a precision engineering measurement.As the deformation of steel beams rods transportation,manufacturing errors,installation errors and other factors,the unmatched situation of linear installation with linear design have been existed.By controlling network reiteration and encryption in the process of steel beam construction under a reasonable working and meteorological condition,the measuring precision could be improved.Besides,with adjusting beam line according to the monitoring instruction,the “zero”joining error and measurement accuracy improvement could be accomplished,and the linear as well as bridge camber degree could also be meet the design requirements.%大跨度连续钢桁栱梁施工测量是一项精密的工程测量,具有跨度大,钢梁杆件刚性大,合龙口多,合龙口合龙点多等特点。因钢梁杆件运输变形、制造误差、安装误差等因素影响,会造成钢梁的安装线形与设计线形不符等情况。在钢梁施工过程中在合理的工况、气象条件下通过控制网复测与加密进行测量,可以提高测量精度。根据监控指令对钢梁线形进行调整,可实现钢梁“零”误差合龙,合龙后的线形、栱度满足设计要求。

  14. The TVT Glass Pavilion: Theoretical Study on a Highly Transparent Building Made with Long-Spanned TVT Portals Braced with Hybrid Glass-Steel Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Froli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid glass-steel systems is mandatory. Glass, fragile but highly compressive resistant, is associated with steel, ductile and tensile resistant. The present research shows the feasibility study for a fully glazed pavilion made of six TVT (Travi Vitree Tensegrity portal frames longitudinally braced by pre-stressed hybrid glass panels. The frames are about 20 m in span and 8 m in height. Appropriate multiscalar FEM numerical analyses, calibrated on the collapse tests performed on previous TVT large-scale prototypes, stated that the structural performance would be able to withstand heavy static and dynamic loads and stated the observance of the Fail-Safe Design principles.

  15. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions...... will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed....

  16. Wind Resistant Design of Bridges in Japan Developments and Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Yozo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    For long-span bridges, wind action is a dominant factor in their safety and serviceability. A large number of long-span bridges have been built in Japan over the past 30 years, and tremendous amounts of research and technical development have been accomplished in wind resistant design. This book is a compilation of the results of active research and development. Wind resistant design standards generated in Japan are described in the first few chapters. Then comes information such as design wind speed, structural damping, wind tunnel tests, and analyses, which provide the basis of the design standards. Wind-induced vibrations and their control of girders, towers, cables, and other features are explained with examples of field measurements. Comprehensive listings of Japanese experience in vibration control are also presented. Because achieving particularly dynamic safety against wind is still not an easy task, these data and information will be valuable assets for the wind-engineering and bridge-engineering com...

  17. Design of cable-girder anchorage system scheme in self-anchored suspension bridge%自锚式悬索桥缆-梁锚固系统方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌云

    2015-01-01

    本文根据已建以及待建自锚式悬索桥工程实例,将自锚式悬索桥工程中主缆在加劲梁梁端的锚固方案进行了总结分析,从施工方面、经济性以及美观性等方面指出了各种锚固方式的优缺点以及适应性。按照锚体材料的不同将现有锚固方式重新进行了分类,综合现有的分类方式提出了一套锚固系统方案设计流程。这种设计流程条理清楚、直观易理解,为今后的自锚式悬索桥主缆锚固系统设计提供指导,快速的形成锚固系统方案,提高设计效率,并获得更好的经济性和美观性。%According to the engineering examples of the self -anchored suspension bridges built and to be built , the cable -girder an-chored projects are summarized and analyzed.From the construction , economy and aesthetics aspects , the advantages adaptability of vari-ous ways of anchoring and are pointed out.According to the different materials of the existing anchorage , the way of anchoring is re -clas-sified and a set of anchor system design process is put forward based on the classification of the existing anchorage systems .This design process is clear , intuitive and easy to understand and can provide guidance for the design of self -anchored suspension bridge main cable anchorage system in the future.Using this design process , anchorage system scheme will be quickly put forward , the design efficiency can be improved and the bridge will be more economic and more beautiful.

  18. 铁路悬索桥大吨位隧道锚承载性能分析%Analysis on Bearing Performance of Large-tonnage Tunnel-type Anchorage of Railway Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江南; 冯君

    2013-01-01

    丽香铁路金沙江大桥是我国首座采用大吨位隧道式锚碇的铁路悬索桥.本文采用三维弹塑性有限元方法对隧道锚的变形机理、承载能力以及围岩稳定状态进行分析.研究结果表明:在正常缆力作用下,锚碇体及周围岩体的位移均处于毫米量级,远小于悬索桥塔顶允许位移;锚碇体整体表现为以前底板为支点,锚碇体后部向上转动和整体向前滑移的变形模式;锚碇体及围岩绝大部分处于三向受压状态,只是在锚碇底端与下部围岩的接触部分,以及顶拱与边墙交界处局部范围内存在拉应力,建议在这些部位采取措施重点加强;基于超载极限分析法计算得到锚碇体的整体抗滑安全系数在9以上.有限元分析结果为铁路悬索桥隧道锚的优化设计提供了理论依据.%The Jinsha River Bridge of the Lijiang-Xianggelila Railway is the first railway suspension bridge with tunnel type anchorages of large tonnage in China.By using the three dimensional elastoplastic finite element method,the deformation mechanism & bearing capacity of the tunnel anchorage and the stability of surrounding rock were analyzed.The results show as follows:Under the action of normal cable forces,the displacements of the anchorage body and surrounding rock are in the millimeter range,which are far less than the allowable displacements of the suspension bridge tower;the deformation mode of the anchorage body includes the back part of the anchorage body turning upward with the front bottom plate as the fulcrum and the whole anchorage body sliding forward; most parts of the anchorage body and surrounding rock are in the triaxial compression state,except that the contact surface between the bottom end of the anchorage body and the under surrounding rock and,the local boundary area between the crown hog and flank wall are subjected to tensile stresses where stressed strengthening is needed;with the overload limit analysis method

  19. The application of structural health monitoring system technology using FBG to the No. 2 Wuhan bridge over the Yangtze river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengchun; Jiang, Desheng

    2008-12-01

    Bridge engineering offer many unique opportunities for the use of advanced optical fiber sensing technology. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of bridge structural health monitoring system(SHMS) based on optical fiber sensing technology are reviewed and some disadvantages in present SHMS based on optical fiber sensing technology for existing long-span bridge are indicated. In order to overcome those disadvantages, some fiber Bragg grating (FBG) products developed by authors and corresponding industrialization enterprise are introduced. Focusing on an existing long-span cable-stayed bridge-Wuhan Yangtze No.2 Bridge, the operational condition of the multi-parameter bridge SHMS mainly based on FBG sensors is presented. Some initial monitoring results show that the whole performance of the SHMS FBGbased is reliable and measuring data are reasonable.

  20. Full-arch milled titanium implant bridge: technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peché, Wendy-Ann; Van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Park, Chae

    2011-09-01

    The manufacturing of full-arch fixed implant-supported bridges with the use of the traditional lost wax technique remains a technical challenge. Distortion of the alloy during casting and subsequent heating cycles during porcelain build-up causes numerous problems. Fracturing of porcelain on large restorations is difficult and costly to restore. The fitting problems can be eliminated by utilising CAD/CAM technology in the manufacturing of long-span or full-arch titanium bridges. Repair of damaged porcelain can be simplified with the use of discrete, individually-removable crowns on the bridge.

  1. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  2. Flow field analysis of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck by unsteady RANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Naimul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-span cable-stayed bridges are susceptible to dynamic wind effects due to their inherent flexibility. The fluid flow around the bridge deck should be well understood for the efficient design of an aerodynamically stable long-span bridge system. In this work, the aerodynamic features of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck are explored numerically. The analytical results are compared with past experimental work to assess the capability of two-dimensional unsteady RANS simulation for predicting the aerodynamic features of this type of deck. The influence of the bottom plate slope on aerodynamic response and flow features was investigated. By varying the Reynolds number (2 × 104 to 20 × 104 the aerodynamic behavior at high wind speeds is clarified.

  3. Dynamic characteristics and flutter performance of suspension bridge with double introverted main cables%内倾式双主缆悬索桥动力特性及颤振性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏锦林; 李珂; 葛耀君; 周超

    2016-01-01

    通过减小主跨为1 708 m悬索桥的主缆间距,分析了内倾式双主缆体系的动力特性和颤振性能.动力特性计算发现:减小主缆间距,能在维持竖弯基频的基础上有效提高扭转基频;附加的侧弯-扭转耦合振型在两个自由度上的等效质量均较小,且频率介于竖弯、扭转基频之间.为说明该振型的侧弯-扭转强耦合效应对颤振稳定性的影响,分别基于二维两自由度和三维全自由度状态空间方法对比分析了颤振性能.二维结果显示,小主缆间距时侧弯-扭转耦合振型较常规纯扭振型对颤振更不利;三维分析显示,主缆间距较小时,上述耦合振型参与程度较高,反之,纯扭振型参与较多,同时第二阶竖弯振型作用明显.结果表明:内倾式双主缆体系悬索桥的颤振稳定性受多振型影响,传统二维两自由度分析结果可能不安全,有必要进行三维全自由度颤振分析.%To investigate the dynamic characteristics and flutter performance of suspension bridges with double introverted main cables,a hypothetical bridge,with its main span 1 708 m,was taken into account by decreasing cables' transverse distance.Dynamic finite element analysis shows that,with the decreasing of cables' distance,system's fundamental torsional frequency can raise significantly,while the fundamental vertical frequency keeps steady.Meanwhile,a lateral and torsional coupled mode can be found,and its frequency is between fundamental vertical and torsional frequency.Both lateral and torsional equivalent mass of that mode remain in a rather low level.To research the influence of the coupled mode on system's flutter performance,the state-space approach was introduced into the analysis both two-dimensionally and three-dimensionally.It indicates through 2D analysis that,with a closer cables' distance,the coupled mode is more harmful.While by 3D analysis,the participation of that mode is higher when the cables' distance decreases

  4. Feasibility Study of Stress-ribbon Bridge Using as Long-span Bridge%悬带桥用作大跨径桥梁的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠平; 贾辉

    2007-01-01

    悬带桥是一种新型组合体系桥型,由车道梁、立柱、悬带等部分组成.悬带桥有着其他各类桥型不具备的优点,本文拟从悬带桥的美学特征、结构受力、动力稳定性和施工工艺上进行分析评价,探讨其用作大跨径桥梁的可行性.

  5. Digital simulation of 3D turbulence wind field of Sutong Bridge based on measured wind spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao WANG; Zhou-hong ZONG; Ai-qun LI; Teng TONG; Jie NIU; Wen-ping DENG

    2012-01-01

    Time domain analysis is an essential implement to study the buffeting behavior of long-span bridges for it can consider the non-linear effect which is significant in long-span bridges.The prerequisite of time domain analysis is the accurate description of 3D turbulence winds.In this paper,some hypotheses for simplifying the 3D turbulence simulation of long-span cable-stayed bridges are conducted,considering the structural characteristics.The turbulence wind which is a 3D multivariate stochastic vector process is converted into four independent ID univariate stochastic processes.Based on recorded wind data from structural health monitoring system (SHMS) of the Sutong Bridge,China,the measured spectra expressions are then presented using the nonlinear least-squares fitting method.Turbulence winds at the Sutong Bridge site are simulated based on the spectral representation method and the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique,and the relevant results derived from target spectra including measured spectra and recommended spectra are compared.The reliability and accuracy of the presented turbulence simulation method are validated through comparisons between simulated and target spectra (measured and recommended spectra).The obtained turbulence simulations can not only serve further analysis of the buffeting behavior of the Sutong Bridge,but references for structural anti-wind design in adjacent regions.

  6. Design of Thrusting Facilities for Flexible Arch Composite Structure with Long-span Steel Truss%大跨度钢桁梁柔性拱组合结构顶推设施设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建廷

    2014-01-01

    Thrusting method has been widely applied to the construction of steel bridge overpassing a busy main line, and a reasonable design of supporting and thrusting facilities is the key factor to ensure quality and safety of the bridge con-struction. Using the thrusting project of a double line railway with long-span and steel truss flexible arch composite struc-ture overpassing a high way as a case study and taking into account of the site condition, cost and other factors, the pa-per presents a new technology of “assembly in sections, steel truss girds with arch thrusting and closure at flexible arch foot”. Which employs the supporting system assisted by spatial pipe truss, thrusting slipping system with box cross-sec-tion slide girder and long guiding girder with variable cross-section truss and that provides technical solution from the thrusting to design position of the safety of super-long and ultra high structure. Based on calculation in multiple operating conditions with FEM procedure Midas and SAP2000 , many advantages in the supporting of spatial pipe truss have been showed such as high strength and stiffness, good stability, convenient installation or recycling, and an operation platform attached. Furthermore, the box cross-section sliding girder presentes good integrity, strong bearing capacity and uneasy deformation. With long guiding girder of variable cross-section truss, the position control of long cantilever state in thrusting process could be settled.%顶推法常运用于跨越繁忙交通干线的钢桥施工,合理设计的支撑、顶推体系是确保桥梁施工质量及安全性的关键因素。结合双线铁路(114-75+229-5+114-75) m大跨度钢桁梁柔性拱组合结构,该桥小角度斜交上跨高速公路采用顶推施工,提出了综合考虑现场条件、成本等因素的“分段拼装、钢桁梁带拱顶推、柔性拱拱脚合龙冶施工新技术,采用空间管桁架辅助支撑体系、箱型截面滑道梁顶

  7. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  8. Foot force models of crowd dynamics on a wobbly bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Belykh, Igor; Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Vladamir

    2016-01-01

    Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry-standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multi-million dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian induced vibrations during the openings of the Solf\\'erino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge which started wobbling as a result of...

  9. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  10. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  11. First-passage probability of the deflection of a cable-stayed bridge under long-term site-specific traffic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiwei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-span bridges suffer from higher traffic loads and the simultaneous presence of multiple vehicles, which in conjunction with the steady traffic growth may pose a threat to the bridge safety. This study presents a methodology for first-passage probability evaluation of long-span bridges subject to stochastic heavy traffic loading. Initially, the stochastic heavy traffic loading was simulated based on long-term weigh-in-motion measurements of a highway bridge in China. A computational framework was presented integrating Rice’s level-crossing theory and the first-passage criterion. The effectiveness of the computational framework was demonstrated through a case study of a cable-stayed bridge. Numerical results show that the upper tail fitting of the up-crossing rate is an appropriate description of probability characteristics of the extreme traffic load effects of long-span bridges. The average daily truck traffic growth increases the probability of exceedance due to an intensive heavy traffic flow and results in a higher first-passage probability, but this increased trend is weakening as the continuous increase of the traffic volume. Since the sustained growth of gross vehicle weight has a constant impact on the probability of failure, setting a reasonable threshold overload ratio is an effective scheme as a traffic management to ensure the bridge serviceability.

  12. The Effect of Deck Width Addition Toward Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge: Case Study of Siak Sri Indrapura Bridge, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An aeroelastic interaction always take places in long-span bridge, i.e. the dynamic relationship between wind forces (aerodynamic and bridge structural motion (dynamics. Wind forces may lead to serviceability and safety problems, and may even cause instability of the whole bridge structure due to the flexibility nature of long span bridge structures.The slimer girder plate will make the structure more unstable as can be seen from the occurrence of lateral deformation. This paper presents the results analysis of cable stayed bridge that has total span of 640 m, two planes configuration of harp-typed hanger cable, the A shape pylons span along 320 m (main span,and side span of 160m. Structural analysis was conducted to determine the optimum ratio between width and spans of cable stayed bridge. The bridge was modeled with various width of 7 to 22 m. Structural modelling was conducted using SAP2000 software to analyze the structural stability of cable stayed bridge under wind load at speed of 35 m/s.The influence of wind loads to the cable stayed bridge stability can be seen based on the bridge deck deformation at the Y-axis (U2, in which for the width of the bridge deck of 7 m, 8 m, 9 m and 10 m, the deformation of U2 are 0.26 m; 0.17 m; 0.12 m and 0.10 m, respectively. Meanwhile, for bridge’s width of 11-22 m, the value of U2 axis deformation is relatively constant between 0.08 m to 0.07 m. This finding suggests that the ratio between width and length of bridge greatly affect the stability of the cable stayed bridge. Cable-stayed bridge, especially for concrete bridge, with two plain system having optimum ratio of width and length show no sign of an aerodynamic instability when fulfills the requirements of B ≥ L / 3.

  13. Wind-resistant Optimized Design of Long Span Portal-rigid Frame with Web-tapered Section%大跨度变截面门式刚架抗风优化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玖荣; 董超超; 徐安; 傅继阳

    2012-01-01

    在运用考虑背景响应的LRC方法计算等效静力风荷载施加在变截面大跨门式刚架的基础上,通过SAP2000 API函数用MATLAB调用有限元分析结果,采用虚功原理构造其位移约束条件,运用拉格朗日乘子法建立优化问题的数学模型.运用最优准则法(OC),探讨了大跨度变截面门式刚架抗风优化设计的相关方法.通过对构造的函数进行迭代求解得出其优化的最小截面,并与峰值因子法求静力风荷载的优化结果进行对比.对比的结果表明:运用OC优化算法收敛的迭代次数较少,且利用LRC方法建立的等效静力风荷载条件下的优化结果更加经济,也更符合风荷载的实际特性.%A procedure for wind-resistant optimization design of long-span portal-rigid frame was proposed in this paper by adopting the Optimality Criteria (OC) method and the SAP2000 Application Programming Interface (API) for Matlab software. The Equivalent Static Wind Load (ESWL) imposed on the long-span portal-rigid frame was obtained from the measured wind pressure from wind tunnel tests and application of Load Response Correlation (LRC) method. The virtual-work principle was utilized to construct the wind-induced displacement constraint condition,and the Lagrange multiplier factor was adopted to establish the optimization model for the optimization procedure. A special iteration procedure was selected to obtain the optimization minimum sections of long-span portal frames while satisfying all the constraint conditions. The optimized results imposed by ESWL were also compared with those corresponding optimization results induced by the equivalent wind load from Gust Load Factor (GLF) method. It was shown that few iteration numbers for convergence in the proposed optimization procedure are needed and the OC procedure proposed in this paper was very effective for the wind-resistant optimization design for such long-span portal-rigid frames.

  14. Impact dynamics model of long span high voltage transmission lines subjected to iced wire breakage%大跨越高压输电线路覆冰断线的冲击动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 初佂宇; 孙显鹤; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to theoretically reveal the impact dynamic responses of long span high voltage transmission lines subjected to iced wire breakage, the impact dynamics model for long span high-voltage transmission lines with iced bundled conductors was developed comprehensively by using an equivalent single iced conductor instead of bundled conductors. The impact dynamics model of iced wire breakage was derived by using energy method. Taking a typical tension section of long span high-voltage transmission line as an example, the impact responses under iced wire breakage and non-iced wire breakage were computed by using this model and a good agreements were achieved. The results show that the impact dynamic response under iced wire breakage is larger than that under non-iced wire breakage, so the impact dynamic response due to iced wire breakage should not be ignored. The model can provide a theoretical basis for experiments and numerical simulations of long span high voltage transmission lines under iced wire breakage.%为了从理论上揭示大跨越高压输电线路覆冰断线的冲击动力响应,针对大跨越高压输电导线分裂布置型式的线路覆冰情况,采用等效单根导线代替分裂导线,利用能量法,建立了覆冰断线的冲击动力学模型.以某大跨越高压输电线路的一个典型耐张段为例,应用该模型计算导(地)线覆冰断线和未覆冰断线工况下对铁塔造成的冲击响应.研究表明:覆冰断线造成的冲击动力响应远大于未覆冰断线情况,覆冰断线冲击响应不容忽视.该模型可为大跨越高压输电线路覆冰断线的冲击动力响应试验分析与数值计算提供理论依据.

  15. Study on the Spatial Stress of the Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous rigid-frame bridges are usually used in building bridges with long span and high piers. It is characterized by the consolidation between piers and beams in the middle of bridge piers and flexible bridge piers in the lower part. Among all the factors, curvature has the most obvious influence on the stress of curved continuous rigid-frame bridge, because of which, the curved beam bridge produces coupling effect of bending moment and receives complicated stress, leading to the deformation such as torsion and displacement of radial direction. No matter it is the castscaffold construction or cantilever construction, for continuous rigid-frame bridges, considering that after the long term creep of concrete, structure stress tends to be in a drop-frame state, so it is necessary to know the mechanical properties of the finished bridge. Taking the Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge as an example, this paper mainly analyzes the internal forces and deformations of a finished curved continuotus rigid-frame bridge by establishing a spatial finite element model with Midas Civil 2006 software and by changing the model’s radius of curvature. The results show that as the curvature increases, the vertical deformation and torsion angle of the long-span curved continuous rigid-frame bridge are both reduced under the effect of a dead load and prestressed load, presenting mechanical properties of bridge, namely, “coupling effect of bending moment”. In the model analyzed, the deformation of the bridge in the transverse direction also behaves a trend of gradual decrease with an increase in radius of curvature with the range 500–2000 m.

  16. Nerval Network Method in Construction Control for Long-span Bridge%大跨度桥梁施工控制中的神经网络方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建阳; 向木生; 郭峰祥; 沈成武

    2001-01-01

    神经网络是一种模拟人脑结构和功能的信息处理系统,介绍将神经网络方法用于大跨度混凝土桥梁施工控制中,对桥面预拱度偏差进行预测.实例表明:神经网络利用实测样本的自学习功能,对桥梁施工预拱度有较好的预测精度.

  17. Study on Deck Runoff Collection System of Long-Span Bridges across Ecology Water Area%跨敏感水域特大桥桥面径流收集系统方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓彬

    2015-01-01

    本文在调研危化品运输车辆和初期雨水污染物浓度分析的基础上,给出了危化品泄漏量、初期雨水径流量、设计降雨历时等主要参数的确定方法;基于雨水管道极限强度理论,提出了包含纵向截流管及收集池的桥面径流收集系统设计方法;并结合实际工程设计,对多种桥面径流收集及处理方案进行了分析比较,提出了相关建议,从而为今后的特大桥桥面径流收集系统研究起参考和借鉴的作用。%Based on the investigation of dangerous chemicals transport vehicles and the analysis of initial rainwater pollutant concentrations,the determination methods were given for some main parameters,such as leakage rate of dangerous chemicals,initial rainwater runoff discharge,design rainfall duration and so on.based on the ultimate strength theory of rainwater pipelines,the design method for deck runoff collection system was proposed.some schemes for deck runoff collection and treatment were analyzed and compared based on actual projects.And some suggestions were proposed in hope of sheding light on future research and design in this field.

  18. VIBRATION COMFORT ANALYSIS OF PEDESTRIAN-TRACK-TRAIN-BRIDGE COUPLED VIBRATION OF A LONG-SPAN FOOTBRIDGE%某大跨度人行桥人-车-线-桥耦合振动舒适度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 肖遥

    2014-01-01

    为分析某大跨度人行桥人-车-线-桥耦合振动舒适度,首先,通过现场动测试验得到公路车辆及轨道交通加速度时程;其次,采用时程分析方法模拟随机人行荷载激励,考虑人行荷载下结构双向耦合振动,基于Grund-mann模型模拟分析人群行走;最后,采用大质量法将上述激励作用于结构,分四种工况对结构进行了人-车-线-桥耦合振动分析,与动测结果吻合较好.找到了影响结构振动的主要震源,并通过增设TMD的方法有效控制了结构振动,按EN03《德国人行桥设计指南》对结构舒适度进行评价,改善了人行桥舒适度性能水准.

  19. 大跨度人行钢桥减振技术应用研究%APPLICATION AND RESEARCH OF VIBRATION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR LONG-SPAN PEDESTRIAN STEEL BRIDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙从永; 刘明路; 王馥琴; 韩向科; 张侃

    2016-01-01

    大跨度人行天桥由于建筑高度的限制,其截面尺寸较小,导致其刚度较弱,在人行荷载的作用下,会产生较大的振动,导致行人的不适感.以某大型人形天桥钢结构工程为例,首先采用有限元软件对人行天桥设置TMD前后的桥梁频率进行分析,然后通过现场的TMD安装及减振效果调试,满足规范规定的舒适度要求.

  20. 安装固定气动翼板的大跨桥梁抖振分析%COUPLED BUFFETING ANALYSIS OF LONG SPAN BRIDGES WITH STATIONARY AERODYNAMIC WINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高; 林家浩; 王秀伟

    2003-01-01

    建立了安装固定气动翼板的大跨桥梁多模态耦合抖振分析框架,推演了作用在整个桥梁-气动翼板系统上的抖振力和自激力的显式表达式,考虑了多模态耦合效应.基于有限元法,作用在主梁-气动翼板系统上的抖振力转化为节点力,进一步得到作用在整个桥梁上的抖振力并导出了其功率谱密度矩阵;作用在主梁-气动翼板系统上的气弹自激力转化为节点力,并将其表达为气弹刚度矩阵和气弹阻尼矩阵.通过组集得到系统的运动方程,然后运用虚拟激励法在频域计算系统的抖振响应.以某大跨斜拉桥为例进行研究,结果表明:在主梁下方安装一对固定气动翼板后,主梁的扭转角位移、角加速度以及侧向加速度响应能够得到有效控制.

  1. Discussion on Certain Issues in the Designing of Long-span Crossing Tower in UHV AC%浅析特高压交流大跨越铁塔设计的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付建明

    2015-01-01

    以实际工程为例,讨论了大跨越铁塔设计中的计算方法。为做好大跨越铁塔的设计,此工程建立了杆—梁混合单元模型并对其进行动力分析,计算出大跨越直线塔的自振周期和振型,在此基础上,采用随机振动理论计算铁塔的风振系数,进行铁塔设计,确保了铁塔的安全,为大跨越铁塔的设计提出了合理的计算方法。%The paper discusses the methods of calculation of crossing towers on the basis of a real project.In order to design the long-span crossing tower, the structural natural vibration period and vibration mode is calculated on the basis of a rod-beam mixed cell model, which is specially made for the project, and its dynamic analysis.After that, random vibration theory is adopted to calculate the wind vibration factor in order to guarantee the safety of the tower when the tower is designed.The paper presents a reasonable method of calculation for the design of long-span crossing tower.

  2. Wind-induced vibration control of bridges using liquid column damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛素铎; 高赞明; 徐幼麟

    2002-01-01

    The potential application of tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) for suppressing wind-induced vibration of long span bridges is explored in this paper. By installing the TLCD in the bridge deck, a mathematical model for the bridge-TLCD system is established. The governing equations of the system are developed by considering all three displacement components of thc deck in vertical, lateral, and torsional vibrations, in which the interactions between the bridge deck, the TLCD, the aeroelastic forces, and the aerodynamic forces are fully reflected. Both buffeting and flutter analyses are carried out. The buffeting analysis is performed through random vibration approach, and a critical flutter condition is identified from flutter analysis. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the control effectiveness of the damper and it is shown that the TLCD can be an effective device for suppressing wind-induced vibration of long span bridges, either for reducing the buffeting response or increasing the critical flutter wind velocity of the bridge.

  3. Environmental variability study on the measured responses of Runyang Cablestayed Bridge using wavelet packet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YouLiang; LI AiQun; LIU Tao

    2008-01-01

    The structural damage alarming method based on wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) for long-span cable-stayed bridges is presented through combination of ambient vibration test and wavelet packet analysis.The environmental variability in the measured WPES and damage alarming indices ERVD of the Runyang Ca-ble-stayed Bridge are discussed in detail using the wavelet packet analysis of the measured acceleration responses of the bridge under daily environmental condi-tions.The analysis results reveal that the actual environmental conditions includ-ing traffic Ioadings,environmental temperature and typhoon Ioadings have re-markable correlations with the measured WPES.The changes of environmental temperature have a long-term trend influence on the WPES,while the influences of traffic and typhoon Ioadings on the measured WPES of the bridge present instan-taneous changes because of the nonstationary properties of the Ioadings.The analysis results of the measured responses further reveal that the damage alarm-ing indices ERVD can sensitively reflect the influences of environmental tempera-ture and typhoon Ioadings on the dynamic properties of Runyang Cable-stayed Bridge.Therefore,the proposed structural damage alarming indices ERVD under ambient vibrations are suitable for real-time damage alarming for long-span ca-ble-stayed bridges.

  4. Environmental variability study on the measured responses of Runyang Cablestayed Bridge using wavelet packet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural damage alarming method based on wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) for long-span cable-stayed bridges is presented through combination of ambient vibration test and wavelet packet analysis. The environmental variability in the measured WPES and damage alarming indices ERVD of the Runyang Cable-stayed Bridge are discussed in detail using the wavelet packet analysis of the measured acceleration responses of the bridge under daily environmental conditions. The analysis results reveal that the actual environmental conditions including traffic loadings, environmental temperature and typhoon loadings have remarkable correlations with the measured WPES. The changes of environmental temperature have a long-term trend influence on the WPES, while the influences of traffic and typhoon loadings on the measured WPES of the bridge present instantaneous changes because of the nonstationary properties of the loadings. The analysis results of the measured responses further reveal that the damage alarming indices ERVD can sensitively reflect the influences of environmental temperature and typhoon loadings on the dynamic properties of Runyang Cable-stayed Bridge. Therefore, the proposed structural damage alarming indices ERVD under ambient vibrations are suitable for real-time damage alarming for long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  5. 飓风作用下某大跨体育馆屋盖的结构选型分析%ANALYSES OF STRUCTURAL TYPE SELECTION FOR THE LONG-SPAN ROOF OF A GYMNASIUM CONSIDERING HURRICANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李布辉; 张大长; 包涛

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of structural form selection of a gymnasium in the Philippines were carried out. The maximum wind speed for design is 215 km/h, the wind force is 17 level and it belongs to hurricane. Therefore, the designs of long-span roof become especially difficult. The lower natatorium roof was used to be the top roof' s supports and stand. The top roof was a long-span space steel truss structure which had a span dimension of 130. 0 m ×31.0 m. Considering the characteristics such as roof being large span and its overall structure being stiper-long, the plane pipe truss was used in top roof and the spatial triangle pipe truss structure was used in the lower roof and stands. Due to comparison and selection of different structure schemes, pipe truss structure, space truss structure set with pulling up and down prestressed cable, space truss structure with pulling up prestressed cable and self-balance steel-tube filled with concrete were selected. Analyses models were built and the nonlinear analyses were performed. Structural deflection, members dimension, structural materials, and construction difficuhies were investigated, it was found that scheme 3 had a good economy and structural performance, which was suitable for long-span structures under hurricane. The research results can be referel3ced by designing other similar long-span structures.%菲律宾某地最大设计风速达到215 km/h,风力17级,属于飓风,因此大跨屋盖的结构设计异常困难。该地的某大跨体育馆的下层屋盖为游泳馆屋盖,并作为上层屋盖的支承点和看台;上层屋盖为大跨度空间钢桁架结构,屋盖东西长为130.0 m,南北宽为31.0 m。考虑屋盖跨度大、整体结构超长的特点,上层屋盖采用平面管桁架形式,下侧游泳馆屋面及看台采用空间三角管桁架结构。基于屋盖结构方案的可行性比选,选取普通框架管桁架结构、斜拉空间桁架、斜拉空间桁架加配重3种方案,进行结构整体建

  6. The Mechanical Characteristics of Calatrava Bionic Long-span Spatial Architecture%浅析卡拉特拉瓦仿生大跨空间建筑的力学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英开

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the structure system of bionic long-span spatial architecture, and combining with the Spanish architect Calatrava's architecture, analyzes its material selection and mechanical characteristics, expounds the skeleton system, skin system, and the characteristics of the composite system. Combined with the instance, it deepens the impression of bionic large-span.%  本文主要介绍仿生大跨空间建筑的结构体系,并结合西班牙建筑师卡拉特拉瓦的建筑,对其材料选用和力学特征进行分析,阐述了骨架体系、蒙皮体系和组合体系的特点,结合实例,加深对仿生大跨的印象。

  7. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  8. Comfort Evaluation and Vibration Reduction Design of Long Span Footbridges%大跨径人行桥人致振动舒适性评估及减振措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱骥; 孙利民

    2011-01-01

    The fundamentals of pedestrian-induced vibration of footbridges were introduced, and a mechanics model of pedestrian-induced forces was presented under the condition of considering the pedestrianbridge interaction.According to the current research of long span footbridges, two comfort evaluation indexes of pedestrian-induced vibration were proposed.At the same time, a long span footbridge was used as an example to demonstrate the process of comfort evaluation.Considering the importance of this footbridge, a pre-scheme of vibration-reduction was designed based on tuned mass damper (TMD).The result illustrates that in this footbridge there is no pedestrian-induced vibration which exceeds comfort index.%阐述了人行桥的人致振动理论,在考虑人桥相互作用影响的条件下,建立了人行荷载的力学模型,并结合国内外相关研究的成果,提出了大跨径人行桥人致振动舒适性评估指标.同时,以国内某大跨径人行桥为例,介绍了人行桥舒适性评估过程,考虑到该桥的重要性,进行了基于调频质量阻尼器的减振措施预案设计.结果表明,该人行桥将不会出现超越人行舒适性的人致振动.

  9. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario SASSONE

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...

  10. Wind Tunnel Testing of Active Control System for Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes preparation of wind tunnel testing of the principle of using flaps to control the motion of suspension bridges. The experiment will take place at the Instituto Superior Technico Lisbon, Portugal. The bridge section model is constructed of foam with an aluminium frame. The flaps...

  11. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  12. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  13. Procurement of Beams in Multiple D&B Bridge Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CT. Ramanathan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Selected infrastructure development projects are being implemented by Design and Build (D&B pocurement system in Sabah (East Malaysia by the Public Works Department (PWD. In the first phase 45 bridge replacement projects were awarded in 5 packages. These simultaneous multiple Bridge projects are for the development of the backward areas and hence their timely completion is utmost important. Procurement and production of bridge beams have been the critical element of construction in these rural areas and no researches has been reported on various aspects of procurement of the bridge beams in multiple D&B projects. The aspects of procurement researched in this work include the determination of a common beam element for the ease of procurement and the optimization of the construction methodology, the finalization and purchasing plate dimensions to suite the manufacturer's production range, the delivery of materials, the planning and monitoring of fabrication, the preparation and assembly, and the erection and launching of beams. The beams are optimized using element optimization techniques. The most important problems in fabricating steel girders were in planning and scheduling of materials for the fabrication and the fabrication process. Findings in all the aspects of production of steel girders are highlighted through a case study of six long span bridges at various locations in Sabah. Solutions drawn from lessons learnt which minimize wastages, and aids in timely completion of beams in multiple bridge construction are discussed.

  14. Bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity: A comparison of modeling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng; Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-11-01

    Accurate modeling of wind-induced loads on bridge decks is critical to ensure the functionality and survivability of long-span bridges. Over the last few decades, several schemes have emerged to model bridge behavior under winds from an aerodynamic/aeroelastic perspective. A majority of these schemes rely on the quasi-steady (QS) theory. This paper systematically compares and assesses the efficacy of five analytical models available in the literature with a new model presented herein. These models include: QS theory-based model, corrected QS theory-based model, linearized QS theory-based model, semi-empirical linear model, hybrid model, and the proposed modified hybrid model. The ability of these models to capture fluid memory and nonlinear effects either individually or collectively is examined. In addition, their ability to include the effects of turbulence in the approach flow on the bridge behavior is assessed. All models are compared in a consistent manner by utilizing the time domain approach. The underlying role of each model in capturing the physics of bridge behavior under winds is highlighted and the influence of incoming turbulence and its interaction with the bridge deck is examined. A discussion is included that focuses on a number of critical parameters pivotal to the effectiveness of corresponding models.

  15. Study on vulnerability assessment of cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. C.; Yan, D.

    2006-03-01

    A structure is vulnerable if any small damage will trigger disproportionately large consequences, even leads to a cascade of failure events and progressive collapse. The structural vulnerability performance depends upon the properties, locations of damaged components and the way they are connected to the rest of the structure. In this paper, progressive failure analysis method is utilized for the vulnerability study of cable-stayed bridges. The goal of it is to identify various failure scenarios initiated from the sudden damage of some bridge components. Based on the analysis results, assuming that the behaviors of damaged components can be modeled using plastic hinges, the hybrid element model is introduced to derived the modified stiffness matrix considering both of the effects of bending moments and shear forces. Furthermore, the vulnerability index in terms of the nodal stiffness degradation can be analytically quantified, which could be regarded as an index to determine the bridge failure consequences, so that the vulnerability distribution graph for the whole bridge can be sketched to evaluate the bridge performances from vulnerability viewpoints. This quantitative approach is applicable for structural evaluation under unforeseen attack and illustrated on a typical long-span cable-stayed bridge.

  16. Model Test Study on Deicing Vibration of Long Span Transmission Tower-line System%大跨越输电塔—线体系脱冰振动模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 沈磨群; 张莹; 祁西汉

    2013-01-01

    输电线路脱冰振动响应给电网的正常运行带来重大的安全隐患.为精确分析大跨越输电塔—线体系中导地线脱冰对铁塔造成的动力冲击响应,以晋东南—南阳—荆门1 000 kV特高压输变电工程中的黄河大跨越段为原型,对覆冰条件下五塔四档线塔—线体系模型的脱冰冲击响应进行了模拟试验,通过对比分析塔-线体系在不同脱冰工况下杆塔的动力响应,获得输电杆塔的最不利脱冰工况,找出了输电塔在脱冰冲击作用下的最不利位置.利用ANSYS软件建立与试验模型相应的输电塔线体系模型,采用完全法瞬时动力分析模拟导、地线脱冰,提取各个测点应变,所得结果与试验结果吻合.%The deicing vibration of transmission tower-line system bring significant security risk to the normal operation of power network.In order to accurate study the dynamic shock response of long span transmission tower-line system deicing on the tower structure,taking the Yellow River long span transmission lines in Jindongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen 1 000 kV ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission project as prototype,deicing shock simulation test of transmission tower-line system is carried out to find out the dynamic response of tower structure under different icing conditions.By comparing and analyzing the dynamic response of tower structure on deicing,the most unfavorable on deicing conditions and position of tower is investigated.ANSYS software is used to establish the transmission tower-line system model corresponding to the test model.The full method transient dynamic analysis is applied to simulate conductor and grounding wires deicing and extract strain of each measure point.The result is consistent with the experiment.

  17. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) procedure; Laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension ... bladder. There are two ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Either way, surgery ...

  18. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Science and Technology Assessment Printer Friendly Version Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin ... information about the hazards of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma when using fall arrest systems. This bulletin: ...

  19. Collapsing granular suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kadau, D.; Andrade Jr, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for...

  20. Earthquake Performance Analysis of Steel Truss-Concrete Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanming

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steel truss-concrete Combination continuous rigid frame bridge is that we use steel truss for Principal stress structure.The seismic performance of a steel truss-concrete Combination continuous rigid frame bridge was studied in this paper. A dynamic spatial finite element model of Qingqiyong Bridge, which is a long span bridge, was created using MIDAS. Its natural frequency and vibration mode can be calculated,the seismic performance and structure stiffness were discussed and analyzed on the basis of calculated results. Design response spectrum and time-history method are used to calculate this bridge, seismic performance is discussed in this paper . Results show that natural frequency of the bridge is small, its period is long, and this kind of bridge is a new kind of earthquake resistant and energy-saving structure. Seismic effect has some effect on the bridge, especially the bending moment Along the bridge. The results of this paper can also provide some references for the design, construction, health monitoring and maintenance of bridges of like.

  1. Recent research and applications of GPS based technology for bridge health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Today,long-span bridges are being designed to be more flexible and to resist extensive impacts from changes in temperature,severe wind gusts and earthquake tremors. Structural responses (especially displacement) of bridge structures are becoming increasingly important for the finite element (FE) modal updating,structural response prediction and safety evaluation. Methods of global displacement sensing were developed for these needs. This paper presents an overview of current research and development activities in the field of bridge health monitoring using the global positioning system (GPS). The GPS monitoring technology and its accuracy assessment method are also briefly described. Finally,existing problems and promising research efforts in the GPS based bridge health monitoring are discussed.

  2. Field measurement and analysis of human-induced vibration of long-span floor in Qingdao Sport Center%青岛体育中心训练馆大跨楼盖人致振动实测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞建; 孙兆江; 李正光; 宋涛

    2012-01-01

    在青岛体育中心训练馆大跨楼盖上安装了振动监测系统,监测楼盖在使用状态下的振动幅值并进行振动舒适度的评估。基于ANSYS通用有限元软件建立了该楼盖的分析模型,并施加单人及群体荷载,计算得到的响应与实测响应进行了比较,结果表明,该建模方法及荷载取值合理。%A permanent vibration monitoring system has been designed and installed on the long-span floor of the Training Stadium in Qingdao Sport Center. The system monitors the vertical vibration of the floor under operational conditions, and the measurements from the system can be utilized for vibration serviceability assessment. Furthermore, the finite element model of the floor has been established via ANSYS as a platform. The vertical acceleration responses of the floor under people walking and jumping were calculated and compared with the measured values. The results suggest that the suggested modeling technology is applicable and the walking load model used is reasonable.

  3. Analysis and Experiment Research on Dehumidification and Anti-corrosion System of Main Cable of Suspension Bridge Based on Waste Heat Recovery%基于余热回收的悬索桥主缆除湿防腐系统节能分析与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭关中; 缪小平; 范良凯; 贾代勇; 刘文杰; 马喜斌

    2011-01-01

    Main cable is one of the most important bearing components of suspension bridge, and also the irreplaceable component, known as the “lifeline” of the suspension bridge. The main cable is exposed to the atmosphere for a long time, and withstands the erosion of various adverse environments, which results in the rust and corrosion of steel wire of main cable. The dehumidification and anti-corrosion system will send dry air into the main cable,reduce the air relative humidity,so as to avoid rust and corrosion of steel wire, and improve the service life. In this paper, the principle and composition of the dehumidification and anticorrosion system of main cable were described, and a dehumidification and anti-corrosion system of main cable of suspension bridge based on the waste heat recovery was proposed. The test rig for testing the performance of heat exchanger was built up, and the experiment results indicated that when the regenerated air flowrate of the rotary dehumidifier was 1/3 of the rotary dehumidification air flowrate,with the increase of the rotary dehumidification air flowrate, the heat exchange efficiency of the heat exchanger would be improved,the temperature of the regenerated air would rise through the heat exchanger, which would reduce the heating capacity of regeneration electric heater, and save the energy consumption of the dehumidification and anti-corrosion system of main cable.Therefore, the waste beat recovery technology was favorable for the energy conservation of the dehumidification and anti-corrosion system of main cable.%主缆是悬索桥最重要的受力构件之一,且是不可更换构件,被称为悬索桥的"生命线".主缆长期暴露在大气环境中,经受着各种不利环境的侵蚀,导致主缆钢丝易产生锈蚀.主缆除湿防腐系统将干燥空气送入主缆,降低主缆内的空气湿度,从而避免主缆钢丝锈蚀.提高了主缆钢丝的使用寿命.本文阐述了主缆除湿防腐系统的原理及组

  4. Foot force models of crowd dynamics on a wobbly bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Belykh, Igor; Belykh, Vladamir

    2016-01-01

    Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry-standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multi-million dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian induced vibrations during the openings of the Solf\\'erino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge which started wobbling as a result of pedestrian-bridge interactions. Pedestrian phase-locking due to footstep phase adjustment, is suspected to be the main cause of its large lateral vibrations; however, its role in the initiation of wobbling was debated. In this paper, we develop foot force models of pedestrians' response to bridge motion and detailed, yet analytically tractable models of crowd phase-locking. We use bio-mechanically inspired models of crowd lateral movement to investigate to what degree pedestrian synchrony must be present for a bridge to ...

  5. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  6. How Roebling did it: Building the world's first wire-rope suspension aqueduct in 1840s Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Donald L.

    2006-05-01

    The noted bridge designed John Roebling introduced his wire-rope suspension concept in Pittsburgh on a wooden aqueduct. His design was later implemented in bridges in Pittsburgh and elsewhere, including New York's Brooklyn Bridge. This article describes Roebling's work based on reviews of his notes and other historical documents.

  7. Steel structure (bridge and building); Doboku/kenchiku bun`ya ni okeru yosetsu gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, M. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    In this article, the trends of welding engineering are discussed in two groups, namely bridges and steel frames. First of all, in the field of bridges, as the themes of technical innovation of steel bridges, the challenge to build long span bridges, coping with new structural forms, and rationalization of general bridges are selected. Concerning very long bridges, considerable elongation of its spans and technological development for materials, design, construction and erection relating to improvement of profitability become inevitable. Besides, in addition to the functions of bridges, the bridges playing the roles of environmental and/or artistic structures become many, thereby the cases of using welding for the site joints increase. As the measure for rationalize bridge construction, it is to reduce steel weight and working costs for increasing profitability, and the progress of welding technology therefor has been observed. With regard to the manufacture of bridge portions in a factory, labor saving, automatization and robotization of in-house welding have been made, and bridge maintenance as well as pursuance of attaining the state of maintenance free are also important. The trend that the bridge load is becoming larger and enhancement of earthquake resistance are also important. Regarding steel frames, functionalization of steel, making steel very thick, various automatization of manufacturing, and pursuance of earthquake resistant safety are being made. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  8. A strange bridge by Leonardo

    CERN Document Server

    Huylebrouck, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

  9. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM. The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  10. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  11. Aerodynamic stability of cable-supported bridges using CFRP cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jun; YING Lei-dong

    2007-01-01

    To gain understanding of the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cable in cable-supported bridges, based on the Runyang Bridge and Jinsha Bridge, a suspension bridge using CFRP cables and a cable-stayed bridge using CFRP stay cables are designed, in which the cable's cross-sectional area is determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness.Numerical investigations on the aerodynamic stability of the two bridges are conducted by 3D nonlinear aerodynamic stability analysis. The results showed that as CFRP cables are used in cable-supported bridges, for suspension bridge, its aerodynamic stability is superior to that of the case using steel cables due to the great increase of the torsional frequency; for cable-stayed bridge,its aerodynamic stability is basically the same as that of the case using steel stay cables. Therefore as far as the wind stability is considered, the use of CFRP cables in cable-supported bridges is feasible, and the cable's cross-sectional area should be determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness.

  12. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  13. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  14. Collapsing granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadau, D; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2009-11-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for both the unperturbed and the perturbed phases of the material.

  15. Optimization of Dead Load State in Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sun∗; Rucheng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the reasonable completed dead load state in earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridges, a practical method is proposed. The method is based on the rigidly supported continuous beam method and the feasible zone method, emphasizing on the mutual effect between the self⁃anchored structural parts and the earth⁃anchored ones. Three cable⁃stayed bridge models are designed with the main spans of 1 400 m, including a partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, a cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge and a fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, in which the C50 concrete and Q345 steel are adopted. The partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge and the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge secure lower compressive force in the girder than the fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge by 25 percent at least. The same is for the material consumption of the whole bridge. Furthermore, the anchor volume is more than 20% lower in the partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge than that in the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge. Consequently, the practical span of cable⁃stayed bridges can be accordingly extended.

  16. Evaluation of Dynamic Load Factors for a High-Speed Railway Truss Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Youliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dynamic impact of high-speed trains on long-span bridges are important for the design and evaluation of high-speed railway bridges. The use of the dynamic load factor (DLF to account for the impact effect has been widely accepted in bridge engineering. Although the field monitoring studies are the most dependable way to study the actual DLF of the bridge, according to previous studies there are few field monitoring data on high-speed railway truss arch bridges. This paper presents an evaluation of DLF based on field monitoring and finite element simulation of Nanjing DaShengGuan Bridge, which is a high-speed railway truss arch bridge with the longest span throughout the world. The DLFs in different members of steel truss arch are measured using monitoring data and simulated using finite element model, respectively. The effects of lane position, number of train carriages, and speed of trains on DLF are further investigated. By using the accumulative probability function of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution, the probability distribution model of DLF is proposed, based on which the standard value of DLF within 50-year return period is evaluated and compared with different bridge design codes.

  17. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  18. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  19. Realistic modelling of the effects of asynchronous motion at the base of bridge piers

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, F; Vaccari, F

    2002-01-01

    Frequently long-span bridges provide deep valley crossings, which require special consideration due to the possibility of local amplification of the ground motion as a consequence of topographical irregularities and local soil conditions. This does in fact cause locally enhanced seismic input with the possibility for the bridge piers to respond asynchronously. This introduces special design requirements so that possible out-of-phase ground displacements and the associated large relative displacements of adjacent piers can be accommodated without excessive damage. Assessment of the local variability of the ground motion due to local lateral heterogeneities and to attenuation properties is thus crucial toward the realistic definition of the asynchronous motion at the base of the bridge piers. We illustrate the work done in the framework of a large international cooperation to assess the importance of non-synchronous seismic excitation of long structures. To accomplish this task we compute complete synthetic acc...

  20. Analysis of Deflection Problems of Large-span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-span continuous rigid frame bridge is a kind of common structural form in long-span bridges of our country, but one of the main diseases of these bridges is the excessive deflection in the mid-span, which seriously affects the safety of the structure. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis for the causes of the excessive deflection, and lists the commonly-used control measures in engineering. Simultaneously, new improvement measures and the comparative analysis of before-and-after improvements are put forward on this basis. However, these measures can be used to inhibit deflection in a certain extent, but cannot avoid the occurrence of deflection completely.

  1. Some considerations on the effects of the P-derivatives on bridge deck flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Brownjohn, James Mark William

    2005-05-01

    Using two degrees of freedom (dof) experimental flutter derivatives to perform three-dimensional flutter analysis for a cable-supported bridge is a widely practiced method. It is important to consider the P-derivatives effect to have more accurate analysis for a long-span bridge. Through a case example, this paper studied some of the issues relating to the P-derivatives effects on flutter. The operational condition in two-dof experiments was discussed. It was suggested that due to the strong aeroelastic coupling effect of the sectional model studied in this research, there was an inherent weakness of two-dof experiments. The effect of the P-derivatives was studied for an example bridge by comparing the flutter analysis results using two-dof and three-dof experimental flutter derivatives.

  2. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  3. Horizontal gust response of `Tatara Bridge` under construction; `Tatara ohashi` kasetsuji no taifu anteisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Tokushige, M.; Toriumi, R. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under construction were conducted with two types of turbulent boundary layer simulations. The level of agreement between the wind tunnel measurements and a wind buffeting analysis varied with the type of turbulent boundary layer. An investigation of this behavior found that the aerodynamic admittance used in the buffeting analysis was different from the measured aerodynamic admittance. Past research showed that buffeting analysis based on strip theory, which assumes a spanwise correlation between the fluctuating wind velocity and the fluctuating aerodynamic loads, does not always hold. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the quality of ambient vibration monitoring data from the Henry Hudson Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qin; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Prader, John; Aktan, A. E.

    2006-03-01

    The quality of test data is an important consideration in conducting field experiments on civil infrastructure. In addition to possible errors due to the experimental setup, the uncertainties due to incomplete knowledge of a structure's behavior and its interactions with the natural environment greatly affect the reliability of the system identification results. This paper discusses the uncertainties related to ambient vibration testing of a long-span steel arch bridge and possible ways to mitigate them. The consistency of the identified parameters is examined through statistical analyses.

  5. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  6. 多维地震下大跨网格结构倒塌分析与抗倒塌措施%Collapse modes and anti-collapse measures for long span trusses under multi-dimensional earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴淮; 徐赵东; 杨明飞

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the collapse mode and find measures to prevent structural collapse of long span trusses, the explicit finite element analysis was performed to calculate the whole collapse process. From the collapse process, the structural collapse mode can be obtained. The collapse mode of the trusses under horizontal earthquake are mainly referred to strength failure, while the collapse mode of the trusses under vertical earthquake are mainly referred to dynamic instability. Three different space trusses subjected to multi-dimensional earthquake were compared, including a normal truss, and a truss with normal rubber bearing, and a truss with multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation devices (MEIMD). The normal truss collapsed after 5.12 s, and the truss with normal rubber bearing did not collapse but there was a 1.01 m subsidence at the middle point. However, the truss with MEIMD had little damage. It can be concluded that the MEIMD can enhance the anti-collapse performance under severe earthquakes.%为了研究大跨网架结构的倒塌模式并寻求有效的抗倒塌方法,以显式动力分析方法为基础,模拟了地震下网架结构的倒塌全过程.从倒塌过程归纳出水平地震作用下网架的倒塌模式以强度破坏为主,竖向地震作用下网架的倒塌模式以动力失稳破坏为主.对比了普通网架、加入普通橡胶隔震支座网架和加入多维隔减震支座网架在强震下的倒塌过程.结果表明,普通网架在5.12s时倒塌,加入普通橡胶隔震支座网架虽未倒塌,但中部凹陷1.01 m,加入多维隔减震支座网架没有发生明显破坏,所以多维隔减震装置能有效地提高网架在强震下的抗倒塌能力.

  7. 双层类椭球冠形大跨屋面的表面风压数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Wind Pressures on Long-span Roof of Double Hyperellipsoidal Crowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓长根; 梅洁晗; 陆平

    2014-01-01

    基于计算流体动力学(CFD)数值模拟方法,对拟建双层类椭球冠形大跨屋面进行了表面风压分析,得到了其在不同风向角下的风压分布情况和速度流场分布趋势,并进一步给出了拟建建筑在最不利工况下的风压系数分布等值线。结果表明:双层类椭球冠形大跨屋面的最大正压区出现在迎风面的近地处及上下部交界处,而最大负压区则出现在侧面的上下部交界处和顶面;上下部交界处由于形成了凹角,很容易出现最大局部正负压区块,因此在结构抗风设计时需要进行局部加强。%By the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD ) numerical simulation , the analyses of wind-induced surface pressure of the proposed long-span roof of double hyperellipsoidal crowns were conducted .The distributing characteristics of mean wind pressure and velocity flow field in different wind directions were obtained .On that basis ,the isolines of wind pressure coefficient distribution of the proposed architecture under the most unfavorable condition were presented .The results show that the maximum positive pressure zone locates on the upwind side near the ground ,while the juncture of top and bottom on the upwind side also grows a zone of maximum positive pressure .The maximum negative pressure zone lies on the upwind side close to the top of the roof ,while a maximum negative pressure zone appears in the juncture of top and bottom on the side face .Therefore ,the juncture of top and bottom forms concave angle ,w hich leads to maximum local positive pressure zones or negative pressure zones , so local reinforcement should be considered in the design of structural wind-resistance .

  8. Research on School Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Schools across the nation report increases in the use of punitive disciplinary methods (e.g., suspension). The need for these disciplinary practices to address serious student misconduct is undisputed. What research has questioned is why some students seem to be suspended more often than others, what effects suspension has on students, and whether…

  9. Traveling wave effect on the seismic response of a steel arch bridge subjected to near fault ground motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yan; George C Lee

    2007-01-01

    In the 1990s, several major earthquakes occurred throughout the world, with a common observation that near fault ground motion (NFGM) characteristics had a distinct impact on causing damage to civil engineering structures that could not be predicted by using far field ground motions. Since then, seismic responses of structures under NFGMs have been extensively examined, with most of the studies focusing on structures with relatively short fundamental periods, where the traveling wave effect does not need to be considered. However, for long span bridges, especially arch bridges, the traveling wave (only time delay considered) effect may be very distinct and is therefore important. In this paper, the results from a case study on the seismic response of a steel arch bridge under selected NFGMs is presented by considering the traveling wave effect with variable apparent velocities. The effects of fling step and long period pulses of NFGMs on the seismic responses of the arch bridge are also discussed.

  10. Vibration Characteristics of a Suspension Footbridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownjohn, J. M. W.

    1997-04-01

    A suspension footbridge located in a tourist attraction in Singapore has a suspended span of 35 m and was designed for static pedestrian and wind loads. In common with other bridges of this type, it is a light, efficient structure and has a lively dynamic performance.Distributed parameter and finite element models were used to understand the vertical plane behaviour of the bridge and a prototype dynamic test using impact excitation was conducted to check the models and investigate the dynamic response.The first two vertical vibration modes were found to occur at the same frequency, 2 Hz, as the average pedestrian footfall. Response to pedestrians was simulated using linear and non-linear models of a moving excitation source.

  11. Compressive sampling based approach for identification of moving loads distribution on cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fujian; Ou, Jinping

    2013-04-01

    A moving loads distribution identification method for cable-stayed bridges based on compressive sampling (CS) technique is proposed. CS is a technique for obtaining sparse signal representations to underdetermined linear measurement equations. In this paper, CS is employed to localize moving loads of cable-stayed bridges by limit cable force measurements. First, a vehicle-bridge model for cable-stayed bridges is presented. Then the relationship between the cable force and moving loads is constructed based on the influence lines. With the hypothesis of sparsity distribution of vehicles on bridge deck (which is practical for long-span bridges), the moving loads are identified by minimizing the `l2-norm of the difference between the observed and simulated cable forces caused by moving vehicles penalized by the `l1-norm' of the moving load vector. The resultant minimization problem is convex and can be solved efficiently. A numerical example of a real cable-stayed bridge is carried out to verify the proposed method. The robustness and accuracy of the identification approach with limit cable force measurement for multi-vehicle spatial localization are validated.

  12. Displacement monitoring and modelling of a high-speed railway bridge using C-band Sentinel-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qihuan; Crosetto, Michele; Monserrat, Oriol; Crippa, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Bridge displacement monitoring is one of the key components of bridge structural health monitoring. Traditional methods, usually based on limited sets of sensors mounted on a given bridge, collect point-like deformation information and have the disadvantage of providing incomplete displacement information. In this paper, a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) approach is used to monitor the displacements of the Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River high-speed railway bridge. Twenty-nine (29) European Space Agency Sentinel-1A images, acquired from April 25, 2015 to August 5, 2016, were used in the PSI analysis. A total of 1828 measurement points were selected on the bridge. The results show a maximum longitudinal displacement of about 150 mm on each side of the bridge. The measured displacements showed a strong correlation with the environmental temperature at the time the images used were acquired, indicating that they were due to thermal expansion of the bridge. At each pier, a regression model based on the PSI-measured displacements was compared with a model based on in-situ measurements. The good agreement of these models demonstrates the capability of the PSI technique to monitor long-span railway bridge displacements. By comparing the modelled displacements and dozens of PSI measurements, we show how the performance of movable bearings can be evaluated. The high density of the PSI measurement points is advantageous for the health monitoring of the entire bridge.

  13. A Tale of Five Bridges; the use of GNSS for Monitoring the Deflections of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Brown, Christopher J.; Tang, Xu; Meng, Xiaolin; Ogundipe, Oluropo

    2014-11-01

    The first Bridge Monitoring surveying was carried out in 1996 by the authors, through attaching Ashtech ZXII GPS receivers onto the Humber Bridge' parapet, and gathering and further analysing the resulting 1 Hz RTK GPS data. Various surveys have subsequently been conducted on the Humber Bridge, the Millennium Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge, the Severn Suspension Bridge and the Avonmouth Viaduct. These were all carried out using survey grade carrier phase/pseudorange GPS and later GNSS receivers. These receivers were primarily dual frequency receivers, but the work has also investigated the use of single frequency receivers, gathering data at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz and even 100 Hz. Various aspects of the research conducted are reported here, as well as the historical approach. Conclusions are shown in the paper, as well as lessons learnt during the development of this work. The results are compared to various models that exist of the bridges' movements, and compare well. The results also illustrate that calculating the frequencies of the movements, as well as looking at the magnitudes of the movements, is an important aspect of this work. It is also shown that in instances where the magnitudes of the movements of the bridge under investigation are small, it is still possible to derive very accurate frequencies of the movements, in comparison to the existing models.

  14. 考虑缆-梁联合作用的自锚式悬索桥恒载状态计算方法研究%Study on the calculation method of the dead load state for the self-anchored suspension bridge considering the joint action of cable-stiffening girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王邵锐; 周志祥; 高燕梅; 唐辉

    2015-01-01

    In most calculation methods for the reasonable finished bridge state of self-anchored suspension bridge, the combined action of cable-stiffening girder can not be considered in a single model, so repeated manual iteration or model boundary condition modification are usually adopted. For this reason, an analytical calculation method considering the combined action of cable-stiffening girder is proposed. Based on the stiffening girder deflection theory, the differential equilibrium equations, geometric equations, and the physical equations of the stiffening girder are used to derive the analytic relationship between the stiffening girder alignment and the suspender force. The end reaction force of the main cable is calculated from the suspender force using the segmental catenary theory. The solutions that meet the compatibility condition of the suspender force and the end reaction of the main cable is obtained by the iteration method. The calculation results by the proposed method agree well with the theoretical reasonable finished bridge state satisfying the principle of minimum potential energy of stiffening girder. The proposed method has the advantage of fast convergence speed and high precision that needed in practical engineering.%自锚式悬索桥合理成桥状态的已有算法中,很难在一个模型中同时考虑缆-梁的联合作用,需要通过反复手动迭代或是修改模型边界条件进行求解,较为繁琐。对此,笔者提出一种考虑缆-梁联合作用的恒载状态计算方法。该方法基于加劲梁的挠度理论,通过梁段的平衡微分方程、几何方程、物理方程推导出加劲梁的线形和索力的解析关系;主缆基于分段悬链线理论,通过已知吊索索力计算主缆端部反力;再用迭代方法得出满足以主缆端部反力和吊索索力为相容条件的解。计算结果表明,该方法能够考虑缆-梁联合作用,得到满足加劲梁最小应变

  15. Construction of the world's first continuous PC steel composite extradosed bridge. New Meishin Expressway Kiso River Bridge and Ibi River Bridge; Sekaihatsu no PC {center_dot} ko fukugo renzoku ekusutora dozudo kyo no seko. Dai 2 meishin kosoku doro Kisogawa kyo {center_dot} Ibigawa kyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakasu, Makoto [Japan Highway Public Corpration, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-10

    Kiso River Bridge and Ibi River bridge in the Second Meishin Expressway are the bridges lying across the river mouths of Kiso River and Ibi River which are two of the biggest rivers in Japan. Since a span length of 160m or more is necessary when constructing the bridges, comparison examinations in respect to bridge forms that can secure a long span were carried out. As a result, the world's first continuous PC steel composite extradosed bridge was adopted. The construction works of these two bridges were each divided into the east and the west works, thus totally four constructions works were ordered. Now both the two bridges are approaching the most active period of their superstructure works. In this paper, summary of the superstructure works of these two bridges is described and the situation of concrete girder portions operated hitherto is introduced. Particularly, for the concrete girder portions in composite structures, an extrodosed form is employed to arrange PC members outside the girders so as to use them more effectively and make prestress force act on a main girder at a great eccentricity. (NEDO)

  16. Microfluidic Bead Suspension Hopper

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Alexander K.; MacConnell, Andrew B.; Paegel, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Many high-throughput analytical platforms, from next-generation DNA sequencing to drug discovery, rely on beads as carriers of molecular diversity. Microfluidic systems are ideally suited to handle and analyze such bead libraries with high precision and at minute volume scales; however, the challenge of introducing bead suspensions into devices before they sediment usually confounds microfluidic handling and analysis. We developed a bead suspension hopper that exploits sedimentation to load b...

  17. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  18. Running safety analysis of a train on the Tsing Ma Bridge under turbulent winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Weiwei; Xia He; Xu Youlin

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic responses of the Tsing Ma suspension bridge and the running behaviors of trains on the bridge under turbulent wind actions are analyzed by a three-dimensional wind-train-bridge interaction model. This model consists of a spatial finite element bridge model, a train model composed of eight 4-axle identical coaches of 27 degrees-of-freedom, and a turbulent wind model. The fluctuating wind forces, including the buffeting forces and the self-excited forces, act on the bridge only, since the train runs inside the bridge deck. The dynamic responses of the bridge are calculated and some results are compared with data measured from Typhoon York. The runnability of the train passing through the Tsing Ma suspension bridge at different speeds is researched under turbulent winds with different wind velocities. Then, the threshold curve of wind velocity for ensuring the running safety of the train in the bridge deck is proposed, from which the allowable train speed at different wind velocities can be determined. The numerical results show that rail traffic on the Tsing Ma suspension bridge should be closed as the mean wind velocity reaches 30 m/s.

  19. GPS deflection monitoring of the West Gate Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziq, Noor; Collier, Philip

    2007-05-01

    The achievable precision and relatively high sampling rates of currently available GPS receivers are well suited for monitoring the movements of long-span engineering structures where the amplitude of movements is often more than a few centimetres and the frequency of vibrations is low (below 10 Hz). However, engineering structures often offer non-ideal environments for GPS data collection due to high multipath interference and obstructions causing cycle slips in the GPS observations. Also, for many engineering structures such as bridge decks, vertical movements are more pronounced and more structurally critical than horizontal movements. Accuracy of GPS determined positions in the vertical direction is typically two to three times poorer than in the horizontal component. This paper describes the results of a GPS deflection monitoring trial on the West Gate Bridge in Melbourne, Australia. The results are compared to the estimated frequencies and movements from the design of the bridge and previous accelerometer campaigns. The frequency information derived from the GPS results is also compared to frequency data extracted from an accelerometer installed close to a GPS receiver. GPS results agree closely to the historical results and recent accelerometer trials for key modal frequencies. This indicates the suitability of GPS receivers to monitor engineering structures that exhibit smaller movements due to their stiffness and in environments not ideally suited to using GPS.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Reliability of Coupled Stay Cables and Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear vibration can cause serious problems in long span cable-stayed bridges. When the internal resonance threshold is reached between the excitation frequency and natural frequency,large amplitudes occur in the cable. Based on the current situation of lacking corresponding constraint criteria, a model was presented for analyzing the dynamic reliability of coupling oscillation between the cable and tower in a cable-stayed bridge. First of all, in the case of cable sag, the d'Alembert principle is applied to studying the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the structure, and resonance failure interval of parametric oscillation is calculated accordingly. Then the dynamic reliability model is set up using the JC method. An application of this model has been developed for the preliminary design of one cable-stayed bridge located on Hai River in Tianjin, and time histories analysis as well as reliability indexes have been obtained. When frequency ratio between the cable and tower is approaching 1∶2, the reliability index is 0.98, indicating high failure probability. And this is consistent with theoretical derivation and experimental results in reference. This model, which is capable of computing the reliability index of resonance failure, provides theoretical basis for the establishment of corresponding rule.

  1. Vulnerability analysis for design of bridge health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. M.; Yu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The recent engineering implementation of health monitoring system for long span bridges show difficulties for precisely assessing structural physical condition as well as for accurately alarming on structural damages, although hundreds of sensors were installed on a structure and a great amount of data were collected from the monitoring system. The allocation of sensors and the alarming algorithm are still two of the most important tasks to be considered when designing the structural health monitoring system. Vulnerability, in its original meaning, is the system susceptibility to local damage. For a structural system, the vulnerability can thus be regarded as structural performance susceptibility to local damage of structure. The purpose of this study is to propose concepts and methods of structural vulnerability for determining monitoring components which are more vulnerable than others and the corresponding warning threshold once the damages occur. The structural vulnerability performances to various damage scenarios depend upon structural geometrical topology, loading pattern on the structure and the degradation of component performance. A two-parameters structural vulnerability evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The parameters are the damage consequence and the relative magnitude of the damage scenarios to the structural system, respectively. Structural vulnerability to various damage scenarios can be regarded as the tradeoff between the two parameters. Based on the results of structural vulnerability analysis, the limited structural information from health monitoring can be utilized efficiently. The approach of the design of bridge health monitoring system is illustrated for a cable-stayed bridge.

  2. Highly conductive, printable pastes from capillary suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Koos, Erin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    We have used the capillary suspension phenomenon to design conductive pastes for printed electronic applications, such as front side metallization of solar cells, without non-volatile, organic additives that often deteriorate electrical properties. Adding a small amount of a second, immiscible fluid to a suspension creates a network of liquid bridges between the particles. This capillary force-controlled microstructure allows for tuning the flow behavior in a wide range. Yield stress and low-shear viscosity can be adjusted such that long-term stability is provided by inhibiting sedimentation, and, even more importantly, narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are accessible. These ternary mixtures, called capillary suspensions, exhibit a strong degree of shear thinning that allows for conventional coating or printing equipment to be used. Finally, the secondary fluid, beneficial for stability and processing of the wet paste, completely evaporates during drying and sintering. Thus, we obtained high purity silver and nickel layers with a conductivity two times greater than could be obtained with state-of-the-art, commercial materials. This revolutionary concept can be easily applied to other systems using inorganic or even organic conductive particles and represents a fundamental paradigm change to the formulation of pastes for printed electronics.

  3. Analysis of steel-concrete composite structure with overlap slab of Xingguang bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mei-xin; HUANG Qiong; WU Qin-qin

    2007-01-01

    Finire element modeling methods of steel-concrete composire structure with overlap slab were investigated.A two-step finite element method wag presented.It was applied to analyze an extra long span composite bridge.The conversion of structure system and the mechanical behavior of the bridge were analyzed with two different construction methods.The stresses of steel beams, precast slabs and in-situ-place concrete under the total load were compared. The results show that steel-concrete composite structure with overlap slab has many advantages, the construction method that the top in-situ concrete and the concrete in construction joints are cast respectively is rather reasonable than the one that the top in-situ concrete and the concrete in construction joints are cast at the same time, and the two-step finite element method is affective to such large-scale structures.

  4. Prediction of Fatigue Life of a Continuous Bridge Girder Based on Vehicle Induced Stress History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Rao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue damage assessment of bridge components by conducting a full scale fatigue testing is often prohibitive. A need, therefore, exists to estimate the fatigue damage in bridge components by a simulation of bridge-vehicle interaction dynamics due to the action of the actual traffic. In the present paper, a systematic method has been outlined to find the fatigue damage in the continuous bridge girder based on stress range frequency histogram and fatigue strength parameters of the bridge materials. Vehicle induced time history of maximum flexural stresses has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulation process and utilized to develop the stress range frequency histogram taking into consideration of the annual traffic volume. The linear damage accumulation theory is then applied to calculate cumulative damage index and fatigue life of the bridge. Effect of the bridge span, pavement condition, increase of vehicle operating speed, weight and suspension characteristics on fatigue life of the bridge have been examined.

  5. Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Responses of a Historic Pedestrian Bridge using Video Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; O'Donnell, Deirdre; Wright, Robert; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Video based tracking is capable of analysing bridge vibrations that are characterised by large amplitudes and low frequencies. This paper presents the use of video images and associated image processing techniques to obtain the dynamic response of a pedestrian suspension bridge in Cork, Ireland. This historic structure is one of the four suspension bridges in Ireland and is notable for its dynamic nature. A video camera is mounted on the river-bank and the dynamic responses of the bridge have been measured from the video images. The dynamic response is assessed without the need of a reflector on the bridge and in the presence of various forms of luminous complexities in the video image scenes. Vertical deformations of the bridge were measured in this regard. The video image tracking for the measurement of dynamic responses of the bridge were based on correlating patches in time-lagged scenes in video images and utilisinga zero mean normalisedcross correlation (ZNCC) metric. The bridge was excited by designed pedestrian movement and by individual cyclists traversing the bridge. The time series data of dynamic displacement responses of the bridge were analysedto obtain the frequency domain response. Frequencies obtained from video analysis were checked against accelerometer data from the bridge obtained while carrying out the same set of experiments used for video image based recognition.

  6. Experimental investigation on prestressed concrete slabs for two- or three-girders bridges; Shoshuketa kyoryoyo PC yukaban ni kansuru jikken kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, F.; Yabe, J.; Ogaki, K.; Sakugawa, K.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, K.; Tomoda, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Rationalization and labor-saving in the construction of bridges are the pending problems arising from the shortage of skilled construction workers, shortened time usable for construction, and demand for lower cost. Under the circumstances, experiment and study were conducted about the PC slab for two- or three-girder bridges. On the assumption of a PC slab located between two main girders, the interval 6 meters long, specimens near the real size were subjected to experiments. Springs were attached to the free sides so that load tests might be conducted under boundary conditions equivalent to those of a finite continuous slab along the direction of the bridge length as in case of a real bridge. It was found that a partial slab model of limited dimensions was usable when a long span slab experiment was necessary. A PC slab, unlike an RC slab, regained its elastic behavior when the load was removed even after the appearance of cracks. Crack producing loads fell within the range which could generally be estimated by calculation, and the PC slab was capable of restoring its original state upon unloading even after the production of cracks. The PC slab, as compared with the RC slab, demonstrated a greater ultimate strength, but the strength was not affected by the size of the prestress. In case of a PC slab on a long span, the bend fracture precedes and the ultimate strength is determined by the bend strength. 9 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Colloid & Polymer Science Volume 289, Number 10, 1119-1125, DOI: 10.1007/s00396-011-2438-4 Rheology of organoclay suspension Mpitloane Joseph Hato, Ke Zhang, Suprakas Sinha Ray and Hyoung Jin Choi Abstract We have studied the rheological...

  8. Alternatives to Student Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, David

    2012-01-01

    Seven years ago, James A. Garfield High School in East Los Angeles set a school record with 613 student suspensions, out of a total enrollment of 5,000 students. The school, made famous by the 1988 film "Stand and Deliver", was no stranger to the high rates of student discipline all too common within the Los Angeles Unified School…

  9. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  10. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  11. Full Model Wind Tunnel Study on the Xia-Zhang Bridge Under Operation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad T. Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Long-span cable-stayed bridges under service and particular construction conditions are very susceptible to wind action due to their great flexibility, so the aerodynamic stability is becoming a major concern in the design and construction phrases. Cable-stayed bridges may exhibit wind-induced vibration phenomena such as flutter, buffeting and vortex oscillation under wind excitation. The study concentrated on the issues concerning the aerodynamic response of Xia-Zhang cable-stayed Bridge to make it safe and stable under wind action. Although there have been accumulating experience in the building of cable-stayed bridges and research on wind-resistant stability in Chinese Mainland, most of the research focuses on inland cable-stayed bridges or littoral ones of mid-length, but not on littoral ones whose main span is over 600 m. Therefore, wind-resistant performance research of north branch bridge of Xia-Zhang cross-sea Bridges is very necessary and important for its wind-resistant stability, safety and applicability in the operation condition. Approach: This study mainly presented the wind tunnel test program of the Xia-Zhang Bridge aeroelastic full model, including test method, test contents, test results and so on. Results: The test results contained Root Mean Square (RMS of accelerations and displacements as well as average values of displacements. Conclusion: The conclusions were as follows: (a In the uniform flow field, under the condition of entire bridge without rail may vibration divergence occur when α = 3°, V>122 m sec-1. (b No vortex-induced vibration with extreme amplitudes or static collapsing was detected in all the testing conditions. (c In the turbulent flow field, there were very obvious buffeting phenomena. Responses to turbulence are quite intense.

  12. Bridges in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ang-Kun; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A bridge in a graph is an edge whose removal disconnects the graph and increases the number of connected components. We calculate the fraction of bridges in a wide range of real-world networks and their randomized counterparts. We find that real networks typically have more bridges than their completely randomized counterparts, but very similar fraction of bridges as their degree-preserving randomizations. We define a new edge centrality measure, called bridgeness, to differentiate the importance of a bridge in damaging a network. We find that certain real networks have very large average and variance of bridgeness compared to their degree-preserving randomizations and other real networks. Finally, we offer an analytical framework to calculate the bridge fraction and average bridgeness for uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions.

  13. Monitoring system of arch bridge for safety network management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Bong Chul; Yoo, Young Jun; Lee, Chin Hyung; Park, Ki Tae; Hwang, Yoon Koog

    2010-03-01

    Korea has constructed the safety management network monitoring test systems for the civil infrastructure since 2006 which includes airport structure, irrigation structure, railroad structure, road structure, and underground structure. Bridges among the road structure include the various superstructure types which are Steel box girder bridge, suspension bridge, PSC-box-girder bridge, and arch bridge. This paper shows the process of constructing the real-time monitoring system for the arch bridge and the measured result by the system. The arch type among various superstructure types has not only the structural efficiency but the visual beauty, because the arch type superstructure makes full use of the feature of curve. The main measuring points of arch bridges composited by curved members make a difference to compare with the system of girder bridges composited by straight members. This paper also shows the method to construct the monitoring system that considers the characteristic of the arch bridge. The system now includes strain gauges and thermometers, and it will include various sensor types such as CCTV, accelerometers and so on additionally. For the long term and accuracy monitoring, the latest optical sensors and equipments are applied to the system.

  14. Study of Organic Prestressing Technique in Overseas Long-Span Movable Formwork and Its Application%有机预应力技术在国外大跨度移动模架中的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏刚

    2015-01-01

    Movable Formwork is mainly used for the construction of medium and small span bridges.The status quo of the study and engineering examples of the organic prestressing tech-nique at home and abroad are analyzed and compared ,with the focus on introducing the relevant research and application condition abroad.The technique is the one that draws upon the muscle control theory in biology and the research achievements in automatic control domain to upgrade and improve the external prestressing technique.With the aid of sensors and control devices ,the stress level and elongation amount of prestressing tendons can be automatically adjusted according to the load variation ;therefore ,it can reduce the structural deformation of the movable formwork and minimize the pre-tensioning force.To make the most of the advantages of organic prestress-ing ,some foreign enterprises have added new structural forms ,light specialist devices and timber formwork system in the movable formwork design.The integrated application of these measures makes the economic span length accruing to 70~90 m ,and obtain sound application effect in ac-tual projects.%移动模架主要用于中小跨度桥梁施工 ,对国内外的研究进展及工程案例进行分析比较 ,重点介绍国外有机预应力技术的研究和应用情况.该技术利用生物学中的肌肉控制原理及自动化控制领域的研究成果对体外预应力技术进行改进和完善 ,使其能够在传感器和控制设备的帮助下 ,根据荷载变化自动调整缆索应力水平及伸长量 ,因而能够减少移动模架结构变形并使预拉力最小化.为充分发挥有机预应力的优势 ,国外企业在移动模架设计中采用了新的结构形式、轻型化的专用设备及木质模板系统 ,这些措施的综合运用使移动模架的经济跨度增大到70~90 m ,并在工程实践中取得良好效果.

  15. Construction of stiffening girder for Akashi straits bridge. Installation with use of latest bridging technology; Akashi kaikyo ohashi hoko keta kasetsu koji. Saishin kakyo gijutsu wo kushishite kasetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oe, S. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-25

    The Akashi straits bridge is the Kobe-Naruto route of the bridge connecting Honshu and Shikoku; the bridge links Kobe in Hyogo prefecture with Awaji Island and, when completed, it will be a 3-span 2-hinge suspension bridge with the longest center effective span in the world. This report centers on the outline of the construction of stiffening girders for the Akashi straits bridge and especially on the characteristics of the engineering method newly employed. As the method of installing the stiffening girders, an overhang installation of face bars was employed which was a time-tested method. As the installing direction of the side spans, it was decided to install them from the anchorage to the tower. At the beginning, six large block installations were performed. A special balance was developed for the installation of short hanger parts for the purpose of enhancing safety and reduction in the process. A rubber-tired transporting truck was adopted for transporting members of framework on the bridge. GPS survey was used as a method for surveying the configuration. The subject engineering method was based on the construction of suspension bridge stiffening trusses in the past Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridge and reinforced with the improvements as above. Since the bridge is in the middle of construction, a subsequent report will hopefully be made on the actual results of the installation and the spanning after the closure. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dense Suspension Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  17. Numerical Analysis of a Train-Bridge System Subjected to Earthquake and Running Safety Evaluation of Moving Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of a train-bridge system subjected to earthquakes, and the running safety indices of the train on the bridge under earthquake are studied. Taking a long span cable-stayed bridge across the Huangpu River as an example, a full three-dimensional finite element model of the train-bridge system was established, in which the soil-bridge and rail-train interactions were considered. Parallel computing based on contact balance was utilized to deal with this large-scale numerical simulation problem. The dynamic nonlinear analysis was performed on a Hummingbird supercomputer using the finite element code LS-DYNA 971. The results show that the acceleration responses of the train subjected to an earthquake are much greater than the ones without earthquake input, and the running safety of a moving train is affected by both the earthquake intensity and the running speed of the train. The running safety of the moving train can be evaluated by the threshold curve between earthquake intensity and train speed. The proposed modeling strategies and the simulated results can give a reference prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the train-bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  18. Horizontal gust response of 'Tatara Bridge' under construction. 'Tatara ohashi' kasetsuji no taifu anteisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Tokushige, M.; Toriumi, R. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-03-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under construction were conducted with two types of turbulent boundary layer simulations. The level of agreement between the wind tunnel measurements and a wind buffeting analysis varied with the type of turbulent boundary layer. An investigation of this behavior found that the aerodynamic admittance used in the buffeting analysis was different from the measured aerodynamic admittance. Past research showed that buffeting analysis based on strip theory, which assumes a spanwise correlation between the fluctuating wind velocity and the fluctuating aerodynamic loads, does not always hold. (author)

  19. Aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions investigated by magnetorelaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberbeck, D; Wiekhorst, F; Steinhoff, U; Trahms, L [Department 8.2 Biosignals, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-09-27

    The aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is a decisive factor for their application in medicine and biotechnology. We extended the moment superposition model developed earlier for describing the Neel relaxation of an ensemble of immobilized particles with a given size distribution by including the Brownian relaxation mechanism. The resulting cluster moment superposition model is used to characterize the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in various suspensions in terms of mean cluster size, aggregate fraction, and size dispersion. We found that in stable ferrofluids 50%-80% of larger magnetic nanoparticles are organized in dimers and trimers. The scaling of the relaxation curves with respect to MNP concentration is found to be a sensitive indicator of the tendency of a MNP suspension to form large aggregates, which may limit the biocompatibility of the preparation. Scaling violation was observed in aged water based ferrofluids, and may originate from damaged MNP shells. In biological media such as foetal calf serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum we observed an aggregation behaviour which reaches a maximum at a specific MNP concentration. We relate this to agglutination of the particles by macromolecular bridges between the nanoparticle shells. Analysis of the scaling behaviour helps to identify the bridging component of the suspension medium that causes agglutination.

  20. New Quality Control Algorithm Based on GNSS Sensing Data for a Bridge Health Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kang; Lee, Jae One; Kim, Jung Ok

    2016-05-27

    This research introduces an improvement plan for the reliability of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning solutions. It should be considered the most suitable methodology in terms of the adjustment and positioning of GNSS in order to maximize the utilization of GNSS applications. Though various studies have been conducted with regards to Bridge Health Monitoring System (BHMS) based on GNSS, the outliers which depend on the signal reception environment could not be considered until now. Since these outliers may be connected to GNSS data collected from major bridge members, which can reduce the reliability of a whole monitoring system through the delivery of false information, they should be detected and eliminated in the previous adjustment stage. In this investigation, the Detection, Identification, Adaptation (DIA) technique was applied and implemented through an algorithm. Moreover, it can be directly applied to GNSS data collected from long span cable stayed bridges and most of outliers were efficiently detected and eliminated simultaneously. By these effects, the reliability of GNSS should be enormously improved. Improvement on GNSS positioning accuracy is directly linked to the safety of bridges itself, and at the same time, the reliability of monitoring systems in terms of the system operation can also be increased.

  1. New steel-materials for bridge-construction; Kyoryo yoto no shinkozai oyobi shinkenzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Takagi, M.; Nishiumi, K.; Kusunoki, T.; Tsuzuki, T.; Usami, A. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-31

    Nippon Steel Corporation is exerting endeavors for the development of various technologies which concern materials, designing, and execution in the field of bridges. Outlined in this report are the merits and effects of some fruits of such endeavors, which involve a new weather-resistant steel to reduce the maintenance cost, longitudinally profiled steel plates to reduce the manufacturing cost, rectangular steel tubes using a high-tenacity steel, long-span-conscious grating slabs and steel elements to save labor in bridge construction, etc. For instance, the newly developed weather-resistant steel is a product intended for use for Japan`s big cities and trunk lines near the seashore, and is so designed as to contain 5% Ni to withstand seashore climate after studies and tests. This steel will contribute to the reduction in the cost for maintaining bridges in seashore belts where the conventional weather-resistant steel does not work effectively or in snowy regions where the use of snow-melting agents is inevitable. In another example, the steel is used for the construction of Nippon Steel Corporation`s Minami-Ohashi Bridge situated in the sea-facing zone of Nagoya Works of the corporation, where tests are still under way. 18 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Damage identification of a large-span concrete cable-stayed bridge based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jinsong; XIAO Rucheng

    2007-01-01

    The global stability of a structure, the stiffness of its main girder and concrete tower, and the variation of the forces of its stay cables are key issues to the safety assessment of an in-service cable-stayed bridge. The efficiency and ratio- nality of local elaborate non-damage-identification could be enhanced by the primary damage identification of cable- stayed bridges on the basis of periodic detection of the cable force and strain monitor in key sections of the main girder. The genetic algorithms of damage identification for cable- stayed bridges were investigated in this paper on the basis of the monitor data of the cable force and strain in a key section of the main girder. A damage detection program for complex civil structure was generated to implement the identification of damage location and extent. The deterioration of the struc- ture was calculated according to the variation of monitor data. It is demonstrated that the results of damage identification from the parametric finite element method are accurate. The method had been verified using a long-span concrete cable- stayed bridge in Ningbo, which has been in use for the past four years.

  3. New Quality Control Algorithm Based on GNSS Sensing Data for a Bridge Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kang Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research introduces an improvement plan for the reliability of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning solutions. It should be considered the most suitable methodology in terms of the adjustment and positioning of GNSS in order to maximize the utilization of GNSS applications. Though various studies have been conducted with regards to Bridge Health Monitoring System (BHMS based on GNSS, the outliers which depend on the signal reception environment could not be considered until now. Since these outliers may be connected to GNSS data collected from major bridge members, which can reduce the reliability of a whole monitoring system through the delivery of false information, they should be detected and eliminated in the previous adjustment stage. In this investigation, the Detection, Identification, Adaptation (DIA technique was applied and implemented through an algorithm. Moreover, it can be directly applied to GNSS data collected from long span cable stayed bridges and most of outliers were efficiently detected and eliminated simultaneously. By these effects, the reliability of GNSS should be enormously improved. Improvement on GNSS positioning accuracy is directly linked to the safety of bridges itself, and at the same time, the reliability of monitoring systems in terms of the system operation can also be increased.

  4. Research on the Anticorrosion Coating Under the Paved Layer for Highway Steel Box Bridge Deck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Cheng-jin; MING Tu-zhang; HU Guang-wei; OU Xue-mei; GEN Ou

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion of the anticorrosion coating and the defects of the asphalt concrete paved layer have been investigated on long-span steel box bridge decks. The anticorrosion coating lies in the middle of two entirely different materials: a highway steel box bridge deck and a paved layer, which is used as anticorrosion and waterproof coating for the steel bridge deck. For our study, electrochemical corrosion and pull strength experiments have been selected for the investigation of the corrosion properties of inorganic zinc rich coating, epoxy zinc rich coating and arc sprayed zinc coating. The adhesive strength between the coatings and the panel, and the effect of the coating corrosion on the shear properties of the paved layers including cast asphalt, thermal asphalt mortar, epoxy asphalt and modified asphalt concrete have been investigated. The results show that the adhesive strength between the coatings and the bridge panel is controlled by the method of pre-processing rust removal. Coating by sandblasting has stronger adhesive strength than coating by shot peening. The results also reveal that shear strength of the paved layer is affected by the corrosion product of zinc coating. The arc sprayed zinc coating has stronger shear strength than zinc rich coatings.

  5. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  6. 75 FR 27923 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... 3150-AI76 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... nonprocurement debarment and suspension. These regulations cover grants, cooperative agreements and other...) guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension found in OMB's regulations. DATES: Effective June...

  7. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Requirement BCS Computer-controlled hydraulic actuation system to impart simulated crossing loads on an entire bridge structure undergoing fatigue test ...structure. Bridge test site with prepared embankments corresponding to the span and bank condition requirements of the bridge under test Conduct real...Center (AEC). (5) Sample size and number of crossings required. The number of required simulated crossings to conduct fatigue testing per the

  8. Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles into Microwire Networks Induced by Drying Liquid Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Nonoguchi, Takashi; Shinto, Hiroyuki; Higashitani, Ko

    2009-02-01

    Large interconnected gold wire structures (˜cm2) of different topologies have been made by the drying of a gold nanoparticle suspension that has formed a connected network of liquid bridges in the interstices between a 2D crystalline layer of latex particles and a substrate. Slow evaporation of the suspending medium assembles the nanoparticles into a periodic or disordered conducting network of micrometer thick gold wires on the substrate. The presence of surfactants in the suspension is critical to maintaining the stability of the liquid bridge network during the evaporation process.

  9. Vehicle with tilting suspension system

    OpenAIRE

    Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea; Cavalli, Fabio; Carabelli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The patent is relative to the application of a tilting suspension on a snowmobile to improve its drive feeling and safety. At high speed the introduction of the tilting suspension reduce the rollover risk during cornering. The vehicle can tilt as a motorcycle and its lateral dimensions can be reduced not compromising the vehicle stability

  10. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  11. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  12. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  13. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter.

  14. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. 3 long bridges of dream were realized Opening of West Seto Motorway; Yume no 3 kakyo ga jitsugen/nishiseto jidoshado haitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    Onomichi-Imabari route/Setouchi Simanami Thruway, which adorned the finish of Honshu-Shikoku projects was completed on 1st, May. With this completion, 3 long bridges of dream were completely realized, following to Kojima-Sakaide (1988) and Kobe-Naruto (1998). This time, 5 bridges of this Motorway, the world's longest cable stayed bridge Tatara Long Bridge, world's first 3 continuous suspension bridge Kurushima Strait No.1{approx}No.3 bridge and New Onomichi Long Bridge, were opened. 10 bridges including 5 bridges (In-noshima Long Bridge, Ikeguchi Bridge, Omishima Bridge, Hakata/Oshima Long Bridge and Oshima Long Bridge) already under service connect 9 islands between Onomichi, Hiroshima Prefecture and Imabari, Ehime Prefecture, with a route 59 km long. Characteristic design was adopted for each bridge to demonstrate world's highest bridge erection technology of Japan. In a series of concrete construction to support superstructure of these bridges, underwater non-segregation type concrete with low hydration heat cement mainly for foundation and substructure, and high fluidity concrete for dense reinforcement layout were adopted. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Dynamic responses of cable-stayed bridges to vehicular loading including the effects of the local vibration of cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He ZHANG; Xu XIE

    2011-01-01

    Stay cables,the primary load carrying components of cable-stayed bridges (CSBs),are characterised by high flexibility which increases with the span of the bridge.This makes stay cables vulnerable to local vibrations which may have significant effects on the dynamic responses of long-span CSBs.Hence,it is essential to account for these effects in the assessment of the dynamics CSBs.In this paper,the dynamic responses of CSBs under vehicular loads are studied using the finite element method (FEM),while the local vibration of stay cables is analyzed using the substructure method.A case study of a cable-stayed steel bridge with a center span of 448 m demonstrates that stay cables undergo large displacements in the primary mode of the whole bridge although,in general,a cable's local vibrations are not obvious.The road surface roughness has significant effects on the interaction force between the deck and vehicle but little effect on the global response of the bridge.Load impact factors of the main girder and tower are small,and the impact factors of the tension of cables are larger than those of the displacements of girders and towers.

  17. Running Safety of Freight Train Passing Long-Span Cable-Stayed Railway Bridge under Cross Wind%横风作用下货物列车通过大跨度铁路斜拉桥的走行安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭向荣; 何玮; 朱志辉; 何旭辉

    2016-01-01

    根据弹性系统动力学总势能不变的原理,以轨道不平顺作为自激励、风荷载作为外部激励,建立考虑风荷载作用的车桥系统耦合振动方程,对横风作用下满载和空载2种运营工况下货物列车通过大跨度铁路斜拉桥时的走行安全性进行研究.结果表明:在桥面风速为25 m·s-1情况下,当车速低于100 km·h-1时满载货物列车的脱轨系数和轮重减载率均未超标,而车速高于40 km·h-1时空载货物列车的脱轨系数和轮重减载率均超标;相对于满载工况,空载工况下桥梁与列车的动力响应受车速和桥面风速的影响较大,而受列车在桥面迎、背风位置的影响较小;在横风作用下,货物列车通过大跨度铁路斜拉桥时,空载工况的车辆响应明显大于满载工况,因此货物列车以空载状态通过大跨度铁路斜拉桥时应根据桥面风速合理降低车速.

  18. 大跨度PC桥梁有效预应力衰变行为监测与评估模型研究%Study on Monitoring and Evaluating Model of Decaying Behavior of Effective Prestress for Long-span PC Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琦; 贺拴海

    2011-01-01

    在桥梁正常使用阶段,为了对预应力钢束的预应力量值衰减程度及分布性态实现有效监测,同时时其当前的服役状态实现客观评估,将研发的"预应力钢索张力测试仪"应用于束筋预应力有效值的监测.这一技术综合考虑模拟边界修正条件并结合二级差测定法的误差修正,实现了对有效预应力可靠的定周期监测.基于现行规范中较为成熟的预应力损失理论,建立了有效预应力的衰变评估模型.以典型钢束应力测值为接口参数,实现了两类名义预应力损失参数的识别,从而可同步获知结构有效预应力纵向沿程的实际分布状况.大比例模型梁实桥应用结果表明:模型梁纵向沿程的预应力空间分布波动幅值小于既定的目标误差限值.评估结果能够反映结构中有效预应力衰减状况的一般规律,为完善大跨度PC桥梁结构劣化状况检测与评估技术体系奠定了基础.%For the sake of monitoring the decaying degree and distributing condition of prestress value of prestressing tendon effectively and assess the condition of prestressing reservation practically in service stage,an invented instrument named stretching force tester was applied to monitor the effective prestress of strand.The precision of this technology was guaranteed by means of amending analogous boundary condition and minimizing test errors through the tool of double-stage differences and reliable monitoring on effective prestress periodically was realized. Based on comparatively sophisticated prestress loss method in current specification,an evaluation model on attenuation of effective prestress was built up. By means of obtained stress datum on typical strand, recognition on two types of nominal coefficient for prestress loss was realized, and the distribution patterns for effective prestress along longitudinal direction could be obtained simultaneously. The experimental results of a large-scale beam model show that the fluctuation amplitude of prestress along longitudinal direction is less than specified relative error threshold.

  19. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...

  20. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  1. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  2. Analysis on the dynamic properties of Zhaoqing Xijiang Bridge%肇庆西江特大桥动力特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建平

    2011-01-01

    Zhaoqing Xijiang Bridge on Nanning - Guangzhou Railway is a steel box x - style arch bridge with the largest span (450 meters) in China. Based on the construction drawings and structural characteristics, the spatial finite element model was established by ANSYS software, and the natural frequencies as well as vibration modes of the bridge were calculated with Lanbcos method. Besides, the influence of arch' s introverted inclination angle to the dynamic properties of long - span steel box x - style arch bridge was discussed, which could not merely act as the premise of health monitoring, wind stability analysis and seismic analysis, but also provide reference for the design as well as dynamic behavior of long - span steel box x - style arch bridge.%南广铁路肇庆西江特大桥为我国目前跨度最大(450 m)的钢箱提篮拱桥,根据大桥的结构特点,采用ANSYS建立了全桥空间有限元模型,利用分块兰卡斯方法计算了该桥的自振频率和振型,并探讨了拱肋内倾角对大跨度钢箱提篮拱桥动力特性的影响,可为该桥的健康监测、抗风和抗震分析提供前提条件和依据,并可为大跨度钢箱提篮拱桥的设计与动力特性研究提供参考.

  3. Unifying suspension and granular rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2011-10-28

    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  4. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  5. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension...

  6. 78 FR 2622 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  7. 77 FR 2646 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  8. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  9. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  10. 75 FR 5890 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  11. 7 CFR 3017.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3017.1015 Section 3017.1015 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of this part that...

  12. 19 CFR 146.82 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 146.82 Section 146.82 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Penalties; Suspension; Revocation § 146.82 Suspension. (a) For cause. The... for a period not to exceed 90 days. Upon order of the Board the suspension may be continued....

  13. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  14. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  15. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  16. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under...

  17. 77 FR 9856 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  18. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015 Section 105-68.1015 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  19. 29 CFR 98.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 98.1015 Section 98.1015 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of this part that...

  20. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670 Grants... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive...

  1. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  2. 77 FR 7537 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  3. 78 FR 2624 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  4. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  5. 75 FR 4000 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and ]...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1508.1015 Section 1508.1015 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  7. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  8. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  9. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  10. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action...

  11. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut... bushings shall not be cracked, extruded out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall...

  12. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  13. 78 FR 5734 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  14. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  15. 2 CFR 180.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 180.1015 Section 180.1015 Grants... Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  16. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  17. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  18. 76 FR 2596 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  19. 22 CFR 208.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 208.1015 Section 208.1015 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  20. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  1. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  2. 77 FR 2650 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  3. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  4. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  5. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  6. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  7. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  8. 10 CFR 607.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 607.670 Section 607.670 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  9. 75 FR 9111 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  10. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1404.1015 Section 1404.1015 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  12. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  13. 76 FR 9666 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  14. 22 CFR 1006.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1006.1015 Section 1006.1015 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  15. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  16. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  17. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  18. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  19. 75 FR 60 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Part 64 [Docket ID FEMA-2008-0020; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-8111] Suspension of Community... Insurance Program (NFIP), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule... floodplain management measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension...

  20. Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Siu, Theo; Rutala, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Cornstarch suspensions are well known to exhibit strong shear thickening, and we show as a result that they must - and do - climb vertically vibrating rods and plates. This occurs because when the rod moves upward, it shears the suspension against gravity, and so the fluid stiffens, but when the rod moves downward, the suspension moves with gravity, and so the fluid is more compliant. This causes the fluid to be dragged up by the upstroke more than it is dragged down by the downstroke, effectively ratcheting the fluid up the rod every cycle. We show experimentally and computationally that this effect is paradoxically caused by gravity - and so goes away when gravity is removed - and we show that the suspension can be made to balance on the uphill side of an inclined rod in an analog of the inverted ``Kapitza pendulum,'' closely related to the recent report by Ramachandran & Nosonovsky, Soft Matter 10, 4633 (2014).

  1. Hydrodynamic shocks in microroller suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Driscoll, Michelle; Chaikin, Paul; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    We combine experiments, large-scale simulations, and continuum models to study the emergence of coherent structures in a suspension of magnetically driven microrollers sedimented near a floor. Collective hydrodynamic effects are predominant in this system, leading to strong density-velocity coupling. We characterize a uniform suspension and show that density waves propagate freely in all directions in a dispersive fashion. When sharp density gradients are introduced in the suspension, we observe the formation of a shock. Unlike Burgers' shocklike structures observed in other active and driven confined hydrodynamic systems, the shock front in our system has a well-defined finite width and moves rapidly compared to the mean suspension velocity. We introduce a continuum model demonstrating that the finite width of the front is due to far-field nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions and governed by a geometric parameter, the average particle height above the floor.

  2. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  3. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  4. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  5. Suspended bridges subjected to moving loads and support motions due to earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frýba, Ladislav; Yau, Jong-Dar

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the vibration of suspended bridges subjected to the simultaneous action of moving loads and vertical support motions due to earthquake. The basic partial integro-differential equation is applied to the vertical vibration of a suspended beam. The dynamic actions of traffic loads are modelled as a row of equidistant moving forces, while the earthquake is considered by vertical motions of supports. The governing equation is solved first analytically to receive an ordinary differential equation and next numerically. Moreover, the designed world's largest suspended bridge—Messina Bridge—is investigated (central span of length 3.3 km). The paper studies the effect of various lags of the earthquake arrival because the earthquake may appear at any time when the train moves along a large-span bridge. The modified Kobe earthquake records have been applied to calculations. The results indicate that the interaction of both the moving and seismic forces may substantially amplify the response of long-span suspended bridges in the vicinity of the supports and increase with the rising speed of trains.

  6. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  7. Measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, T.

    2013-01-01

    We compare measurements of the Brownian relaxation response of magnetic nanobeads in suspension using planar Hall effect sensors of cross geometry and a newly proposed bridge geometry. We find that the bridge sensor yields six times as large signals as the cross sensor, which results in a more ac...... performed in a commercial AC susceptometer. The presented bridge sensor is, thus, a promising component in future lab-on-a-chip biosensors for detection of clinically relevant analytes, including bacterial genomic DNA and proteins....

  8. Study on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-pylon Cable-stayed Bridge Girder by Numerical Simulation and Wind Tunnel Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The wind induced vibration is one of the key technical problems for long-span bridge design. Therefore, a study on the aerodynamic characteristics of a single-pylon cable-stayed bridge girder is carried out in this paper. The aerostatic coefficient of the bridge girder, including both construction state and service state, is investigated by wind tunnel test with varying wind attack angle. Then based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, the flow field around the bridge girder is visualized numerically. The risk of vortex-induced vibration (VIV is qualitatively evaluated by analyzing the flow features and by considering the Scruton number (Sc. Later a dynamic section model is tested in wind tunnel and the VIV phenomenon is observed subsequently. Results show that the aerodynamic stability is assured by the positive slope of the lift coefficient. The VIV response is influenced by the structural damping and the bridge accessory. The amplitude of VIV response can be lower by increasing the structural damping. The maintenance track rail of the bridge girder also does some good for suppressing the VIV as long as the track rail is located at the appropriate place.

  9. 75 FR 38923 - Regulated Navigation Area: Niantic Railroad Bridge Construction, Niantic, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ..., with Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound, Amtrak, First Coast Guard District Bridge Branch, local... Broadcasts, Coast Guard Local Notice to Mariners and Marine Safety Information Bulletins. Closure periods... criminal penalties, in rem liability against the offending vessel, and the initiation of suspension or...

  10. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  11. State's First Bridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Article with details on the state's first bridge that crossed the Noxubee River adjacent to the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Boundary. Details also included...

  12. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  13. 缆索吊装在高速公路箱形拱桥中的应用%The Application of Hoisting Cable on the Box Arch Bridge of Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕

    2013-01-01

    缆索吊装指的是利用悬挂的缆索运输和安装构件的施工方法,本文介绍了缆索吊装在高速公路大跨径拱桥施工中的应用。%The hoisting cable refers to the method of using the suspended cable to transport and instal components in the co-nstruction. This article introduces the hoisting cable applied in the highway construction of long-span arch bridge.

  14. Germ Cell Intercellular Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Michael P.; Iwamori, Tokuko; Buchold, Gregory M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Stable intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of gametogenesis in multicellular animals observed more than 100 years ago, but their function was unknown. Many of the components necessary for this structure have been identified through the study of cytokinesis in Drosophila; however, mammalian intercellular bridges have distinct properties from those of insects. Mammalian germ cell intercellular bridges are composed of general cytokinesis components with additional germ cell–specific factors including TEX14. TEX14 is an inactive kinase essential for the maintenance of stable intercellular bridges in gametes of both sexes but whose loss specifically impairs male meiosis. TEX14 acts to impede the terminal steps of abscission by competing for essential component CEP55, blocking its interaction in nongerm cells with ALIX and TSG101. Additionally, TEX14-interacting protein RBM44, whose localization in stabile intercellular bridges is limited to pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, may participate in processes such as RNA transport but is nonessential to the maintenance of intercellular bridge stability. PMID:21669984

  15. Full-Scale Measurements and System Identification on Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural health monitoring system (SHMS provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT combined with the random decrement technique (RDT. The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  16. Full-scale measurements and system identification on Sutong cable-stayed bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tao, Tianyou; Guo, Tong; Li, Jian; Li, Aiqun

    2014-01-01

    The structural health monitoring system (SHMS) provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB) in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) combined with the random decrement technique (RDT). The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  17. SUSPNDRS: a numerical simulation tool for the nonlinear transient analysis of cable support bridge structures, part 1: theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D.; Astaneh-Asl, A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The work reprint on herein was aimed at developing methodologies and tools for efficient and accurate numerical simulation of the seismic response of suspension and cable-stayed structures. A special purpose finite element program has been constructed and the underlying theory and demonstration example problems are presented. A companion report [Ref 1] discusses the application of this technology for a major suspension bridge structure.

  18. Vibration monitoring of long bridges and their expansion joints and seismic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Kleidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a number of recently installed Structural Health Monitoring (SHM systems: a on a 2km double suspension bridge; b on a long railway viaduct that has experienced cracking; and c on a steel arch bridge in a seismically active area. Damage detection techniques have been applied based on high-frequency measurements of vibrations, pressure and strain, enabling a proper understanding of the structures’ behaviour to be gained. The diverse range of applications presented, designed in collaboration with structure owners and design engineers, includes damage detection on expansion joints of suspension bridges, crack analysis and correlation with accelerations of high-speed trains, and high-frequency performance monitoring of seismic devices. These case studies, based on both static and dynamic approaches, demonstrate the usefulness and ease of use of such systems, and the enormous gains in efficiency they offer.

  19. Control of quadriaxial cardan suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, I. V.

    1984-04-01

    A quadriaxial Cardan suspension is to be servomechanically controlled so as to stabilize a definite orientation of the platform during arbitrary motion of the frame. The problem is solved with the use of five orthogonal systems of coordinates tied one to the platform, one to each of the three gimbals, and one to the frame respectively. The suspension is assumed to be structurally perfectly rigid and to be part of a gyroscopic indicator-stabilization system. The corresponding dynamic equations are written as equations for angular momenta and several variants of control, for the various rotations, are constructed. One such variant, a more intricate one, is course-vertical control. Dynamic control of the suspension in a stationary frame, to ensure any arbitrarily prescribed angular evolutions of the platform, is also considered and the procedure for constructing such a control is outlined.

  20. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.