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Sample records for lombriz eisenia spp

  1. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

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    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  2. CRECIMIENTO Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE LA LOMBRIZ ROJA (Eisenia foetida EN CINCO SUSTRATOS ORGÁNICOS

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    Lolita Dur\\u00E1n

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, reproducción y adaptación de la lombriz Eisenia foetida en 5 sustratos orgánicos: se utilizó estiércol vacuno, broza de café, residuos de banano, restos de follaje de ornamentales y residuos de origen doméstico. Los materiales fueron previamente estabilizados y colocados en volúmenes de 0,03 m3 dentro de cajones de madera, a los cuales se les adicionó una población de 600 individuos maduros, lo que equivale a 20000 individuos.m3. El proceso de lombricompostaje tuvo una duración de 3 meses, durante los cuales se realizó 3 muestreos. El peso promedio de los individuos varió de 0,34-0,66 g. Estadísticamente se diferenciaron 2 grupos: doméstico y banano (0,58 y 0,66 g, respectivamente y broza, estiércol y ornamental (0,40, 0,42 y 0,36 g, respectivamente. La reproducción y sobrevivencia al final del experimento fue diferente para cada uno de los sustratos utilizados, siendo el de broza el que presentó los mayores valores en población final y domestico con los menores (16900 y 408 individuos de los 600 inoculados inicialmente. Las correlaciones mostraron un comportamiento inverso entre reproducción y peso de los individuos. Se concluye que tanto el tamaño de los individuos como su tasa de reproducción son influenciados por el tipo de sustrato.

  3. EFECTOS DE LA LOMBRIZ ROJA CALIFORNIANA (Eisenia foetida, SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE MICROORGANISMOS EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON MERCURIO DE SEGOVIA, ANTIOQUIA

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    Isabel C. Zapata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las actividades que alteran la composición del suelo está la minería, que causa el aumento de daños visibles al suelo mediante la creación de minas a cielo abierto, escombreras, estanques de residuos y otras instalaciones de minas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la lombriz roja californiana sobre el crecimiento de microorganismos en suelos contaminados con mercurio en el municipio de Segovia, Antioquia. Estos suelos representan una problemática importante debido a la acumulación de mercurio en exceso que ocasiona la pérdida de la calidad del suelo. Para este estudio se tomaron cuatro tratamientos en diferentes concentraciones de mercurio y un tratamiento más como blanco con lombrices rojas californianas (Eisenia foetida. Para esto, se evaluó el crecimiento de microorganismos a través de diferentes cultivos en el laboratorio, encontrando un crecimiento satisfactorio de los mismos luego de 25 y 90 días de tratamiento. De acuerdo al comportamiento observado, se evidencia una inmovilización del mercurio y una adaptación de los microorganismos al suelo contaminado, mostrando un aumento significativo de estos con el transcurso del tiempo.

  4. Dinámica poblacional de la lombriz Eisenia foetida en estiércol composteado y fresco de bovino y ovino (Dynamics population earthworm Eisenia foetida in fresh and composted manure of bovine and ovine

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    Gutiérrez Vázquez Ernestina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica poblacional de la lombriz Eisenia foetida, alimentada con estiércol fresco y composteado de bovinos, alimentados a base de (rastrojo molido y bloques multinutricionales y de ovinos, alimentados con (silo de maíz y concentrado. Los tratamientos fueron: T1. Estiércol composteado de bovino (ECB, T2. Estiércol composteado de ovino (ECO, T3. Estiércol fresco de bovino (EFB y T4. Estiércol fresco de ovino (EFO, en un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables de respuesta fueron: temperatura, pH, número de cocones, número y biomasa total de lombrices adultos y jóvenes. En los estiércoles frescos, en los primeros tres días, las lombrices murieron (P< 0.05. En el estiércol composteado de bovino fue en donde se presentaron mayor número de cocones (201.75±94.46, lombrices jóvenes (3.25±2.50 y la viabilidad de lombrices adultos (45.25±15.19, en comparación con el estiércol composteado de ovino que presentó menor número de cocones (89.0±11.74, no presentó ninguna lombriz joven, sin embargo, tuvo mayor viabilidad de lombrices adultos (81.75±16.47. Los resultados indicaron que los estiércoles composteados son los mejores en cuanto a la dinámica poblacional de las lombrices, en comparación con los estiércoles frescos.

  5. Producción de abono orgánico por medio del cultivo de la lombriz coqueta roja (Eisenia foetida

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    Delmar Cruz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El articulo “Producción de abono orgánico por medio del cultivo de lombriz coqueta roja (Eisenia foetida” es una de las publicaciones técnicas elaborado por el Programa Café y Caffè con el objetivo de beneficiar a los técnicos, los productores de café de calidad y los operadores del sector del café. El Programa Red Regional para el apoyo a las Asociaciones de pequeños productores de café de la América Central y Caribe implica seis Países: Guatemala, República Dominicana, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica y Nicaragua. Este Programa tiene por objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de los pequeños productores de café de las comunidades rurales de Montaña y hacer sostenible el cultivo de café de calidad. El Programa cuenta con la financiación del gobierno de Italia a través de la Dirección General para la Cooperación al Desarrollo del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y del Common Fund for Commodities (CFC, que designa como entidad para la supervisión técnica la International Coffee Organization (ICO. El Istituto Agronomico per l’Oltremare de Florencia (IAO es la institución principal responsable de la ejecución y la coordinación de las actividades que se realizan en colaboración con la Fundación Slow Food para la Biodiversidad e la Ong Italiana Ucodep.

  6. EFECTOS DE LA LOMBRIZ ROJA CALIFORNIANA (Eisenia foetida), SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE MICROORGANISMOS EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON MERCURIO DE SEGOVIA, ANTIOQUIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isabel C. Zapata; Laura Martínez; Estefanía Posada; María E. González; Juan F. Saldarriaga

    2017-01-01

    .... El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la lombriz roja californiana sobre el crecimiento de microorganismos en suelos contaminados con mercurio en el municipio de Segovia, Antioquia...

  7. Harina de lombriz: una alternativa saludable para nuestra alimentación

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, María Belén

    2013-01-01

    La harina de lombriz Eisenia foetida constituye una fuente importante de minerales esenciales, por lo que debería considerarse como una alternativa nutricional en el campo alimenticio humano. Objetivo Indagar el grado de aceptabilidad y los beneficios para la salud de un budín elaborado en forma experimental con harina de lombriz. Aplicando el diseño de mezclas se relacionan las proporciones de los tres tipos de harinas utilizados (lombriz, trigo y gluten) de manera de co...

  8. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

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    Hugo Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de

  9. EFECTOS DE LA LOMBRIZ ROJA CALIFORNIANA (Eisenia foetida), SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE MICROORGANISMOS EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON MERCURIO DE SEGOVIA, ANTIOQUIA

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    Isabel C. Zapata; Laura Martínez; Estefanía Posada; María E. González; Juan F. Saldarriaga

    2017-01-01

    Dentro de las actividades que alteran la composición del suelo está la minería, que causa el aumento de daños visibles al suelo mediante la creación de minas a cielo abierto, escombreras, estanques de residuos y otras instalaciones de minas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la lombriz roja californiana sobre el crecimiento de microorganismos en suelos contaminados con mercurio en el municipio de Segovia, A...

  10. Comportamiento de lombriz roja californiana y lombriz silvestre en bosta bovina y rumia bovina como sustrato Behavior of californian red earthworm and wild earthworm in bovine dung and bovine rumination as substrate

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    Manuel Loza Murguía

    Full Text Available En los Yungas del departamento de La Paz, Bolivia se ubica la comunidad Carmen Pampa, fuente de recursos naturales y biodiversidad exquisita, últimamente está siendo afectada por los chaqueos y actividades agrícolas convencionales, dado que no existen datos suficientes en la región para poder desarrollar alternativas agrícolas sostenibles que cuiden el medio ambiente, de ahí que este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar el comportamiento de la lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia spp. y la lombriz silvestre (Lumbricus spp. en dos sustratos a fin mejorar la calidad del vermicompost producido por estos anélidos. El trabajo se ha realizado en el módulo de Microbiología Ambiental, en instalaciones de la Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP, Campus Leahy, ubicado en Coroico Nor Yungas del Departamento de La Paz-Bolivia. Se ha estudiado su comportamiento en dos sustratos bosta bobina (estiércol y rumia bovina (rumia en 40 unidades experimentales de 0.2 m de ancho*0.25 m de largo*0.4 m de profundidad, cada unidad presentaba una densidad de 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 individuos con dos repeticiones de cada una en 1 000 g de sustrato. Se determinó el número de cocones, número de individuos a las 8 semanas, porcentaje de degradación del sustrato. Los resultados indican que los sustratos estiércol son mejores en la dinámica poblacional de Eisenia spp., en comparación con Lumbricus spp. Posiblemente las características físicas y químicas del estiércol y la rumia influyeron en este tipo de comportamiento de Eisenia spp.In Yungas of department of La Paz, Bolivia is located the community Carmen Pampas, source of natural resources and exquisite biodiversity, lately is being affected by the chaqueos and conventional agricultural activities, due there is not enough data in the region to develop sustainable agricultural alternatives that take care of environment. Taking this into account this work has as purpose to study the behavior of the

  11. Modelo matemático para la descripción de la evolución de la población de la lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida) en condiciones de producción de compost

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    DIAZ LUIS, LUIS SALVADOR

    2014-01-01

    En España se producen anualmente alrededor de 30 millones de toneladas de residuos orgánicos, la mayoría de los cuales terminan en vertederos o incinerados. Esto no está en consonancia con la normativa europea sobre residuos, enunciada en la Directiva 2008/98/CE, que prioriza la reutilización y el reciclado. Puesto que los residuos orgánicos difícilmente pueden ser reutilizados, el reciclado en forma de compost y también compost de lombriz parece ser una buena opción. L...

  12. Valor nutritivo de la harina de lombriz (Eisenia foetida) como fuente de amino??cidos y su estimaci??n cuantitativa mediante cromatograf??a en fase reversa (HPLC) y derivatizaci??n precolumna con o-ftalaldeh??do (OPA)

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    Vielma-Rond??n, R.; Ovalles-Dur??n, J.F.; Le??n-Leal, A.; A. Medina

    2003-01-01

    Las lombrices terrestres del g??nero Eisenia foetida, son de inter??s nutricional ya que son una fuente rica en prote??nas (> 60% p/p, base seca). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el contenido de amino??cidos proteicos en muestras de lombrices convertidas previamente en harina. La determinaci??n anal??tica requiri?? el dise??o y validaci??n de un m??todo anal??tico por cromatograf??a l??quida de alta resoluci??n en fase reversa y derivatizaci??n precolumna con oftalaldeh??d...

  13. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

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    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  14. Organic Matter Reduces Copper Toxicity for the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Soils from Mining Areas in Central Chile Materia Orgánica Reduce la Toxicidad del Cobre para la Lombriz Eiseniafetida en Suelos de Áreas Mineras en Chile Central

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    Gonzalo Ávila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile is one of the most important agricultural areas in the country. However, several copper (Cu mining operations are located in the basin. The objective of the study was to determine Cu toxicity for the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826 in the agricultural soils of the basin. We determined the production of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms in the studied soils. The soils differed in the concentrations of organic matter (OM, range 2-6%, pH (range 7.3-8.3, texture (from loamy sand to clay loam, and total Cu concentrations (range 230-960 mg kg-1. Concentrations of Cu and OM in the soils were the variables that determined the earthworms’ biological response. In contrast, pH and texture did not affect this response. Cocoon and juvenile production decreased considerably in soils with elevated Cu concentrations (>500 mg kg-1, regardless of OM concentrations. Cocoon production decreased in the soils with Cu concentrations below 500 mg kg-1 when OM concentrations were below 3.5%. In contrast, cocoon production did not vary when OM concentrations were above 3.5%. The same effect of OM was observed on juvenile production. In this case, the threshold for OM concentration was 2.5%. It was concluded that it is important to consider OM concentrations in order to predict the biological response of earthworms in these soils.La cuenca del Río Aconcagua (Chile Central es una de las más importantes áreas agrícolas en el país. Por otro lado, varias industrias de la minería de cobre (Cu se encuentran ubicadas en esta cuenca. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la toxicidad de Cu para la lombriz Eiseniafetida (Savigny 1826 en los suelos agrícolas de la cuenca. Se determinó la producción de capullos y juveniles de la lombriz en suelos estudiados. Los suelos se diferenciaron por las concentraciones de materia orgánica (MO, rango 2-6%, pH (rango 7,3-8,3, textura (entre arenoso franca y franco arcillosa y

  15. Efectos del uso de harina de lombriz Eisenia spp. sobre la respuesta inmune humoral especifica y presencia de lesiones intestinales en ratones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai, Gary; Borges, Lerida; Petrosino, Pierina; Bianchi, Guillermo; Medina, Ana Luisa; Cova, Jose Angel

    2011-01-01

    ... (Glycine max), alimento de soya o concentrado proteico de soya. Sin embargo, el uso de este vegetal tiene algunos inconvenientes relacionados con la digestibilidad proteica [8], la biodisponibilidad de fosforo [18], presencia de factores anti-nutricionales y mal sabor [13], entre otros, lo cual trae como consecuencia retardo del crecimiento animal, altas ...

  16. Evaluación ecotoxicológica del FitoMas-H en lombriz de tierra y abejas

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    Axel Mancebo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque constituye una necesidad el aumento de las producciones agrícolas, y actualmente se estimula la disminución del uso de productos químicos, mediante su sustitución por fertilizantes orgánicos y biológicos, es preciso evaluar el impacto de éstos sobre las especies del ecosistema en el cual se liberan. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica en sistemas terrestres del FitoMas-H, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia foetida y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas (Apis mellifera. Se evaluó una concentración de 1000 mg de FitoMas-H /Kg de suelo artificial en el primer caso, mientras en el ensayo con abejas se utilizó una dosis de 100 g de FitoMas - H/animal. El ensayo en lombrices culminó con un 97,5 % de supervivencia en el grupo Tratado, sin diferencias significativas en la mortalidad y la variación de biomasa del grupo Control contra el Tratado. Por otra parte, el estudio por contacto en abejas terminó con una supervivencia del 95.45%, sin diferencias entre la mortalidad del grupo Control contra el Tratado. En ambos casos, se pudo concluir que la exposición al FitoMas-H no produce efectos tóxicos en los invertebrados terrestres utilizados.

  17. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de dos derivados del Nim en lombriz de tierra y abejas

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    A Mancebo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de productos con bajo o nulo impacto en organismos circundantes y el ambiente, constituye parte del nuevo concepto de protección de cultivos. Los productos NeoNim 60 y OleoNim 80, obtenidos del árbol del Nim, están propuestos para su uso como insecticida, nematicida y acaricida. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica de estos productos, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra Eisenia andrei y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas Apis mellifera. Cada ensayo contó con un grupo control y dos tratados. El ensayo en lombrices se realizó durante 14 días utilizando suelo artificial, realizando observaciones clínicas, conteo de animales y estudio del comportamiento de la biomasa. La prueba en abejas se prolongó por 48 horas, realizándose observaciones clínicas y conteo de animales. Se obtuvo un 100% de supervivencia en las lombrices de los grupos tratados, obteniendo en el NeoNim 60 valores de disminución de la biomasa significativamente inferiores al grupo control, mientras que el grupo tratado con OleoNim 80 mostró aumento en la biomasa del inicio al final del ensayo. En el ensayo en abejas, la comparación estadística no mostró diferencias entre grupos en cuanto a la mortalidad. Teniendo en cuenta el conjunto de los resultados obtenidos, se pudo concluir que los derivados del Nim NeoNim 60 y OleoNim 80 no producen efecto tóxico sobre las lombrices de tierra y las abejas.

  18. Efecto de la lombriz Hormogaster elisae Álvarez, 1977 sobre los microartrópodos edáficos de El Molar (Madrid)

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    Gutiérrez López, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la lombriz de tierra Hormogaster elisae sobre la abundancia de distintos grupos de microartrópodos edáficos en diversos estudios realizados tanto en el campo como en el laboratorio. Para ello se realizaron, en primer lugar, varios experimentos de laboratorio en los cuales se observó un efecto claramente negativo de dicha lombriz sobre la abundancia y los movimientos de muchos de los grupos de microartrópodos estudiados. En la mayoría de los casos, se ex...

  19. Reciclaje de lodos residuales de la industria del papel mediante lombricultura utilizando la especie “lombriz roja californiana” Eisenia foetida”

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    Juárez Uribe, Raquel Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Ciencias Ambientales El alto consumo y producción de papel, a través de sus diferentes presentaciones, genera grandes cantidades de lodos residuales en las plantas fabricantes ocasionando riesgos ambientales, si no se les da un manejo y aprovechamiento apropiado. Una alternativa de solución a este problema, es el reciclaje de estos lodos residuales para producir abono orgánico, a través de un proceso de lombricultura....

  20. Pathogen reduction in septic tank sludge through vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Canché, L G; Cardoso Vigueros, L; Maldonado-Montiel, T; Martínez-Sanmiguel, M

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the potential of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to remove pathogens from the sludge from septic tanks. Three earthworm population densities, equivalent to 1, 2, and 2.5kgm(-2), were tested for pathogen removal from sludge. The experimental phase lasted 60days, starting from the initial earthworm inoculation. After 60days, it was found that earthworms reduced concentrations of fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and helminth ova to permissible levels (SEMARNAT-2002) (SEMARNAT, 2002). Thus, sludge treatment with earthworms generated Class A biosolids, useful for forest, agricultural, and soil improvement.

  1. USO Y MANEJO DE HONGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES (HMA Y HUMUS DE LOMBRIZ EN TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L ., BAJO SISTEMA PROTEGIDO

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    Nelson J. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de tomate bajo cultivo protegido, en Cuba, está siendo sometida a una fertilización mineral muy intensa, que conlleva a un alto rendimiento, pero una baja calidad bromatológica, lo que ha conllevado, a nivel nacional, un gran interés para obtener producciones con una alta calidad ecológica. Para ello, se desarrollaron dos experimentos en la Granja “Los 3 Picos”, en Managua, Cuba, sobre un suelo Ferralítico Amarillento gleyzado, en un sistema de cultivo protegido, con el objetivo de determinar los efectos de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA, cepa Cubense y humus de lombriz, solos y combinados, como sustitutos de la fertilización mineral en el cultivo de tomate (hibrido HA 3108 Hazera a diferentes dosis. El efecto benéfico del HMA aplicado a través del biofertilizante comercial Ecomic®, producido por el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA y el humus de lombriz, fue evaluado en la planta, a través de las variables: altura, materia seca de las hojas, rendimiento final, y la calidad bromatológica de los frutos. Los resultados mostraron que la aplicación de HMA, fue más eficiente que el humus de lombriz al 25 % de la dosis de fertilizante mineral y sin efectos relevantes cuando se aplican combinados con el humus de lombriz, pero su influencia en los parámetros biológicos no fue significativa. No obstante, al incrementarse la fertilización mineral al 50 %, se pudo apreciar sinergismo entre ambos productos, al ser más eficiente la aplicación combinada, obteniéndose una producción superior a la que aportó la dosis del fertilizante mineral considerada óptima. La aplicación combinada de los HMA y humus de lombriz, mejoraron la calidad bromatológica de los frutos de tomate con respecto a los parámetros de sólidos solubles totales ( o Brix y vitamina C.

  2. Lombricultura : Viveros domésticos de Eisenia foetida

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    La lombricultura posibilita acelerar los procesos de transformación de productos de desecho de naturaleza orgánica (estiércoles, restos vegetales en general) en forma económica y eficiente permitiendo la obtención del lombricompuesto, un producto natural conocido por sus bondades como bioregulador y abono. La lombricultura implica asimismo incrementar una población de lombrices, por lo que paralelamente se obtienen proteínas (60-80% del peso seco de la lombriz) de alta digestibilidad proporci...

  3. Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Chung, Eu Jin; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-10-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729(T), was isolated from vermicompost collected at Masan, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6729(T) belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was related most closely to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis Gsoil 040(T) (96.1 %), Chitinophaga arvensicola IAM 12650(T) (96.1 %) and Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588(T) (93.3 %). Strain YC6729(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The fatty acids of strain YC6729(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(18 : 0) and/or C(18 : 2)ω6,9c, iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, C(14 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G, C(18 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(15 : 1) I and/or C(13 : 0) 3-OH, C(13 : 0) 2-OH, C(16 : 0) 3-OH and unknown fatty acid ECL 13.565. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain YC6729(T) was 48.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain YC6729(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6729(T) ( = KACC 13774(T)  = DSM 22224(T)).

  4. Biodegradabilidad de Artículos Desechables en un Sistema de Composta con Lombriz Biodegradability of disposable products in a vermicomposting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar de manera preliminar si materiales denominados "verdes" o "biodegradables" son degradados satisfactoriamente en sistemas de composta con lombriz a pequeña escala. La mayoría de dichos materiales se elaboran con derivados del papel o con biopolímeros naturales, de los cuales el más común es el ácido poliláctico (PLA. Para el estudio se sometieron a distintas pruebas cuatro artículos desechables etiquetados como biodegradables hechos de los siguientes materiales: bagazo de caña de azúcar, PLA, papel recubierto por PLA y polímero de maíz. Los resultados mostraron que el PLA, el papel recubierto por PLA y el polímero de maíz no presentan una degradación adecuada en estos sistemas. Esto se atribuye a que no se tienen las condiciones necesarias para iniciar la hidrólisis que el biopolímero requiere para disminuir su masa molecular y hacerlo susceptible al ataque microbiológico y/o a la digestión por lombriz. En cambio el material de bagazo de caña de azúcar mostró un desempeño positivo en la prueba.The objective of this study is to conduct an initial test of whether green disposable products satisfactorily degrade in small-scale vermicomposting systems. Most of these materials are made of paper/cardboard or natural biopolymers, being the polylactic acid (PLA the most commonly employed. Four disposable green products, made of sugar cane fiber, PLA, paper covered with PLA and corn polymer, respectively, were tested. Results showed that disposable items made of PLA, paper covered with PLA, and corn polymer do not satisfactorily degrade in this kind of systems. This is mainly due to not having the ideal conditions for biopolymer hydrolysis, molecular weight reduction, and subsequent microbiological attack and/or worm digestion. However, the sugar cane fiber material had a positive performance in the test.

  5. Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Five Soils with Contrasting Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Monteil-Rivera et al., 2009). Abiotic reactions include alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, and reduction by iron. Degradation of TNT by soil ...2 TOXICITIES OF TNT AND RDX TO THE EARTHWORM EISENIA FETIDA IN FIVE SOILS ...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2001 – Nov 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Five Soils

  6. Comparación de profundidades de Labranza Reducida y Siembra Directa con y sin humus de lombriz en el cultivo de la zanahoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro León Noguera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El suelo es el lecho fundamental de las plantas, en su manejo, la finalidad básica es su conservación y mejora de sus propiedades especialmente las físicas a través del laboreo reducido, para aumentar los rendimientos en los cultivos. El cultivo de las hortalizas es una fuente básica para la seguridad alimentaría de la sociedad, siendo la zanahoria muy apetecida; requiriendo de 25 a 30 cm de profundidad en la preparación de suelo. Constituyendo la materia orgánica (MO una fuente importante en la nutrición de este cultivo. El estudio incluyó tres profundidades de labranza vertical (Siembra Directa ó de Asiento (SD, remoción del suelo a 20 cm de profundidad y remoción a 30 cm con y sin humus de lombriz; distribuidos en un bloque al azar. Los resultados reflejan que los rendimientos del fruto, difieren entre sí, tienen el siguiente orden descendente: profundidad a 30 cm, 20 cm y Siembra Directa la materia orgánica no influyó en los rendimientos. La Siembra Directa la más económica y menos agresiva para el suelo.

  7. Evaluación de algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y nutricionales en humus de lombriz y composts derivados de diferentes sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Melgarejo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y nutricionales en cuatro humus de lombriz obtenidos a partir de desechos de cocina y de huerta, pulpa de café, basuras biodegradables y residuos de rosas y en dos composts provenientes de residuos de rosas y de clavel. Las propiedades evaluadas fueron: humedad de campo, pH en agua (1:5, conductividad eléctrica (1:5, cenizas, materia orgánica, sílice (SiOj y capacidad de intercambio cationico por el método de extracción con acetato de amonio IN pH 7,0 y por el método de Harada. Así mismo, se determinó el contenido de hidrosolubles y su efecto sobre la germinación de semillas de Berro (Lepidium sativum; finalmente se realizó un análisis nutricional que comprendió la cuantificación de los elementos nutrientes en su forma total y disponible.

  8. Producción orgánica de tomate mediante la aplicación de humus de lombriz y EcoMic® en condiciones de casa de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cun G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de comparar el efecto de los biofertilizantes EcoMic® y el humus de lombriz, aplicados al tomate (var. HA 3019 cultivado en condiciones protegidas sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado. El estudio se realizó en áreas del Centro de Capacitación y Producción (CCP de la Asociación Cubana de Trabajadores Agrícolas y Forestales (ACTAF durante el invierno del 2005. Los tratamientos consistieron en : (T1, aplicar humus de lombriz (2 kg/m2, antes del trasplante y EcoMic® (1 kg/m2 después del transplante; (T2, aplicar humus de lombriz (2 kg/m2 antes del trasplante y la misma dosis a los 10 días después del trasplante. El rendimiento obtenido en el tratamiento T1 fue mayor (8,4 kg/m2 al T2 (5,01 kg/m2 . La mayor cantidad de frutos con mejor calidad se alcanzó en el tratamiento donde se incluyo el EcoMic® (T1. Desde el punto de vista económico el mayor beneficio neto (8 368 pesos y la mayor relación Beneficio/Costo (1,88, se obtuvo en el tratamiento 1 .La aplicación de estos productos indicó que es factible obtener rendimientos aceptables de tomate sin la utilización de fertilizantes químicos, lo que contribuye a la no contaminación del medio ambiente.

  9. Evaluación de la producción de lombricompuestos a partir tres sustratos y uso de la lombriz como fuente de alimento para peces en cautiverio, Chocó - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Beltrán, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2014 A partir del empleo de los sustratos Gallinaza, Vacaza y Porquinaza, se evaluó su desempeño en la producción de lombricompuestos, además del uso de la carne de lombriz como fuente de alimento en la Cachama negra (Colossoma macropomum) en el Centro Multipropósito “Monte Las Palmas” (Municipio del Atrato, Chocó-Colombia). Para la evaluación d...

  10. Soil type influence on Ag Nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the importance of soil type on the toxicity to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to earthworms, Eisenia fetida. Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly...... as antibacterial agents and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworm toxicity was strongly dependent on the soil type, with strongest effect in low organic matter soil. Studies on the organic...

  11. Interactions between sewage sludge-amended soil and earthworms--comparison between Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei composting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Suleiman, Hanine; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Płytycz, Barbara; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2016-02-01

    Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly technology, where earthworms are introduced in the waste, inter alia sewage sludge, to cooperate with microorganisms and enhance decomposition of organic matter. The main aims of the present study was to determine the influence of two different earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, on the changes of selected metallic trace elements content in substratum during vermicomposting process using three different sewage sludge mainly differentiated by their metal contents. Final vermicompost has shown a slight reduction in Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, while the Zn concentration tends to increase. Accumulation of particular heavy metals in earthworms' bodies was assessed. Both species revealed high tendency to accumulate Cd and Zn, but not Cu, Ni, and Pb, but E. andrei has higher capabilities to accumulate some metals. Riboflavin content, which content varies depending on metal pollution in several earthworms species, was measured supravitaly in extruded coelomocytes. Riboflavin content decreased slightly during the first 6 weeks of exposure and subsequently restored till the end of the 9-week experiment. Selected agronomic parameters have also been measured in the final product (vermicompost) to assess the influence of earthworms on substratum.

  12. Toxische effecten van zink op de worm Eisenia andrei; resultaten proefveldexperimenten Amsterdam 1995 en 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; Posthuma L; Baerselman R; ECO/EEB

    1997-01-01

    De toxische effecten van zink voor de compostworm Eisenia andrei werden bestudeerd in twee proefveldexperimenten, om de veldrelevantie van laboratorium-toxiciteitsgegevens te onderzoeken indien blootstellingscondities op natuurlijke wijze fluctueren. Coconproductie werd hierbij gebruikt als subleth

  13. Avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...

  14. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  15. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA FRACCIÓN ORGÁNICA DE HUMUS DE LOMBRIZ Y COMPOSTS PRODUCIDOS A PARTIR DE DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Melgarejo P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la calidad y el grado de humificación de diferentes materiales compostados, se caracterizó químicamente la fracción orgánica de humus de lombriz provenientes de desechos de cocina y de huerta, pulpa de café, basuras biodegradables y residuos de rosas, y de composts obtenidos de residuos de rosas y residuos de clavel. Para tal fin se hizo la determinación y análisis de la relación C/N, el fraccionamiento de la materia orgánica, la purificación y caracterización de los ácidos húmicos por análisis elemental C, H, N, O, espectroscopia visible- ultravioleta y se hallaron diferentes parámetros de humificación. El fraccionamiento de la materia orgánica indicó un bajo contenido de carbono extraído con relación a lo encontrado normalmente en el humus de los suelos. El análisis elemental de los ácidos húmicos de los composts y lombricomposts no reveló diferencias importantes entre los materiales, mientras que la relación E4/E6 proporcionó cambios más evidentes. Los resultados indicaron que la relación C/N no fue un indicativo absoluto del estado de madurez de los materiales estudiados. De los parámetros de humificación analizados, la razón de polimerización, el índice de humificación y la relación entre carbono extraído y carbono no extraído resultaron ser los parámetros que mejor estiman la madurez de los composts y lombricomposts. En cuanto a los materiales evaluados, el lorabricompost de residuos de rosas reveló en conjunto las mejores condiciones con relación al contenido y calidad de la materia orgánica para ser adicionado a un suelo.

  16. Pertumbuhan cacing tanah Eisenia fetida sp. Pada kompos limbah fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of earthworm as a source of income and a means for managing organic solid waste such as fleshing waste has been widely applied. The aim of this research was to find the optimum ratio between fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium of Eisenia fetida sp. This research was conducted by growing the E. fetida sp. earthworm in the medium containing fleshing waste mixed with cow dung. The ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung was varied at 0:100; 10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; and 50:50. In addition, 2 parts of chopped stubbles per part of every sample was added as a carbon source. The prepared media were fermented for three weeks with EM4 as a starter, followed by incubation of the earthworm for six weeks. The weight and the number of earthworm were evaluated every two weeks. The optimum growth of earthworm was achieved at the 2nd week of incubation with 185.48% and 121.10% increase of weight and number of earthworm, respectively, at 40:60 ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium.

  17. Biological response of earthworm, Eisenia fetida, to five neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Pang, Sen; Mu, Xiyan; Qi, Suzhen; Li, Dongzhi; Cui, Feng; Wang, Chengju

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) are one of the most abundant terrestrial species, and play an important role in maintaining the ecological function of soil. Neonicotinoids are some of the most widely used insecticides applied to crops. Studies on the effect of neonicotinoids on E. fetida are limited. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of five neonicotinoid insecticides on reproduction, cellulase activity and the tissues of E. fetida. The results showed that, the LC50 of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid was 3.05, 2.69, 4.34, 0.93 and 2.68mgkg(-1), respectively. They also could seriously affect the reproduction of E. fetida, reducing the fecundity by 84.0%, 39.5%, 54.3%, 45.7% and 39.5% at the sub-lethal concentrations of 2.0, 1.5, 0.80, 2.0 and 1.5mgkg(-1), respectively. The cellulase activity of E. fetida was most sensitive to clothianidin. Significant disruption of the epidermal and midgut tissue was observed after 14d exposure. In summary, we demonstrate that imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid have high toxic to earthworm, and can significantly inhibited fecundity and cellulase activity of E. fetida, and they also damage the epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  19. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene in Eisenia foetida at different aging stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hongjian

    2009-01-01

    The impacts of contact time on the extractability, the availability of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in different soils (paddy soil, red soil, and fluvo-aquic soil) and bioaccurnulation in earthworm Eisenia foetida were investigated under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results indicated that the aging rate of HCB displaying a biphasic character in different soils: a rapid aging in the first 60 d followed by a slow aging in the next 120 d incubation time. Moreover, most of extractable HCB (about 90%) decline occurred in the first 60 d after HCB was spiked into the soils. The aging rate of HCB in the paddy soil was higher than that in the fluvo-aquic soil or the red soil. The amount of HCB accumulated in the earthworms and its accumulative ability, expressed as a bioaccumulation factor (BAF), declined as the aging time increased from 1 to 180 d. Although the extractable HCB decreased with increasing residence time in soil, much of HCB could still be accumulated by earthworms (457.6-984.3 ng/g) through bioaccumulation, which poses a potential risk to soil ecological safety.

  20. Enantioseletive bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingyi Yu; Jianzhong Li; Yanfeng Zhang; Huili Wang; Baoyuan Guo; Lin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Methods of extraction and determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were developed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Both CE and HPLC have excellent resolution and recovery.The linearity ranges were 2.9-102.4 mg/kg and 3.0-99.6 mg/kg for (+)-R-tebuconazole and (-)-S-tebuconazole respectively in CE,and from 0.56 to 1000 mg/kg for both enantiomers in HPLC.Enantioselective bioaccumulation in earthworms from soil was investigated under laboratory condition at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/kg dw in soil.The uptake kinetics of (+)-R-tebuconazole fitted the firstorder kinetics well with r2 0.97 and 0.94 under 10 and 50 mg/kg dw exposure condition,respectively,while (-)-S-tebueonazole with r2 0.75 and 0.22 did not show the same.Bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm tissues was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of (+)-R-tebuconazole.The (+)-R-tebuconazole might also have biomagnifying effect potential in earthworm food chain with biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 1.64 kg OC/kg lip in 10 mg/kg dw exposure group and 2.61 kg OC/kg lip in 50 mg/kg dw exposure group from soil to earthworm after 36 days.Although (-)-S-tebuconazole shares the same physicochemical properties with (+)-R-tebuconazole,it did not biomagnify.BSAFs of (-)-S-tebuconazole were 0.50 kg OC/kg lip (10 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) and 0.28 kg OC/kg lip (50 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) after 36 days,which was possibly owing to biotransformation or metabolism in earthworm tissues.

  1. Arcobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Benussi Skukan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bakterije roda Arcobacter pripadaju porodici Campylobacteriaceae, no od Campylobacter vrsta razlikuje se po sposobnosti rasta na 15 °C i u aerobnim uvjetima. Ove bakterije izolirane su iz oboljelih životinja, ljudi, ali i s trupova životinja nakon klaoničke obrade, te svježeg mesa, kao i vode. Farmske životinje, posebice perad, smatraju se rezervoarima bakterije. Razvijene su različite mikrobiološke metode za izolaciju Arcobacter spp., ali standardni protokol još uvijek ne postoji. Za brzu i ...

  2. Variation in blade morphology of the kelp Eisenia arborea : incipient speciation due to local water motion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberson, LM; Coyer, JA

    2004-01-01

    The southern sea palm kelp Eisenia arborea produces wide, bullate (bumpy) blades in low-flow areas, whereas in adjacent high-flow areas blades are flat and narrow. Here we determine if morphological differences in these 2 closely associated populations are correlated with physical factors in the env

  3. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  4. Variation in blade morphology of the kelp Eisenia arborea : incipient speciation due to local water motion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberson, L.M.; Coyer, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The southern sea palm kelp Eisenia arborea produces wide, bullate (bumpy) blades in low-flow areas, whereas in adjacent high-flow areas blades are flat and narrow. Here we determine if morphological differences in these 2 closely associated populations are correlated with physical factors in the

  5. Bioaccumulation of total mercury in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Shirley; Baker, Priscilla; Crouch, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms are a major part of the total biomass of soil fauna and play a vital role in soil maintenance. They process large amounts of plant and soil material and can accumulate many pollutants that may be present in the soil. Earthworms have been explored as bioaccumulators for many heavy metal species such as Pb, Cu and Zn but limited information is available for mercury uptake and bioaccumulation in earthworms and very few report on the factors that influence the kinetics of Hg uptake by earthworms. It is known however that the uptake of Hg is strongly influenced by the presence of organic matter, hence the influence of ligands are a major factor contributing to the kinetics of mercury uptake in biosystems. In this work we have focused on the uptake of mercury by earthworms (Eisenia andrei) in the presence of humic acid (HA) under varying physical conditions of pH and temperature, done to assess the role of humic acid in the bioaccumulation of mercury by earthworms from soils. The study was conducted over a 5-day uptake period and all earthworm samples were analysed by direct mercury analysis. Mercury distribution profiles as a function of time, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), first order rate constants and body burden constants for mercury uptake under selected conditions of temperature, pH as well as via the dermal and gut route were evaluated in one comprehensive approach. The results showed that the uptake of Hg was influenced by pH, temperature and the presence of HA. Uptake of Hg(2+) was improved at low pH and temperature when the earthworms in soil were in contact with a saturating aqueous phase. The total amount of Hg(2+) uptake decreased from 75 to 48 % as a function of pH. For earthworms in dry soil, the uptake was strongly influenced by the presence of the ligand. Calculated BAF values ranged from 0.1 to 0.8. Mercury uptake typically followed first order kinetics with rate constants determined as 0.2 to 1 h(-1).

  6. A study on bioluminescence and photoluminescence in the earthworm Eisenia lucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes, O; Midlik, A; Schlaghamersky, J; Zitnan, M; Taborsky, P

    2016-02-01

    Eisenia lucens is an earthworm living in the organic soil layer of decomposing wood. When irritated, the worm expels coelomic fluid through pores in its body wall, exhibiting blue-green bioluminescence. The mechanism of the bioluminescence, which seems to be different from other bioluminescence systems of terrestrial animals, has been studied in this work. Many lines of evidence indicate that riboflavin stored in coelomycetes plays an important role in this glowing reaction.

  7. Timing and Scope of Genomic Expansion within Annelida: Evidence from Homeoboxes in the Genome of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarycz, Allison S; Nossa, Carlos W; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2015-12-10

    Annelida represents a large and morphologically diverse group of bilaterian organisms. The recently published polychaete and leech genome sequences revealed an equally dynamic range of diversity at the genomic level. The availability of more annelid genomes will allow for the identification of evolutionary genomic events that helped shape the annelid lineage and better understand the diversity within the group. We sequenced and assembled the genome of the common earthworm, Eisenia fetida. As a first pass at understanding the diversity within the group, we classified 363 earthworm homeoboxes and compared them with those of the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete Capitella teleta. We inferred many gene expansions occurring in the lineage connecting the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Capitella and Eisenia to the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA. Likewise, the lineage leading from the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to the leech H. robusta has experienced substantial gains and losses. However, the lineage leading from Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to E. fetida is characterized by extraordinary levels of homeobox gain. The evolutionary dynamics observed in the homeoboxes of these lineages are very likely to be generalizable to all genes. These genome expansions and losses have likely contributed to the remarkable biology exhibited in this group. These results provide a new perspective from which to understand the diversity within these lineages, show the utility of sub-draft genome assemblies for understanding genomic evolution, and provide a critical resource from which the biology of these animals can be studied.

  8. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae Sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos dañinos sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en la Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5% en Eisenia fetida sobre los parámetros de comportamiento, sobrevivencia, biomasa, reproducción y bioacumulación, así como la persistencia en suelo OECD de dicho tóxico. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento de huída intenso a partir de la concentración más baja, con un EC50 de 1,36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L. 0,24 - 2,80. No se observaron efectos en sobrevivencia y alimentación. La reproducción fue afectada significativamente (F= 11,94, PThe intensive use of agrochemicals has deleterious effects on non-target organisms. Among these organisms, earthworms are important because of their role in keeping the soil structure and fertility. Lambda-cyhalothrin is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticide in Argentina, but there are not enough studies of the effects of this pesticide on earthworms. The goals of this work were to perform chronic toxicity bioassays to determine the effects of commercial lambda-cyhalothrin (at 5% on Eisenia fetida. The parameters of behaviour, survival, biomass, reproduction, bioaccumulation and the degradation time of lambda-cyhalotrin in an OECD standard soil were also estimated. Results showed a hard avoidance behaviour in the lowest lambda-cyhalothrin concentration with an EC50 of 1.36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L 0.24-2.80. Eisenia fetida chronic test survival and feeding were not affected by lambda-cyhalothrin but negative effects on reproduction were significant (P<0.05. Cocoon production and fertility were reduced and

  9. Two New Eisenia Species from South Korea Similar to E. koreana and Comparable to Eisenoides from USA (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blakemore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New Korean lumbricids are described: Eisenia gaga Blakemore sp. nov. from remote Gageodo Island and E. sindo Blakemore, sp. nov. from an island at Incheon. Both are comparable to Eisenia koreana (Zicsi, 1972 from near Pyongyang, North Korea. A remarkable yet previously unrecognized similarity to American earthworm Eisenoides carolinensis (Michaelsen, 1910 is discussed, but synonymy is rejected on tenuous morphological grounds (form of nephridial vesicle bladders with taxonomy supported by objective molecular data (mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 barcodes.

  10. DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia spp.) as an indicator of environmental stress in the industrial zone of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar A; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji J; Costilla, Rogelio; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Carmen Cuevas, Maria Del; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz is one of the major industrial areas of Mexico. Presently, the Coatzacoalcos River and the areas surrounding the industrial complex are considered by various authors to be some of most polluted sites in Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine if earthworms could be used as indicators of environmental stress in the Coatzacoalcos industrial zone. Often, detritivores and decomposers such as earthworms are the first to be affected when the soil is contaminated. We collected soil samples to be used for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) quantification by gas chromatography. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, lindane and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the soil were above the maximum permissible limits of the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (CEQG). Comet assay was conducted in coelomocytes of wild earthworms collected in Coatzacoalcos and compared with the control earthworms. We found DNA damage in earthworms from Coatzacoalcos that was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in comparison to laboratory earthworms. Earthworms are an appropriate organism to use as an indicator of environmental impact in contaminated sites. DNA damage recorded in the earthworms provides clear evidence of environmental impacts by the chemical industry on the wildlife of this region.

  11. Time-course profiling of molecular stress responses to silver nanoparticles in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Simonsen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, particularly its temporal aspect, is currently limited in the literature. This study seeks to identify and profile changes in molecular response patterns over time during soil exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to AgNPs (82±27 nm......) with reference to dissolved silver salt (AgNO3). Principal component analysis of selected gene and enzyme response profiles revealed dissimilar patterns between AgNO3 and AgNP treatments and also over time. Despite the observed difference in molecular profiles, the body burdens of total Ag were within the same...

  12. Purification of a Novel Antibacterial Short Peptide in Earthworm Eisenia foetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qin LIU; Zhen-Jun SUN; Chong WANG; Shi-Jie LI; Yu-Zhi LIU

    2004-01-01

    A novel antimicrobial short peptide was purified from earthworm (Eisenia foetida) by a five-step protocol including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ultrafiltration, DE-52 ion exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, and C-18 reversed-phase HPLC techniques.The purified peptide was applied to the MALDI-TOP MS to determine the molecular mass and was also subjected to TOF MS-MS analysis to determine the amino acid sequence. As a result, a novel antibacterial peptide, named OEP3121, was obtained, with the molecular mass of 510.8 Da and the sequence being "ACSAG".

  13. Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose by Leifsonia sp. CBNU-EW3 isolated from the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of five bacterial strains were isolated from earthworm, Eisenia fetida and examined for bacterial cellulose (BC) production in Hestrin–Schramm medium (HS). Among the five strains tested, CBNU-EW3 exhibited excellent BC production and was identified as Leifsonia sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analy...

  14. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure pe

  15. Correlations of Eisenia fetida metabolic responses to extractable phenanthrene concentrations through time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to phenanthrene for thirty days to compare hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction of soil and {sup 1}H NMR earthworm metabolomics as indicators of bioavailability. The phenanthrene 28-d LC{sub 50} value was 750 mg/kg (632-891, 95% confidence intervals) for the peat soil tested. The initial phenanthrene concentration was 319 mg/kg, which biodegraded to 16 mg/kg within 15 days, at which time HPCD extraction suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that phenanthrene exposed and control earthworms differed throughout the 30 day experiment despite the low phenanthrene concentrations present after 15 days. This metabolic response was better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.59) than HPCD-extractable phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.46) suggesting that {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor the bioavailability of contaminants to earthworms in the environment. - Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms to phenanthrene exposure are better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations than to cyclodextrin-extractable concentrations through time.

  16. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3 from Vermisources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayogan Sivasankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost was prepared from leaf materials of Gliricidia sepium + Cassia auriculata + Leucaena leucocephala with cow dung (1 : 1 : 2 using Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg and Eisenia fetida for 60 days. Nineteen bacterial strains which have the capability to fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate, and produce phytohormones were isolated from vermicompost, vermisources, and earthworm (fore, mid, and hind guts and tested for plant growth studies. Among the bacterial strains only five strains had both activities; among the five Bacillus spp. showed more nitrogen fixing activity and Pseudomonas spp. showed more phosphate solubilizing activity. Hence these bacterial strains were selected for further molecular analysis and identified Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3. Plant growth studies use these two organisms separately and as consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. in (1 : 1 ratio at different concentrations using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. at different day intervals. The germination percent, shoot length, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll a content of the leaves, chlorophyll b content of the leaves, total chlorophyll content of the leaves, fresh weight of the whole plant, and dry weight of the whole plant were significantly enhanced by the consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. of two organisms at 5 mL concentrations on the 15th day compared to others.

  17. Allelopathic effects of volatile organic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis rhizosphere soil on Eisenia fetida assessed using avoidance bioassays, enzyme activity, and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqun, Tang; Jian, Zhang; Junli, Yu; Chunzi, Wang; Danju, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures. In addition, the toxicities of VOCs were investigated using a soil avoidance test and comet assay. The results revealed that E. fetida exhibited significant avoidance behavior towards the highest concentrations of undecane, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, and 2,2,4,6,6-pentametyl heptane. The tail DNA percentages were significantly increased for all experimental treatments relative to control. However, under the treatments of VOCs, Olive tail moment content and comet tail length also display an obvious increase compared to control, except for that of octane, undecane and decane treatments. As VOC concentrations and durations increased in the soil, activities of AChE, SOD, and GST were either stimulated or inhibited. Among the VOCs, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol exerted stronger effects on enzymatic activities. In summary, VOCs in rhizosphere soils of E. grandis might exert a toxic impact on E. fetida, among which 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol have the strongest effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  19. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  20. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  1. Enantioselective effects of methamidophos on the coelomocytes lysosomal membrane stability of Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhua; Lu, Xianting; Ma, Yun

    2012-12-01

    Many of organophosphorous insecticides are chiral compounds. In this study, the enantioselective effects of organophosphate insecticide methamidophos on the coelomocytes lysosomal membrane stability of earthworm Eisenia fetida were studied: (1) The enantiomers of methamidophos were absolutely separated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a commercial chiral column; (2) The neutral red retention assay was used to judge the lysosomal membrane stability. The results showed that with the concentration increasing, lysosomal membranes have been significantly destroyed by individual stereoisomers and racemate of methamidophos. The neutral red retention times were significantly descended from 76.88 to 29.78 min. Both (+)- and (-)-methamidophos showed more prone to destroy the integrity of the lysosomal membrane than the racemate. However, the different effect between stereoisomers is slight.

  2. Molecular and cellular response of earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) to PCDD/Fs exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusair, Shreen Deeb; Abu Zarour, Yousef Sa'id

    2017-01-01

    The acute toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was investigated in the earthworm Eisenia andrei using filter paper toxicity test. Protein content, catalase (CAT) activity, and histology of intestinal wall (chloragogen cells and intestinal epithelium) were investigated in earthworms exposed for 48 h to 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ng/cm(2) PCDD/Fs. The results showed an increase in the total protein content 1.56- (p = 0.104), 1.66- (p = 0.042), and 2.26-fold (p biomarkers of E. andrei within 48 h, the cellular and molecular alterations resulted from the filter paper contact test could be utilized as a rapid toxicity assessment tool of environmental contamination with dioxins/furans and to assess consequent potential adverse effects on soil biota and other organisms in the ecosystem.

  3. Effects of PAHs and dioxins on the earthworm Eisenia andrei: a multivariate approach for biomarker interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzini, Susanna; Moore, Michael N; Boeri, Marta; Bencivenga, Mauro; Viarengo, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a battery of biomarkers was utilised to evaluate the stress syndrome induced in the earthworm Eisenia andrei by exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) in OECD soil. The set of tests was then employed to assess the toxicity of field soils contaminated with organic xenobiotic compounds (such as PAHs, dioxins and PCBs). The results highlighted an impairment of immune and metabolic functions and genotoxic damage in worms exposed also to lower bioavailable concentrations of toxic chemicals. Multivariate analysis of biomarker data showed that all different contaminated soils had a detrimental effect on the earthworms. A separation between temporal and concentration factors was also evident for B[a]P and TCDD treatments; and field contaminated soils were further differentiated reflecting a diverse contamination. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated that lysosomal membrane stability can be considered a prognostic indicator for worm health status.

  4. Acute ecotoxicity of creosote-contaminated soils to Eisenia fetida: a survival-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrois, J W; McGill, W B; Froese, K L

    2001-11-01

    Quantification of risks to the ecosystem is necessary for cost-effective remediation strategies. Contaminant endpoints need to be established that consider the bioavailability of toxicants in soil. The challenge is to develop methods that assign risk to the bioavailable toxic contaminants, thereby protecting ecosystems, while balancing remediation costs. Our objective was to evaluate changes in bioavailability of creosote constituents in soils to earthworms. An acute ecotoxicological investigation of three weathered creosote-contaminated and two slurry-phase-biotreated soils was conducted using a 14-d earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival bioassay. Soil characterization (physical and chemical) and contaminant concentration data (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH] and total dichloromethane extractable organics [DEO]) were also determined. The toxicity of the soils could not always be predicted based on chemical concentrations alone. Soils having a low PAH:DEO ratio had higher cumulative earthworm survival times as measured by earthworm-days. We propose that the DEO fraction may regulate toxicity by altering bioavailability of toxicants.

  5. Effect of malathion on the male reproductive organs of earthworms, Eisenia foetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Espinoza-Navarro; Eduardo Bustos-Obregón

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To observe the cytotoxic effect of the organophosphate insecticide malathion in the reproductive tissues of the earthworms, Eisenia foetida. Methods: Worms were nourished in soil treated with malathion at single sub-lethal exposure. The body weights were recorded and male reproductive organs evaluated. Results: Malathion-treated animals showed a significant reduction in body weight in a dose-dependent manner. Malathion treatment modified the disposition of spermatozoa in the basal epithelium of the spermatheca. The Br-deoxyuridine test showed a significant rise in cells in phase S on days 5 and 15. Also, a higher percentage of spermatogonia with fragmented DNA were observed by means of the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique in the spermatheca of treated animals. Conclusion: Treatment with malathion decreased the body weight and the spermatic viability in spermatheca,altering the cell proliferation and modifying the DNA structure of spermatogonia.

  6. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li’ke; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE) that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, metallothionein (MT) content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD) activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT) and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (psoils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms. PMID:28319143

  7. Effects of Rhamnolipid and Microbial Inoculants on the Vermicomposting of Green Waste with Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Wang, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of adding the biosurfactant rhamnolipid, the lignolytic and cellulolytic fungus Phanerochete chrysosporium, and the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chrococcum on vermicomposting of green waste with Eisenia fetida was investigated. The addition of rhamnolipid and/or either microorganism alone or in all combinations significantly increased E. fetida growth rate, the number of E. fetida juveniles and cocoons, the population densities of cellulolytic fungi and Azotobacter bacteria, and cellulase and urease activities in the vermicomposts. The quality of the final vermicompost (in terms of electrical conductivity, nutrient content, C/N ratio, humic acid content, lignin and cellulose contents, and phytotoxicity to germinating seeds) was enhanced by addition of rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms. The physical characteristics of vermicomposts produced with rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms were acceptable for agricultural application. The best quality vermicompost was obtained with the combined addition of P. chrysosporium, A. chrococcum, and rhamnolipid. PMID:28122059

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of TiO{sub 2} byproducts on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Foucaud, Laurent [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Lapied, Emmanuel [Bioforsk, Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Labille, Jerome; Botta, Celine [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Sirguey, Catherine [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Falla, Jairo [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rose, Jerome [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Joner, Erik J. [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Rodius, Francois; Nahmani, Johanne [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France)

    2011-10-15

    The increasing production of nanomaterials will in turn increase the release of nanosized byproducts to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour, uptake and ecotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} byproducts in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Worms were exposed to suspensions containing 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L of byproducts for 24 h. Size of TiO{sub 2} byproducts showed aggregation of particles up to 700 {mu}m with laser diffraction. Only worms exposed at 10 mg/L showed bioaccumulation of titanium (ICP-AES), increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA (Real-time PCR) and induction of apoptotic activity (Apostain and TUNEL). TiO{sub 2} byproducts did not induce cytotoxicity on coelomocytes, but a significant decrease of phagocytosis was observed starting from 0.1 mg/L. In conclusion, bioaccumulation of byproducts and their production of reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the alteration of the antioxidant system in worms. - Highlights: > Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} byproducts up to 700 {mu}m in the medium of exposure. > Bioaccumulation of titanium in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA. > Induction of apoptotic activity in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Decrease of coelomocytes phagocytosis starting from 0.1 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. - A short time exposure to TiO{sub 2} byproducts can induce sublethal effects on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

  10. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  11. Biodegradation of Garden Waste, Market Waste Using Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugenia and Assessment of Manure Quality on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S. Mariraj

    2014-06-01

    Comparative study was performed to evaluate the vermicomposting efficiency of two earthworm species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenia from the garden wastes, vegetable market wastes. Three different experimental works were conducted. For each experiment three plastic vermibins were used. Experiment (1) mentioned for control without earthworms. Experiment (2) bedded with Eudrilus eugenia, Experiment (3) comprised of bedding with Eisenia fetida. Pre composting was allowed for 10 days after that Eudrilus eugenia, Eisenia fetida were added in respective vermibins. The multiplication of earthworms in terms of number was calculated at the end of vermicomposting. The N, P, K value of the manure in each vermibin was estimated before and after the completion of the experiment. High N, P, K value was obtained in Experiment (2) and Experiment (3) compared to control. Among the solid wastes, the vegetable wastes were degraded quickly by Eudrilus eugenia and also it has the best quality of manure. Eudrilus eugenia was found to be efficient for quick degradation of both garden wastes and vegetable wastes. After manure production, field trials were conducted using different fertilizers to assess the manure quality in the growth and yield of tomato plants. Six types of experimental trial pots were prepared where one was kept as control and five others were treated with different category of fertilizers. The treatment pots (P3) showed better growth parameters (leaf numbers, stem diameter, plant height) than the rest of the trial.

  12. Evaluación del Fertilizante Orgánico Líquido de Lombriz San Rafael en el Cultivo de Rosa cv. Classy Evaluation of the Worm Organic Liquid Fertilizer San Rafael on cv. Classy Rose Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ramírez Castañeda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de fertilizantes es una de las principales actividades técnicas que se realizan en el cultivo de rosas, práctica que puede llegar a causar un impacto ambiental importante. El uso de fertilizantes orgánicos en este cultivo ha sido mínimo. Fertilizantes orgánicos como los vermicompuestos aportan elementos, algunos en formas más disponibles, como también mejoran las características físicas de los suelos. El objetivo fue evaluar la adición del fertilizante orgánico líquido de lombriz San Rafael a la fertilización comercial completa y la reducción de un 25% de su composición por cama, midiendo su efecto semanalmente sobre la productividad y la calidad de los tallos florales, el descabece de flor y en análisis foliares en plantas de rosa cv. Classy. Los resultados indican que para los análisis foliares y los diferentes grados de calidad (longitud de tallo y de botón floral no existió evidencia de diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos. Se encontró diferencia significativa en productividad, siendo mayor el promedio de las plantas tratadas con la fórmula de fertilización completa más el fertilizante orgánico. Para el descabece de la flor se encontró que el tratamiento donde se aplicó la fórmula de fertilización reducida más el fertilizante orgánico, fue significativamente menor en comparación con los otros dos tratamientos.Fertilizer application is one of the main technical activities made in rose crop, but it may cause an important environmental impact. The use of organic fertilizers has been low in this crop. An organic fertilizer as vermicompost contributes with some elements in better available forms, and improves some soil physical characteristics. The purpose was to evaluate the addition of worm liquid organic fertilizer San Rafael to complete commercial fertilization and to decrease 25% of its composition per bed, measuring weekly its effect on yield, degrees of quality flowering stems

  13. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  14. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  15. The effect of oxidative stress on phagocytosis and apoptosis in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Fuller-Espie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H202 on phagocytic function and apoptosis in coelomocytes from Eisenia hortensis was investigated. Treating coelomocytes with H202 (0.26 to 8.4 mM evoked a significant increase in phagocytosis for one or more of the concentrations of H202 employed in 67 % of cases. Using annexin V-FITC we show that H202 induced apoptosis of coelomocytes in vitro. We found that 100 % of viable coelomocyte populations exhibited significant increases in phosphatidylserine translocation for one or more of the concentrations of H202 tested (8.4 to 67.6 mM. Using a fluorescent inhibitor of caspases, we revealed the presence of activated caspases observing increased caspase activity in 67 % of viable coelomocyte populations treated with 33.8mM H202, and in 100 % of cases treated with 67.6 mM H202. Agarose gel electrophoresis and the TUNEL assay showed DNA fragmentation in samples treated with 16.9 and 33.8 mM H202. In addition, endogenous H202 production during phagocytosis by hyaline amoebocytes was detected using a fluorogenic substrate. Thus, free radicals not only appear to facilitate phagocytosis and are produced during phagocytosis, but they also promote an oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis that may play an important function in regulating innate immune responses in E. hortensis

  16. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Panday

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%, Cd (48-61%, Cu (4.9- 29.01% and Cr (18.90-33.60% at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

  17. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akanksha, E-mail: bhuaks29@gmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Jain, Akansha, E-mail: akansha007@rediffmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Sarma, Birinchi K., E-mail: birinchi_ks@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pca.iesd@bhu.ac.in [Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Harikesh B., E-mail: hbs1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  18. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  19. Vermiremediation of heavy metals in wastewater sludge from paper and pulp industry using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Sajwan, Poonam; Kumar, Kapil

    2014-11-01

    This work presents the results of removing heavy metals from paper mill wastewater (PMS) sludge spiked with cow dung (CD) employing Eisenia fetida. A total of seven set-ups were prepared: CD (100 percent), PMS: CD (1:3), PMS:CD (1:2), PMS:CD (1:1), PMS (100 percent), PMS:CD (3:1) and PMS:CD (2:1) and changes in chemical parameters were observed for 60 days. Vermistabilization caused the significant decrease in the level of Cd (32-37 percent), Cr (47.3-80.9 percent), Cu (68.8-88.4 percent), and Pb (95.3-97.5 percent) and substantial increase in EC, total-N, available P and K at the end. At the end, the tissues of inoculated worms showed the high load (mg kg(-1), dry biomass) of Pb (8.81-9.69), Cd (2.31-2.71), Cr (20.7-35.9) and Cu (9.94-11.6), respectively which indicated bioaccumulation of metals by worms. The PMS:CD (2:1 and/or 3:1) appeared to be suitable waste mixture in terms of high metal removal and earthworm growth rates. Bioaccumulation, as quantified using BCF, was in the order: Cd>Cr>Pb>Cu. Results suggested vermiremediation as appropriate technology for bioremediation of heavy metals from PMS.

  20. Enantiomer-specific toxicity and bioaccumulation of alpha-cypermethrin to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jinling; Xu, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Lu, Yule; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2011-09-15

    Alpha-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is highly effective against a wide range of chewing and sucking insects in crops, and it is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers ((+)-1R-cis-αS+(-)-1S-cis-αR). Studies about the toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to non-target organisms are mainly focused on aquatic organisms, whereas information regarding terrestrial organisms is relatively much less. Very little report about its enantioselective toxicity is known, so the present study tested the enantiomer-specific acute toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Experiment about bioaccumulation of two enantiomers in soil was conducted, peak-shaped accumulation curves were observed for both enantiomers, and the calculated biota to soil accumulations factor (BSAF) have significant difference between the two enantiomers. It was obvious that earthworm can uptake alpha-cypermethrin enantioselectively, preferentially accumulating (-)-(1S-cis-αR)-enantiomer. Great difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC(50) values for (+)-(1R-cis-αS)-, (-)-(1S-cis-αR)-, and rac-alpha-cypermethrin were 49.53, 1663.87 and 165.61 ng/cm(2), respectively. The acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin enantiomers was enantioselective.

  1. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; S Hunyadi; O Tsyusko; W Rao; A Shoults-Wilson; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    Because Au nanoparticles (NPs) are resistant to oxidative dissolution and are easily detected, they have been used as stable probes for the behavior of nanomaterials within biological systems. Previous studies provide somewhat limited evidence for bioavailability of Au NPs in food webs, because the spatial distribution within tissues and the speciation of Au was not determined. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence, including orthogonal microspectroscopic techniques, as well as evidence from biological responses, that Au NPs are bioavailable from soil to a model detritivore (Eisenia fetida). We also present limited evidence that Au NPs may cause adverse effects on earthworm reproduction. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate that Au NPs can be taken up by detritivores from soil and distributed among tissues. We found that primary particle size (20 or 55 nm) did not consistently influence accumulated concentrations on a mass concentration basis; however, on a particle number basis the 20 nm particles were more bioavailable. Differences in bioavailability between the treatments may have been explained by aggregation behavior in pore water. The results suggest that nanoparticles present in soil from activities such as biosolids application have the potential to enter terrestrial food webs.

  2. Effect of Lignite Fly Ash on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarojini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is an amorphous ferroalumino silicate, an important solid waste around thermal power plants. It creates problems leading to environmental degradation due to improper utilization or disposal. However, fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients when it is used with biosolids. Supply of nutrients from fly ash with biosolids may enhance their agricultural use. The growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida was studied during vermicomposting of fly ash with cowdung and pressmud in four different proportions (T1,T2,T3 & T4 and one control i.e., cow dung and pressmud alone. The growth, cocoon and hatchlings production were observed at the interval of 15 days over a period of 60 days. The maximum worm growth and reproduction was observed in bedding material alone. Next to that the T1 was observed as the best mixture for vermiculture.

  3. A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1996-03-01

    The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 14-d acute toxicity test, and is cost effective. The authors applied the method to a variety of soil-testing problems. A food-and-substrate trial using artificial soil demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation to stimulate earthworm reproduction. Application of the procedure to assess efficacy of a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method also was used as a fast-screening analysis for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, used in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of E. foetida using the authors` method were similar to their responses in the OECD artificial-soil test method. The results of this study indicate that this procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

  4. A field screening method using earthworms (Eisenia foetida andrei) to evaluate contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilborn, D.C.; Bollman, M.A.; Gillett, C.S.; Ott, S.L.; Linder, G.L. [Takena Ecological Services, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An on-site biological assessment for soil toxicity was performed using a lumbricid earthworm, Eisenia foetida andrei, at the Milltown Reservoir Superfund Site on the Clark Fork River near Missoula, MT. The assessment provided an opportunity to evaluate test containers and methodologies. Sixty-four field test stations, each consisting of three test containers of site soil, a control container of artificial soil, and a container to house soil moisture and temperature recording devices, were used. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil samples from selected field stations. The test containers were constructed from sections of polyvinyl chloride pipe and were found to be suitable in preventing escape of test organisms and damage by animals. The site soils had levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc higher than those in surrounding watersheds. Combined mortality for exposure to the site soil was similar in both the laboratory and field tests. Combined sublethal responses to the site soil were also similar in both laboratory and field tests. Artificial soil controls in both field and laboratory tests resulted in combined mortality rates of 1% or less. The methodologies employed proved successful in maintaining an adequate soil moisture level and allowed for measurement of soil temperature.

  5. Uptake of cesium-134 by the earthworm species Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M.P.M.; Glastra, P.; Lembrechts, J.F.M.M. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Lab. of Radiation Research

    1996-06-01

    The uptake processes of {sup 134}Cs in two earthworm species were investigated as well as the effect of temperature on these processes. The results show that equilibrium concentrations in the two species differ by 1.5- to fivefold. Equilibrium concentrations range from 367 to 963 Bq g{sup {minus}1} in Lumbricus rubellus and from 920 to 1,893 g{sup {minus}1} in Eisenia foetida; biological half-lives range from 56 to 119 h and 52 to 64 h, respectively. Assimilation was two to four times higher in E. foetida and elimination rate one to two times higher in E. foetida than in L. rubellus. Further, the results show that temperature may affect the {sup 134}Cs concentration in these earthworms by a factor of 1.4 to 2.1 between 10 and 20 C, depending on the species. The maximum difference found within one species was a factor of 2.6. Their results show no clear effect of temperature on the assimilation, but a small negative effect on elimination, resulting in an increasing biological half-life and concentration factor with higher temperatures.

  6. ALUMINUM EFFECTS IN ALLEATO 80 WG FUNGICIDE ON EISENIA FOETIDA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiţa Brînzea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights the influence of Alleato 80WG used in the laboratory chronic test, on an artificial soil according to OECD, on Eisenia foetida species, in terms of survival rate, biomass and content of bioaccumulated aluminum.50 mature individuals were used for each concentration in 5 repetitions (10 individuals / repetition. The toxic concentrations used were: LC50= 500 mg•Kg-1(V1; LC50= 400 mg•Kg-1(V2; LC50= 300 mg•Kg-1(V3; LC50= 200 mg•Kg-1(V4/ dry soil, for 5 samples, the 5th (V5 being the control sample. The toxic concentrations in V1; V2 and V3, caused a significant decrease of the survival rate. The average values were 80%, as compared to V4 and control sample (V5. The correlations between Alleato 80 WG and the survival rate were negative (p<0.0001 while the increase of toxic concentration caused the decrease of the survival rate. After being subjected to toxic Alleato 80WG, biomass recorded for individual variants V1, V2, V3, and V4 does not differ significantly from version V5. The increase of toxic concentrations caused a significant increase of aluminum bioaccumulated by earthworms (R Square=0.304; p=0.004.

  7. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1) (p<0.05) when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2) of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation.

  8. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1 (p<0.05 when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2 of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation.

  9. Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Hoon; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Mo, Hyung-ho; Cho, Kijong; Ok, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins PAHs tested in E. fetida.

  10. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Dose dependent relationship was found. Highest DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations were noticed at 2XLD50. The results concluded that CoCl2 induced DNA damage, cytokinesis failure and chromosomal aberrations in E. hortensis earthworms.

  11. Vermiremediation and nutrient recovery of non-recyclable paper waste employing Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

    2009-02-15

    With the industrial growth, changing life style and consumeristic attitude paper consumption has increased significantly in yesteryears. The authors have observed that waste paper obtained from consumable items and used paper products are disposed in open by the consumers as these are not accepted by the salvaging industry. In the present study, an attempt has been made to vermicompost non-recyclable post-consumer paper waste (PW) amended with cow dung (CD) employing Eisenia fetida earthworm in order to transform it into a value added product, i.e., vermicompost. Vermicomposting of paper waste resulted in net reduction in ash content and total organic carbon (42.5-56.8%) but increment in total Kjeldhal nitrogen (2.0-2.4-fold), total potassium (2.0-fold), and total phosphorous (1.4-1.8-fold) was achieved after 91 days of worms' activity. The C:N ratio decreased with time in all the worm-worked vermireactors in the range of 71.9-82.0%, depicting advanced degree of organic matter stabilization. The FT-IR spectroscopy of the vermicomposts showed reduction in aliphatic compounds during the vermicomposting process. The results also demonstrated the worm growth and reproduction are not significantly affected if PW content is upto 30% in the vermireactor.

  12. Multi-isomorphous replacement phasing of the earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component A from Eisenia fetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤涌; 江涛; 张季平; 樊蓉; 吴骋; 梁栋材; 常文瑞

    2003-01-01

    Earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component A (EFEa) from Eisenia fetida, a protein functioning not only as a direct fibrinolytic enzyme, but also as a plasminogen activator, has been crystallized in P212121 space group with 3 proteinmolecules per asymmetric unit. Four heavy atom derivatives were prepared using a mother liquor containing 1.4 mol@L-1 Li2SO4 and 0.1 mol@L-1 MOPS buffer (pH7.2) and used to solve the protein's diffraction phase. The heavy atom binding sites in the derivative crystals were determined using difference Patterson and difference Fourier methods and were refined in combination to yield the initial protein's structure phase at 0.25 nm resolution. The non-crystallographic symmetryrelationship of the three independent protein molecules in the asymmetric unit was determined using the correlative heavy atom sites and used for the averagingof the initial electron density. As a result, the electron density was significantly improved, providing a solid foundation for subsequent structure determination.

  13. Toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on earthworm Eisenia fetida in phaiozem, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru; LIANG Ji-dong

    2006-01-01

    Acetochlor and methamidophos are two important agrochemicals which are widely applied to agricultural production in northeast China. The investigation on the earthworm Eisenia fetida as an important type of soil animals exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of acetochlor and methamidophos was thus carried out. The single toxic effect test showed that the two agrochemicals had their toxicity to the earthworms living in phaiozem. Acetochlor had a stronger acute toxic effect on the earthworms than methamidophos. The mortality of the earthworms exposed to individual acetochlor and methamidophos changed with an increase in the exposure time and the exposed concentrations. The LD50 value of acetochlor and methamidophos toxic to the earthworms was 115.6-275.3 and 29.5-228.6 mg/kg, respectively. The weight of the earthworms was a more sensitive index compared to the mortality in indicating toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem. When considering both the mortality and the body-weight change, the combined pollution of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem resulted in their synergic toxic effects on the earthworms.

  14. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  15. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of metalaxyl in earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in soil invertebrates facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the acute toxicities of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were assayed by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values for R- and rac-metalaxyl were 0.052 and 0.022 mg cm(-2), respectively, resulting in a two fold difference in toxicity. For uptake experiment, earthworms were exposed in soil at two dose levels (10 and 50 mg kg(dwt)(-1)). The concentrations of two enantiomers in soil and earthworm were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase. The results showed that metalaxyl was taken up by earthworm rapidly, and the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in earthworm was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. In addition, biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) used to express the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers was investigated, and significant difference was observed between rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uptake kinetics of metals by the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.f [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Devin, Simon [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Vijver, Martina G. [Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    It is well known that earthworms can accumulate metals. However, most accumulation studies focus on Cd-, Cu-, Pb- or Zn-amended soils, additionally few studies consider accumulation kinetics. Here we model the accumulation kinetics of 18 elements by Eisenia fetida, exposed to 8 metal-contaminated and 2 uncontaminated soils. Tissue metal concentration was determined after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days. Metal elimination rate was important in determining time to reach steady-state tissue metal concentration. Uptake flux to elimination rate ratios showed less variation and lower values for essential than for non-essential metals. In theory kinetic rate constants are dependent only on species and metal. Therefore it should be possible to predict steady-state tissue metal concentrations on the basis of very few measurements using the rate constants. However, our experiments show that it is difficult to extrapolate the accumulation kinetic constants derived using one soil to another. - Earthworm metal uptake and elimination constants derived from a one-compartment model show little systematic variation with soil properties.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON COMPOSTING EFFICIENCY OF Eisenia foetida (SAVIGNY AND Perionyx excavatus (PERRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two epigeic earthworms (Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia foetida was studied for composting of crop residues (wheat straw and paddy straw amended with farm yard manure. At the end of vermicomposting significant increase in total nitrogen (71 -150%, phosphorus (49 %–116% and potassium (26.3–142%, along with decrease in organic carbon was recorded in different experimental vermibeds. Maximum total nitrogen as well as available phosphorous concentration was observed from vermibeds inoculated with E. foetida, whereas increased exchangeable potassium and reduction in organic carbon was shown in vermicompost produced by P. excavatus. Enhanced hydrolytic enzyme activities of CMCases (1.51 folds, Fpases (2.11 folds and β-glucosidases (1.38 folds were recorded in treatments vermicomposted with P. excavatus. Microbial activity parameters such as dehydrogenase, FDA hydrolase, alkaline phophatase, were also monitored during decomposition process and gradual increase was recorded in vermibeds up to 90 days of experimentation. The mean individual live weight, growth rate (mg wt. worm -1 day-1 of earthworm were higher for P. excavatus as compared to E. foetida. Overall, P. excavatus exhibited better growth and mineralization efficiency, which further support the suitability of the species for large scale vermiculture operations.

  18. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  19. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  20. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  1. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  2. Bioaccumulation and the soil factors affecting the uptake of arsenic in earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Ki-Rak; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-12-01

    To better understand arsenic (As) bioaccumulation, a soil invertebrate species was exposed to 17 field soils contaminated with arsenic due to mining activity. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were kept in the soils for 70 days under laboratory conditions, as body burden increased and failed to reach equilibrium in all soils. After 70 days of exposure, XANES spectra determined that As was biotransformed to a highly reduced form. Uptake kinetics for As was calculated using one compartment model. Stepwise multiple regression suggested that sorbed As in soils are bioaccessible, and uptake is governed by soil properties (iron oxide, sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon) that control As mobility in soils. As in soil solution are highly related to uptake rate except four soils which had relatively high chloride or phosphate. The results imply that uptake of As is through As interaction with soil characteristics as well as direct from the soil solution. Internal validation showed that empirically derived regression equations can be used for predicting As uptake as a function of soil properties within the range of soil properties in the data set.

  3. Rank-based biomarker index to assess cadmium ecotoxicity on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarino, O; Hyršl, P; Dobeš, P; Vojtek, L; Vernile, P; Bari, G; Terzano, R; Spagnuolo, M; de Lillo, E

    2016-02-01

    A proper soil risk assessment needs to estimate the processes that affect the fate and the behaviour of a contaminant, which are influenced by soil biotic and abiotic components. For this reason, the measurement of biomarkers in soil bioindicator organisms, such as earthworms, has recently received increasing attention. In this study, the earthworm Eisenia andrei was used to assess the pollutant-induced stress syndrome after exposure to sublethal concentrations of Cd (10 or 100 μg g(-1)) in OECD soil, after 14 d of exposure. Cadmium bioaccumulation and potential biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), phenoloxidase (PO), metallothioneins (MTs) and genotoxic damage were determined. Results suggested that the exposure to 10 and 100 μg g(-1) Cd significantly increased Cd bioaccumulation, MTs and MDA; 100 μg g(-1) Cd contamination evidenced significantly higher values of H2O2 content and PO activity; CAT activity was inhibited at the higher concentration while GST and Comet assay did not show any significant differences from the control. Rank-based biomarker index showed that both different contaminated soils had an effect on the earthworms and allowed to validate the ecotoxicological relevance of this battery of biomarkers for a promising integrated multi-marker approach in soil monitoring and assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation and Elimination of the Herbicide Clomazone in the Earthworms Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Li, Ping; Li, Qing X; Zheng, Pengfei; Diao, Xiaoping

    2015-11-01

    Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation, and elimination of herbicide clomazone in the earthworm Eisenia fetida were investigated in the different exposure systems. The LC50 values of clomazone on earthworms were 5.6 μg cm(-2) in the contact filter paper test (48 h), 174.9 mg kg(-1) (7 days) and 123.4 mg kg(-1) (14 days) in artificial soil test, respectively. Clomazone could rapidly bioaccumulate in earthworms and reached the highest concentration after 3 days exposure, with the maximum concentrations of 9.0, 35.3 and 142.3 mg kg(-1) at 10.0, 40.0 and 160.0 mg kg(-1) of clomazone, respectively. Clomazone uptake showed a good correlation with exposure concentration. After the 14th day, clomazone declined to minimum value. About 74%-80% of accumulated clomazone was eliminated within 1 day after exposed to clomazone-free soil. However, a trace amount of clomazone persisted for a relatively long time in earthworms.

  5. Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Malarić, Krešimir; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) can have various biological effects. In this study the oxidative and genotoxic effects were investigated in earthworms Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to RF-EMF at the mobile phone frequency (900 MHz). Earthworms were exposed to the homogeneous RF-EMF at field levels of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m(-1) for a period of 2h using a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. At the field level of 23 V m(-1) the effect of longer exposure (4h) and field modulation (80% AM 1 kHz sinusoidal) was investigated as well. All exposure treatments induced significant genotoxic effect in earthworms coelomocytes detected by the Comet assay, demonstrating DNA damaging capacity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Field modulation additionally increased the genotoxic effect. Moreover, our results indicated the induction of antioxidant stress response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity as a result of the RF-EMF exposure, and demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Antioxidant responses and the potential of RF-EMF to induce damage to lipids, proteins and DNA differed depending on the field level applied, modulation of the field and duration of E. fetida exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Nature of detected DNA lesions and oxidative stress as the mechanism of action for the induction of DNA damage are discussed.

  6. Self-assemblage and quorum in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes.

  7. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P weeds) into three clusters-poor vermicompost substrates, moderate vermicompost substrate, and excellent vermicompost substrate. Two principal components (PCs) have been identified by factor analysis with a cumulative variance of 90.43 %. PC1 accounts for 47.17 % of the total variance represents "reproduction factor" and PC2 explaining 43.26 % variance representing "growth factor." Thus, the nature of macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida.

  8. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: qyzcaas@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang2003@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  9. Influence of soil properties on the bioaccumulation and effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Freire, A; Peinado, F J Martín; Ortiz, M Díez; van Gestel, C A M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of soil properties on the uptake and toxicity effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed for 4 weeks to seven natural soils spiked with different arsenic concentrations. Water-soluble soil concentrations (AsW) and internal As concentrations in the earthworms (AsE) were greatly different between soils. These two variables were highly correlated and were key factors in earthworm toxicity response. AsW was explained by some soil properties, such as the pH, calcium carbonate content, ionic strength, texture or oxide forms. Toxicity showed a clear variation between soils, in some cases without achieving 50 % adverse effect at the highest As concentration added (600 mg kg(-1)). Nevertheless, soil properties did not show, in general, a high relation with studied toxicity endpoints, although the high correlation with AsW could greatly reduce indirectly As bioavailability and toxicity risk for earthworms. Obtained results suggest that soil properties should be part of the criteria to establishing thresholds for contaminated soils because they will be key in controlling As availability and thus result in different degrees of toxicity.

  10. Hypotensive and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Eisenia fetida Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of an Eisenia fetida extract (EFE and its possible mechanisms in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats. Methods. Sixteen-week-old SHR rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY rats were used in this study. Rats were, respectively, given EFE (EFE group, captopril (captopril group, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (normal control group and SHR group for 4 weeks. ACE inhibitory activity of EFE in vitro was determined. The systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured using a Rat Tail-Cuff Blood Pressure System. Levels of angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Ald, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1α in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay, and serum nitric oxide (NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent systems. Results. EFE had marked ACE inhibitory activity in vitro (IC50 = 2.5 mg/mL. After the 4-week drug management, SHR rats in EFE group and in captopril group had lower SBP and DBP, lower levels of Ang II and Ald, and higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1α and NO than the SHR rats in SHR group. Conclusion. These results indicate that EFE has hypotensive effects in SHR rats and its effects might be associated with its ACE inhibitory activity.

  11. Involvement of the iron regulatory protein from Eisenia andrei earthworms in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis.

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    Petra Procházková

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis in cells is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that exist in different organisms. IRPs are cytosolic proteins that bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions (UTR of mRNAs that encode many proteins involved in iron metabolism. In this study, we have cloned and described a new regulatory protein belonging to the family of IRPs from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (EaIRP. The earthworm IRE site in 5'-UTR of ferritin mRNA most likely folds into a secondary structure that differs from the conventional IRE structures of ferritin due to the absence of a typically unpaired cytosine that participates in protein binding. Prepared recombinant EaIRP and proteins from mammalian liver extracts are able to bind both mammalian and Eisenia IRE structures of ferritin mRNA, although the affinity of the rEaIRP/Eisenia IRE structure is rather low. This result suggests the possible contribution of a conventional IRE structure. When IRP is supplemented with a Fe-S cluster, it can function as a cytosolic aconitase. Cellular cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, as well as recombinant EaIRP, exhibit aconitase activity that can be abolished by the action of oxygen radicals. The highest expression of EaIRP was detected in parts of the digestive tract. We can assume that earthworms may possess an IRE/IRP regulatory network as a potential mechanism for maintaining cellular iron homeostasis, although the aconitase function of EaIRP is most likely more relevant.

  12. Anticoagulant screening of marine algae from Mexico, and partial characterization of the active sulfated polysaccharide from Eisenia arborea

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ochoa, Mauricio; Murillo-Álvarez, Jesús Iván; Rodríguez Montesinos, Yoloxochilt Elizabeth; Hernández Carmona, Gustavo; Arvizu Higuera, Dora Luz; Peralta Cruz, Javier;; Lizardi Mendoza, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro anticoagulant activity of 41 water extracts of various seaweeds from Baja California Sur, Mexico was evaluated. In this study, nine extracts exhibited anticoagulant activity in the prothrombin time assay, and 29 extracts were active in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. The water extract obtained at 25°C from the brown seaweed Eisenia arborea was the most active in both assays, increasing the normal blood clotting-time over 300 s at 100 mg mL-1. The fractionation of...

  13. The sublethal effects of the organochlorines dieldrin and lindane on growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

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    Editorial Office

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental exposure of the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae to organochlorines showed that dieldrin causes damage to sperm ultrastructure when viewed electronmicroscopically. Worms containing concentrations of 7,27 mg/kg dieldrin and higher showed more than 10% sperm damage. Exposure of Eisenia fetida to sublethal concentrations of lindane did not result in sperm damage but demonstrated an increase in growth and reproductive activity. It is argued that quantification of sperm damage and correlation with pesticide concentration could provide a useful tool for evaluating environmental quality. Furthermore, the effects of sublethal concentrations of pesticides that manifest themselves in increased growth and reproductive activity could affect ecological balances.

  14. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

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    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  15. Combined toxicity of imidacloprid and three insecticides to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

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    Cang, Tao; Dai, Dejiang; Yang, Guiling; Yu, Yijun; Lv, Lu; Cai, Leiming; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-03-01

    Although the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used in many ecotoxicological studies in recent years, most of these studies have only focused on assessing the effects of individual insecticides. In the present study, we aimed to compare the individual and combined toxic effects of imidacloprid and three insecticides (phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin) on E. fetida. We showed that imidacloprid had the highest intrinsic toxicity to the worms in filter paper contact test, followed by phoxim and lambda-cyhalothrin, while the least toxicity was found from chlorpyrifos. Moreover, 14-day soil toxicity test revealed that the highest toxicity was still detected for imidacloprid with an LC50 value of 2.82 (2.61∼3.17) mg a.i. kg(-1) dry weight (DW), followed by chlorpyrifos with an LC50 value of 384.9 (353.5∼440.3) mg a.i. kg(-1) DW. Meanwhile, a relatively less toxicity was found for lambda-cyhalothrin with an LC50 value of 560.3 (475.9∼718.5) mg a.i. kg(-1) DW, while the lowest toxicity to E. fetida was observed for phoxim with an LC50 value of 901.5 (821.3∼1017) mg a.i. kg(-1) DW. In addition, significant synergistic responses were found from the ternary mixture of imidacloprid-phoxim-lambda-cyhalothrin and quaternary mixture of imidacloprid-phoxim-chlorpyrifos-lambda-cyhalothrin in both bioassay systems. Therefore, our findings highlighted that the simultaneous presence of several insecticides in the soil environment might lead to increased toxicity, resulting in serious damage to the nontarget organisms compared with individual insecticides.

  16. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

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    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management.

  17. Highly selective biomarkers for pesticides developed in Eisenia fetida using SELDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-San; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Park, Eun-Sil; Bae, In Kyung; Kim, Yong-Eun; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-03-01

    The repeated use of pesticides, and their subsequent residues, has contributed to severe adverse effects on the environment, including risks to human health. Therefore, it is important to assess the quality of the environment to ensure it remains free from pesticide residues. The six pesticides tested in this study showed high mortality on Eisenia fetida with LC50 values ranging from 7.7 to 37.9 g L(-1). The strongest lethal effect resulted from the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (LC50=7.7 g L(-1)). Following exposure to the carbamate pesticides, acetylcholinesterase activity in E. fetida decreased dramatically in comparison to the control. Carboxylesterase activity was only lowered in E. fetida exposed to propoxur, when compared to the control. The remaining five pesticides had no significant effect on carboxylesterase activity in E. fetida. In order to discover pesticide-specific biomarkers with differentially expressed proteins after exposure to pesticides, protein patterns of pesticide-treated E. fetida were analyzed using SELDI-TOF MS with Q10 ProteinChips. Protein patterns were compared with their intensities at the same mass-to-charge ratios (m/z). All 42 peaks had intensities with associated p-values less than 0.089, and 40 of these peaks had associated p-values of 0.05. Using SELDI-TOF MS technology, selective biomarkers for the six pesticides tested were found in E. fetida; four proteins with 5425, 5697, 9523, and 9868 m/z were consistently observed in the earthworms following exposure to the carbamates.

  18. Ecotoxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida following exposure to soil contaminated with imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Baohua; Wang, Caixia

    2014-11-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used widely in agriculture worldwide. The adverse effects of imidacloprid on exposed biota have brought it increasing attention. However, knowledge about the effects of imidacloprid on antioxidant defense systems and digestive systems in the earthworm is vague and not comprehensive. In the present study, the changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), cellulase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to artificial soil treated with imidacloprid were examined systematically. The results showed that the activity of these biomarkers was closely related to the dose and duration of the exposure to imidacloprid. The activity of SOD was stimulated significantly at doses of 0.66 and 2 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid but markedly inhibited at a dose of 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid with prolonged exposure. The activities of CAT and POD increased irregularly at 0.2-4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid over different exposure times. The level of ROS at a dose of 2 or 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid was significantly increased over the entire exposure period. When the concentration of imidacloprid was above 0.66 mg kg(-1), the balance of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and ROS level was interrupted. The activity of cellulase decreased significantly with prolonged exposure. At the stress of 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid, the content of MDA was significantly increased with increasing exposure time. The results of the present study suggest that imidacloprid has a potentially harmful effect on E. fetida and may be helpful for assessment of the risk of imidacloprid to the soil ecosystem environment. However, to obtain more comprehensive toxicity data, it is necessary to investigate the effects of imidacloprid on earthworm using native soils in the future work.

  19. Heavy metal induced biomolecule and genotoxic changes in earthworm Eisenia fetida

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    G. Muthukaruppan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vibrational [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR] spectroscopic method was used for the structural and compositional analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida by monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live cells. The FTIR analyses for metals taken up by the E. fetida will be useful for analyzing the impact of the heavy metal stress on the worm metabolism. The epigeic earthworm E. fetida were exposed to 100 %, 75 %, 50 %, 30 %, 25 %, 15 % and 5 % of dried automobile service station waste mud. All the earthworms exposed in the 100 %, 75 % and 50 % concentrations didn’t survived within 10days. Further experiments were conducted with 25 %, 15 % and 5 % concentration of wastes. Each concentration level was tested with three replicates using 10 animals and the metabolic response after exposure to the heavy metal containing service station waste mud was assessed by FTIR. Furthermore we also emphasized that DNA damage was confirmed with the use of other biomarker like comet assay. The peaks at 1045, 1080, 1236 cm−1 and 1650 cm−1 represented the overall susceptibility of nucleotides, phospholipids, DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids and proteins were modified due to heavy metal accumulation. In flow-through, single cell gel electrophoresis revealed the degradation nuclear DNA. Heavy metals accumulation in the worms was measured and it was found that lead, zinc and copper accumulation increased in the treatment group. Without the use of biomarkers for identifying ecological risks of land contamination, traditional assessment would be difficult to interpret. This new FTIR based biomolecules study revealed a clear molecule shift in the exposed worms, due to heavy metal accumulation.

  20. Effects of Cry1Ab Bt maize straw return on bacterial community of earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yanyan; Zeng, Huilan; Zhang, Yahui; Wang, Jianwu

    2017-04-01

    The eco-toxicological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on earthworm life-history traits were widely studied and the results were controversial, while their effects on earthworm bacterial community have been rarely studied. Here, effects of two hybrids of Bt maize [5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810)] straw return on Eisenia fetida bacterial community were investigated by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) combing with DNA sequencing, compared to near-isogenic non-Bt maize (5422). Bt maize straw return had significant effects on soil nutrients, especially for available nitrogen (N). The significant differences were shown in soil bacterial community between Bt and non-Bt maize treatments on the 75(th) and 90(th) d, which was closely correlated with soil available N, P and K rather than Cry1Ab protein. There was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial community of earthworm gut contents between Bt and non-Bt maize treatments. The significant differences in the bacterial community of earthworm casts were found among three maize varieties treatments, which were closely correlated with Cry1Ab protein and N levels. The differentiated bacterial species in earthworm casts mainly belonged to Proteobacteria, including Brevundimonas, Caulobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Methylobacterium, Asticcacaulis and Achromobacter etc., which were associated with the mineralization, metabolic process and degradation of plants residues. Therefore, Bt maize straw return caused changes in the bacterial community of E. fetida casts, which was possibly caused by the direct (Cry1Ab protein) and non-expected effects (N levels) of Bt maize straw.

  1. Combined subacute toxicity of copper and antiparasitic albendazole to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Hongshuang; Li, Xuemei; Sun, Zhenjun

    2016-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the most common metal contaminants, and albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficacy against helminthes. It is believed that the two may co-exist in soil. In this study, the combined subacute toxicity of Cu exposure (0, 80, 120, 160 mg kg(-1)) and ABZ exposure (0, 3, 9 mg kg(-1)) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were observed using three approaches, namely chronic growth and reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity, and earthworm Cu residue. The results have shown that the toxicity of Cu on cocoon hatching success and biomass was alleviated by presence of low concentrations of ABZ (3 mg kg(-1)) during a 56-day exposure period. However, the sensitivity of the earthworms' reproduction to Cu increased with the presence of high concentrations of ABZ (9 mg kg(-1)), indicating a reduction beginning at a Cu concentration of 80 mg kg(-1), in the cocoon number, hatching success, and biomass. In addition, the three enzyme activities exhibited different responsive patterns, indicating inducement in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibition in the superoxide dismutase, which were dependent on the exposure times and concentrations. In regard to the earthworm Cu residue, when increasing Cu exposure concentrations, the internal Cu concentrations tended to level off, exhibited a linear pattern at the Cu concentration range of 40 to 120 mg kg(-1), and showed a stable trend above 120 mg kg(-1). The results of the present study can potentially provide important information regarding the combined toxicity of the veterinary drugs and the heavy metals in soil.

  2. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer.

  3. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  4. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  5. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  6. Exposure to 17β-Oestradiol Induces Oxidative Stress in the Non-Oestrogen Receptor Invertebrate Species Eisenia fetida.

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    Zbynek Heger

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida.Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50.70% inhibition in 100 μg/kg of E2. We further demonstrated that the exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a contaminant of emerging concern, 17β-oestradiol (E2, significantly affected the molecules involved in antioxidant defence. Exposure to E2 results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stimulation of antioxidant systems (metallothionein and reduced oxidized glutathione ratio but not phytochelatins at both the mRNA and translated protein levels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-imaging revealed the subcuticular bioaccumulation of oestradiol-3,4-quinone, altering the levels of local antioxidants in a time-dependent manner.The present study illustrates that although most invertebrates do not possess oestrogen receptors, these organisms can be affected by oestrogen hormones, likely reflecting free diffusion into the cellular microenvironment with subsequent degradation to molecules that undergo redox cycling, producing ROS, thereby increasing environmental contamination that also perilously affects keystone animals, forming lower trophic levels.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  8. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  9. Evaluación de la toxicidad de cobre en suelos a través de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en eisenia foetida Assessment of copper toxicity in soils using biomarkers of oxidative stress in eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Gaete

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper toxicity in soil was evaluated using biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Agricultural topsoils from mining areas of the Aconcagua river basin were collected. Total copper concentrations were in the range of 94-959 mg kg-1, while the exchangeable copper concentrations were in the range of 46-2225 µg kg-1. Earthworms exposed to soil with exchangeable copper concentrations above 32 µg kg-1 showed an increase in catalase activity. Parameters of antioxidant activity were more sensitive than the weight change and thus can be used as appropriate biomarkers in Eisenia foetida.

  10. Effects of different gamma exposure regimes on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel-Aas, Turid, E-mail: turid.hertel-aas@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Brunborg, Gunnar, E-mail: Gunnar.Brunborg@fhi.no [Department of Chemical Toxicology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo (Norway); Jaworska, Alicja, E-mail: Alicja.Jaworska@nrpa.no [Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, 1332, Osteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit, E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, Deborah Helen, E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    Ecological risk assessment of ionising radiation requires knowledge about the responses of individuals and populations to chronic exposures, including situations when exposure levels change over time. The present study investigated processes such as recovery and the adaptive response with respect to reproduction endpoints in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Furthermore, a crossed experiment was performed to investigate the influence of F0 parental and F1 embryonic irradiation history on the response of irradiated or non-irradiated F1 offspring. Recovery: The sterility induced by sub-chronic exposure at 17 mGy/h (accumulated dose: 25 Gy) was temporary, and 8 weeks after irradiation the worms had regained their reproductive capacity (number of viable offspring produced per adult per week). Adaptive response: Adult worms were continuously exposed at a low priming dose rate of 0.14 mGy/h for 12 weeks (accumulated dose: 0.24 Gy), followed by 14 weeks exposure at a challenge dose rate of 11 mGy/h. The results suggest a lack of adaptive response, since there were no significant differences in the effects on reproduction capacity between the primed and the unprimed groups after challenge doses ranging from 7.6 to 27 Gy. Crossed experiment: The effects of exposure at 11 mGy/h for 21 weeks on growth, sexual maturation and reproduction of offspring, derived either from parent worms and cocoons both exposed at 11 mGy/h, or from non-irradiated parents and cocoons (total accumulated dose 44 and 38 Gy, respectively) were compared. There were no significant differences between the two exposed offspring groups for any of the endpoints. The reproduction capacity was very low for both groups compared to the controls, but the reproduction seemed to be maintained at the reduced level, which could indicate acclimatisation or stabilisation. Finally, parental and embryonic exposures at 11 mGy/h did not affect reproduction in the F1 offspring as adults.

  11. Design, validation and annotation of transcriptome-wide oligonucleotide probes for the oligochaete annelid Eisenia fetida.

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    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available High density oligonucleotide probe arrays have increasingly become an important tool in genomics studies. In organisms with incomplete genome sequence, one strategy for oligo probe design is to reduce the number of unique probes that target every non-redundant transcript through bioinformatic analysis and experimental testing. Here we adopted this strategy in making oligo probes for the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species for which we have sequenced transcriptome-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our objectives were to identify unique transcripts as targets, to select an optimal and non-redundant oligo probe for each of these target ESTs, and to annotate the selected target sequences. We developed a streamlined and easy-to-follow approach to the design, validation and annotation of species-specific array probes. Four 244K-formatted oligo arrays were designed using eArray and were hybridized to a pooled E. fetida cRNA sample. We identified 63,541 probes with unsaturated signal intensities consistently above the background level. Target transcripts of these probes were annotated using several sequence alignment algorithms. Significant hits were obtained for 37,439 (59% probed targets. We validated and made publicly available 63.5K oligo probes so the earthworm research community can use them to pursue ecological, toxicological, and other functional genomics questions. Our approach is efficient, cost-effective and robust because it (1 does not require a major genomics core facility; (2 allows new probes to be easily added and old probes modified or eliminated when new sequence information becomes available, (3 is not bioinformatics-intensive upfront but does provide opportunities for more in-depth annotation of biological functions for target genes; and (4 if desired, EST orthologs to the UniGene clusters of a reference genome can be identified and selected in order to improve the target gene specificity of designed probes. This approach is

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of RDX and TNT interactive sublethal effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Inouye, Laura S; Deng, Youping; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Perkins, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    Background Explosive compounds such as TNT and RDX are recalcitrant contaminants often found co-existing in the environment. In order to understand the joint effects of TNT and RDX on earthworms, an important ecological and bioindicator species at the molecular level, we sampled worms (Eisenia fetida) exposed singly or jointly to TNT (50 mg/kg soil) and RDX (30 mg/kg soil) for 28 days and profiled gene expression in an interwoven loop designed microarray experiment using a 4k-cDNA array. Lethality, growth and reproductive endpoints were measured. Results Sublethal doses of TNT and RDX had no significant effects on the survival and growth of earthworms, but significantly reduced cocoon and juvenile counts. The mixture exhibited more pronounced reproductive toxicity than each single compound, suggesting an additive interaction between the two compounds. In comparison with the controls, we identified 321 differentially expressed transcripts in TNT treated worms, 32 in RDX treated worms, and only 6 in mixture treated worms. Of the 329 unique differentially expressed transcripts, 294 were affected only by TNT, 24 were common to both TNT and RDX treatments, and 3 were common to all treatments. The reduced effects on gene expression in the mixture exposure suggest that RDX might interact in an antagonistic manner with TNT at the gene expression level. The disagreement between gene expression and reproduction results may be attributed to sampling time, absence of known reproduction-related genes, and lack of functional information for many differentially expressed transcripts. A gene potentially related to reproduction (echinonectin) was significantly depressed in TNT or RDX exposed worms and may be linked to reduced fecundity. Conclusions Sublethal doses of TNT and RDX affected many biological pathways from innate immune response to oogenesis, leading to reduced reproduction without affecting survival and growth. A complex interaction between mixtures of RDX and TNT was

  13. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  14. Bioremediation of the Soils Contaminated with Cadmium and Chromium, by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

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    Elham Aseman- Bashiz1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the world is the soils contamination by heavy metals in the industrial areas, and especially the contamination of the agricultural lands. The use of earthworms to bioremediate the soils results in reducing the pollutants concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism on the contaminants in the earthworm's body. Hence, the present study aimed to prove the biological effectiveness of Eisenia fetida earthworms in bioremediation the soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Concentration of chromium and cadmium pollution in soil was determined to be 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g respectively. 30 worms were added to 500 g soil samples. Chromium and cadmium concentration in soil and in the body of worms was measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. To measure the concentration of chromium and cadmium we used ICP spectrometry. Software in usage was SPSS version 17. There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. on the other hand chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 mg/g to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Comparison of mortality in two different time periods showed that by passing the time and by increase in soil chromium and cadmium concentrations the death toll of worms rises. The increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, say that using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended at such concentration of chromium but using the worms for the removal of cadmium at concentrations of 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the soil is recommended.

  15. Use of the reference organism Eisenia foetida to investigate bioaccumulation and biological effects following contamination of soil by uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, A.; Cozzella, M.L.; Basso, E. [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301 00060, Rome (Italy); Ninova, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Biology, G. Bonchev St. 21, 1130, Sofia (Bulgaria); Fesenko, S.; Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency Laboratories Seibersdorf, A -1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The use of reference organisms for radiological assessments on non -human species is an integral part of the current systemic approach for the management of radiation effects in the environment. The reference organisms approach allows the evaluation of radiological impact on the environment taking into account relationships among ambient radionuclide activity concentrations, dose and expected adverse biological effects. Four broad categories of biological damages are included: mortality, morbidity, DNA damage and reproductive failure. Earthworms are one of the most important biotic components in the soil, they are commonly used in studies of toxicity and they are included in the list of the reference organisms suggested by International (ICRP) and national organisations. However, up to now, no adequate results have been obtained for earthworms allowing the identification of the dose-response relationship, essentially for the contamination scenarios where radionuclide can provide both radiation and chemical impact. Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal. Recently there has been public concern on the presence in the environment of depleted uranium (DU), a by-product of the process used to enrich natural uranium ore for use in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapons. The presence of uranium in soil could lead to both toxic and radiation impact and it is difficult to distinguish the different impacts and their contribution to possible biological effects. European Union, OECD and FAO have selected the earthworms Eisenia for testing soil toxicity because it is an organism that can be easily cultured in the laboratory, an extensive database is available, and it feeds at the soil surface level. The prime objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of Eisenia foetida as a bio-marker of U environmental impact. Four groups of six sexually mature Eisenia foetida were maintained in the dark at 21 deg. C in Petri

  16. Vermicomposting of Tea Factory Coal Ash: metal accumulation and metallothionein response in Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii (Kinberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, L; Sarkar, S; Mukherjee, S; Das, S; Barman, S; Raul, P; Bhattacharyya, P; Mandal, N C; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Earthworms can accumulate heavy metals in their intestines to a great extent. Impact of feed materials and duration of metal exposure on natural activity of earthworms are rather unclear; this investigation therefore addresses the impact of metal rich Tea Factory Coal Ash (TFCA) on reproduction, composting and metal accumulation ability of Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii. Earthworm count and cocoon production increased significantly during vermicomposting. pH of the vermicomposted mixtures shifted toward neutrality, total organic C decreased substantially and total N enhanced significantly compared to composting. High heavy metal (Mn, Zn, Cu, As) accumulation was recorded in the intestine of both the earthworm species. Moreover, gradual increase in the metal-inducible metallothionein concentration indicated the causal mechanism of metal accumulation in these species. TFCA+cow dung (CD) (1:1) were most favorable feed mixture for E. fetida and TFCA+CD (1:2) were good for L. mauritii in regard to metal accumulation and compost quality.

  17. Vermicomposting of sugar industry waste (press mud) mixed with cow dung employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, P; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2010-01-01

    In India, millions of tons of press mud (PM) are generated by sugar mills every year. This paper reports the potential of vermitechnology to convert sugar industry waste PM mixed with cow dung (CD) into vermicompost, employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. A total of six different reactors were established having different ratios of PM and CD including one control (CD only). The growth and fecundity of E. fetida was monitored for 13 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 100% CD, but earthworms grew and reproduced favourably up to 1:1 PM and CD feed composition. However, greater percentages of PM in different reactors significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Vermicomposting resulted in a decrease in carbon concentration and an increase in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations of the vermicompost. Investigations indicated that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of PM into useful fertilizing material, if mixed at maximum 50% with CD.

  18. BIOACCUMULATION AND EFFECTS OF Zn AND Mn CONTAINED BY DITHANE M45 ON EISENIA FOETIDA (OLIGOCHAETA-LUMBRICIDAE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiţa Brînzea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the effects of Zn and Mn contained by Dithane M45 fungicide on Eisenia foetida epigenous species. There were five experimental variants of five repetitions each. Dithane M45 concentrations were: V1:250mgkg-1/dry soil, V2:200mgkg-1/dry soil, V3:150mgkg-1/ dry soil, V4:100mgkg-1/dry soil, with the fifth (V5 as control variant. There were analyzed: 1. survival rate (% after applying toxic and correlations between survival rate and toxic concentrations; 2. initial biomass (g and biomass resulting from (g intoxication; 3. Zn and Mn bioaccumulation (ppm in earthworms. Conclusions: the survival rate decreased to the greatest concentrations compared to control variant; individual biomass decreased after applying toxic; Mn and Zn bioaccumulation in earthworms increased with increasing concentration of Dithane M45.

  19. [Impact of benzo [a] pyrene the expression of mitochondrion-encoded genes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sen-lin; Song, Yu-fang; Qiu, Xiao-yan; Sun, Tie-heng; Zhang, Wei; Ackland, M L

    2008-02-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida's benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) exposure experiments were carried out in artificial soil according to ISO 11268-1:1993. And then the upregulated and downregulated subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed by Clontech PCR-Select cDNA Subtration Kit. From the BaP exposure upregulated subtractive cDNA library, several cDNA segments matched mitochondrion-encoded genes were found, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I), subunit II (CO II), subunit Ill (CO III), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NDH1), and ATP synthase subunit 6. The result indicated BaP and the subsequent oxidative stress disturbed the expression of mitochondrion-encoded genes, and this was potential biomarker for oxidative stress following xenobiotic exposure.

  20. Avoidance behaviour of Eisenia fetida to carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and metamidophos in natural soils from the highlands of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, Glenda; Keller-Forrer, Karin

    2011-07-01

    Earthworm avoidance behaviour test is an important screening tool in soil eco-toxicology. This test has been developed and validated under North American and European conditions. However, little research has been performed on the avoidance test in the tropics. This work demonstrates the potential suitability of the avoidance behaviour test as screening method in the highlands of Colombia using Eisenia fetida as the bio-indicator species on contaminated soils with carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. Though for the two active ingredients 100% avoidance was not reached, a curve with six meaningful concentrations is provided. No significant avoidance behaviour trend was found for mancozeb and methamidophos. Tests were conducted in the field yielded similar results to the tests carried out in the laboratory for chlorpyrifos and mancozeb. However, for the case of carbofuran and methamidophos, differences of more than double in avoidance were obtained. Divergence might be explained by soil and temperature conditions.

  1. Cocomposting with and without Eisenia fetida for conversion of toxic paper mill sludge to a soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Arvinder; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Dhaliwal, S S; Rup, Pushpinder J

    2010-11-01

    Present study was envisaged for fast bioremediation of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil ameliorating agent. Although a rich source of organic carbon this sludge cannot be directly applied in fields and is recycled very slowly in landfills as it is deficient in other nutrients. Therefore it was mixed with cattle dung in various proportions and subjected to aerobic cocomposting (without worms) and vermicocomposting (with Eisenia fetida). It was observed that mixing cattle dung with the sludge improved physico-chemical characteristics (with transition metals in the permissible range for manures) of the products of both the processes and enhanced its acceptability for worms. Higher decline in organic carbon and higher content of nitrogen and phosphorous along with lower electrical conductivity and higher pH of the products of vermicomposting indicated that E. fetida helped in fast conversion of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil conditioner in 100days.

  2. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Wolfe, David M; Celejewski, Magda A; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)--based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms.

  3. Exposure to 17β-Oestradiol Induces Oxidative Stress in the Non-Oestrogen Receptor Invertebrate Species Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Michalek, Petr; Guran, Roman; Havelkova, Barbora; Kominkova, Marketa; Cernei, Natalia; Richtera, Lukas; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida. Methodology/Principal Findings Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50.70% inhibition in 100 μg/kg of E2). We further demonstrated that the exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a contaminant of emerging concern, 17β-oestradiol (E2), significantly affected the molecules involved in antioxidant defence. Exposure to E2 results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the stimulation of antioxidant systems (metallothionein and reduced oxidized glutathione ratio) but not phytochelatins at both the mRNA and translated protein levels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging revealed the subcuticular bioaccumulation of oestradiol-3,4-quinone, altering the levels of local antioxidants in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance The present study illustrates that although most invertebrates do not possess oestrogen receptors, these organisms can be affected by oestrogen hormones, likely reflecting free diffusion into the cellular microenvironment with subsequent degradation to molecules that undergo redox cycling, producing ROS, thereby increasing environmental contamination that also perilously affects keystone animals, forming lower trophic levels. PMID:26695684

  4. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  5. Evaluación de la toxicidad de cobre en suelos a través de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en eisenia foetida

    OpenAIRE

    Gaete,Hernán; Hidalgo,María Eliana; Neaman, Alexander; Ávila,Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Copper toxicity in soil was evaluated using biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation) in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Agricultural topsoils from mining areas of the Aconcagua river basin were collected. Total copper concentrations were in the range of 94-959 mg kg-1, while the exchangeable copper concentrations were in the range of 46-2225 µg kg-1. Earthworms exposed to soil with exchangeable copper concentrations above 32 µg kg-1...

  6. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

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    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  7. SSH gene expression profile of Eisenia andrei exposed in situ to a naturally contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the exposure of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine, were assessed through gene expression profile evaluation by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Organisms were exposed in situ for 56 days, in containers placed both in a contaminated and in a non-contaminated site (reference). Organisms were sampled after 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results showed that the main physiological functions affected by the exposure to metals and radionuclides were: metabolism, oxireductase activity, redox homeostasis and response to chemical stimulus and stress. The relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and elongation factor 1 alpha was also affected, since the genes encoding these enzymes were significantly up and down-regulated, after 14 and 56 days of exposure, respectively. Also, an EST with homology for SET oncogene was found to be up-regulated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this gene was identified in earthworms and thus, further studies are required, to clarify its involvement in the toxicity of metals and radionuclides. Considering the results herein presented, gene expression profiling proved to be a very useful tool to detect earthworms underlying responses to metals and radionuclides exposure, pointing out for the detection and development of potential new biomarkers.

  8. In vitro effects of PCDDs/Fs on NK-like cell activity of Eisenia andrei earthworms

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    Hayet Belmeskine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed in vitro the effects of PCDD/Fs on the NK-like cell activity in Eisenia andrei earthworms using flow cytometry for analysis. NK-like coelomocytes isolated from E. andrei and used as effectors were exposed to various concentrations of PCDDs/Fs mixture, C1 (6.25x10-3 ng 2378- TCDD/mL, C2 (12.5x10-3 ng 2378-TCDD/mL and C3 (25x10-3 ng 2378-TCDD/mL, before adding them to human tumoral cells (K562 used as targets. We evaluated the percentage of targets lysed by Nk-like cells. The results showed a significant stimulation of the NKlike activity at C3 when PCDD/Fs were not removed from effectors before contact with targets, while no effects were noted when the effectors were washed (PCDD/Fs removed or fixed. Assessment of the viability of the targets (K562, exposed alone and separately from effectors, to the three concentrations of PCDD/Fs, C1, C2 and C3, showed that all these concentrations were cytotoxic for K562. Results suggest that PCDD/Fs concentrations tested in this assay may be considered too low to induce suppressive effects on the immune function such as the NK-like activity in E. andrei earthworms.

  9. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  10. The Histochemical Characterization of the Glycoconjugates in the Epidermal Mucous Cells of the Red Californian Earthworm, Eisenia foetida

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    Kenan Çinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the nature and regional distribution of the glycoconjugates secreted by epidermal mucous cells in Eisenia foetida (Annelida. Specimens were divided into six regions from anterior to posterior. The histochemistry was carried out by using standard histochemical methods. Histochemical staining properties of glycoconjugates in epidermal mucous cells were determined regionally. The epidermis of all regions contained strong to stronger PAS (+ cells in various degrees. The epidermis of the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth regions had strong to stronger AB pH 2.5 (+ cells. On the contrary, all regions contained weak to moderate AB pH 0.5 and AB pH 1.0 (+ cells. Most of mucous cells in epidermis of the first region contained both PAS (+ and AB (+ mucosubstances. All regions included weaker to weak AF (+ cells. All regions featured KOH/PAS (+ cells, with a slight reduction in reaction intensity in the epidermis of the last three regions. In this context, the different staining patterns observed in epidermal mucous cells hinted at their functional roles with respect to production of mucus with different physical properties. This study provided comprehensive information about the regional distribution patterns of the glycoconjugates and an opportunity to compare their distributional patterns in other annelids.

  11. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  12. Uptake route and resulting toxicity of silver nanoparticles in Eisenia fetida earthworm exposed through Standard OECD Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Velasco, Nerea; Gandariasbeitia, Maite; Irizar, Amaia; Soto, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing interest in silver nanoparticles toxicity still few works dealt with the hazards of nanosized Ag in soils (either dissolved in pore water or coupled to colloids) although disposal of biosolids in landfills has been reported as the major source of silver nanoparticles in terrestrial environments. Presently, Eisenia fetida was used to assess the toxicity of 5 nm sized PVP-PEI coated silver nanoparticles in soil through the implementation of different exposure media Standard Toxicity Tests (Paper Contact and Artificial Soil -OECD-207- and Reproduction -OECD-222- Tests) together with cellular biomarkers measured in extruded coelomocytes. In order to decipher the mode of action of silver nanoparticles in soil and the uptake routes in earthworms, special attention was given to the Ag accumulation and distribution in tissues. High Ag accumulation rates, weight loss, and mortality due to the disruption of the tegument could be the result of a dermal absorption of Ag ions released from silver nanoparticles (Paper Contact Test). However, autometallography showed metals mainly localized in the digestive tract after Artificial Soil Test, suggesting that Ag uptake occurred mostly through soil ingestion. That is, silver nanoparticles attached to soil colloids seemed to be internalized in earthworms after ingestion of soil and transferred to the digestive gut epithelium where at high doses they have triggered severe effects at different levels of biological complexity.

  13. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María-Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure period of 2 days; and mortality, weight loss, enzymatic activities (cholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) and histopathological effects after an exposure period of 14 days. Carbendazim was found to be highly toxic to E. fetida (LC50=2mg/kg d.w.), significantly reducing earthworm weight and showing an avoidance response at soil concentrations that are close to those predicted in rice-fields and in surrounding ecosystems. The insecticide dimethoate showed a moderate acute toxicity (LC50=28mg/kg d.w.), whereas the rest of tested pesticides showed low toxicity potential (LC50 values above 100mg/kg d.w.). For these pesticides, however, weight loss was identified as a sensitive endpoint, with NOEC values approximately 2 times or lower than the calculated LC10 values. The investigated effects on the enzymatic activities of E. fetida and the observed histopathological alterations (longitudinal and circular muscle lesions, edematous tissues, endothelial degeneration and necrosis) proved to be sensitive biomarkers to monitor pesticide contamination and are proposed as alternative measures to evaluate pesticide risks on agro-ecosystems.

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation.

  15. Effects of coal gasification slag as a substrate for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, H A; Janssen-Mommen, J P; Koeman, J H

    1992-08-01

    A further development of the coal gasification process will result in an increase of the amount of coal gasification slag (CGS). As yet little is known about the effects of storage in uncovered dumps. If there are any environmental effects, they are most likely caused by accumulation of metals from the CGS or by unacceptable physical properties of the CGS. Growth inhibition, mortality, and metal accumulation were analyzed for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida on CGS substrate. Pulverized fuel ash (PFA) was used as a reference. Both in the substrate and in tissues the concentrations of the cations Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the anions As, B, Cr, Mo, Sb, and Se were determined. The availability of anions for C. esculentus and for E. fetida is greater in PFA than in CGS. The extent and rate of uptake of anionic metals by the plants is on the whole higher in the wetland situation. The availability of metals, expressed as the concentration factor (CF), in most cases appears to be smaller than 1 for nearly all elements. In E. fetida a CF greater than 1 was found only for the element As, in PFA substrate and 50% CGS. In C. esculentus a CF greater than 1 was found for B and Mo in the PFA substrate as well.

  16. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of 1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of Particle Size on Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability of Copper to Earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) Exposed to Copper Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; O Tsyusko; S Hunyadi; J Judy; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    To investigate the role of particle size on the oxidation, bioavailability, and adverse effects of manufactured Cu nanoparticles (NPs) in soils, we exposed the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a series of concentrations of commercially produced NPs labeled as 20- to 40-nm or <100-nm Cu in artificial soil media. Effects on growth, mortality, reproduction, and expression of a variety of genes associated with metal homeostasis, general stress, and oxidative stress were measured. We also used X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy to characterize changes in chemical speciation and spatial distribution of the NPs in soil media and earthworm tissues. Exposure concentrations of Cu NPs up to 65 mg kg{sup -1} caused no adverse effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. Increases in metallothionein expression occurred at concentrations exceeding 20 mg kg-1 of Cu NPs and concentrations exceeding 10 mg kg{sup -1} of CuSO{sub 4} Based on the relationship of Cu tissue concentration to metallothionein expression level and the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of Cu in the tissues, we conclude that Cu ions and oxidized Cu NPs were taken up by the earthworms. This study suggests that oxidized Cu NPs may enter food chains from soil but that adverse effects in earthworms are likely to occur only at relatively high concentrations (>65 mg Cu kg{sup -1} soil).

  18. Influence of activated carbon amendment on the accumulation and elimination of PCBs in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Piuly [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States); Ghosh, Upal, E-mail: ughosh@umbc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In this study we investigated the use of activated carbon (AC) as a soil amendment for reducing bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Artificial soil was contaminated with PCBs and used in bioaccumulation experiments fresh or after aging for 19 months. PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms was reduced by 68% when AC was placed as a layer without mixing and by 94% when AC was manually mixed into the soil. Aging of the same AC mixed soil for 19 months resulted in an overall reduction of 99% in PCB biouptake. AC-treated aged soil also showed two orders of magnitude lower equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PCBs compared to untreated aged soils. The findings from this study indicate that application of engineered sorbents like AC to PCB impacted soils may greatly reduce PCB uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Activated carbon studied as a sorbent for PCB impacted unsaturated soil. > Bioaccumulation of PCB greatly reduced in earthworms after carbon amendment. > Aging of the activated carbon amended soil further reduced bioaccumulation. > Activated carbon can be used for in-situ stabilization of PCB impacted soil. - Addition of activated carbon to PCB impacted soil reduces equilibrium aqueous concentrations and uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain.

  19. Influence of zinc nanoparticles on survival of worms Eisenia fetida and taxonomic diversity of the gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yausheva, Еlena; Sizova, Еlena; Lebedev, Svyatoslav; Skalny, Anatoliy; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Plotnikov, Andrey; Khlopko, Yuri; Gogoleva, Natalia; Cherkasov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effect of zinc nanoparticles on survival of worms Eisenia fetida and composition of the gut microflora. Analysis of the survival data has shown that the introduction of high doses of the nanoparticles causes death of worms in the second group with 35 % mortality rate and activates protective mechanisms realized as mucous film. DNA from the worm guts was extracted and 16S metagenomic sequencing was fulfilled using MiSeq (Illumina). Regarding the gut microflora of worms in the control group, high diversity of microorganisms (303 OTUs) was noted. Most of those belong to the taxa Firmicutes (51.9 % of the total high-quality united reads), Proteobacteria (24.1 % of the total), and Actinobacteria (13.3 % of the total), which were represented by numerous species of gen. Clostridium (C. saccharobutylicum, C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum, C. beijerinckii), gen. Pseudomonas (P. hydrogenovora, P. aeruginosa, and P. putida), gen. Bacillus (B. megaterium, B. silvestris), gen. Cellulomonas (B. megaterium, B. silvestris), and other numerically smaller genera. Adding of zinc nanoparticles to the substrate decreased the diversity of bacteria (78 OTUs) as well as percentage of bacteria belonging to the taxon Firmicutes (-41.6 %) and increased the proportion of Proteobacteria due to growth in abundance of gen. Verminephrobacter (+46 %) and gen. Ochrobactrum (+19.5 %).

  20. Bioaccumulation and single and joint toxicities of penta-BDE and cadmium to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to spiked soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of penta-BDE(DE-71) in earthworms(Eisenia fetida) and the induced toxicities on the growth and reproduction of earthworms were investigated.All the major congeners in DE-71 could be bioaccumulated in earthworms and the concentration found in earthworms correlated to the spiked concentration in soil.DE-71 might inhibit the growth and reproduction of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms.The toxicities were dose dependent and increased with exposure time.Exposing earthworms to combination of DE-71 and Cd resulted in enhanced mortality and reduction of cocoons or juveniles in a synergistic mode.The presence of DE-71 may affect the relocation of Cd in earthworms.When the earthworms were exposed to Cd alone,Cd up-taken by earthworms was mainly partitioned in the cytosolic fraction.While DE-71 was present,Cd in the cytosolic fraction decreased significantly.It is perhaps that DE-71 inhibits the synthesis of matallothioneins,and then reduces the detoxification ability of earthworms.This is the first report about the toxicity of PBDEs to earthworms.The result would be useful for ecological risk assessment of PBDEs in terrestrial ecosystem.

  1. Multibiomarker response in the earthworm Eisenia fetida as tool for assessing multi-walled carbon nanotube ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, A; Grimaldi, A; Leomanni, A; Lionetto, M G; Dondero, F; Schettino, T

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have received a great attention in the last years thanks to their remarkable structural, electrical, and chemical properties. Nowadays carbon nanotubes are increasingly found in terrestrial and aquatic environment and potential harmful impacts of these nanoparticles on humans and wildlife are attracting increasing research and public attention. The effects of carbon nanotubes on aquatic organisms have been explored by several authors, but comparatively the information available on the impact of these particles on soil organisms is much less. Earthworms have traditionally been considered to be convenient indicators of land use impact and soil fertility. The aim of this work was to study the integrated response of a suite of biomarkers covering molecular to whole organism endpoints for the assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) effects on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to spiked soil. Results showed that cellular and biochemical responses, such as immune cells morphometric alterations and lysosomal membrane destabilization, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and metallothionein tissue concentration changes, showed high sensitivity to MWCNTs exposure. They can improve our understanding and ability to predict chronic toxicity outcomes of MWCNTs exposure such as reproductive alterations. In this context although more investigation is needed to understand the mechanistic pathway relating the biochemical and cellular biomarker analyzed to reproductive alterations, the obtained results give an early contribution to the future development of an adverse outcomes pathways for MWCNTs exposure.

  2. Reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei by colorimetric assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Pan; Xianghui Liu; Feng Ge; Tao Zheng

    2003-12-01

    A novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2Htetrazolium (MTS) was used in the assessment of antimicrobial activity in earthworm in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as an electron coupling reagent. This activity was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ECF), Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, annelids) using a series of column chromatography techniques and was tested against three Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila and three Gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter sp., respectively. Only the pigment-free eluate of coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ECFPE) showed activity against B. megaterium amongst three isolated active fractions. The anion (DEAE-52) exchange effluent of the ECFPE was reported to have the strongest activity against P. aeruginosa amongst the three active fractions. The 20% acetonitrile eluate (AE) by Sep-Pak C18 cartridge was also tested and showed fair resistance against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Arthrobacter sp., respectively.

  3. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida.

  4. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  5. Evaluación de la toxicidad de cobre en suelos a través de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en eisenia foetida Assessment of copper toxicity in soils using biomarkers of oxidative stress in eisenia foetida

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Gaete; María Eliana Hidalgo; Alexander Neaman; Gonzalo Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Copper toxicity in soil was evaluated using biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation) in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Agricultural topsoils from mining areas of the Aconcagua river basin were collected. Total copper concentrations were in the range of 94-959 mg kg-1, while the exchangeable copper concentrations were in the range of 46-2225 µg kg-1. Earthworms exposed to soil with exchangeable copper concentrations above 32 µg kg-1...

  6. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  7. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    SIMPSON, Myrna J.; André J. Simpson; Reiner, Eric J.; Brian P. Lankadurai; Furdui, Vasile I.

    2013-01-01

    1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that wer...

  8. Ação de minhocas Eisenia foetida sobre a dissipação dos herbicidas simazina e paraquat aplicados no solo Action of earthworms Eisenia foetida on the dissipation of the herbicides simazine and paraquat applied onto soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Papini

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Geralmente, os herbicidas são aplicados diretamente no solo, razão pela qual entram em contato direto com organismos deste ambiente, dentre eles as minhocas, as quais pelo metabolismo podem agir sobre resíduos desses compostos. Tomando minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida como exemplo, determinaram-se a dissipação dos 14C-herbicidas (simazina e paraquat e a bioacumulação destes compostos em seus tecidos, a partir de solo tratado com as concentrações recomendadas e, no caso do paraquat, também com concentrações superiores. Solo e minhocas foram analisados por extração com solventes e técnicas radiométricas, após 30 ou 90 dias de contato. As minhocas alteraram a dissipação do simazina, visto que houve 100 % de recuperação do radiocarbono na ausência de minhocas e 90 % na presença dos animais. Além disso, elas acumularam resíduos e, ou, metabólitos de simazina em seus tecidos, tendo-se detectado Fator de Bioacumulação (FB de 1,45 e 1,17 após exposição ao solo tratado durante 30 e 90 dias, respectivamente. Por outro lado, a presença de minhocas não alterou o comportamento do herbicida paraquat aplicado ao solo, mas houve bioacumulação crescente de seus resíduos e, ou, metabólitos com o aumento da dose de tratamento (FB de 0,5; 3,2 e 5,5, respectivamente, nas concentrações recomendadas, 10 e 100 vezes superior.Herbicides are normally applied directly onto the soil, where they enter in contact with soil organisms, among these with earthworms, whose metabolism can act on herbicide residues. Focusing on the earthworms Eisenia foetida as model we determined: dissipation of the 14C- herbicides Simazine and Paraquat as well as bioaccumulation in the animal tissues from soil treated with the recommended doses and with 10 and 100 times higher doses for paraquat. Earthworms and soil were analyzed by solvent extraction and radiometric techniques after 30 or 90 days of contact. The earthworms altered the dissipation of

  9. ‘LANDFARMING’ SOIL TOXICITY FROM OIL REFINERY TREATED WITH ALGAE FOR THE EARTHWORM Eisenia fetida = TOXICIDADE DE SOLO DE “LANDFARMING” DE REFINARIA DE PETRÓLEO TRATADO COM ALGAS PARA A MINHOCA Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejanira Fransceschi de Angelis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming is a bioremediation technique to remediate soils contamined for residual treatment from petrochemical industry. In this study, Eisenia fetida was used to verify the landfarming soil detoxication from petrochemical sludges by allochthonous algal community. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm in landfarming Paulínia oil refinery (REPLAN/PETROBRAS and inoculated, under controlled conditions, with algae from non-contaminated soil. After 30 days of inoculation, community members with active growth were identified at the genus level: Anabaena, Chroococcus, Scytonema and Lyngbya (Cyanophyceae, Klebsormidium, Mougeotia and Oedogonium (Chlorophyceae and Navicula (Bacillariophyceae. The landfarming soil toxicicity exposed to the algal growth were evaluated for the earthworm E. fetida before the inoculation and after 180 days algal community establishment. The incorporation and the removal effect of visible algal growth in the toxicity of this soil were evaluated. The toxicity analysis did not revealed acute effect for the earthworm E. fetida. However, the biomass effect of adult earthworms specimens showed detoxication of the landfarming soil when submitted to removal of the visible algal growth, after 180 days of inoculation. The results of this study indicated that sublethals effects of the E. fetida earthworm biomass are able to predict effective measurements for monitoring soil toxicity during the process of remediation of landfarming soil from oil refinery. = O “landfarming” é uma técnica de biorremediação muito utilizada para o tratamento de resíduos da indústria petroquímica. Neste estudo, utilizou-se Eisenia fetida para verificar a destoxicação do solo de “landfarming” de resíduos petroquímicos por comunidades de algas alóctones. Amostras do solo foram coletadas a 0-20 cm no “landfarming” da Refinaria de Paulínia (REPLAN/PETROBRAS e inoculadas, sob condições controladas, com algas provenientes de solo

  10. Utilização de casca de arroz e esterco bovino como substrato Eisenia fetida Savigny (1826 Rice husk and cattle manure used as substrate for the Eisenia fetida Savigny (1826 multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de minhocas, principalmente para a alimentação animal, vem sendo adotada e estudada, pois esses organismos apresentam em sua constituição vitaminas e aminoácidos. Entre os materiais possíveis de serem utilizados na minhocultura, atualmente incentiva-se o aproveitamento de resíduos agroindustriais de alta disponibilidade, como a casca de arroz no Rio Grande do Sul. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de casca de arroz e esterco bovino na multiplicação e produção de biomassa de minhocas (Eisenia fetida. A população de minhocas foi avaliada quanto ao número de cocons, ao índice de multiplicação (população final/população inicial e à biomassa de minhocas frescas e secas. A avaliação foi realizada aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento, com quatro repetições. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou que a inclusão de casca de arroz favoreceu o desenvolvimento e a taxa de reprodução das minhocas. A maior biomassa de minhocas foi obtida nos tratamentos: 50% casca de arroz inteira e 50% esterco bovino, esterco bovino mais casca de arroz inteira tratada com hidróxido de amônio a 20 e 40%, e esterco bovino mais casca de arroz moída tratada com hidróxido de sódio a 10 e 40%. Conclui-se que a adição de casca de arroz ao esterco bovino favorece a multiplicação e o desenvolvimento de E. fetida.The use of earthworms for animal feeding has been adopted and studied, because these organisms are rich in vitamins and essential amino acids. Among the organic materials that could be used in the earthworm breeding, highly available agroindustrial residues such as rice husk are being currently used in Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrate based on rice husk and cattle manure on the multiplication and biomass of earthworms (Eisenia fetida. In this work, the population of earthworms, the cocoon numbers, the multiplication index, as well as

  11. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  12. Indução de ivermectina na hormese sobre Eisenia foetida durante a vermicompostagem de esterco bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro M. Tuerlinckx

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Os medicamentos veterinários são, em sua maioria, excretados nas fezes de animais tratados demonstrando que os fármacos da classe das avermectinas podem ter efeitos nocivos sobre os organismos não alvo, caso se utilizem das fezes. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos subletais da ivermectina sobre as minhocas Eisenia foetida expostas às concentrações de ivermectina a 0, 1, 5, 10, 50 e 100 mg kg-1; amostras foram tomadas nos dias 7, 14 e 28 de exposição para determinação da sobrevivência, crescimento, produção de casulos e atividades enzimáticas, além de estudadas as alterações químicas e a atividade microbiana do vermicomposto não se observando, no entanto, efeitos negativos da ivermectina quanto à mortalidade de minhocas; da mesma forma, as características químicas e a atividade microbiana do vermicomposto não foram afetadas porém os resultados demonstraram que a ivermectina induz, quando em baixas concentrações, a um aumento na atividade da fosfatase alcalina e no crescimento de E. foetida mas altas concentrações inibiram esses parâmetros, o que foi refletido numa curva em forma de U invertido, uma representação gráfica do efeito hormético.

  13. Comparative studies on biomass production, life cycles and composting efficiency of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii (Kinberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Bhardwaj, P

    2004-05-01

    Comparative studies were performed to evaluate composting potential, biomass growth and biology of a non-native (Eisenia fetida) and an endemic (Lampito mauritii) species of earthworm in the semiarid environment of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan in India. Earthworms were reared in a mixed bedding material comprised of biogas slurry, cowdung, wheat straw, leaflitter, sawdust and kitchen waste. The percentage of organic carbon of the culture bedding material declined upto 105 days with E. fetida and 120 with L. mauritii. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium increased as a function of the vermicomposting period. In contrast, C/N and C/P ratios decreased day by day. Both species were effective for decomposition and mineralization of mixed bedding in the semiarid environment. A comparative assessment of biomass growth of E. fetida and L. mauritii was done under controlled laboratory conditions. The optimum temperature, moisture content and pH for E. fetida were 25 degrees C, 70% and 6.5, respectively. However, the optimum temperature, moisture content and pH for growth and development of L. mauritii were 30 degrees C, 60% and 7.5, respectively. The biology and reproductive rates of both species were also studied in the laboratory using mixed bedding. Cocoon production was higher for E. fetida than L. mauritii. The net reproductive rate was 9 per month in the case of E. fetida and 1 per month for L. mauritii. Fertilized eggs of E. fetida and L. mauritii developed into adults within 4 and 5 1/4 months, respectively. These observations indicate E. fetida may be a more efficient breeder than L. mauritii in the desert region of Rajasthan.

  14. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD, reactive oxygen species (ROS content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed.

  15. Potentiality of Eisenia fetida to degrade disposable paper cups-an ecofriendly solution to solid waste pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Karthika; Ganesan, Seethadevi; Muthunarayanan, Vasanthy; Vivek, Swabna; Sugumar, Susila; Munusamy, Vivekanadhan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to subject the post-consumer waste, namely paper cups for vermicomposting along with cow dung in three different ratios for a period of 90-140 days employing Eisenia fetida. The post-consumer wastes are a menace in many developing countries including India. This waste was provided as feed for earthworms and was converted to vermicompost. Vermicompost prepared with paper cup waste was analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Based on the physicochemical properties, it was evident that the best manure is obtained from type A (paper cup/cow dung in the ratio 1:1) than type B (paper cup/cow dung in the ratio 1.5:0.5) and type C (paper cup/cow dung in the ratio 0.5:1.5). The results showed that earthworms accelerated the rate of mineralization and converted the wastes into compost with needed elements which could support the growth of crop plants. The predominant bacterial strains in the vermicompost were characterized biochemically as well as by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The bacterial strains like Bacillus anthracis (KM289159), Bacillus endophyticus (KM289167), Bacillus funiculus (KM289165), Virigibacillius chiquenigi (KM289163), Bacillus thuringiensis (KM289164), Bacillus cereus (KM289160), Bacillus toyonensis (KM289161), Acinetobacter baumanni (KM289162), and Lactobacillus pantheries (KM289166) were isolated and identified from the final compost. The total protein content of E. fetida involved in vermicomposting was extracted, and the banding pattern was analyzed. During final stages of vermicomposting, it was observed that the earthworm did not act on the plastic material coated inside the paper cups and stagnated it around the rim of the tub. Further, the degradation of paper cup waste was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Hence, vermicomposting was found to be an effective technology for the conversion of the paper cup waste material into a nutrient-rich manure, a value

  16. Evaluation of glutathione s-transferase as toxicity indicator for roxarsone and arsanilic acid in Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Zhenling, Zeng; Yongxue, Sun; Wenguang, Xiong

    2012-09-01

    Different compounds can induce stress response by targeting specific genes. Studies related to elucidating the detoxification and adaptive responses of proteins like glutathione-s-transferase (GST) can be helpful in better understanding toxicity. Roxarsone and arsanilic acid, which have been exhaustively used as animal and poultry feed additives, pose a threat to the environment and human health. GST enzyme bioassay revealed fluctuations in response to different concentrations of roxarsone and arsanilic acid at different time intervals. The highest GST enzyme activity (40.51%) was observed on day 15 of treatment with roxarsone. On the other hand, arsanilic acid caused the maximum enzyme activity (52.11%) on day 10 of treatment. During this study, the full-length gene sequence of GST, having the size 984 bp (Genbankno. HQ693699), was achieved from Eisenia fetida and established as a biomarker to assess the toxicity of roxarsone and arsanilic acid. The deduced protein has a computed molecular mass of 23.56 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.92. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed significant differential gene expression in response to roxarsone and arsanilic acid treatment as compared with control treatment. Roxarsone caused the highest gene expression of 7.0-fold increase over control on day 15 of treatment, whereas arsanilic acid resulted in the highest gene expression reaching to 14.56-fold as compared with control. This study is helpful in understanding the role of GST as a potential biomarker for chemicals like roxarsone and arsanilic acid, which can pollute the food chain.

  17. Effects of biochar and the earthworm Eisenia fetida on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Sizmur, Tom; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were monitored over 56 days in calcareous contaminated-soil amended with either or both biochar and Eisenia fetida. Biochar reduced total (449 to 306 mg kg{sup -1}) and bioavailable (cyclodextrin extractable) (276 to 182 mg kg{sup -1}) PAHs, PAH concentrations in E. fetida (up to 45%) but also earthworm weight. Earthworms increased PAH bioavailability by >40%. Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment. Earthworms increased water soluble Co (3.4 to 29.2 mg kg{sup -1}), Cu (60.0 to 120.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and Ni (31.7 to 83.0 mg kg{sup -1}) but not As, Cd, Pb or Zn; biochar reduced water soluble Cu (60 to 37 mg kg{sup -1}). Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment but gave a greater reduction in As and Cd mobility. Biochar has contaminated land remediation potential, but its long-term impact on contaminants and soil biota needs to be assessed. - Research highlights: Biochar reduced total and bioavailable PAH concentrations. Biochar was less effective at immobilising PTEs, due to its low cation exchange capacity. E. fetida increased PAH bioavailability and PTE mobility. When used in combination biochar reduced the concentration of PTEs mobilised by E. fetida. Biochar had a negative effect on E. fetida in terms of weight loss. - Biochar decreased PAH biovailability but was less effective at reducing PTE mobility, whilst E. fetida increased both PAH and PTE bioavailability.

  18. Comparative toxicity of carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate in Metaphire posthuma and Eisenia fetida -a possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P N; Gupta, S K; Murthy, R C

    2014-02-01

    To establish the use of Metaphire posthuma as a sensitive test model for ecotoxicological studies, acute toxicity testing of carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate on Eisenia fetida and Metaphire posthuma were carried out. Two different types of bioassays, contact filter paper toxicity and soil toxicity bioassays were used to determine LC50 values for these insecticides. Among the tested chemicals, carbofuran was the most toxic to both the earthworm species. In paper contact method, 72 h-LC50 values of carbofuran in M. posthuma and E. fetida were found to be 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 1.55 μg/cm(2) respectively while in soil test, 14-d LC50 values were 0.49 mg/kg and 21.15 mg/kg respectively. On comparing the toxicity data of these chemicals for both the earthworm species, M. posthuma was found to be more sensitive than E. fetida. Based on the acute toxicity data, the order of toxicity of insecticides in both the test procedures was carbofuran>cypermethrin>carbaryl>fenvalerate for M. posthuma whereas for E. fetida it was carbofuran>carbaryl>fenvalerate>cypermethrin. Morphological changes also appeared in the organisms exposed to these chemicals which were more pronounced in M. posthuma at lower concentrations than E. fetida in both the test procedures. The results of the present study advocates the use of M. posthuma for ecotoxicity studies, being a more sensitive and reliable model than E. fetida. Based on the data on partial atomic charges, structural features and spectroscopic studies on carbaryl and carbofuran, a possible mechanism of toxicity of carbamate insecticides in earthworm was proposed.

  19. Indication of metal homeostasis disturbance in earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to semi-solid depot sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Sanja; Dragun, Zrinka; Sauerborn Klobučar, Roberta; Ivanković, Dušica; Bačić, Niko; Fiket, Željka; Barišić, Josip; Krasnići, Nesrete; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić Popović, Natalija; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra

    2015-09-01

    Treated sewage sludge is commonly used in agriculture as fertilizer. It is, therefore, necessary to determine possible detrimental influences of sludge application on soil contamination and accumulation of contaminants in tissues of terrestrial animals, which in the long run could also have undesirable effects on humans. With that aim, the study was performed using earthworm Eisenia fetida as test organism and semi-solid depot sludge from a wastewater treatment plant as exposure media. The concentrations of 26 metals/metalloids were determined in depot sludge, and their bioaccumulation was estimated in whole tissue of E. fetida, and for the first time in the soluble tissue fraction, which represents metal fraction available for metabolic requirements and toxic effects. Obtained results have revealed acceptable levels of several elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in depot sludge, when compared to currently valid regulations, and only moderate accumulation of some elements (e.g. As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Tl, V, and Zn) in earthworms, as a consequence of exposure to depot sludge. However, a concentration increase after exposure to depot sludge was observed in E. fetida for several elements (Cd, Mo, and Zn), which were present in lower concentrations in the exposure mixtures than in soil. Contrary, a concentration decrease was observed for Cs, Mn, and Rb, although they were present in higher concentrations in depot sludge than in soil. It was an indication of disturbance in metal homeostasis in earthworms, possibly caused by exposure to complex mixture of contaminants present in depot sludge. The cumulative effect of exposure to a number of various contaminants (inorganic, organic, microbiological and pharmaceutical), even if each of them was not present in very high concentrations, could have caused distress in earthworms exposed to depot sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  1. Biomarker responses of Eisenia andrei to a polymetallic gradient near a lead mining site in North Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Iteb; Hattab, Sabrine; Boussetta, Hamadi; Sappin-Didier, Valérie; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed for 7 and 14 days to six samples of soil taken from around an abandoned lead (Pb) mine and characterized by different levels of metal contamination (S6-S1, this latter being the most contaminated soil). The organisms were analyzed for metal bioaccumulation and for biological parameters as biomarkers of stress (lysosomal membrane stability; lipofuscin lysosomal content; lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio) and genotoxicity (Micronucleus frequency). Chemical analysis showed the loads of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in the worms following exposure. Among the stress biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability was significantly affected in the coelomocytes of the earthworms exposed already 7 days to different contaminated soils. Organisms exposed for 14 days to S1 showed in the cells of the chloragogenous tissue, a particularly relevant increase in lipofuscin, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and an increase in the lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio, indicating stressful condition at the tissue level. Moreover, in the same conditions, a decrease in total body weight was observed. At the longer exposure time, the coelomocytes of worms exposed to S1, S2, and S3 (soils with higher metal concentrations) showed a significant increase in micronuclei (MNi) frequency. Expressions of the P21 and topoisomerase genes, which are involved in DNA repair, showed significant up-regulation in the cells of worms exposed to S1, S2, S3, S4 and to a less extend S6. This may indicate that the worms were only able to successfully reduce the level of DNA damage in S4 and S5 if considering MN frequency data. The biomarker data was integrated by the Earthworm Expert System, allowing an objective interpretation of the complex biological data and clearly defining the areas in which the presence of chemicals is toxic for the edaphic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuofin, F.O., E-mail: funmifrank2009@gmail.com; Mnkeni, P.N.S., E-mail: pmnkeni@ufh.ac.za

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  3. Toxicological and biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to contaminated soil: Effects of arsenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Liu, Lei; Ma, Qianchi; Xu, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic is a pollutant that can be detected in different chemical forms in soil. However, the toxicological effects of different arsenic species on organisms have received little attention. In this study, we exposed earthworms Eisenia fetida to artificial soils contaminated by arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) for 28 and 56 days. Three biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), metallothioneins (MTs) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) were analyzed in the organisms. In addition, the contents of total arsenic and arsenic species in earthworms were also determined to investigate the effects of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic on biomarkers and to evaluate the dose-response relationships. The results showed that the relationship between the three biomarkers and the two inorganic arsenic species were dose dependent, and the correlation levels between the biomarkers and As(III) were higher than that between the biomarkers and As(V). Trivalent arsenic species shows more toxicity than pentavalent arsenic on the earthworms at molecular and subcellular level, including oxidative damage, MTs induction and lysosomal membrane damage. The toxicity of MMA and DMA was lower than inorganic arsenic species. However, the occurrence of demethylation of organic arsenics could lead to the generation of highly toxic inorganic arsenics and induce adverse effects on organisms. The biotransformation of highly toxic inorganic arsenics to the less toxic organic species in the earthworms was also validated in this study. The biomarker responses of the earthworm to different arsenic species found in this study could be helpful in future environment monitoring programs.

  4. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinshengli@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Matthew, Cory [Institute of Agriculture & Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Cavanagh, Jo [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand); Qiu, Jiangping [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg{sup −1}) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg{sup −1} soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO{sub 2} production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  5. Changes in fungal population of fly ash and vinasse mixture during vermicomposting by Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida: documentation of cellulase isozymes in vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-06-01

    Fly ash (FA) and vinasse (VN), two industrial wastes, are generated in huge amounts and cause serious hazards to the environment. In this experiment, different proportions of these two wastes were used as food for two epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) to standardize the recycling technique of these two wastes and to study their effect on fungal especially cellulolytic fungal population, cellulase activity and their isozyme pattern, chitin content and microbial biomass of waste mixture during vermicomposting. Increasing VN proportion from 25% to 50% or even higher, counts of both fungi and cellulolytic fungi in waste mixtures were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased during vermicomposting. Higher cellulase activity in treatments having 50% or more vinasse might be attributed to the significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher concentration of group I isozyme while concentrations of other isozymes (group II and III) of cellulase were statistically at par. Higher chitin content in vinasse-enriched treatments suggested that fungal biomass and fungi-to-microbial biomass ratio in these treatments were also increased due to vermicomposting. Results revealed that Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida had comparable effect on FA and VN mixture during vermicomposting. Periodical analysis of above-mentioned biochemical and microbial properties and nutrient content of final vermicompost samples indicated that equal proportion (1:1, w/w) of FA and VN is probably the optimum composition to obtain best quality vermicompost.

  6. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  8. Combined effects of chlorpyriphos, copper and temperature on acetylcholinesterase activity and toxicokinetics of the chemicals in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Choczyński, Maciej; Laskowski, Ryszard; Walczak, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    In polluted environments organisms are commonly exposed to a combination of chemicals with different modes of action, and their effects can be additionally modified by natural abiotic conditions. One possible mechanism for interactions in mixtures is via toxicokinetics, as chemicals may alter the uptake, distribution, biotransformation and/or elimination of each other, and all these processes can be affected by temperature. In this study, the effect of temperature (T) on the toxicokinetics of copper (Cu) and chlorpyriphos (CHP), applied either singly or in binary mixtures, was studied in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The experiments were conducted at 10 or 20 °C and the earthworms were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of Cu and/or CHP for 16 d, followed by a depuration period of 4 d in uncontaminated soil. The earthworms were sampled for body Cu and/or CHP concentrations and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measurements. The CHP degradation rate in the soil was substantially higher at 20 °C and in soil treated with Cu. The significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of AChE activity in the earthworms exposed to CHP was found. The effect of Cu was significant only at p < 0.1. No synergistic effect of the parallel CHP and Cu exposure was found. Four days after transferring the earthworms to uncontaminated soil, the AChE activity recovered to the level observed in control animals. The temperature effect on the toxicokinetic parameters was more pronounced for CHP than for Cu. In the case of CHP, the assimilation rate constant (kA) was significantly higher at 20 °C than at 10 °C, both in CHP-only and CHP + Cu treatments. A similar trend was found for the elimination rate constant (kE), but the difference was statistically significant only for non-Cu treatments. In the case of Cu, the general trend of higher kA and kE at 20 °C and in the absence of CHP was observed.

  9. Metal/metalloid (As, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei under different scenarios of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of global warming (increasing air temperature and decreasing soil moisture content) on the bioaccumulation kinetics of As, Cd and Zn in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in two polluted soils (mine tailing and watercourse soil). Earthworms were exposed for up to 21 d under four climate conditions: 20 °C + 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) (standard conditions), 20 °C + 30% WHC, 25 °C + 50% WHC and 25 °C + 30% WHC. Porewater metal/metalloid availability did not change in the mine tailing soil after the incubation period under the different climate conditions tested. However, in the watercourse soil, porewater Cd concentrations decreased from ∼63 to ∼32-41 μg L(-1) after 21 d and Zn concentrations from ∼3761 to ∼1613-2170 μg L(-1), especially at 20 °C and 50% WHC. In both soils, As and Zn showed similar bioaccumulation patterns in the earthworms, without major differences among climate conditions. Earthworm concentrations peaked after 1-3 d of exposure (in μg g(-1) dry weight: As∼32.5-108, Zn∼704-1172) and then remained constant (typical pattern of essential elements even for As). For Cd the bioaccumulation pattern changed when changing the climate conditions. Under standard conditions, earthworm Cd concentrations increased to ∼12.6-18.5 μg g(-1) dry weight without reaching equilibrium (typical pattern of non-essential elements). However when increasing temperature and/or decreasing soil moisture content the bioaccumulation pattern changed towards that more typical of essential elements due to increased Cd elimination rates (from ∼0.11 to ∼0.24-1.27 d(-1) in the mine tailing soil, from ∼0.07 to ∼0.11-0.35 d(-1) in the watercourse soil) and faster achievement of a steady state. This study shows that metal/metalloid bioaccumulation pattern in earthworms may change dependent on climate conditions.

  10. Effects of Different Ratios of Sewage Sludge and Cattle Manure on Growth and Propagation of Eisenia Fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukui Li

    Full Text Available Domestic sewage sludge and cattle manure are rich in nutrition elements, but without proper disposal, are harmful to the environment. Here with an indoor culture method, we used Eisenia fetida to dispose different ratios of sewage sludge and cattle manure, and thereby investigated the effects and acting rules of these sludge-manure mixtures on the growth and reproduction of E. fetida. We find these mixtures are food sources for E. fetida, and their physiochemical properties are significantly changed after disposal by earthworms. Paired samples t-test shows the average change after different treatments is -20.37% for total organic carbon, 85.71% for total Kjeldahl N, -6.67% for total P, 8.33% for pH, -24.78% for EC (ms·cm-1, and -57.10% for C/N ratio. The average growth rate after treatment CD-70 is 9.20 mg·worm-1·day-1; the average growth rates of E. fetida on day 0-28, day 29-56, and day 57-91 are 9.33, 11.90 and 6.95 mg·worm-1·day-1, respectively, indicating a trend of "rapid-rapidest-slow" growth. Other treatments all show this trend. Though all earthworms developed reproductive rings during the test periods, the appearing time and the cocoon production time both differed among these treatments. The cocoon production amount is maximized to 233 after treatment CD-70. The cocoon production rates are significantly different among these treatments, and the maximum and mean are 0.32 and 0.17-0.32, cocoons·worm-1· day-1, respectively. E. fetida can modestly enrich Cd, but is not very effective over Sb or other heavy metals. E. fetida can remove a part of heavy metals from sewage sludge and cattle manure. Generally, the mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle manure can largely affect the growth and propagation of E. fetida in a ratio-dependent way.

  11. Impacts of BDE209 addition on Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene toxicity in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • 10 or 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 addition caused histological changes in Pb-exposed earthworms’ body wall. • Strong histopathological effects with BDE209 addition confirmed the enhanced Pb bioavailability. • The presence of higher levels of BDE209 altered subcellular partitioning of Pb in earthworm. • Co-exposure to Pb and BDE209 declined SOD and CAT gene transcripts synergistically. • BDE209 addition elicited up-regulation of Hsp90 gene expression compared to Pb exposure alone. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. The potential toxicity of Pb (250 μg g{sup −1}) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1}) was determined during 14-d incubation period. Compared to Pb treatment alone, the co-exposure with 1 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 barely affected Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene expression; however, histopathological changes in earthworms’ body wall (epidermal, circular and longitudinal muscles) demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 additions enhanced Pb uptake and altered its subcellular partitioning, indicating that Pb redistributed from fractions E (cell debris) and D (metal-rich granules) to fraction C (cytosols); Additionally, BDE209 supply significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the induction of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) gene expressions (maximum down-regulation 59% for SOD gene at Pb + 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 and 89% for CAT gene at Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209), while facilitated (p < 0.05) Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) gene expression with maximum induction rate of 120% after exposure to Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209. These findings illustrate the importance of considering environmental BDE209 co-exposure when assessing Pb bioaccumulation and toxicity in multi-contaminated soil ecosystems.

  12. Reproducción de Eisenia foetida en suelos agrícolas de áreas mineras contaminadas por cobre y arsénico Reproduction of Eisenia foetida in agricultural soils from mining areas contaminated with copper and arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Ávila; Hernán Gaete; Mario Morales; Alexander Neaman

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la toxicidad del cobre y arsénico en suelos agrícolas, mediante bioensayos estandarizados de toxicidad aguda y crónica sobre Eisenia foetida y relacionar la respuesta de ésta con las concentraciones de cobre y arsénico en los suelos. Los suelos agrícolas fueram muestreados en las inmediaciones de áreas mineras en la cuenca del río Aconcagua, Chile. E. foetida expuesta a los suelos estudiados mostró una baja mortalidad, indicando la ausencia de toxicidad agu...

  13. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to investigate the presence of bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. ... between river water and riverbed sediment isolates for Salmonella spp. and Shigella .... conditions, and the other was preserved in 1 mL of 15% glycerol.

  14. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction.

  15. Assessing the effects of FBC ash treatments of metal-contaminated soils using life history traits and metal bioaccumulation analysis of the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiaux, F.; Demuynck, S.; Schikorski, D.; Lemiere, S.; Lepretre, A. [Universite Lille Nord de France, Villeneuve Dascq (France)

    2010-03-15

    Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed, in controlled conditions, to metal-contaminated soils previously treated in situ with two types of fluidized bed combustion ashes. Effects on this species were determined by life history traits analysis. Metal immobilizing efficiency of ashes was indicated by metal bioaccumulation. Ashes-treated soils reduced worm mortality compared to the untreated soil. However, these ashes reduced both cocoon hatching success and hatchlings numbers compared to the untreated soil. In addition, sulfo-calcical ashes reduced or delayed worm maturity and lowered cocoon production compared to silico-alumineous ones. Metal immobilizing efficiency of ashes was demonstrated for Zn, Cu and to a lesser extent Pb. Only silico-alumineous ashes reduced Cd bioaccumulation, although Cd was still bioconcentrated. Thus, although ash additions to metal-contaminated soils may help in immobilizing metals, their use might result, depending on the chemical nature of ashes, to severe detrimental effects on earthworm reproduction with possible long term consequences to populations.

  16. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the acute lethality, accumulation, and enzyme activity of cadmium in Eisenia fetida in a simulated soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Long; Wang, Yu-Jun; Xuan, Liang; Dang, Fei; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) to Eisenia fetida were investigated in a simulated soil solution. The LMWOAs protected E. fetida from Cd toxicity, as indicated by the increased median lethal concentration (LC50) values and the increased activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, Cd concentrations in E. fetida decreased dramatically in the presence of LMWOAs. These results were likely because of the complexation between Cd and LMWOAs, which decreased the bioavailability and consequential toxicity of Cd to E. fetida. Notably, LMWOAs reduced Cd toxicity in decreasing order (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid [EDTA] > citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid > acetic acid), which was consistent with the decreasing complexation constants between LMWOAs and Cd. These results advance our understanding of the interactions between Cd and LMWOAs in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1005-1011. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Identification and Characterization of a 25 kDa Protein That Is Indispensable for the Efficient Saccharification of Eisenia bicyclis in the Digestive Fluid of Aplysia kurodai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shirai, Akihiro; Yuasa, Keizo

    2017-01-01

    The digestive fluid of the sea hare Aplysia kurodai can liberate approximately 2.5 mg of glucose from 10 mg of dried Eisenia bicyclis powder. Although laminaran, a major storage polysaccharide in E. bicyclis, is easily digested to glucose by the synergistic action of the 110 and 210 kDa A. kurodai β-glucosidases (BGLs), glucose is not liberated from E. bicyclis by direct incubation with these BGLs. To clarify this discrepancy, we searched for an Eisenia hydrolysis enhancing protein (EHEP) in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai. A novel 25 kDa protein that enhances E. bicyclis saccharification by β-glucosidases was purified to a homogeneous state from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai, and its cDNA was cloned from total cDNAs reverse-transcribed from hepatopancreas total RNA. The E. bicyclis extract strongly inhibited BGLs, suggesting some compound within this brown alga functioned as a feeding deterrent. However, when E. bicyclis was incubated with BGLs in the presence of EHEP, glucose production was markedly increased. As E. bicyclis is rich in phlorotannin, which are only found in brown algae, our study suggested that these compounds are the main BGL inhibitors in E. bicyclis extract. EHEP protects BGLs from phlorotannin inhibition by binding to phlorotannins and forming an insoluble complex with phloroglucinol and phlorotannins. These findings indicated that EHEP plays a key role in the saccharification of brown seaweeds containing phlorotannins in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai. This is the first report of EHEP as a phlorotannin-binding protein that protects BGLs from inhibition. PMID:28129373

  18. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Salmonella spp. from...

  19. Multiplex PCR for molecular screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Islay; Burri, Caroline; Noda, Angel A; Douet, Véronique; Gern, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Ticks transmit a great variety of pathogenic microorganisms to humans and animals. The detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBP) is mainly by molecular techniques based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR). To design and evaluate a multiplex PCR for the molecular screening of zoonotic TBP for exploratory studies. Control DNA from reference strains, DNA from experimentally-infected biological specimens, and from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from domestic and homeless dogs were used. A multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. was designed and optimized using primers previously reported for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma spp., while for Babesia spp. they were designed in silico. The multiplex PCR was evaluated on the DNA from biological samples. A new set of specific primers for Babesia spp. was designed. Adjustment of the master mix reactive concentrations and amplification conditions for the multiplex PCR allowed the successful amplification of the specific amplicons for each microbial group from the control DNA and experimentally-infected biological specimens. The efficiency of the multiplex PCR amplifying three DNA targets was confirmed. Individual and co-infection of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. were detected in the R. sanguineus ticks from dogs. A multiplex PCR assay for the screening of three TBP is available. By using it, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. can be detected accurately in one PCR reaction.

  20. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  1. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  2. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  3. POBLACIONES MICROBIANAS, ACTIVIDADES ENZIMÁTICAS Y SUBSTANCIAS HÚMICAS EN LA BIOTRANSFORMACIÓN DE RESIDUOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quintero Lizaola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron poblaciones microbianas, actividades enzimáticas y substancias húmicas (SH durante el compostaje y vermicompostaje (Eisenia andrei Bouché de paja de avena, subproducto de producción de cuerpos fructíferos del hongo comestible Pleurotus ostreatus, con diferentes tamaños: molida (< 2mm y picada (< 4mm. Se muestreó a los 23, 46, 69, 92, 115 y 148 días de la incorporación de lombrices (Eisenia andrei y se comparó con tratamientos sin lombriz. En cada muestreo se midió la actividad enzimática respecto a: el ciclo del carbono (amilasa, celulasa, lipasa e invertasa, ciclo del nitrógeno (proteasa, amidasa, ureasa y nitrogenasa, ciclo del fósforo (fosfatasa ácida y alcalina y ciclo del azufre (arilsulfatasa, y deshidrogenasa. Se evaluaron los ácidos húmicos (AH liofilizados, analizando y determinando, por métodos físicos y químicos, color, carbono y grupos funcionales con espectroscopia infrarroja. Los resultados mostraron la influencia de la lombriz sobre la proporción de la población de bacterias en los tratamientos de paja picada (PP y paja molida (PM tanto en vermicomposta como composta. Los hongos y actinomicetos se presentaron en mayor cantidad en los tratamientos de paja molida con lombriz (PMCL respecto al resto de los tratamientos. El tamaño de paja no tuvo influencia significativa en la proporción de las enzimas en las compostas, a diferencia de los tratamientos con lombriz que tuvieron resultados mayores en las enzimas muestreadas respecto a los tratamientos sin lombriz. Las mayores concentraciones de ácidos húmicos (AH liofilizados se detectaron en el tratamiento de PMCL, así como las mayores concentraciones de enzimas.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN POULTRY MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, Necla

    2009-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, previously known as aerotolerant Campylobacters were isolated from aborted bovine and porcine fetuses. Arcobacter spp. differ from Campylobacter spp. by their ability to grow at lower temperatures and in air. The genus Arcobacter comprises six species. Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter halophilus and Arcobacter sulfidicus are environmental-related species. No association with human or animal infection has been reported. The other species, Arcobacter butzleri,Arcobacter...

  5. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...... of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes....

  6. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  7. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  8. Impact of molybdenum nanoparticles on survival, activity of enzymes, and chemical elements in Eisenia fetida using test on artificial substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sviatoslav; Yausheva, Elena; Galaktionova, Lyudmila; Sizova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The influence of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles (MoO3) on the growth and survival of Eisenia fetida was established. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and changes in concentration of molybdenum in the body of E. fetida were determined. The degree of bacterial bioluminescence inhibition in extracts of substrates and worm was studied using luminescent strain Escherichia coli K12 TG1. The enzymatic activity of substrates before and after exposure with nanoparticles and worms was assessed. Nanoparticles have concentrations of 10, 40, and 500 mg/kg of dry matter, and substrata are made of artificial soil (substrate A) and microcrystalline cellulose (substrate B). Spherical nanoparticles MoO3, yellow in color, with size 92 ± 0.3 nm, Z-potential 42 ± 0.52 mV, molybdenum content 99.8 mass/%, and specific area 12 m(2)/g were used in the study. A significant decrease by 23.3 % in weight was registered (for MoO3 NPs at 500 mg/kg) on substrate A (p ≤ 0.05). On substrate B, the maximum decrease in weight by 20.5, 33.3, and 16.9 % (p ≤ 0.05) was registered at a dose of 10, 40, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; mortality was from 6.6 to 73 %. After the assessment of bacterial bioluminescence inhibition in substrates A and B (extracts) and before worms were put, the toxicity of substrates was established at doses of 40 and 500 mg/kg, expressed in inhibitory concentration (IC) 30 and IC 50 values. Comparatively, on days 7 and 14, after exposure in the presence of E. fetida, no inhibition of bioluminescence was registered in extracts of substrates A and B, indicating the reduction in toxicity of substrates. The initial content of molybdenum in E. fetida was 0.9 ± 0.018 mg/kg of dry matter. The degree of molybdenum accumulation in worm tissue was dependent on the dose and substrate quality. In particular, 2-7 mg/kg of molybdenum accumulated from substrate A, while up to 15 kg/kg of molybdenum accumulated from substrate B (day 7). Molybdenum

  9. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  11. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  12. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  13. The impact of modified nano-carbon black on the earthworm Eisenia fetida under turfgrass growing conditions: Assessment of survival, biomass, and antioxidant enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; He, Lu; Lu, Yunfeng; Duo, Lian

    2017-09-15

    Modified nano-carbon adsorbents have been employed in the immobilization of heavy metals in soil due to their good adsorption capabilities regarding metal ions. However, an assessment of their risks has not been extensively performed with soil organisms. To assess the toxic effects of three types of modified nano-carbon black (CB) on soil organisms, a laboratory test was conducted to expose the earthworm Eisenia fetida to artificial soil supplemented with 5% H2SO4-, HNO3- and KMnO4-modified nano-CB (SCB, NCB and KCB, respectively) under turfgrass growing conditions. The tested earthworms were systematically investigated for survival, biomass and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). SCB and NCB were found to be more toxic and ecologically dangerous to E. fetida because significant decreases in biomass and survival were observed after 35- and 60-d exposures and the survival rate showed a tendency to decrease with exposure duration. The activities of SOD, CAT and POD were inhibited in all treatments with modified nano-CBs at 35- and 60-d, which indicated that oxidative stress was induced by modified nano-CBs. The results suggest that there is potential harm to earthworms in soil with 5% modified nano-CB and that it deserves special attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Uptake and metabolism of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil-earthworm-wheat, including degradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat and earthworms were investigated. Several perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) as degradation products of 10:2 FTOH were identified in the soil, plant and earthworms. 10:2 FTOH could be biodegraded to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in soil in the absence or presence of wheat/earthworms, and PFDA was the predominant metabolite. Accumulation of initial 10:2 FTOH and its metabolites were observed in the wheat and earthworms, suggesting that 10:2 FTOH could be bioaccumulated in wheat and earthworms and biotransformed to the highly stable PFCAs. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic (PFHxA) and PFDA were detected in wheat root, while PFDA and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were detected in shoot. PFNA and PFDA were determined in earthworms and the concentration of PFDA was much higher. The presence of earthworms and/or plant stimulated the microbial degradation of 10:2 FTOH in soil. The results supplied important evidence that degradation of 10:2 FTOH was an important potential source of PFCAs in the environment and in biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  16. Gene expression analysis of 4 biomarker candidates in Eisenia fetida exposed to an environmental metallic trace elements gradient: A microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck; Lemiere, Sebastien [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Douay, Francis [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Groupe ISA, 48 boulevard Vauban, F-59046 Lille Cedex (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-11-15

    Past activities of 2 smelters (Metaleurop Nord and Nyrstar) led to the accumulation of high amounts of Metal Trace Elements (TEs) in top soils of the Noyelles-Godault/Auby area, Northern France. Earthworms were exposed to polluted soils collected in this area to study and better understand the physiological changes, the mechanisms of acclimation, and detoxification resulting from TE exposure. Previously we have cloned and transcriptionally characterized potential biomarkers from immune cells of the ecotoxicologically important earthworm species Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to TE-spiked standard soils. In the present study, analysis of expression kinetics of four candidate indicator genes (Cadmium-metallothionein, coactosin like protein, phytochelatin synthase and lysenin) was performed in E. fetida after microcosm exposures to natural soils exhibiting an environmental cadmium (Cd) gradient in a kinetic manner. TE body burdens were also measured. This microcosm study provided insights into: (1) the ability of the 4 tested genes to serve as expression biomarkers, (2) detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes, and (3) influence of land uses on the response of potential biomarkers (gene expression or TE uptake). - Highlights: {yields} Expression biomarkers in animals exposed to Cadmium-contaminated field soils. {yields} Expression kinetics to test the ability of genes to serve as expression biomarkers. {yields} Study of detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes.

  17. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovački Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  18. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (bokashi pre-composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna J. Simpson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS, betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA of contaminants is not clearly defined.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) accumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to biosolids-, polyurethane foam microparticle-, and Penta-BDE-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C

    2013-12-03

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been used in consumer polymers at up to percent levels. While long viewed as biologically inaccessible therein, PBDEs may become bioaccessible following volatilization or polymer deterioration. PBDEs may then enter soils via polymer fragmentation or following land application of sewage sludge-derived biosolids. Studies of direct PBDE uptake from these materials by soil organisms are scarce. We thus exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) to artificial soil amended with a Class B anaerobically digested biosolid (ADB), an exceptional quality composted biosolid (CB), PBDE-containing polyurethane foam (PUF) microparticles, and Penta-BDE-spiked artificial soil (SAS). Worms accumulated mg/kg (lipid) ∑Penta-PBDE burdens from all substrates. Biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for worms exposed to ADB- and CB-amended soils were comparable after 28 d. BSAFs generally decreased with increasing congener KOW and substrate dosage. Biosolids-associated PBDE bioavailability was lower than spiked PBDEs. BSAFs for worms exposed to PUF microparticles ranged from 3.9 to 33.4, with ∑Penta-PBDE tissue burdens reaching 3740 mg/kg lipid. Congener accumulation patterns were similar in worms and polyethylene passive sampling devices immersed in ADB-amended soil coincident with exposed worms. However, passive sampler accumulation factors were lower than BSAFs. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs may accumulate in organisms ingesting soils containing biosolids or waste plastics. Such organisms may then transfer their burdens to predators or translocate them from the site of application/disposal.

  1. Microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-01-30

    Here we studied how the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida affects the microbial and nutrient stabilization of pig and cow manure, by analyzing fresh casts. Earthworms reduced the pools of dissolved organic C and N in casts from both types of manure, as wells as mineral N. Microbial biomass was enhanced only in casts from pig manure and did not change in casts from cow manure, and fungal populations only raised in casts from cow manure. Earthworms reduced microbial activity in casts from cow manure and did not modify in casts from pig slurry. Enzyme activities in casts also depended on the manure ingested; there were no changes in dehydrogenase and beta-glucosidase activities, whereas acid and alkaline phosphatases increased. The results indicate that the first stage in vermicomposting of pig and cow manure by E. fetida, i.e. casting, produced a microbial stabilization decreasing the activity of microorganisms; this stabilization occurred despite of the increase in microbial biomass. The strong reduction in nutrient pools of manures may be the responsible of this contradiction. These changes will influence the dynamics of the organic matter degradation by reducing forms of C and N available to microorganisms and hence restricting their growth and multiplication. Nevertheless, casts were also characterized by an increased enzyme potential that might lead to a further thorough degradation of pig and cow manure.

  2. Nickel in Soil Modifies Sensitivity to Diazinon Measured by the Activity of Acetylcholinesterase, Catalase, and Glutathione S-Transferase in Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel in typical soils is present in a very low concentration, but in the contaminated soils it occurs in locally elevated concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nickel in the concentrations of 300 (very high, close to LOEC for reproduction and 900 (extremely high, close to LOEC for mortality mg/kg dry soil on the life history and acetylcholinesterase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities in earthworm Eisenia fetida and to establish how nickel modifies the sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide—diazinon. Cocoons production and juveniles’ number were significantly lower only in groups exposed to Ni in the concentration of 900 mg/kg dry soil for two months. Diazinon administration diminished the AChE activity in the GI tract and in the body wall. The interaction between diazinon and nickel was observed, and, in consequence, the AChE activity after the pesticide treatment was similar to controls in worms preexposed to nickel. Both pesticide administration and exposure to nickel caused an increase in the GST activity in examined organs and CAT activity in body wall. Both biometric and development data and simple enzymatic analysis, especially the AChE and GST, show a Ni pretreatment effect on the subsequent susceptibility to pesticide.

  3. Combined toxicity of butachlor, atrazine and λ-cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Qian, Yongzhong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    Pesticides in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as complex mixtures and their combined effect may exhibit toxicity to organisms. The individual and combined toxicities of two herbicides, atrazine and butachlor and an insecticide λ-cyhalothrin have been examined to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, as a non-target terrestrial organism, in artificial soil and filter paper tests. The order of toxicity for the individual pesticides was ranked as atrazine>λ-cyhalothrin>butachlor in both tests. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which is widely used to study chemical interactions to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of the pesticides and it allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism. For most cases in artificial soil test, synergism was observed in majority of the mixtures except for the combination of butachlor plus λ-cyhalothrin. This particular combination displayed opposite interaction in filter paper test. The CI method was compared with the classical models of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) and we found that CI method could accurately predict the combined toxicity and can serve as a useful tool in ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  4. Soil pH effects on the comparative toxicity of dissolved zinc, non-nano and nano ZnO to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Laura R; Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lofts, Stephen; Lahive, Elma; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Cedergreen, Nina; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2014-08-01

    To determine how soil properties influence nanoparticle (NP) fate, bioavailability and toxicity, this study compared the toxicity of nano zinc oxide (ZnO NPs), non-nano ZnO and ionic ZnCl2 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in a natural soil at three pH levels. NP characterisation indicated that reaction with the soil media greatly controls ZnO properties. Three main conclusions were drawn. First that Zn toxicity, especially for reproduction, was influenced by pH for all Zn forms. This can be linked to the influence of pH on Zn dissolution. Secondly, that ZnO fate, toxicity and bioaccumulation were similar (including relationships with pH) for both ZnO forms, indicating the absence of NP-specific effects. Finally, earthworm Zn concentrations were higher in worms exposed to ZnO compared to ZnCl2, despite the greater toxicity of the ionic form. This observation suggests the importance of considering the relationship between uptake and toxicity in nanotoxicology studies.

  5. Effects of dioxin exposure in Eisenia andrei: integration of biomarker data by an Expert System to rank the development of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Oliveri, Laura; Canesi, Laura; Viarengo, Aldo

    2011-10-01

    A battery of biomarkers has recently been developed in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. In this study, different biomarkers (i.e. Ca²⁺-ATPase activity, lysosomal membrane stability-LMS, lysosomal lipofuscin and neutral lipid content) were utilized to evaluate the alterations in the physiological status of animals, induced by exposure for 3d to different sublethal concentrations of TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (1.5 × 10⁻³, 1.5 × 10⁻², 1.5×10⁻¹ ng mL⁻¹) utilizing the paper contact toxicity test. Lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio and DNA damage were also evaluated as a biomarker at the tissue level and as a biomarker of genotoxicity, respectively. Moreover, the NR retention time assay conditions were optimized for the determination of in vivo LMS in earthworm coelomocytes. The results demonstrate that LMS and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity were early warning biomarkers able to detect the effects of minimal amounts of TCDD and that biomarkers evaluated at the tissue level are important for following the evolution of the stress syndrome in earthworms. To evaluate the health status of the animals, an Earthworm Expert System (EES) for biomarker data integration and interpretation was developed. The EES proved to be a suitable tool able to rank, objectively, the different levels of the stress syndrome in E. andrei induced by the different concentrations of TCDD.

  6. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  7. Chiral quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid in soils: Enantioselective degradation, enzymes interaction and toxicity to Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Hui; Qu, Han; Xu, Yangguang; Wang, Peng; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    An enantioselective chromatographic method to analyze enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid was established using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on (R, R) Whelk-O 1 column. The enantioselective degradation kinetics of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid in three soils were investigated. Moreover, the interaction with urease and catalase in the soils and the acute toxicity to Eisenia foetida of quizalofop-ethyl were also determined in order to assess their metabolism mechanism and environmental risk. From the results, quizalofop-ethyl was configurationally stable and was hydrolyzed rapidly to quizalofop-acid, which also degraded enantioselectively but slowly, and the inversion of the S-(-)-quizalofop-acid into the R-(+)-quizalofop-acid was observed in Xinxiang soil. In addition, quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid enantioselectively affected urease activity but not catalase. The acute toxicity assays to earthworm indicated that the racemic quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid were more toxic than quizalofop-p-ethyl and quizalofop-p-acid respectively, dramatically, the toxicity of the metabolite was much higher than the parent compound. These results revealed the enantioselective degradation of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid, and the differences of toxicity among the enantiomers of the parent compound and the metabolite, which should be considered in future environmental risk evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankadurai, Brian P; Furdui, Vasile I; Reiner, Eric J; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-08-27

    1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS), betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA) of contaminants is not clearly defined.

  9. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  10. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  11. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  12. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  14. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  15. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  16. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good condition

  17. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, S; Pastor, S; March, G J

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in the sustainability of agriculture systems and indicates the level of health of soil, especially when considering the richness of microorganisms that are involved in biological control of soilborne diseases. Cultural practices may produce changes in soil microflora, which can be quantified through the isolation of target microorganisms. Rhizosphere soil samples were taken from an assay with different crop rotations and tillage systems, and populations of Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes were quantified in order to select the general and selective culture media that better reflect the changes of these microbial populations in soil. The most efficient medium for the isolation of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. was potato dextrose agar modified by the addition of chloramphenicol, streptomycin and rose bengal, and for actinomycetes was Küster medium, with cycloheximide and sodium propionate.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  1. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  3. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  4. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  5. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  6. Evaluación del Desempeño de Eisenia Foetida (Lmobriz Roja Californiana) en la Degradación de los Pesticidas Organofosforados Clorpirifos y Profenofos en Suelos Arequipa-2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales Condori, Elvis Gilmar

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Los pesticidas organofosforados como clorpirifos (Dorsán y Tifón) y profenofos (Selecrón) son usados con frecuencia en actividades agrícolas de la región Arequipa, su uso se ve en aumento debido a la presencia de múltiples plagas que amenazan a la producción de alimentos de origen vegetal. Producto de esta actividad los suelos se ven contaminados ya que estos pesticidas presentan una alta residualidad. El presente proyecto tuvo como finalidad evaluar la actividad de Eisenia foet...

  7. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  8. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity of an organic and an inorganic nanomaterial to Eisenia andrei: SDS/DDAB nano-vesicles and titanium silicon oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bruno; Lourenço, Joana; Marques, Sérgio; Nogueira, Verónica; Gavina, Ana; da Graça Rasteiro, Maria; Antunes, Filipe; Mendo, Sónia; Pereira, Ruth

    2017-06-01

    In the past few years the number of studies on the toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment increased significantly. Nonetheless, the data is still scarce, since there is a large number of NMs and new ones are being developed each day. Soils are extremely important for life, and are easily exposed to the released NMs, thus enhanced efforts are needed to study the impacts on soil biota. The objective of the present work was to determine if different concentrations of two NMs, one inorganic (TiSiO4) and other organic (nano-vesicles of sodium sodecyl sulfate/ didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide - SDS/DDAB), are genotoxic to soil invertebrates. Additionally, it was intended to understand whether, in the event of occurring, genotoxicity was caused by the incapability of the cells to deal with the oxidative stress caused by these NMs. With that purpose, Eisenia andrei were exposed for 30 days to the artificial OECD soil contaminated with different concentrations of the NMs being tested. After the exposure, coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms and DNA damage was measured by the comet assay. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (e.g. glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-Transferase) and lipid peroxidation were also assessed. The results showed that both NMs were genotoxic, particularly TiSiO4 for which significant DNA damages were recorded for concentrations above 444mg of TiSiO4-NM/kg of soildw. Since no statistically significant differences were found in the tested antioxidant enzymes and in lipid peroxidation, the mechanism of genotoxicity of these NMs seemed to be unrelated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bio-optimization of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio for efficient vermicomposting of chicken manure and waste paper using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, B; Mnkeni, P N S

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum C/N ratio for converting waste paper and chicken manure to nutrient-rich manure with minimum toxicity. Six treatments of C/N ratio 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively) achieved by mixing chicken manure with shredded paper were used. The study involved a composting stage for 20 days followed by vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida for 7 weeks. The results revealed that 20 days of composting considerably degraded the organic waste mixtures from all treatments and a further 7 weeks of vermiculture significantly improved the bioconversion and nutrient value of all treatments. The C/N ratio of 40 (T3) resulted in the best quality vermicompost compared to the other treatments. Earthworm biomass was highest at T3 and T4 possibly due to a greater reduction of toxic substances in these waste mixtures. The total N, total P, and total K concentrations increased with time while total carbon, C/N ratio, electrical conductivity (EC), and heavy metal content gradually decreased with time during the vermicomposting process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the intrastructural degradation of the chicken manure and shredded paper matrix which confirmed the extent of biodegradation of treatment mixtures as result of the composting and vermicomposting processes. Phytotoxicity evaluation of final vermicomposts using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), carrot (Daucus carota), and onion (Allium cepa) as test crops showed the non-phytotoxicity of the vermicomposts to be in the order T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > T5 > T6. Generally, the results indicated that the combination of composting and vermicomposting processes is a good strategy for the management of chicken manure/paper waste mixtures and that the ideal C/N ratio of the waste mixture is 40 (T3).

  10. Potential of Effective micro-organisms and Eisenia fetida in enhancing vermi-degradation and nutrient release of fly ash incorporated into cow dung-paper waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu Allan; Ravindran, Balasubramani; Mnkeni, Pearson Nyari Stephano

    2016-02-01

    The interactions between earthworms and microorganisms activity has prompted several researchers to evaluate the potential of artificially inoculating vermicomposts with additional specific microbes, with the intention of enhancing the vermicomposting process. This study evaluated the potential of inoculating fly ash (F)-cow dung-paper waste (CP) mixture (F-CP) with a specialized microbial cocktail called Effective micro-organisms (EM) during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms. Inoculation with EM alone did not result in significantly (P>0.05) different changes in C/N ratio and dissolved organic matter (DOC) compared to the control with no EM and E. fetida. A significant interaction between EM and E. fetida presence resulted in greater changes in C/N ratio and DOC, which were not statistically different from the E. fetida alone treatment. It was also noteworthy that the activity of ß-Glucosidase was not influenced by the presence of EM, but was significantly influenced (P=0.0014) by the presence of E. fetida. However, the EM+E. fetida treatment resulted in a rate of weekly Olsen P release of 54.32mgkg(-1) which was 12.3%, 89.2% and 228.0% more that the E. fetida alone, EM alone and control treatments, respectively. Similarly, though higher in the E. fetida plus EM treatment, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria counts were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the E. fetida alone treatment. It is concluded that inoculation of F-CP composts with EM alone may not be beneficial, while combining EM with E. fetida results in faster compost maturity and significantly greater Olsen P release. It would be interesting to evaluate higher optimized rates of EM inoculation and fortifying EM cocktails with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on F-CP vermicompost degradation and phosphorus mineralization.

  11. The effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida under experimental conditions of tropical and temperate regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcos [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Scheffczyk, Adam [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany); Garcia, Terezinha [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Roembke, Joerg, E-mail: j-roembke@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Plant Protection Products can affect soil organisms and thus might have negative impacts on soil functions. Little research has been performed on their impact on tropical soils. Therefore, the effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on earthworms were evaluated in acute and chronic laboratory tests modified for tropical conditions, i.e. at selected temperatures (20 and 28 {sup o}C) and with two strains (temperate and tropical) of the compost worm Eisenia fetida. The insecticide was spiked in two natural soils, in OECD artificial soil and a newly developed tropical artificial soil. The effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did rarely vary in the same soil at tropical (LC50: 68.5-229 mg a.i./kg dry weight (DW); EC50: 54.2-60.2 mg a.i./kg DW) and temperate (LC50: 99.8-140 mg a.i./kg DW; EC50: 37.4-44.5 mg a.i./kg DW) temperatures. In tests with tropical soils and high temperature, effect values differed by up to a factor of ten. - Research highlights: In one soil, effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did not vary much at two temperatures. In tropical soils at high temperature, effects differed by up to a factor of ten. In the tropics, effects of pesticides can be higher or lower as in temperate regions. - The effects of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on earthworms did not differ considerably when performed in the same soil under different temperatures, but LC/EC{sub 50} values varied by a factor of ten between OECD and tropical artificial soil.

  12. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolomics of time-dependent responses of Eisenia fetida to sub-lethal phenanthrene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankadurai, Brian P.; Wolfe, David M.; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 Canada (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 Canada (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene over time. Earthworms were exposed to 0.025 mg/cm{sup 2} of phenanthrene (1/64th of the LC{sub 50}) via contact tests over four days. Earthworm tissues were extracted using a mixture of chloroform, methanol and water, resulting in polar and non-polar fractions that were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR after one, two, three and four days. NMR-based metabolomic analyses revealed heightened E. fetida responses with longer phenanthrene exposure times. Amino acids alanine and glutamate, the sugar maltose, the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine emerged as potential indicators of phenanthrene exposure. The conversion of succinate to fumarate in the Krebs cycle was also interrupted by phenanthrene. Therefore, this study shows that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for elucidating time-dependent relationships in addition to the mode of toxicity of phenanthrene in earthworm exposure studies. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the mode of action of phenanthrene is presented. > The earthworm species E. fetida were exposed to sub-lethal phenanthrene concentrations. > Both polar and non-polar metabolites of E. fetida tissue extracts were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR. > Longer phenanthrene exposure times resulted in heightened earthworm responses. > An interruption of the Krebs cycle was also observed due to phenanthrene exposure. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics is used to determine the relationship between phenanthrene exposure and the metabolic response of the earthworm E. fetida over time and also to elucidate the phenanthrene mode of toxicity.

  13. Bioavailability and influence of ¹⁴C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments.

  14. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Rabindra; Oh, Sanghwa; Shin, Won Sik

    2012-02-01

    The applicability of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) as a biomimic surrogate was investigated to determine the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations to earthworm (Eisenia foetida). The relationships between the amount of DGT and earthworm uptake; DGT uptake and the bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals in soils were evaluated. The one-compartment model for the dynamic uptake of heavy metals in the soil fitted well to both the earthworm (R(2)=0.641-0.990) and DGT (R(2)=0.473-0.998) uptake data. DGT uptake was linearly correlated with the total heavy metal concentrations in the soil (aqua regia), the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations estimated by fractions I+II of the standard measurements and testing (SM&T) and physiologically based extraction test (PBET, stomach+intestine). The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of DGT uptake vs. aqua regia were 0.433, 0.929 and 0.723; vs. SM&T fractions (I+II) were 0.901, 0.882 and 0.713 and vs. PBET (stomach+intestine) were 0.913, 0.850 and 0.649 for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. These results imply that DGT can be used as a biomimic surrogate for the earthworm uptake of heavy metals in contaminated soils as well as predict bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals estimated by SM&T (I+II) and PBET as a human oral bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative perturbations in lead-exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms.

  16. PRECOMPOSTEO DE RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS Y SU EFECTO EN LA DINÁMICA POBLACIONAL DE Einsenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Acosta-Dur\\u00E1n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El compostaje y el vermicompostaje son técnicas que se utilizan para transformar los residuos sólidos orgánicos en abonos orgánicos (composta y vermicomposta, respectivamente cuyas características físicas, químicas y biológicas inciden directamente en el mejoramiento del suelo y en el crecimiento de las plantas; sin embargo, durante el proceso, se liberan desechos que agreden al ambiente. El sustrato utilizado para alimentar a las lombrices debe pasar por un periodo previo de compostaje, conocido como precompostaje. El vermicompostaje produce un material en el que la mayoría de los nutrimentos se encuentran en mayor disponibilidad para la planta, comparados con el material resultante de un proceso de compostaje convencional. El pre compostaje involucra un mayor tiempo y gasto de insumos, lo que puede incrementar el costo de la vermicomposta, por lo que es necesario establecer el tiempo necesario de precompostaje para que los residuos orgánicos puedan emplearse como sustrato en la producción de la lombriz Eisenia spp. Para la obtención de vermicom posta, los residuos se sometieron a un procesode precompostaje de 0 a 8 semanas antes delproceso de vermicompostaje. Se concluyó que las condiciones en las que se desarrolló el experimento permitieron el desarrollo de las lombrices en todos los periodos de precompostaje. El vermicompostaje en capas reduce significativamente el tiempo del proceso para lograr la completa descomposición de los residuos orgánicos. Para la presencia de cocones y juveniles no es necesario el precomposteo. En general el precomposteo de 0 a 2 semanas favorece la reproducción y el de 3 a 7 semanas favorece el crecimiento individual de las lombrices. El mejor tratamiento fue el pre composteo de 2 semanas, debido a que favorece la reproducción y el aumento del peso promediode la lombriz. El precompostaje no es necesario cuando las pilas de vermicomposteo tienenmenos de 50 cm de altura, al producir vermicomposta

  17. Influencia de la Eisenia foetida y de Sustratos Orgánicos como Agentes Bioestimulantes en la Biodegradación de un Suelo Contaminado con Petróleo Pesado The influence of Eisenia foetida and Organic Substrates as Biostimulants Agents in the Biodegradation of Heavy Crude Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el proceso de biodegradación de un suelo contaminado con petróleo pesado proveniente de la faja petrolífera del Orinoco. El suelo fue sometido a tres tipos de tratamientos, empleando estiércol equino, humus líquido y ejemplares de Eisenia foetida; para lograr disminuir su nivel de contaminación. Se analizaron hidrocarburos totales de petróleo (HTP, fracciones del crudo, porcentaje de humedad relativa, potencial de acidez, conteo de aerobios mesófilos, de acuerdo a procedimientos estándares (ASTM, COVENIN, y EPA. Los resultados reportaron diferencias significativas para el tratamiento con E. foetida mientras que para el tratamiento con humus líquido no se registraron diferencias significativas en la prueba de Dunnett. Los tratamientos con E. foetida y estiércol equino presentaron un alto porcentaje de remoción de hidrocarburos saturados y resinas; mientras que las fracciones de aromáticos y asfaltenos no variaron significativamente en la prueba de Tukey HSD, siendo el tratamiento con E. foetida el más eficaz en la descontaminación del suelo impactado.The biodegradation of a heavy crude contaminated soil coming from the Orinoco oil belt was studied. The soil was subjected to three types of treatments using horse dung, liquid humus and samples of Eisenia foetida as bioestimulants to reduce its level of contamination. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, characterization of crude fractions, relative humidity rate, acidity potential and aerobics mesophylic count were performed, according to the standard methods (ASTM, COVENIN, and EPA. Significant differences in the treatments with the samples of E. foetida were found while no significant differences were observed in the treatment with liquid humus using Dunnett's test. The E. foetida and horse dung treatments shows a high degradation of saturated hydrocarbons and resins, whereas the asphalt and aromatic fractions did not vary significantly using the Tukey HSD test. The E

  18. Reproducción de Eisenia foetida en suelos agrícolas de áreas mineras contaminadas por cobre y arsénico Reproduction of Eisenia foetida in agricultural soils from mining areas contaminated with copper and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ávila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la toxicidad del cobre y arsénico en suelos agrícolas, mediante bioensayos estandarizados de toxicidad aguda y crónica sobre Eisenia foetida y relacionar la respuesta de ésta con las concentraciones de cobre y arsénico en los suelos. Los suelos agrícolas fueram muestreados en las inmediaciones de áreas mineras en la cuenca del río Aconcagua, Chile. E. foetida expuesta a los suelos estudiados mostró una baja mortalidad, indicando la ausencia de toxicidad aguda. Además, se observó una disminución en la producción de capullos y desarrollo de juveniles, indicando la existencia de toxicidad crónica. Dicha disminución fue relacionada con las concentraciones de cobre y arsénico en los suelos. El cobre y arsénico en conjunto disminuyeron la producción de capullos, mientras que sólo el arsénico disminuyó el desarrollo de juveniles. Suelos agrícolas provenientes de áreas mineras de la cuenca poseen potenciales características tóxicas para el desarrollo de la macrofauna edáfica.The objective of this work was to evaluate copper and arsenic toxicity in agricultural soils, by means of standardized bioassays of chronic and acute toxicity on Eisenia foetida, and to relate E. foetida response to copper and arsenic concentrations in soils. The agricultural soils were sampled in the proximity of copper mining industries, in the Aconcagua river basin, Chile. E. foetida exposed to the studied soils exhibited a low mortality, indicating the absence of acute toxicity. Besides, a decrease in the cocoon production and juvenile development was observed, indicating the existence of chronic toxicity. Reduction in the cocoon production and juvenile development was related to soil concentrations of copper and arsenic. Both copper and arsenic reduced the cocoon production, while only arsenic diminished the juvenile development. Agricultural soils from mining areas of the basin have potentially toxic characteristics

  19. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  20. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic otomycosis due to Malassezia Spp

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    R Latha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp - with characteristic "spaghetti and meat ball appearance". The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely.

  2. [Demodex spp in chronic blepharitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspina, Florentina; Samudio, Margarita; Arrúa, Martín; Sanabria, Rosa; Fariña, Norma; Carpinelli, Letizia; Cibils, Diógenes; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia

    2015-02-01

    Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ± 13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.

  3. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  4. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species.

  5. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected.

  6. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and [i]Giardia[/i] spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] and [i]Giardia[/i] identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266 from [i]A. agrarius[/i],[i] A. flavicollis[/i] and [i]M. glareolus[/i], were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for [i]Giardia[/i] spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and [i]Giardia[/i] infection where[i] A. agrarius[/i] was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of [i]Giardia[/i] spp. and [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from [i]A. agrarius[/i] (from a semi-aquatic, urban area was identified as [i]C. parvum[/i] and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the [i]C. parvum[/i] zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of [i]C. ubiquitum[/i] from three small rodent species.

  7. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth

  8. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella  spp. and Salmonella  spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the

  9. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Isolamento de Pasteurella spp. e Vibrio spp. em robalos (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibilidade a diferentes grupos de antibióticos Isolation of Pasteurella spp. and Vibrio spp. in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibility to different antibiotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Saavedra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent infectious diseases that affect fish are those of bacterial origin. In European sea bass fish farms (Dicentrarchus labrax are included Vibrio spp., Pasteurella piscicida and Myxobacter spp. In addition to these, it is also possible to find, although lesser frequently, other pathogenic agents such as Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp. The presence of these micro-organisms in fish farms contributes for a significant decrease in fish production and subsequent loss of profitability in these aquaculture units. The use of antibiotics may therefore be necessary as a prophylactic measure although their systematic utilization leads to the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bearing that in mind, a survey was conducted on the susceptibility of isolated strains of bacteria found in juvenile European sea bass. It was concluded that chloranphenicol and tetracycline are two important antibiotic alternatives for therapy against isolated bacterial agents.

  11. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-03-27

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity).

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Eel (Anguilla spp.) Mucus against Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Tomy Nurtamin; Resty Yulianita Nurman; Indria Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has become one global health problem. Typhoid fever is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. Eel (Anguilla spp.) is a fish which lives in the sea or in freshwater. Several previous studies have found that Anguilla spp. mucus has the ability as antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative. Although the antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. against various pathogens had been reported, very little is known about its activity against Salmonella typ...

  13. Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cau...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  15. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms. Arizona spp....

  17. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Serratia spp. are occasionally associated with...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Bordetella spp. cause whooping cough...

  19. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  20. The potential role of migratory birds in transmission cycles of Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Franke, Jan; Meier, Frank; Sachse, Svea; Dorn, Wolfram; Straube, Eberhard

    2010-06-01

    Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. are potentially emerging tick-borne pathogens, whereas many issues about their ecology, e.g. reservoir host specificity, are still unclear. In spring 2007, we collected 191 feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks from 99 birds of 11 different species on a German bird conservation island in the Baltic Sea. Babesia spp. were detected in 4.7% (9/191), A. phagocytophilum was present in 2.6% (5/191), and Rickettsia spp. were identified in 7.3% (14/191) of the investigated ticks. Further characterization of Babesia spp. infections resulted in B. divergens and B. microti. Among the Rickettsia spp. infections, we identified at least 2 different species: R. monacensis and R. helvetica. Furthermore, 2 ticks harboured mixed infections. Our study provides first interesting insights into the role of migratory birds in the distribution of several emerging tick-borne pathogens.

  1. Mysterious chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystis spp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyńska, Małgorzata; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Dzika, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Blastocystis, which are single-cell, intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals, remain mysterious, with unclear clinical and epidemiologic significance. In recent years, many researchers have suggested a possible connection between Blastocystis spp. infection and chronic urticaria. In the present article, we review the literature and discuss the possible associations between the clinical symptomatology and pathogenicity of this organism in terms of its subtypes, morphologic forms, genetic diversity, and interactions with other intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  3. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  4. Efeitos Tóxicos de Arsênio em Eisenia Andrei em Exposição a Solos do Entorno de Minerações de Ouro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Henrique Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos das atividades de mineração têm grande relevância econômica no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. No entanto, seus inúmeros danos à biota, incluindo a fauna edáfica, resultam na necessidade de recuperação e biomonitoramento dessas áreas e do seu entorno. Considerando a importância ecológica e o potencial bioindicador das minhocas, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicidade de arsênio presente em solos do entorno de minerações de ouro, nas bacias dos rios Doce e São Francisco, a oligoquetas da espécie Eisenia andrei Bouché. Amostras de solos dessas áreas foram caracterizadas em relação às suas propriedades físicas e químicas, incluindo os metais Fe, Al, Cu, Ni, Zn e Mn e do metaloide As; com elas, foram conduzidos bioensaios, que avaliaram a sobrevivência, reprodução e variação da biomassa dos organismos. Também foram realizados testes de sensibilidade dessa espécie ao As adicionado a solo artificial tropical e em solo natural. Houve evidente efeito tóxico sobre a reprodução dessa espécie, que esteve altamente correlacionado com as concentrações de As nas amostras (r = -0,80. Amostras de solos naturais de locais avaliados nas duas áreas apresentaram concentrações de As acima do limite estipulado pela Resolução Conama nº 420 de 2009, chegando a 2.388,2 mg kg-1. A CL50 do As em solo artificial tropical (207,4 mg kg-1 foi seis vezes menor que a do solo natural (1.248,1 mg kg-1. A menor biodisponibilidade do As nos solos naturais foi atribuída a sua associação com o minério de Fe presente nas amostras. Concluiu-se que os solos do entorno de áreas de mineração causaram toxicidade crônica a E. andrei, em termos de sua reprodução, o que demonstrou o potencial de danos dessas atividades sobre a fauna edáfica dessas áreas. O estudo também forneceu informações ecotoxicológicas que podem ser úteis em avaliações de risco ambiental em solos tropicais.

  5. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE FROM THE EARTHWORM (EISENIA FOETIDA)%蚯蚓体内超氧化物歧化酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘堰; 张平波

    1999-01-01

    蚯蚓体内SOD含量甚高,35℃饲养的蚯蚓其SOD比活最高,因此,纯化前将蚯蚓在35℃养殖4周以上.采用硫酸铵分级沉淀和柱层析的方法,从蚯蚓体内分离得到纯的铜锌超氧化物歧化酶.每100g组织得到SOD制品总活力为17,190 U,比活7995 U/mg,回收率为35%.该酶呈淡蓝绿色,最大紫外吸收波长为270nm.该酶分子量为33,000,亚基分子量为16,500.该酶亚基含156个氨基酸残基,不含酪氨酸.N-末端为丙氨酸,等电聚焦为三条谱带,等电点分别为5.30 、5.59和6.22.%The superoxide dismutase activity (units/mg protein) was determined for earthworm (Eisenia foetida) acclimated from 10℃to 35℃at 5 degree intervals. Worms acclimated at 35℃gave a value of SOD units significantly higher than those acclimated at other temperatures . So the worms were acclimated for four weeks at 35℃prior to purification. Cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase extracted from the cell of earthworm had been purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and special column chromatography . The purified enzyme obtained from 100 grams of tissue possessed a total activity of 17 190 units with specific activity of 7 995 units per mg protein .The yield was 35%. The enzyme isolated by this procedure showed pale blue-green color . It exhibited one absorption maximum in the ultraviolet at 270 nm .The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 33 000 daltons as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 , and that of the enzyme subunits was 16 500 daltons as estimated with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis .The enzyme subunits consisted of 156 amino acid residues , in which tyrosine was absent . The N-terminal of the enzyme was alanine as assayed by dansyl chloride . Three bands of the enzyme were seen in isoelectrofocusing. They focused at pH5.30, 5.59 and 6.22 , respectively .

  6. Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, B A; Dumbrell, A J; Daud, S D; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E; Mogensen, L; Whitby, C

    2012-08-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms.

  7. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  8. Characterizing the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa; Casaletti, Luciana; Báo, Sônia Nair; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2016-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 867 proteins. In order to support our enrichment method for nuclear proteins, bioinformatics analysis were applied that allowed the identification of 281 proteins with nuclear localization. The analysis revealed proteins related to DNA maintenance, gene expression, synthesis and processing of messenger and ribosomal RNAs, likewise proteins of nuclear-cytoplasmic traffic. It was also possible to detect some proteins that are poorly expressed, like transcription factors involved in important roles such as resistance to abiotic stress, sporulation, cellular growth and DNA and chromatin maintenance. This is the first descriptive nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp. that can be useful as an important platform base for fungi-specific nuclear processes.

  9. Distribution of pathogenic Naegleria spp in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, S; Junnu, V

    2001-01-01

    Research concerning the distribution, isolation, viability, ultrastructure, morphology and immunogenicity of Naegleria fowleri has been increasing in Thailand during 1988-2000. The distribution of the organism was carried out from 1985 to 1987 in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Rachathani Provinces, after the first fatal case was reported in Si Sa Ket. Since then in a 1998 survey of N. fowleri in stagnant water around industrial areas was carried out in Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Lopburi provinces. The results showed that 10% of pathogenic Naegleria belonged to species fowleri as characterized by morphology and the occurrence of pathogenesis in mice after nasal inoculation. In the same year, Nacapunchai et al (1999) determined the prevalence of amebae in aquatic habitat of human environments in five parts of Thailand during the summer. Fourteen percent of free living Naegleria spp were found in both soil and water resources. Recent studies of the ultrastructure, factors affecting the viability and SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of 3 Thai strains of pathogenic Naegleria spp indicated their similarities in morphological characteristics of pathogenic reference control, Naegleria fowleri CDC VO 3081. Additional study using a genetic approach to species criteria using allozyme electrophoresis had been conducted.

  10. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  11. Phylogenesis of relapsing fever Borrelia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, N M; Lascola, B; Postic, D; Cutler, S J; Rodhain, F; Baranton, G; Raoult, D

    1996-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. Complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. The results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the RF Borrelia spp. into three major clusters. One cluster included Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia hispanica. Another cluster comprised tow main branches with Borrelia coriaceae, Borrelia lonestari, and Borrelia miyamotoi on one side and Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia turicatae, and Borrelia hermsii on the other side. Borrelia anserina constituted the third cluster. The phylogenetic position of Borrelia persica was more uncertain. These results suggested that the taxonomy of these spirochetes should be revised. To overcome the problems of culturing the spirochetes, RF Borrelia primers were defined. Following PCR amplification of the rrs gene, restriction length fragment polymorphism could be used to distinguish between RF Borrelia strains.

  12. Bioethanol production from the macroalgae Sargassum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borines, Myra G; de Leon, Rizalinda L; Cuello, Joel L

    2013-06-01

    Macroalgae, an abundant and carbon-neutral renewable resource, with several species rich in carbohydrates are suitable for bioethanol production. This study focused on the pretreatment, enzyme saccharification and fermentation of Sargassum spp., a brown macroalgae for bioethanol production. The optimal acid pretreatment condition achieved in terms of glucose and reducing sugar yields was 3.4-4.6% (w/v) H2SO4 concentration, 115°C and 1.50h. The pretreated biomass was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme system supplemented with β-glucosidase. After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40°C, pH of 4.5 for 48 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the enzyme hydrolysate reached 89%, which was markedly higher than the theoretical yield of 51% based on glucose as substrate. Since all the glucose was consumed during fermentation, other sugar sources might be present in the hydrolysate. The macroalgae, Sargassum spp., showed significant potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% ...

  14. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  15. INK128 exhibits synergy with azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujuan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a

  16. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani with Trichoderma Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ From over 800 fungal strains of Trichoderma Spp. , 6 strains were found to greatly inhibit the growing of Rhizocotonia solani, the pathogen of rice sheath blight in dual culture. Among them, strain T3 was the best antagonist,which reduced the growing of the pathogen by 52.54% (Table 1). In field, both the pesticide Jinggangmycin and the mixture of T1 T6 could reduce the severity of rice sheath blight(Table 2), which resulted in the increases of seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight. Because the effect of the antagonists on the control of the pathogen could be partially realized in the watery environment, studies on the biocontrol mechanism of the fungi should be strengthened to help the establishment of a best way of antagonist utilization.

  17. Design Studies with DEMIRCI for SPP RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Yasatekin, B; Alacakir, A; Unel, G

    2014-01-01

    To design a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is a onerous job which requires a good understanding of all the main parameters and the relevant calculations. Up to the present there are only a few software packages performing this task in a reliable way. These legacy software, though proven in time, could benefit from the modern software development tools like Object Oriented (OO) programming. In this note, a new RFQ design software, DEMIRCI is introduced. It is written entirely from scratch using C++ and based on CERN's OO ROOT library. It has a friendly graphical user interface and also a command line interface for batch calculations. It can also interact by file exchange with similar software in the field. After presenting the generic properties of DEMIRCI, its compatibility with similar software packages is discussed based on the results from the reference design parameters of SPP (SNRTC Project Prometheus), a demonstration accelerator at Ankara, Turkey.

  18. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens.

  19. Helicobacter spp. other than H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2012-09-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated.

  20. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  1. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  2. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  3. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  4. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  5. Cu and glyphosate toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)%铜和草甘膦对蚯蚓的毒性效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周垂帆; 王玉军; 俞元春; 俞小鹏; 白玉杰; 周东美

    2012-01-01

    污染物的交互作用及其生态毒理效应已成为环境科学研究的主要方向.含铜杀菌剂与除草剂草甘膦[N-(膦酸甲基)甘氨酸]是农业生产中常见的农药,其在土壤中共存可能造成复合污染.草甘膦中含有羧基、氨基、磷酸基等配位基团对重金属阳离子和有机阳离子有很强的络合能力,草甘膦可以影响重金属的生物有效性、毒性以及重金属在生物体内的积累.本文以赤子爱胜蚓(Eisenia fetida)为例,采用室内模拟试验,单一试验设置5个铜浓度25 mg·kg-1、50 mg.kg-1、100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1和400 mg·kg-1,5个草甘膦浓度25 mg·kg-1、50 mg·kg-1、100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1和500 mg·kg-1,并以去离子水做空白对照;复合试验设置2个铜浓度(低铜浓度25 mg·kg-1和高铜浓度200 mg·kg-1)分别与5个草甘膦浓度(0、25 mg·kg-1、50 mg·kg-1、100 mg·kg-1和200 mg·kg-1)复合;每个处理3次重复,试验期为35d.研究了铜和草甘膦的单一及复合施用对蚯蚓的亚急性毒性效应.单一毒性试验结果表明,蚯蚓对低浓度铜的响应不敏感,而较高浓度铜使蚯蚓生物量的相对增长率受到显著抑制(α=0.01,r2=0.570),且未出现死亡,并且随着铜浓度的增加蚯蚓体内铜含量显著增加(α=0.01,r2=0.905).与对照相比草甘膦的添加对蚯蚓的生长无显著影响.复合毒性试验结果表明,草甘膦和铜复合可以降低蚯蚓对铜的吸收,特别是当铜浓度较高时即200 mg·kg-1,草甘膦和铜复合可显著降低蚯蚓对铜的吸收,并且草甘膦能够减轻铜对蚯蚓生物量相对增长率的抑制,但差异并不显著.以上结果表明,铜比草甘膦的毒性大很多,铜与草甘膦复合能够减少蚯蚓对铜的吸收,缓解铜的毒性.因此本研究认为,在草甘膦和重金属共存的污染土壤中,草甘膦能够控制重金属的生物有效性和毒性.%Interactions of pollutions are among current research focus in

  6. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp. Impact of herbicides on strains of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microrganismos é uma alternativa para o controle de doenças em plantas. Todavia, é prudente verificar a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6 x 4, com quatro repetições. O fator A correspondeu aos herbicidas pendimethalin, clomazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxadiazon, thiobencarb + propanil e byspiribac-sodium; o fator B, às doses dos herbicidas - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada; e o fator C, aos isolados de Trichoderma spp. AJAM 18, CE 66, TRI 01 e TRI 02. O ensaio foi realizado em condições in vitro; avaliaram-se o crescimento micelial radial (CMR e a esporulação dos isolados após aplicação dos herbicidas. Observaram-se diferenças de sensibilidade dos isolados para o mesmo produto testado. O oxadiazon reduziu o CMR dos isolados AJAM 18 e TRI 01 em 66 e 35%, respectivamente. No entanto, reduziu apenas 16% do CMR do isolado TRI 02 e não alterou o CMR do isolado CE 66 mesmo em 200% da dose recomendada. Verificaram-se diferentes efeitos dos produtos em cada isolado. A mistura comercial de thiobencarb+propanil foi altamente tóxica aos isolados de Trichoderma spp., com reduções em torno de 85% no CMR e no número de esporos. Por outro lado, o byspiribac-sodium pouco afetou os isolados, apresentando reduções inferiores a 10% no CMR e na esporulação. O carfentrazone-ethyl e byspiribac-sodium demonstraram ser compatíveis com os isolados de Trichoderma spp. estudados.The use of microorganisms is an alternative for the control of plant diseases. However, one should verify its interaction with other methods of control used for a particular crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of herbicide fungitoxicity on the growth and

  7. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  8. Multiple Wavelength-Channels in SPP Waveguides for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-You; HUANG Peng; GUO Xiao-Wei; WANG Jing-Quan; FANG Lang; DU Jing-Lei; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)can be excited,meanwhile some peculiar optical phenomena will appear when light irradiates metal structures under some conditions.Based on photonic band gap theory,in this Letter we present a kind of SPP waveguide with multiple wavelength-channels.By using the Bragg effect and introducing some geometric defect layers into a quasi-periodic metal heterowaveguide,the multiple SPP forbidden bands(SPFBs)in a given waveband can be generated,and the multiple SPP pass bands(SPPBs)with narrow bandwidth in each SPFB can be realized.

  9. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  10. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  11. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  14. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reis, M.R; Leão, E.U; Santos, G.R; Sarmento-Brum, R.B.C; Gonçalves, C.G; Cardon, C.H; Silva, D.B

    2013-01-01

    ... a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp...

  15. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these microorganisms. Diseases most often caused by Haemophilus spp. include pneumonia, pharyngitis,...

  17. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  18. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria vertoonde

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  20. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  1. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  2. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  3. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland.

  4. Helicobacter spp. other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, new insights into the association of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters with a range of human diseases in children and adults, including hepatobiliary disease, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and gastric disease were published. Studies investigating the presence of non-H. pylori Helicobacters in domestic animals reinforce previous findings that cats and dogs harbor gastric Helicobacter species and thus may be an important source of these organisms in humans. The confounding effect of enterohepatic Helicobacters on the outcome of biomedical research was investigated in several studies and led to recommendations that animals should be screened prior to performing experiments. A number of important and novel investigations regarding pathogenic mechanisms and immune responses to enterohepatic Helicobacters were conducted. Genomic advances in non-H. pylori Helicobacters included description of the complete genome of Helicobacter canadensis, delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies, and identification of a novel cis-regulatory RNA. New insights concerning growth conditions, biochemical characterization, and the effect of certain dietary compounds on Helicobacter spp. have also been reported. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats.

  6. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis.

  7. Antibodies to Leishmania spp. in domestic felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoa in the genus Leishmania, typical of rural and peri-urban environments. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis is Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi and the main insect vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Dogs (Canis familiaris are important in the transmission of the disease, as a reservoir closely related to humans and an infection source for phlebotomine vectors. Since 1990, an increasing number of feline leishmaniasis cases have been reported, suggesting that domestic cats (Felis catus might be involved in the epidemiology of the disease. The present study analyzed the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in naturally infected domestic cats from various neighborhoods in the municipality of Belém, Pará, Brazil, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and the direct agglutination test (DAT. Among the 443 samples tested, 18 (4.06% presented positive reactions in the IFA. The observed titers were 40 IU in 4.97% of the samples and 80 IU in 0.90%. In the DAT test, positive results were found in 25 (5.64% of the samples. The observed titers were also 40 IU (4.97% and 80 IU (0.68%. The agreement rate between the two tests was considered low (Kappa coefficient = 0.10.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54...

  9. Epidemiology and Prevalence of Blastocystis spp. in North Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, Ayse; Karasartova, Djursun; Ruh, Emrah; Güreser, Ayse Semra; Turgal, Ebru; Imir, Turgut; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThis study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. and its subtypes (STs) in North Cyprus; and to evaluate the presence of this parasite and its STs with respect to demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 230 volunteers. Each participant also filled out a questionnaire. The samples were examined microscopically by native-Lugol and trichrome methods and further tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Prevalence of Blastocystis spp. infection was found to be 10.5%, 10.5%, and 27.8%, by direct microscopy, trichrome method, and PCR, respectively. No other parasites were detected in the specimens except Giardia spp. (n = 2; 0.8%) and Entamoeba coli (n = 1; 0.4%). The most common Blastocystis STs were ST3 (20; 31.2%), ST2 (18; 28.2%), ST1 (8; 12.5%), and ST4 (7; 11%); whereas other STs were identified as ST6 (3; 4.7%), ST7 (2; 3.2%), and non-ST (6; 9.4%). Presence of Blastocystis spp. and its STs was not significantly related to any of the demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors. Furthermore, no significant association of Blastocystis spp. and its STs with gastrointestinal symptoms was found. This study is the first investigation of the epidemiology of Blastocystis spp. in North Cyprus. Distribution of Blastocystis spp. and its STs among demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors showed complete homogeneity. Presence of the parasite and its STs was not significantly related with the gastrointestinal symptoms among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. These findings suggest that Blastocystis spp. may be part of the intestinal flora in humans.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Non-flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, R. W.; Whitmire, D. K.; Farrow, Z. L.; Burson, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this study was to characterize recently identified, non-flowering, putative tetraploid Sorghum spp. hybrids utilizing bulked segregant analysis with SSRs and compare them to S. bicolor, S. halepense, and triploid putative Sorghum spp. hybrids. Confirmed species hybrids between S. bicolor and S. halepense would provide resources for investigating risks of invasiveness and transgene escape alongside potential for identifying novel perennial Sorghum feedstocks of value. Study d...

  11. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  12. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya; Ozlem Aycan Kaya; Umit Sertan Copoglu; Sibel Elmacioglu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites found in humans and live on the pilosebaceous glands and hair follicles especially on the facial region. Chronic alcohol consumption can weaken immune system and cause more severe infections. Demodex spp is assumed to be more common in alcohol-dependent patients due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of Demodex spp. ectoparasite in alc...

  13. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season) applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the ...

  14. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  15. Cefotaxime resistance and outcome of Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J

    2011-12-01

    We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia.

  16. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  17. Curcubitocin containing baits for Diabrotica spp. management/ Iscas contendo cucurbitacinas para o manejo de Diabrotica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ursi Ventura

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabrotica speciosa is a very important pest throughout Latin America, which management strategies are restrict to chemical control. We revise the usage of baits, containing semiochemicals, as management strategy for Diabrotica spp. Initially, we described the importance of baits for several orders of agricultural importance. The cucurbitacins are basic elements for Diabrotica spp. baits. These chemicals occur in some botanical families, especially Cucurbitaceae. The Carbamate insecticide Carbaril showed the best results for addition in the baits. Flowers volatile substances and pheromones also may be added to the baits to enhance attraction. Commercial baits are available for north-American species. For bait development is necessary to establish plant adherent formulations that promote the control during some weeks. We found in the literature that starch matrix may be suitable for this proposal.Diabrotica speciosa é praga de grande importância na América Latina, cujas estratégias de manejo restringem-se ao controle químico. A utilização de iscas, contendo semioquímicos como estratégia para manejo de Diabrotica spp. é revisada. Inicialmente, descreve-se a importância das iscas para diversas ordens de importância agrícola. As cucurbitacinas são elementos básicos das iscas para Diabrotica spp. Estas substâncias ocorrem em várias famílias botânicas, especialmente, Cucurbitaceae. O inseticida carbamato Carbaril apresenta os melhores resultados quando adicionado às iscas. Substâncias voláteis de flores e feromônios também podem ser adicionados às iscas e, desta forma, aumentar sua atratividade. Iscas comerciais existem para as espécies norte americanas. Para o desenvolvimento das iscas é necessário que se estabeleçam formulações aderentes às plantas que promovam o controle durante um tempo razoável no campo. Pelas informações da literatura, formulações contendo matrizes de amido podem ter estas características.

  18. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

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    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  19. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  20. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44 were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected.

  1. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  2. Alternations in the liver enzymatic activity of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio in response to parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiannasab, Abulhasan; Afsharmanesh, Shiva; Rahimi, Ruhollah; Sharifian, Iman

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of parasites, monogenea, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. on some enzymatic and biochemical components of liver in healthy and infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 10 healthy and 10 infected fish were collected from farm. The blood samples were taken and after separation of serum, the values of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were measured. Based on obtained results, the values of AST, ALT enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were higher in the infected fish compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion; our results reveals that infection with external parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. can causes some dysfunctions in liver and kidney of common carp.

  3. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  4. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH2O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10(-3) ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  6. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Regine H S F; Lima, Elenice Araújo de; Sousa, Dannielle Batista Rolim; Reis, Eliane Falavina dos; Costa, Renata Garcia; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.

  7. ACIDENTES POR SERPENTE (BOTHROPS SPP. E CROTALLUS SPP. EM CRIANÇAS: RELATO DE DOIS CASOS

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    Beatriz Ferreira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes provocados por serpientes poseen importancia sanitaria debido a la frecuencia y gravedad. La estandarización de la atención es imprescindible para auxiliar a los equipos de salud en el diagnóstico precoz y en el tratamiento específico a las víctimas. Pero, la evolución clínica del caso presenta particularidades, principalmente en accidentes infantiles y en ancianos. El objetivo fue describir y analizar dos casos clínicos de accidentes infantiles con serpientes de los géneros Bothrops spp. y Crotallus spp., notificados a un centro de información y asistencia toxicológica del Noroeste del Paraná/Brasil. Se encontraron aspectos positivos en la atención, como precocidad del acceso a la unidad de salud, identificación de síntomas y seroterapia precoz, y no ocurrencia de reacciones adversas a la seroterapia antivenenosa, y como aspectos negativos, la ausencia de la solicitud de exámenes bioquímicos preconizados y alta hospitalaria precoz pos seroterapia, considerando la posibilidad de reacciones adversas.

  8. Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XiaoYun; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Fang; James, Euan K; Guo, XiaoYe; Zagar, Catherine; Xia, Liu Gui; Dong, Xin; Wang, Yi Peng

    2012-05-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study from Sishuangbanna. The proportion of nodules containing each β-rhizobial genus varied between Mimosa species, with Cupriavidus being predominant in M. diplotricha nodules (63.3% compared to 36.7% occupation with Burkholderia), but with M. pudica showing a slight preference for Burkholderia over Cupriavidus, with them occupying 56.5% and 43.5% of nodules, respectively. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in all the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains tested, and their phylogenies indicated that these Mimosa symbionts share symbiotic genes with native South American rhizobia. The evolutionary discrepancies among 16S rRNA genes, nodA and nifH of Mimosa spp. symbionts, suggests that the nod and nif genes of β-rhizobia evolved independently. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  10. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  11. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  12. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  13. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  14. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  15. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  16. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diseño de un sistema alternativo para el tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas por medio de la técnica de lombrifiltros utilizando la especie Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacipt Alexander Ramón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo diseñar y construir un sistema sobre tratamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de Pamplona utilizando como base teórica el sistema de tratamiento Tohá creado por el Dr. Jose Tohá de la Universidad de Chile, proponiendo una serie de procesos que permiten el saneamiento de las aguas servidas después de su uso con fines domésticos, industriales o comerciales, para poder ser vertidas finalmente a cuerpos de agua naturales. Este proceso incluye un tratamiento con lombrifiltros (aserrín y Eisenia foetida, por donde las aguas residuales pasan seguidamente de una cama de carbón activado filtrando y una cama de grava de piedra, permitiendo oxigenar el agua a partir del goteo que existe entre las camas. Finalmente, el efluente sigue a una cama de piedra de rio de gran tamaño y a un decantador para realizar la toma de muestras. De esta manera se obtiene agua tratada con baja carga orgánica dentro de los parámetros que establece la Comisión de Regulación de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico CRA en Colombia.

  18. Estimation of the bioaccumulation potential of a nonchlorinated bisphenol and an ionogenic xanthene dye to Eisenia andrei in field-collected soils, in conjunction with predictive in silico profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Juliska; Bonnell, Mark; Ritchie, Ellyn; Velicogna, Jessica; Robidoux, Pierre-Yves; Scroggins, Rick

    2014-02-01

    In silico-based model predictions, originating from structural and mechanistic (e.g., transport, bioavailability, reactivity, and binding potential) profiling, were compared against laboratory-derived data to estimate the bioaccumulation potential in earthworms of 2 organic substances (1 neutral, 1 ionogenic) known to primarily partition to soil. Two compounds representative of specific classes of chemicals were evaluated: a nonchlorinated bisphenol containing an -OH group (4,4′-methylenebis[2,6-di-tert-butylphenol] [Binox]), and an ionogenic xanthene dye (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-3′,6′-dihydroxy-, disodium salt [Phloxine B]). Soil bioaccumulation studies were conducted using Eisenia andrei and 2 field-collected soils (a clay loam and a sandy soil). In general, the in silico structural and mechanistic profiling was consistent with the observed soil bioaccumulation tests. Binox did not bioaccumulate to a significant extent in E. andrei in either soil type; however, Phloxine B not only accumulated within tissue, but was not depurated from the earthworms during the course of the elimination phase. Structural and mechanistic profiling demonstrated the binding and reactivity potential of Phloxine B; this would not be accounted for using traditional bioaccumulation metrics, which are founded on passive-based diffusion mechanisms. This illustrates the importance of profiling for reactive ionogenic substances; even limited bioavailability combined with reactivity can result in exposures to a hazardous substance not predictable by traditional in silico modeling methods.

  19. Uptake, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its reduced metabolites (MNX and TNX) by the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong; Pan, Xiaoping; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2009-06-01

    Uptake and accumulation kinetics of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its two major N-nitroso metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), in earthworms was investigated. Results indicated that RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites were rapidly absorbed into earthworms (Eisenia fetida), reaching the highest concentrations within a few days. Accumulation of RDX was greater than its N-nitroso metabolites, as evidenced by a higher bioconcentration factor (BCF); BCFs were 1.86, 0.39, and 0.05 for RDX, MNX, and TNX, respectively. RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites were also rapidly eliminated from the earthworm and/or transformed to other metabolites, as evidenced by the rapid decrease of test compounds in earthworms after reaching their highest concentrations. The uptake of MNX and TNX increased as exposure concentration increased. Although these earthworms might (anaerobically) degrade RDX to MNX and MNX to TNX, it is hypothesized that this process would be slow. Other biotransformation pathways may be involved in biodegradation of RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites due to the fact that concentrations of tested compounds decreased in both soil and earthworms. It is hoped that these data can be used to refine environmental management strategies for RDX and for performing specific risk assessments of RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites.

  20. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils.

  1. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks.

  2. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  3. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  4. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacha, R E; Clark, G W; Williams, E A; Carter, A M; Scheffelmaier, J J; Debusschere, P

    1987-07-01

    Sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascade mountains were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the Giardia duodenalis type. Small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. Our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive animals in areas receiving a lot of human use as opposed to animals in those areas receiving very little or no human use. Giardia spp. were also found in elk and beaver fecal samples. Campylobacter spp. were recovered infrequently from the small rodents inhabiting alpine meadows. Of 551 specimens cultured, less than 1% were positive for the bacterium, and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter coli. Water voles were susceptible to a human isolate of Campylobacter jejuni and shed the bacterium for several weeks. C. jejuni was also isolated from a bear fecal sample collected from a protected watershed. Our studies indicate that microtines and possibly other small rodents inhabiting mountain meadows have a potential to act as a reservoir for both Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp. Because these animals may carry human pathogens, they should be included in animal surveys designed to assess the health risks associated with mountain watersheds.

  5. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene CABRINE-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8% and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%. The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001. The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%. The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8% when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%, with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92. In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed.

  7. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  9. Molecular Differentiation of Shigella Spp. from Enteroinvasive E. Coli

    OpenAIRE

    Løbersli, I.; Wester, A. L.; Kristiansen, Å.; Brandal, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, amplifying the genes encoding lactose permease (lacY) and invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH), was run on 121 isolates phenotypically classified as Shigella spp., enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), or EIEC O nontypable (ONT). The results were compared with data from a generic E. coli multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and a Shigella MLVA. The real-time PCR verified all Shigella spp. (n = 53) as Shigella (lacY n...

  10. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  11. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KUBOTA-AIZAWA, Sanae; OHNO, Koichi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; NAKASHIMA, Ko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James K.; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto [s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequen...

  12. Effects of chemical treatments on infestation of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in correlation with technological wheat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Jovana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the time of infestation by fungi from genus Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. was investigated in different stages of wheat maturity (milk, waxy, and technological maturity; the effects of different fungicides on the yield, technological properties, and content of mycotoxin DON were studied also. The results showed that Alternaria spp. attacked spike and kernel in f lowering and end-f lowering stage, as it was already known for Fusarium species. Fungicide treatment increases the yield up to 20%, test weight by 3.7%, and thousand-kernel weight up to 19.1%. High content of mycotoxin DON, above tolerable limits, was detected only in the treatment with fungicide Caramba and in untreated control.

  13. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  14. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp in the oral cavity and periodontal pockets of periodontal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alicia I; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia; Brusca, María I; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity can act as a reservoir of certain pathogens that can cause systemic infections. The periodontal pocket is an ecological niche appropriate for hosting microorganisms that could act as opportunistic pathogens. The ability of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp to form a biofilm and live within certain niches allows them to develop mechanisms that increase persistence, such as the evasion of host defenses and antibiotic efficacy. These microorganisms can easily be or become resistant to antibiotics and lead to superinfection. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus spp in biofilm in subgingival plaque and oral cavity of individuals with gingival-periodontal disease, to identify isolates and the relationship with Candida spp. The study included eighty-two patients, aged 18-70 years with periodontal disease and at least two sites with probing depth > or = 3 mm. Participants' data were evaluated individually. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using Gracey curettes 7/8, after supragingival biofilm removal, and a sample from the oral cavity (buccal mucosa, tongue and cheek mucosa) by sterile swab. Of all the patients studied, 42.7% exhibited Staphylococcus spp in the periodontal pocket and 69.5% in the oral cavity while 25.6% exhibited Candida spp in the periodontal pocket and 42.7% in the oral cavity. However, 13.4% had both microorganisms in the periodontal pocket and 36.6% in the oral cavity. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 13.4% in the periodontal pocket and 15.8% in the oral cavity. Candida albicans was the most prevalent yeast in the periodontal pocket (76.2%) and in the oral cavity (63.0%).

  15. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  16. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain...

  17. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), Grain Mites (Acarus siro), and Flour Beetles (Tribolium spp.): 'Other Pests' Occasionally Found in Laboratory Animal Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-11-01

    Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases. Here we discuss the biology of these species and their potential effects on human and animal health. Occupational health risks are covered, and common monitoring and control methods are summarized.

  18. Patella spp. as na alternative to Mytilus spp in marine pollution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used species for marine pollution studies is mussel, Mytilus spp., as it is a filter feeder, sessile, easy to get and present in most worldwide coasts. However, sometimes it is necessary to have an alternative for areas where mussels are scarce or even absent. Patella spp. could be a useful substitute to Mytilus as these organisms have already been used in some pollution studies (Bartolomé, 2011 and both groups have similar characteristics except for the feeding strategy that in limpets is based on grazing on the small algae that grow on the rocks where they live. For this study, four sampling sites where selected: two in Galicia (Ría de Arousa and Ría de Ferrol and two in the Bay of Biscay (Suances and Fuenterrabía. In the four sampling sites both mussels and limpets were collected and 12 parent PAHs were analysed by means of HPLC and fluorescence detector with programmable wavelength (Viñas 2002. The method is subject to a strict quality control that guarantees the quality of the data. Mussels always present a higher PAH content than limpets sampled in the same area. When comparing the value for the sum of PAHs, it is shown that the maximum value measured in limpets (26.0 µg/kg d.w. in Arousa is less than the minimum value measured in mussels (63.7 µg/kg d.w. in Fuenterrabía. However, the sites pointed as more polluted using limpets coincide with the ones that are pointed out using mussels and the other way around. The individual PAH distribution pattern also presents some differences in both species mainly due to the phenathrene proportion that is higher in limpets than in mussels and this is clearer in the Bay of Biscay area. The main conclusion of the study is that there is no direct conversion factor between the PAH burden in both species but it could be possible to estimate the pollution status of an area using limpets. To compare levels between species it would be necessary to do some more work including more

  19. In-vitro anti fungal activity of Propolis alcoholic extract on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diba K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. Furthermore propolis has been described to have medicinal usages in some fungal infections like Candidiasis. Our aim is to study the inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of propolis on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. "n"n Methods: To determine inhibitory and fatality dose of propolis extract, we prepared serial dilution of the extract including 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 in 1 ml of liquid medium sabouraud broth. Given numbers of Candida yeasts in 1ml were added to above dilution tubes. Candida and Aspergillus cultures were incubated at 30°C and 25°C respectively for 24-72 hours."n"n Results: We obseved that the concentration of 0.25 g/dl of propolis extract showed an inhibitory and killing effect on more than 50% of the isolates. But there were no inhibitory and killing by the concentrations 0.0312 g/dl and 0.0625 g/dl on Candida isolates. Our findings showed that 0.0312 g/dl of the extract was partially active on Aspergillus fumigatus and dilution of 0.125 g/dl was active on Aspergillus. niger. In the agar dilution method, some changes were observed on morphological features

  20. Evaluation of the Vitek EPS enteric pathogen screen card for detecting Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Imperatrice, C A; Nachamkin, I

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the Vitek EPS card as a screen for the enteric pathogens Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Y. enterocolitica (125, 54, and 5 isolates, respectively) and 81 nonenteric pathogens that might be selected for screening from primary plates (non-lactose fermenters) were tested. The EPS card correctly identified 183 of 184 pathogens tested (sensitivity, 99.5%). Of 81 nonenteric pathogens screened with the EPS card, 8 were ide...

  1. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Kroeck, M.A.; Villalba, A.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Burreson, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exit

  2. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  3. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  4. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  5. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  6. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  7. A Novel Dimeric Eremophilane from Ligularia virgaurea spp. Oligocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Xiang WU; Xia LIU; Yan Ping SHI

    2005-01-01

    A novel dimeric eremophilane, ligulolide B, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the whole plant of Ligularia virgaurea spp. oligocephala. The structure was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including intensive 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, gHMQC,gHMBC and 1H-1H NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS.

  8. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  10. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  11. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I

    2016-10-20

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  12. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  13. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  14. Isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. from Different Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Motevalli Haghi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amebas found in a wide variety of natural habitats. The high percentage of Acanthamoeba in different environmental sources represents a sanitary risk for public health especially contact lens users and immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different environments such as water, soil, dust and ophthalmology wards. Methods: From March to November 2007, 80 samples were collected from numerous localities in Tehran city including university campus, Laleh park and ophthalmology center. Sample types were water, soil, dust, cow faeces and medical in­strument. Each sample was filtered through nitrate membrane and cultured on 1% non-nutrient agar. These plates were fol­lowed up daily for 2 weeks. Monitoring continued for two months on a weekly basis.  Results: Overall, 46.25% of samples contained Acanthamoeba spp. All of the soil samples had shown positive culture in contrast to tap water. Of 61 dust samples, 28 were positive. Interestingly, we were able to isolate Acanthamoeba in treat­ment unit of an ophthalmology center in Tehran. It should be mentioned that two cow faeces showed positive culture as well.Conclusion: The widespread distribution of Acanthamoeba spp. across the environmental sources and increasing numbers of HIV+ patients and contact lens wearers, as well as its ability as a pathogen carrier for humans, demands  more awareness and knowledge for public as a risk for human health.

  15. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Imported Powered Infant Formula (PIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENIS MAÇI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are well-known long-standing foodborne human pathogen that demonstrate long-term survival in/on dry or low-water activity (aw in foods. Salmonellosis caused by ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula has been reported nationwide. In recent years, 8 reported outbreaks of Salmonella infection in infants have been linked to the consumption of powdered infant formula. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis due to contaminated PIF are likely to be under-reported nationwide even in Albania. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential existence of Salmonella spp. in canned powdered infant formula in Albania. During two years investigation Salmonella spp was on the focus and was detected in 1 out of 70 analysed samples (1.43%. The strain of Salmonella spp. was biochemically identified by the analytical profile index (API 20 E system and poly A, H, and Vi antiserum. Food safety criteria are laid down in EU regulation “EC No. 2073/2005” for Salmonella spp. in dried infant formula and dried dietary foods for special medical purposes intended for infants. These criterias are transposed to Albanian Legislation. A laboratory-based on food-borne disease surveillance systems is needed in terms of strethening control and reducing the risk of exposure.

  17. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface.We ...... Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen....

  18. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives.

  19. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  20. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  1. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  2. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  3. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml gee

  4. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  5. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from Non-livestock Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms which grow in air at 25 deg C. Arcobacter spp. have been either detected and or isolated from livestock and have been incriminated in water-borne outbreaks, reflecting its adaptation to aquatic environments. Reports from non-livestock spe...

  6. First multilocus sequence typing scheme for Arcobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcobacter spp. are a common contaminant of food and water, and some species, primarily A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus, have been isolated increasingly from human diarrheal stool samples. Here, we describe a novel Arcobacter multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method suitable for typing A. butzleri,...

  7. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  8. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  9. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of ta

  10. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  11. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-Alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules Frankia spp. live within the plant cells and o

  12. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; van Asten, A.J.; Gaastra, W.

    2008-01-01

    Like Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. possess two flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) located adjacent to each other. The aim of this study was to characterize the flagellin proteins of Arcobacter spp., because these proteins are known virulence factors in the Epsilonproteobacteria,

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  14. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  15. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. in grapevines from Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo ABREO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms corresponding to esca and Petri diseases have been described in Uruguay as being associated with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. Isolates of Phaeoacremonium spp. recovered from diseased grapevines were characterized and identified. Additionally, specific primers developed for Pa. chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. were evaluated for direct detection of these fungi in asymptomatic grapevine tissues. The bark was removed, and the trunk underneath was surface-disinfected. Chips from symptomatic grapevines were plated on potato dextrose agar and incubated at 25°C. Isolates were identified morphologically and phylogenetically. Sequences of ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and actin genes made it possible to identify 52 isolates as Pa. chlamydospora, 33 as Pm. aleophilum, and one as Pm. australiense. The Pm. aleophilum isolates were divided into three groups by their growth pattern and their colony shape at 37°C: a white colonies with yellow or brown reverse; b brown colonies with clear margin and a dark center on the reverse; c brown colonies with dark-brown diffusible pigments and brown reverse. Further studies are required to explain these differences. Primers Pac1f/Pac2r specific for Phaeoacremonium spp., PalN1/Pal2 specific for Pm. aleophilum, F2bt/R1bt specific for Pm. aleophilum and ten other Phaeoacremonium species, and Pch1/Pch2 and Pmo1f/Pmo2r, both specific for Pa. chlamydospora were evaluated on the DNA of target fungi and some of other fungi frequently isolated from diseased vine tissues. F2bt/R1bt and Pmo1f/ Pmo2r were selected, and were used in a nested PCR to detect Phaeoacremonium spp. and Pa. chlamydospora in asymptomatic canes of nursery mother grapevines. Nine out of ten sampled grapevines tested positive for one of the fungi. Molecular diagnosis is potentially a useful method to assess the health of mother grapevines.

  16. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, D.M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  17. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  18. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by palmitic, stearic and oleic acid sophorolipids and thiamine dilauryl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of th...

  20. Between-year variation and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in naturally infected rodent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A

    2008-12-01

    Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections were studied over the 8-year period in 3 species of rodents in N.E. Poland (bank vole Myodes glareolus-1523; yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis- 638; common vole Microtus arvalis- 419). Prevalence was 53.8, 28.1 and 62.3% respectively for Cryptosporidium spp. and 58.3, 24.4 and 74.2% respectively for Giardia spp. Prevalence and abundance of infection varied markedly across 8 years of the study with 1998 and 2002 being years of higher prevalence and abundance, following changes in the densities of host species. The distribution of intestinal protozoa in forest rodents did not vary in the 3 isolated sites during the 4-year study. In the case of Cryptosporidium, fewer older animals carried infection and infections of the oldest bank and common voles were relatively milder. In the case of Giardia in yellow-necked mice, infections were more common in older age classes (2 and 3). The two species showed significant co-occurrence and in animals carrying both species there was a strong significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and in respect of the role of various ecological factors in shaping of intestinal protozoa communities.

  1. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  2. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lu , J., I. Struewing, E. Vereen, A.E. Kirby, K. Levy, C. Moe, and N. Ashbolt. Molecular detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system (Journal Article). JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 120(2): 509-521, (2016).

  3. The DNA damage and joint effects of two typical veterinary drugs on the earthworm Eisenia foetida%两种兽药添加剂对蚯蚓的DNA损伤及其联合效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董璐玺; 谢秀杰; 周启星

    2011-01-01

    采用土壤中的指示生物赤子爱胜蚓(Eisenia foetida)作为受试生物,研究了两种兽药添加剂四环素和金霉素对赤子爱胜蚓的急性毒性.结果表明:滤纸接触法染毒48h后,这两种兽药添加剂在所设最大受试剂量内没有引起蚯蚓死亡,半致死浓度LC50〉3.98×10^-2mg·cm^-2.应用彗星试验检测蚯蚓体腔细胞的DNA损伤,试验结果显示:四环素和金霉素在染毒溶液为0.3mg·L^-1时即能引起蚯蚓体腔细胞DNA损伤.随着污染物浓度增加,损伤不断加剧,两者呈现一定的剂量-效应关系,不仅各剂量组与空白对照相比都有显著的差异(p〈0.01),而且相同剂量的金霉素引起的蚯蚓DNA损伤比四环素大.在最大受试剂量300mg·L^-1时两者联合毒性出现了一定的拮抗作用.%As widespread-used veterinary drugs,tetracycline(TC) and chlortetracycline(CTC) play an important role in the development of stock raising and aquacultures.Meanwhile it is a growing concern about toxicological effects on the environment due to their excessive use.In the present study,a model organism in soil,Eisenia foelide,was subjected to TC and CTC.The acute toxicity test exposed to the two antibiotics and DNA damage in earthworm coelomocytes assayed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis were investigated.The results showed that after a 48-h exposure by the method of filter paper contact,there was no mortality of earthworm within the maximum tested dose,LC50 3.98×10-2 mg · cm-2.Significant DNA damage in earthworm coelomocytes was observed when TC and CTC were at the concentration of 0.3 mg · L-1.The DNA damage showed a positive response as the concentration increased,and all values for OTM in treatment groups were statistically significant versus the control(p0.01).In comparison,larger damage was induced by CTC.And there was a certain antagonism of joint toxicity observed at the maximum dose of 300 mg · L-1.

  4. Avaliação do Potencial Tóxico de Latossolos e Chernossolos Acrescidos de Lodo de Esgoto Utilizando Bioensaios com Oligoquetas da Espécie Eisenia andrei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves Cesar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sewage Sludge (SEL has been used in agricultural activities to improve physical and chemical properties of soils. However, thiscompound also contains very high levels of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause serious negative effects onbiota and human health. This paper aims to assess potential toxicity of latosols and chernosols amended with SEL, using Eisenia andreiearthworms. Acute toxicity and behavioral tests were performed according to ASMT (2004 and ISO (2002 procedures, respectively.Heavy metals determination was made by Atomic Absorption, and mineralogical characterization by Ray-X Difratometry. Biomass losswas evaluated considering average individual weight. Mercury, lead, zinc and cooper determination in SEL in natura and soils amendedwith SEL revealed values higher than that recommended by Brazilian legislation. SEL addition to the soils caused no mortality to theorganisms, while SEL in natura provoked lethal effects on 100% of the earthworms. Latosol in natura demonstrated higher mortalityin comparison to chernosol in natura Behavioral tests indicated that 98,3% and 96,43% of the organisms avoided SEL in natura andlatosol with SEL, respectively. However, only 31% of the organisms avoided chernosol with SEL, suggesting a lower level of toxicity incomparison to latosol. Possibly the natural properties of the studied soils (fertility, organic matter content, clay mineralogy, etc. playedan important role in the avoidance behavior of the organisms. Probably expansive clays presence in chernosol stimulates ions adsorptionand their concentrations decreasing in soil solution; consequently contaminants bioavailability also tends to decrease. Biomass loss resultsrevealed that the SEL addition decreased the weight loss of the tested organisms, and biomass losses were higher for latosol than forchernosol. In conclusion, it is expected that these results can be used in human health and ecological risk assessment, as well as

  5. Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) assembles with substrates and misfolded membrane proteins into distinct oligomeric complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrul, Bianca; Kapp, Katja; Sinning, Irmgard; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    SPP (signal peptide peptidase) is an aspartyl intramembrane cleaving protease, which processes a subset of signal peptides, and is linked to the quality control of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membrane proteins. We analysed SPP interactions with signal peptides and other membrane proteins by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We found that SPP interacts specifically and tightly with a large range of newly synthesized membrane proteins, including signal peptides, preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins, but not with all co-expressed type II membrane proteins. Signal peptides are trapped by the catalytically inactive SPP mutant SPPD/A. Preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins interact with both SPP and the SPPD/A mutant, and are not substrates for SPP-mediated intramembrane proteolysis. Proteins interacting with SPP are found in distinct complexes of different sizes. A signal peptide is mainly trapped in a 200 kDa SPP complex, whereas a preprotein is predominantly found in a 600 kDa SPP complex. A misfolded membrane protein is detected in 200, 400 and 600 kDa SPP complexes. We conclude that SPP not only processes signal peptides, but also collects preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins that are destined for disposal. PMID:20196774

  6. Corynebacterium spp. in dogs and cats with otitis externa and/or media: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneveld, Kerstin; Rosychuk, Rodney A W; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Hyatt, Doreene R; Zabel, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    The role of Corynebacterium spp. in the pathogenesis of canine and feline otitis externa/media and their appropriate antimicrobial therapy are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) better establish the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium spp. in otitis utilizing reported criteria and by assessing clinical response to antibiotic therapy and (2) to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Corynebacterium spp. associated with otitis. The study was retrospective, targeting cultures positive for Corynebacterium spp. Corynebacterium spp. were part of mixed microbial populations in 79/81 cultures. Corynebacterium spp. pathogenicity was highly questionable because of their almost invariable presence with other microbes and the observation that Corynebacterium spp. usually disappear from the ear with resolution of other infections, even when the Corynebacterium spp. are resistant to the prescribed antibiotic(s). However, 2/81 cultures came from two canine ears wherein Corynebacterium spp. may have been pathogenic. Antimicrobial sensitivities for Corynebacterium spp. were available for 54 isolates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (53/54), amikacin (50/54), tetracycline (50/54), gentamicin (46/54), and enrofloxacin (32/54). Among those antibiotics available in otic products, gentamicin and enrofloxacin would be rational choices for the empirical, topical therapy of Corynebacterium spp.

  7. STRUKTUR DAN PRODUKSI LEBAH Trigona spp. PADA SARANG BERBENTUK TABUNG DAN BOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ade Hinduari Putra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebah tanpa sengat (Trigona spp. dapat menghasilkan madu yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui : (1 morfologi Trigona spp., (2 struktur internal sarang Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola, (3 volume sarang serta perkiraan produksi madu, beebread dan selanakan Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan November 2014. Sampel yang digunakan adalah koloni dan sarang Trigona spp. berbentuk tabung dan bola yang diambil di Desa Padang Tunggal,Kecamatan Selat, Kabupaten Karangasem, Bali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa nama spesies dari sampel koloni Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola adalah Trigona laeviceps. Struktur internal sarang Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola mempunyai pola susunan yaitu pot madu, pot beebread dan pot sel anakan. Volume sarang besar memberikan perkiraan total jumlah produksi madu, beebread dan selanakan lebih banyak dibandingkan volume sarang kecil.

  8. Class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Arthrobacter spp., Alcaligenes spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium glutamicum. The 257 isolates were screened for in-1. Eighty-one of the gram-negative isolates were also screened for the Tc-r genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(C), and all (n = 72) gram...

  9. Preliminary study for creation of kelp forest(part 1). Seasonal changes of lamina and growth of root of eisenia bicyclis in Odawa bay, Miura peninsula. Kaichurin zosei gijutsu no kisoteki kento (Part 1). Miurahanto Odawawan ni okeru arame yobu no kisetsutekihenka to ne no seicho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terawaki, Toshinobu; Goto, Hiroshi

    1988-02-01

    Preliminary study for creation of kelp forest has been carried in Odawa bay, Kanagawa Prefecture. In foreshore reclamation in electric power plant siting, the restoration and substitute measures of kelp forest have become important for the protection of living aquatic resources and marine environment, it is an urgent need to develop artificial creation of kelp forest. Observations on seasonal changes of lamina and growth of root of Eisenia bicyclis were carried out during July 1984 to October 1985. The maximum weight of lamina reached about 600g during July to August, then it decreased and became minimum weight of 120g in November. Maturation period were observed during September to next March. Primary pinnae length reached maximum of 57cm during March to April and became minimum of 30cm in October. It's width reached maximum of 9cm in July and became minimum of 6cm in November. Growth of new root occured in October, it reached rock-bed exceeding old root in next April. New root weight occupied 40% of whole holdfast weight. Duration of November to February, in which maturation and growth of root are active, is important season for the preservation of Eisenia bicyclis population, and is suitable for seeding and transplanting. (14 figs, 2 tabs, 15 refs)

  10. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  11. Citrininotoxinogenicity of Penicillium spp. isolated from decaying apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepeljnjak Stjepan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of citrinin and citrinin production ability of Penicillium spp. isolated from decaying apples collected from households in Croatia was carried out. Among 100 samples of apples, 37 strains of Penicillium spp. were found, including P. expansum, P. roqueforti, P. implicatum and P. purpurogenum. Citrinin production in liquid yeast medium by 11 strains of P. expansum varied in a range of 0.07 to 9.00 mg.kg-1. Citrinin was isolated from 19% of apple samples in range of 0.05 to 0.24 mg.kg-1. Antimicrobial activity of isolated citrinin, evaluated through tests on Bacillus subtilis, presented inhibitory zones varying from 5 mm to 1 cm. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were 0.0072 µg.mL-1 for bacteriostatic effect, and 0.0144 µg.mL-1 for bactericidal effect.

  12. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

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    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  13. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  14. Cronobacter spp. in commercially available dried food in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kiribe, Nami; Fukuda, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 140 samples of dried food sold in Japan were surveyed and tested for the presence of viable bacteria, distribution of coliform bacteria, and contamination with Cronobacter spp. The samples were purchased from retail stores in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture. Out of the 140 samples tested, viable bacteria were found in 135 samples and coliform bacteria were found in 23 samples. Qualitative and quantitative testing revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in 35 (25.0%) and 11 samples (7.9%), respectively. The most commonly found Cronobacter species were C. sakazakii, with the next most common, in order, being C. muytjensii and C. turicensis. The actual numbers of Cronobacter species in the tested dried foods were low, but the widespread contamination particularly in dried herbs and vegetables was confirmed.

  15. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  16. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  17. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  18. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders

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    Niskanen Rauni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated. Methods To detect antibodies two commercially available kits were used. Moreover, 107 specimens, including vaginal swabs, organ tissues and milk were analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results Two (0.4% cows were seropositive in the Pourquier Cp. abortus ELISA. The seroprevalence with the Chekit ELISA was 28% with no difference between cases and controls. Five specimens were positive in real-time PCR and further analysed by nested PCR. Cp. pecorum was confirmed by partial omp1 DNA sequencing of the nested PCR product of vaginal swabs from control cows. Conclusion The results suggest that Cp. abortus infection is absent or rare in Swedish cows whereas Cp. pecorum is probably more spread. They also suggest that Chlamydophila spp. are not related to reproduction disorders in Swedish cattle.

  19. Conjunctival swab PCR to detect Leishmania spp. in cats

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    Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira

    Full Text Available The relevance of the dog as a source of visceral leishmaniasis infection is known, but the role of cats as reservoir hosts for leishmaniasis is not yet fully clear. This study assessed the efficacy of conjunctival swab PCR (CS-PCR in the detection of cats infected by Leishmania spp. The results were seven (13.5% cats positive for Leishmania spp. in the PCR, in 52 cats tested from Pirassunuga-SP and Ilha Solteira-SP. From the city of Pirassununga – SP 28.6% (2/7 were positive and from the city of Ilha Solteira – SP 11.1% (5/45 were positive. The results showed that CS-PCR was capable of detecting cats infected by this protozoan. Conjunctival swab samples proved easier to perform in cats, which might facilitate studies on the frequency and distribution of feline leishmaniasis.

  20. Conjunctival swab PCR to detect Leishmania spp. in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Pereira, Vanessa Figueredo; Benvenga, Graziella Ulbricht; Martin, Maria Fernanda Alves; Benassi, Julia Cristina; da Silva, Diogo Tiago; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the dog as a source of visceral leishmaniasis infection is known, but the role of cats as reservoir hosts for leishmaniasis is not yet fully clear. This study assessed the efficacy of conjunctival swab PCR (CS-PCR) in the detection of cats infected by Leishmania spp. The results were seven (13.5%) cats positive for Leishmania spp. in the PCR, in 52 cats tested from Pirassunuga-SP and Ilha Solteira-SP. From the city of Pirassununga - SP 28.6% (2/7) were positive and from the city of Ilha Solteira - SP 11.1% (5/45) were positive. The results showed that CS-PCR was capable of detecting cats infected by this protozoan. Conjunctival swab samples proved easier to perform in cats, which might facilitate studies on the frequency and distribution of feline leishmaniasis.

  1. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  2. Aporphine alkaloids from Guatteria spp. with leishmanicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hector; Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Romero, Luz I; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Capson, Todd L; Rios, Luis Cubilla

    2003-07-01

    Fractionation of Guatteria amplifolia yielded the alkaloids xylopine (1), nornuciferine (4), lysicamine (6), and laudanosine (5). Fractionation of Guatteria dumetorum yielded the alkaloids cryptodorine (2) and nornantenine (3). Compounds 1-4 demonstrated significant activity against Leishmania mexicana and L. panamensis. Xylopine (1) was among the most active compounds (LD 50 = 3 microM) and showed a 37-fold higher toxicity towards L. mexicana than macrophages, the regular host cells of Leishmania spp.

  3. Molecular Diversity of Vaccine Candidates in Leptospira spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular diversity of OmpL1, LipL32, LipL41, LigA and LigB proteins and that of the genes that encode them using bioinformatic analysis in different pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp. based on the information available in databases. The amino acid sequences of OmpL1, LipL32, LipL41, LigA and LigB proteins were used, as well as the genes encoding them in strains of Leptospira spp. reported at The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. The analysis of proteins and genes were performed using the Protein, Nucleotide and Gene resources from the NCBI. The alignment of the consensus sequences was performed using the PSI-BLAST and BLASTn tools. The coverage percentage of the selected sequences of the ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, ligA and ligB genes in pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp. is 100% for ompL1, lipL32 and lipL41, 75% for ligA and 99% for ligB with identity percentages of 85, 98, 88, 90 and 80% respectively; the coverage percentage of the selected protein sequences is 100, 77, 99, 100 and 100% with identity percentages of 90, 99, 92, 63 and 60% respectively, indicating that genes and proteins, except LigA and LigB proteins, are highly conserved in various pathogenic serovars of Leptospira spp. According to these results, it is recommended that further analysis of these proteins be made in order to determine the feasibility of its use as vaccine candidates.

  4. Aeromonas spp.: evaluation of genomic diversity and biofilm forming ability

    OpenAIRE

    Craveiro, Sara Sofia Pereira, 1986-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Microbiologia Aplicada). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria widely distributed among aquatic environments. Their persistence in water distribution systems is related to their ability to form biofilms, even in the presence of residual chlorine. Once in distribution water systems, aeromonads can contaminate drinking water, food processing facilities and food products. Moreover, members of this genus are known...

  5. Bromopyrrole Alkaloids from Okinawan Marine Sponges Agelas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Kusama, Taishi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    In our continuing study for structurally and biogenetically interesting natural products from marine organisms, Okinawan marine sponges Agelas spp. were investigated, resulting in the isolation of 18 unique alkaloids including five dimeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (1-5), ten monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (6-15), and three conjugates of monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloid and hydroxykynurenine (16-18). In this mini-review, the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimicrobial activities of these alkaloids are summarized.

  6. Correlation between perkinsosis and growth in clams Ruditapes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Binias, Cindy; Salvo, Flora; Caill-Milly, Nathalie; Bald, Juan; Soudant, Philippe

    2013-11-06

    Perkinsosis is one of the most widespread diseases affecting commercially important species of molluscs globally. We examined the impact of Perkinsus spp. on shell growth at the individual scale in 2 clam species: Ruditapes decussatus from Mundaka Estuary (Spain) and R. philippinarum from Arcachon Bay (France). At Arcachon, 2 contrasting sites in terms of environment and Perkinsus olseni presence were chosen: Arguin (disease-free) and Ile aux Oiseaux (infected site). We monitored the dynamics of perkinsosis over the course of the experiment at Mundaka and Ile aux Oiseaux. Prevalences were high (>70%), and intensities were around 105 cells g-1 wet gills at Ile aux Oiseaux, and 106 cells g-1 at Mundaka. No significant differences in prevalence or intensity were observed over time. A 2 yr field growth experiment of tagged-recaptured clams was performed to determine individual clam growth rate, condition index (CI), and Perkinsus spp. infection intensity. Clams were collected at Ile aux Oiseaux and transplanted to Arguin. The growth rate was always significantly and negatively correlated with Perkinsus spp. infection, and positively correlated with CI. CI and Perkinsus spp. infection explained 19% and 7% of the variability of the growth rate at Mundaka and Ile aux Oiseaux, respectively. In experimental clams at Arguin, P. olseni infection explained 26% of the variability of the growth rate at the lower tidal level. Our results suggest that at a concentration of between 105 and 106 cells g-1, perkinsosis affects the physiological functions of the clams, highlighted by its impact on the growth rate.

  7. Enterococcus spp. in a single blood culture: bacteremia or contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, R; Labalo, V; Sharma, M; Johnson, L B; Riederer, K

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.

  8. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  9. UV-inducible DNA repair in the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, E.; Thiel, T

    1987-01-01

    Strains of the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena spp. were capable of very efficient photoreactivation of UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA. Cells were resistant to several hundred joules of UV irradiation per square meter under conditions that allowed photoreactivation, and they also photoreactivated UV-damaged cyanophage efficiently. Reactivation of UV-irradiated cyanophage (Weigle reactivation) also occurred; UV irradiation of host cells greatly enhanced the plaque-forming ability of i...

  10. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Casalinuovo; Lucia Ciambrone; Antonio Cacia; Paola Rippa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the ly...

  11. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  12. Efficacy of moxidectin against multiple resistant Ostertagia spp. in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-06-01

    Moxidectin was demonstrated to have a high efficacy in lambs against Ostertagia spp. which were resistant to albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin in goats. Moxidectin reduced the number of eggs in faeces by 99.6% and the number of worms found at post-mortem dissection of the lambs by 99.9%. Of the adult worms found in abomasa, 91% were identified as Ostertagia circumcincta and 9% as Ostertagia trifurcata.

  13. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

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    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  15. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the influent and final effluent of sixteen drinking water treatment plants located in a hydrographic basin in Galicia (NW Spain) - in which the principal river is recognised as a Site of Community Importance (SCI) - estimate the efficiency of treatment plants in removing these protozoans and determine the species and genotypes of the parasites by means of a molecular assay. All plant samples of influent and final effluent (50-100 l) were examined in the spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. A total of 128 samples were analysed by method 1623, developed by US Environmental Protection Agency for isolation and detection of both parasites. To identify the genotypes present the following genes were amplified and sequenced: 18S SSU rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and b-giardina (G. duodenalis). The mean concentrations of parasites in the influent were 0.0-10.5 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and 1.0-12.8 of G. duodenalis cysts per litre. In the final treated effluent, the mean concentration of parasites ranged from 0.0-3.0 oocysts per litre and 0.5-4.0 cysts per litre. The distribution of results by season revealed that in all plants, the highest numbers of (oo)cysts were recorded in spring and summer. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were consistently found at high concentrations in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in the hydrographic basin under study, in Galicia (NW Spain). It is important that drinking water treatment authorities rethink the relevance of contamination levels of both parasites in drinking water and develop adequate countermeasures.

  16. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Hussein M. Migdadi

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal ...

  17. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from poultry carcasses, in Brazil

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    Oliveira Sérgio José de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

  18. Potential roles of Labyrinthula spp. in global seagrass population declines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sullivan, B.K.; Sherman, T.D.; Damare, V.S.; Lilje, O.; Gleason, F.H.

    ) isolated Labyrinthula spp. from lesions on the leaves of host species belonging to ten genera of seagrasses from around the world, including: Zostera, Heterozostera, Posidonia, Halodule, Cymodocea, Syringodium, Thalassodendron, Ruppia, Thalassia... and Halophila. During their investigations they found that the rapidly expanding, browneblack lesions associated with the disease (Muehlstein et al., 1991) were not always evident in hosts from which Labyrinthula had been isolated, suggesting that pathogen...

  19. Reports of Outbreaks and Isolation on Salmonella Spp. in Colombia

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    Claudia Constanza Pérez Rubiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The foodborne diseases are currently one of the problems with great socio-economic impact in the world. According to the Pan American Health Organization, the foodborne diseases are within the five leading causes of death in children under five years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Among the etiologic agents most involved in outbreaks of foodborne diseases is Salmonella spp., this pathogen has often been associated with diarrheal diseases worldwide, caused by the consumption of contaminated food and causes the most prevalent zoonosis in developed countries. The numbers of records of these diseases in some countries, especially those in the developing world, are deficient because information systems as SIRVETA just recently have developed strategies to improve the detection of outbreaks and isolates of foodborne diseases. However, there are still some gaps in the registration and notification procedures. The present review covers general aspects of Salmonella spp., outbreaks and isolates, most frequently reported serotypes and distribution, and behavior of this microorganism to antimicrobial found in Colombia and indicates some control programs and monitoring of Salmonella spp. which have been implemented in the country.

  20. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

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    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  1. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  2. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae): exploratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Talitha Mayumi; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Boere, Vanner

    2014-01-01

    Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH) and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp.) and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54 strains) was the most common species isolated, followed by B. megaterium (13 strains), B. polymyxa (5 strains), B. pumilus (4 strains), B. subtilis (4 strains), B. circulans (3 strains), B. amyloliquefaciens (2 strains), B. licheniformis (1 strain), and Bacillus spp. (3 strains). Microdilution MIC susceptibility tests revealed all B. cereus strains to be susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Non-B. cereus strains were most susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, LY146032, and ciprofloxacin. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that B. cereus was rarely susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, or cephalosporins with the exception of mezlocillin. In contrast, many non-B. cereus strains were susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins, but marked variability was noted among species. PMID:3395100

  4. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  5. Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples.

  6. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  7. Integrated food chain surveillance system for Salmonella spp. in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%-36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, pclusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities.

  8. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  9. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  10. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Mastranesti, Parthena; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Blilou, Ikram; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-05-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of the most abundant genera of the root microbiome. Here, by employing a germ-free experimental system, we demonstrate the ability of selected Pseudomonas spp. strains to promote plant growth and drive developmental plasticity in the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. By studying cell type-specific developmental markers and employing genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate the crucial role of auxin signaling and transport in rhizobacteria-stimulated changes in the root system architecture of Arabidopsis. We further show that Pseudomonas spp.-elicited alterations in root morphology and rhizobacteria-mediated systemic immunity are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. This study sheds new light on the ability of soil-borne beneficial bacteria to interfere with postembryonic root developmental programs.

  11. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  12. Incidence, radioresistance, and behavior of Psychrobacter spp. in rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, José M; Patterson, Margaret F; García-López, Isabel; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2005-03-01

    The relative incidence of Psychrobacter spp. in rabbit meat, the radioresistance of these bacteria, and the growth of nonirradiated and irradiated psychrobacter isolates, alone and in coculture, during chilled storage of inoculated sterile rabbit meat was investigated. Psychrobacter spp. accounted for 4.2% of the storage psychrotrophic flora of 30 rabbit carcasses. The radiation D10-values of 10 Psychrobacter isolates, irradiated at 4 degrees C in minced rabbit meat, ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 kGy, with significant (P meat, but when the fastest growing strain was cocultured with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates, maximum cell densities and growth rates were significantly (P meat, surviving cells of both Psychrobacter strains decreased for a period of 5 to 7 days and then resumed multiplication that, at day 12, resulted in a similar increase (1.6 to 1.7 log CFU/g) over initial survivor numbers. When irradiated in combination with the spoilage bacteria, one of the strains required 12 days to reach initial numbers. In conclusion, Psychrobacter spp. are radioresistant nonsporeforming bacteria with a low relative incidence among the storage flora of rabbit meat, unable to compete with food spoilage bacteria in this ecosystem and apparently not a major contributor to the spoilage of rabbit meat after irradiation.

  13. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  14. 16S rRNA-targeted probes for specific detection of Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. by fluorescent in situ hybridization in biohydrogen producing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Prasertsan, P.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2008-01-01

    spp. were detected with the probes designed with coverage of 75%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Thermophilic (60 °C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with sucrose and another, fed with palm oil mill effluent comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers: Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (49...

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynd, Kamara J R; Leighton, Patrick A; Elcock, David A; Whitehall, Pamela J; Rycroft, Andrew; Macgregor, Shaheed K

    2014-12-01

    From April to July 2005, rectal swabs were collected from 48 free-ranging small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) on the east and south coasts of Barbados and analyzed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. Salmonella was recovered in 21.12% (7/33) of mongooses at the east-coast site and 26.67% (4/15) at the south-coast site. Four serotypes were isolated: Salmonella enterica serovar Rubislaw, Kentucky, Javiana, and Panama. One east-coast sample of 11 tested for Campylobacter was positive (9.09%). These results indicate that mongooses in Barbados are carriers and shedders of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and are a potential wildlife reservoir for these enteropathogens.

  16. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascade mountains were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the Giardia duodenalis type. Small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. Our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive a...

  17. COLIFORMES FECAIS, ESTAFILOCOCOS COAGULASE POSITIVA (ECP, Salmonella SPP. E Campylobacter SPP. EM LINGÜIÇA FRESCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. L. CORTEZ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Lingüiça frescal faz parte dos alimentos expostos à contaminações e constitue um excelente meio para desenvolvimento e multiplicação de microrganismos. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a qualidade microbiológica de 106 amostras de lingüiça frescal de carne de frango, mista (carne bovina e suína e de carne suína, fabricadas artesanalmente e sob inspeção, no município de Jaboticabal – SP, Brasil. Determinou-se o número mais provável de coliformes fecais por grama (NMP/g do produto e a ocorrência de Escherichia coli, contagem de estafilococos coagulase-positiva (ECP, pesquisa de Salmonella spp. e Campylobacter spp.. Foram utilizados métodos microbiológicos convencionais a fim de detectar, isolar e identificar estas bactérias, comparando os resultados obtidos com os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Das 106 amostras analisadas, 78 (73,6% demonstraram a presença de coliformes fecais, 41 (38,7% de Escherichia coli, 18 (17% de ECP e 8 (7,5% de Salmonella spp.. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para Campylobacter spp. Os testes da PCR multiplex rfb, stx1, stx2, eae O157, O113, O111 das amostras de E. coli foram negativos. Em decorrência dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que se faz necessária melhoria nas condições higiênico-sanitárias desse tipo de produto.

  18. Fast and discriminative CoSYPS detection system of viable Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in carcass swab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Mahillon, Jacques; Dierick, Katelijne; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-01-02

    In this study, the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow including all steps, namely swab sample enrichment, SYBR®Green qPCR detection of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp., isolation and confirmation of the detected strain, was validated on beef carcass swabs. To perform the validation, the results of the complete workflow were compared, according to the ISO 16140:2003, with the ISO reference methods for detection, isolation and confirmation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The results showed that the relative level of detection and the limit of detection of the complete workflow and ISO reference methods are in a range from 2 to 16 CFU/swab for both bacteria. The relative specificity, sensitivity and accuracy identified during this validation were all 100% since the results obtained with the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow and the ISO reference methods were identical (Cohen's kappa index=1.00). In addition the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow is able to provide detection results (negative or presumptive positive) in half the time needed as for the ISO reference methods. These results demonstrate that the performance of the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow is not only comparable to the ISO reference methods but also provides a faster response for the verification of beef carcasses before commercial distribution.

  19. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  20. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  1. PENGENDALIAN SERANGAN GANODERMA SPP. (60-80% PADA TANAMAN SENGON SEBAGAI PELINDUNG TANAMAN KOPI DAN KAKAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Nina Herliyana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic variation of Ganoderma spp. As a cause of rot disease on plantation crops is necessary for consideration in efforts to protect crops. Exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma spp., For the control of Ganoderma on forestry crops is still limited to laboratory testing. Its effectiveness to control Trichoderma spp. To protect plants in the nursery sengon being carried out, as well as to determine its role in improving plant growth

  2. The Role of Mixing in the Mechanisms of Water Bloom by Microcystis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SIHOTANG, CLEMENS; Okino, Tokio

    1985-01-01

    Studies on the role of water mixing in the mechanisms of water bloom by Microcystis spp., which were composed from the three species, M. aeruginosa, M. viridis and M. wesenbergii, were conducted during the summer of 1983. Microcystis spp. are a species of blue-green algae that appears regularly in the summer in Lake Suwa, Japan. Centrifugation was used in order to separate Microcystis spp. from other phytoplankton. Thus, the floating part of the centrifugal tube was occupied by Microcystis sp...

  3. THE USE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AS BIOPESTICIDE AGAINST DOWNY MILDEW PERONOSCLEROSPORA SPP. ON MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR; La Daha; Nasruddin, Andi; Junaed, M; Iqbal, Andi

    2013-01-01

    Downy mildew is a major disease of maize caused by the fungus Peronosclerospora spp., widely distributed in all corn production centers in Indonesia. The disease can cause considerable losses; even total losses have been reported occurring on susceptible varieties. The purpose of the research was to determine the effectiveness of some isolates of endophytic fungi for the control of downy mildew on maize. The study consisted of four isolate treatments: Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp, Beauv...

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  5. LC-MS metabolomic analysis of environmental stressor impacts on the metabolite diversity in Nephthea spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedi Indra Januar; Endar Marraskuranto; Gintung Patantis; Ekowati Chasanah

    2012-01-01

    Context: The soft coral Nephthea spp. is a source of terpenoid class that potentially has pharmaceutical properties. However, metabolite diversity and cytotoxic activity of this species are varied among coral reefs from various sites. Aim: To analyze the water quality in Nephthea spp. environment as a possible factor causing a difference in its metabolite diversity. Settings and Design: Nephthea spp. from seven sites were taken in October 2010 at the Alor District of Marine Protected Area, In...

  6. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  7. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; van Asten, A.J.; Gaastra, W

    2008-01-01

    Like Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. possess two flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) located adjacent to each other. The aim of this study was to characterize the flagellin proteins of Arcobacter spp., because these proteins are known virulence factors in the Epsilonproteobacteria, to which these three species belong. With the exception of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter flagellins are almost half the size of those in other Epsilonproteobacteria. Arcobacter flagellin prot...

  8. Combined Extraction of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase from Earthworm Eisenia fetida%从蚯蚓中联合提取抗氧化酶SOD、CAT的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖怡; 荣永海; 荣龙

    2012-01-01

    本研究采用闪式提取技术,固液比为1∶4 (m/V)的2.5 mmol/L pH 7.0磷酸缓冲液,提取转速5500 rpm,提取时间2 min,从蚯蚓体内提取出SOD、CAT,并通过羧甲基纤维素CM-22离子交换层析实现SOD和CAT的联合提取分离,SOD、CAT的活性回收率分别达到88.23%和69.5%.在纯化工艺中经过丙酮沉淀和柱层析技术得到蚯蚓SOD纯品,比活达到9352 U/mg,产物在SDS-PAGE上为单一条带,其亚基分子量约为17 kD;通过柱层析纯化了蚯蚓CAT,比活达到22606 U/mg.%Flash extraction had been used to extract superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) from earthworm Eisenia fetida. The extraction was carried out using the following conditions: 1:4 of solid to liquid ratio ,2.5 mmol/L pH 7.0 PBS ,5500 rpm for 2 min. SOD and CAT were separated by column chromatography on CM-22 with yield of 88.23% and 69.5% Respectively. Subsequently,SOD was purified by acetone precipitation,fractionated by column chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose,Sephadex G-75. The purified SOD had a specific activity of 9352 U/mg with a yield of 18.44% and the SDS-PAGE showed a single band around 17 kD. At the same time,the purified SOD was found to remain stable in the temperature range 35 ~55 ℃ ,with the optimal temperature of 45 ℃. Its activity could be well maintained at pH values ranging from 4 to 11. CAT was purified by column chromatography. The purified CAT had a specific activity of 22606 U/mg with a yield of 14.98%. The purified CAT was found to remain stable in the temperature range 25 ~45 ℃, with the optimal temperature of 35 ℃. Its activity could be well maintained at pH values ranging from 4 to 10 while its optimal pH was found to be 6.

  9. 投喂赤子爱胜蚓对杂交鳢血液部分免疫指标的影响%Effect of dietary fresh earthworm Eisenia foetida on some blood immune indices in hybrid snakehead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚东林; 王超; 茅沈丽; 陈金涛; 邹记兴

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid snakehead(Channa maculata♀×C. argus♂) with body weight of (72. 51±1. 46) g was reared in 12 cages of each 2 m×2 m×1. 5 m and fed diets containing 0, 5. 0%,7. 5%,and 10. 0% of fresh earthworm Eis-enia foetidaf for 100 days to evaluate the effect of fresh earthworm on certain blood immune indices of the juvenile snakehead. The results showed that there was the maximal red blood cell ( RBC) in the fish fed the diet containing 10. 0% of earthworm, significant difference from the fish in the other groups(P0. 05). The activities of ly-sozyme ( LZM) and phenoloxidase ( PO) in the snakehead serum were increased with the increasing fresh earth-worm level, with the maximum in the 10. 0% earthworm group, and significant differences from the fish in the other groups(P0.05);杂交鳢血清溶菌酶(LZM)和酚氧化酶(PO)活性随着蚯蚓添加量的增加呈上升趋势,10.0%蚯蚓组最高,且与其他各组有显著性差异(P<0.05);杂交鳢血清酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)和碱性磷酸酶( AKP)活性均随着蚯蚓添加量的增加出现波动,7.5%蚯蚓组3种酶活性均最高,且与对照组有显著性差异( P<0.05)。本研究表明,在饲料中添加7.5%和10.0%赤子爱胜蚓的新鲜浆液,能提高杂交鳢血液中红细胞和白细胞的数量,提高血清中的LZM、 ACP、 AKP、 SOD和PO活性。

  10. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  11. Duplex PCR for detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachai, Pachara; Chomvarin, Chariya; Wongboot, Warawan; Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella and Shigella spp are important causative agents of foodborne diseases. A sensitive, specific and rapid method is essential for detection of these pathogens. In this study, a duplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples and compared with the traditional culture method. Enrichment broths for Salmonella spp recovery were also compared. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp from pure culture was 10(3) CFU/ml (40 CFU/PCR reaction), and that of sterile cockle samples spiked with these two pathogens was 1 CFU/10 g of cockle tissue after 9 hours enrichment [3 hours in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by 6 hours in Rappaport Vasiliadis (RV) broth or tetrathionate (TT) broth for Salmonella spp and 6 hours enrichment in Shigella broth (SB) for Shigella spp]. There was no significant difference in detection sensitivity between enrichment in RV and TT broths. Salmonella spp detected in cockles in Khon Kaen, Thailand by duplex PCR and culture method was 17% and 13%, respectively but Shigella spp was not detected. The duplex PCR technique developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples was highly sensitive, specific and rapid and could serve as a suitable method for food safety assessment.

  12. Differential Legionella spp. survival between intracellular and extracellular forms in thermal spring environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Shih-Yung; Huang, Jen-Te; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-05-01

    Legionella are commonly found in natural and man-made aquatic environments and are able to inhabit various species of protozoa. The relationship between the occurrence of Legionella spp. within protozoa and human legionellosis has been demonstrated; however, the proportions of intracellular and extracellular Legionella spp. in the aquatic environment were rarely reported. In this study, we developed a new method to differentiate intracellular and extracellular Legionella spp. in the aquatic environment. Water samples from three thermal spring recreational areas in southeastern Taiwan were collected and analyzed. For each water sample, concurrent measurements were performed for Legionella spp. and their free-living amoebae hosts. The overall detection rate was 32 % (16/50) for intracellular Legionella spp. and 12 % (6/50) for extracellular Legionella spp. The most prevalent host of Legionella spp. was Hartmannella vermiformis. The identified Legionella spp. differed substantially between intracellular and extracellular forms. The results showed that it may be necessary to differentiate intracellular and extracellular forms of Legionella spp.

  13. Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Salmonella spp. genes (ompC and sifB). Also, Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to XbaI macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty-eight samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and 172 isolates were obtained. Sl1 and Sl2 presented similar frequencies of Salmonella spp. positive samples during reception, slaughtering and processing (p > 0.05), except for higher frequencies in Sl1 for chicken carcasses after de-feathering and evisceration (p Salmonella spp. strains in Sl1. The results highlighted the relevance of the initial steps of chicken slaughtering for Salmonella spp. contamination, and the pre-chilling of carcasses as an important controlling tool. In addition, the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken end cuts samples represents a public health concern.

  14. Dermatitis asociada a malassezia spp en un conejo criado como mascota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quevedo U., Miryam; Lescano G., Jesus; Fernandez A., Victor

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad micotica mas comun en conejos es la dermatofitosis, la cual esta asociada principalmente a Trichophyton menthagrophytes y Microsporum canis, mientras que la dermatitis por Malassezia spp...

  15. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.

  16. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąka, Łukasz; Popowska, Magdalena

    This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different. Resistance to sulfonamides is mostly associated with genes sul1 and sul2, while resistance to trimethoprim is associated with various variants of dhfr ( dfr) genes. Taking into account Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food, resistance to β-lactams is commonly associated with β-lactamases encoding by blaTEM genes. However strains ESBL and AmpC – positive are also detected. Resistance to aminoglicosides is commonly result of enzymatic inactivation. Three types of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme are: acetyltransferases (AAC), adenyltransferases (ANT) and phosphotransferases (APH). Resistance to tetracyclines among Salmonella spp. isolated from food is most commonly associated with active efflux. Among numerous genetic determinants encoding efflux pumps tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetG are reported predominatingly. One of the most common mechanisms of resistance against chloramphenicol is its inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltrasferases (CATs), but resistance to this compound can be also mediated by chloramphenicol efflux pumps encoded by the genes cmlA and floR. It is important to monitor resistance of Salmonella isolated from food, because the globalization of trade, leading to the long-distance

  18. Human antibody recognition of Anisakidae and Trichinella spp. in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L N; Krause, T Grove; Koch, A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of total IgE are observed among children in Greenland. To evaluate the extent to which Anisakidae and Trichinella spp. contribute to the high total IgE level, an ELISA and a western blot were developed for the detection of IgG antibodies to Anisakidae, based on excretory....../secretory antigens from Anisakidae larvae. Western blots with Anisakidae and Trichinella antigens discriminated between Anisakidae and Trichinella infections, enabling cross-reactivity between the two parasite infections to be eliminated. Serum samples from 1012 children in Greenland were analysed for specific...

  19. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M

    2011-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  20. Beneficios para la salud de los frutos de Opuntia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Obón De Castro, José María; Castellar Rodríguez, María Rosario Lourdes; Díaz García, Miriam Cristina; Lozano Berna, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    El género Opuntia spp. ofrece una gran variedad de frutos con un gran potencial en componentes bioactivos. Son muchos los beneficios para la salud que se han descrito en la medicina tradicional: tratamiento de la diabetes, reducción de los niveles de colesterol y la presión arterial,tratamiento de úlceras y quemaduras, ami-inflamatorio y mejora de dolores reumáticos, tratamiento del dolor y asma. Los principales componentes bioactivos de los frutos son betala[nas, carofenoides, polifeno...