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Sample records for loma salmonae microsporea

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of inflammatory cells and cell cycle proteins in the gills of Loma salmonae infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, M. D.; Yousaf, M. N.; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidial gill diseases particularly those caused by Loma salmonae incur significant economic losses to the salmonid aquaculture industry. The gill responses to infection include the formation of xenomas and the acute hyperplastic inflammatory responses once the xenomas rupture releasing inf...

  2. Loma salmonae (Protozoa: Microspora) infections in seawater reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Groff, J.M.; Hedrick, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Loma salmonae (Putz et al., 1965) infections were observed in five groups of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, reared in seawater net-pens in Washington State, U.S.A. in 1984–1986. Ultrastructural characteristics, size of spores, tissues and host infected, and geographical location identified the microsporidium as Loma salmonae. Preserved spores measured 4.4×2.3 (4–5.6×2–2.4) μm and exhibited 14–17 turns of the polar filament. Infections were evident in the gills of some fish before seawater entry, but few parasites were observed and they caused little tissue damage. Infections observed in fish after transfer to seawater were associated with significant pathological changes in the gills. A mixed inflammatory infiltrate was associated with ruptured microsporidian xenomas within the vessels and interstitium of the primary lamellae. Microsporidian spores were dispersed throughout the lesions and were often seen inside phagocytes. The parasite was also observed in the heart, spleen, kidney and pseudobranchs; however, the inflammatory lesions were common only in the heart.Monthly examination of fish after transfer to seawater showed peak prevalences (33–65%) of gill infections during the summer. Although moribund fish were often infected with other pathogens, the high prevalence of L. salmonae infections and the severity of the lesions it caused, suggested that this parasite significantly contributed to the recurrent summer mortalities observed at this net-pen site.

  3. Rogelio Salmona y la arquitectura con ladrillo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adell, Josep Mª

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The oeuvre of Colombian Rogelio Salmona borrows heavily from European culture while developing the potential of the high quality brick manufactured in his country.
    Salmona exhibits a masterful command of the use of brick in all possible spatial arrangements -walls, floors and ceilingsalways articulating sound constructional compositions based on his many long years of experience with this ceramic material.
    The two pieces (jamb-type and dripstone-type specially designed by the architect for his buildings are used to create multiple finishes that dignify their architectural composition and functionality, with walls that are always at least one foot thick.
    His housing projects such as “Torres del Parque” in Bogotá and public buildings such as the “Home of Colombia’s Distinguished Guests” or the headquarters for the General National Archives have earned him renown as one of Latin America’s most outstanding architects, as well as any number of honours and distinctions.

    La obra del colombiano Rogelio Salmona, se fundamenta en la cultura europea, y desarrolla las posibilidades del ladrillo de calidad que se fabrica en su país.
    El Arquitecto emplea el ladrillo con maestría en todas las disposiciones espaciales posibles, paredes, suelos y techos, articulando, en todos los casos, sabias composiciones constructivas, surgidas de su propia experiencia y evolución a lo largo de los años con este material cerámico.
    Para rematar adecuadamente sus edificaciones, privadas y públicas, Salmona ha diseñado dos piezas especiales (tipo jamba y tipo vierteaguas con las que obtiene múltiples acabados que dignifican su composición y funcionalidad arquitectónica, utilizando siempre como mínimo, muros de 1 pie de grueso.
    Sus obras de viviendas como las Torres del Parque en Bogotá y los edificios públicos como la Casa de Huéspedes Ilustres de Colombia, o el Archivo General de la Nación, han merecido calificar a este

  4. “No es simplemente la promenade architecturale”: interpretaciones sobre Le Corbusier y Rogelio Salmona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Saldarriaga Sierra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las principales interpretaciones de la promenade architecturale bajo tres instancias complementarias. La primera instancia se refiere a la historia del paseo y del paisaje en Occidente. La segunda se refiere a la creación del concepto por Le Corbusier y al modo como lo usó en su arquitectura. La tercera se dedica a su colaborador Rogelio Salmona, al modo como entendió este concepto según sus propios escritos y entrevistas y según otros autores que mencionan su uso. Como conclusión se demuestran dos definiciones formales diferentes de este mismo concepto.

  5. Elementos para una búsqueda: Le Corbusier y Rogelio Salmona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mejía Vallejo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By analysing four projects that involved houses with courtyards designed by Rogelio Salmona, this article reaches a hypothesis about how Le Corbusier could have influenced the work of the Colombian architect. Common ground is identified in both architects’ approaches, which is described and illustrated by reviewing some of their works. The approach taken in this article is through the analysis of a number of variables, which leads to the systematic and infinitely rich possibilities of characterising the work of both architects.

  6. October 1989 Loma Prieta, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred near Loma Prieta in the Santa Cruz mountains. Movement occurred along a 40-km segment of the San Andreas fault from southwest...

  7. Salmona´s idea of city report on an analysis of the human science postgraduate building

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This article is a comparative study between the Park Towers and the building of Postgraduate Studies of Human Sciences Faculty, at the National University of Colombia designed by the architect Rogelio Salmona. Reviewing both constructions the interaction between building and city, and by the use of social aspects as ‘the encounter with the other’ and the politics, we hope to find that original idea, referred to the city, which sustains conceptually the work of this architect, which we believe...

  8. Technical assessment of the Loma Linda University proton therapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    In April 1986, officials of Loma Linda University requested that Fermilab design and construct a 250 MeV proton synchrotron for radiotherapy, to be located at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. In June 1986 the project, having received all necessary approvals, commenced. In order to meet a desirable schedule providing for operation in early 1990, it was decided to erect such parts of the accelerator as were complete at Fermilab and conduct a precommissioning activity prior to the completion of the building at Loma Linda which will house the final radiotherapy facility. It was hoped that approximately one year would be saved by the precommissioning, and that important information would be obtained about the system so that improvements could be made during installation at Loma Linda. This report contains an analysis by Fermilab staff members of the information gained in the precommissioning activity and makes recommendations about steps to be taken to enhance the performance of the proton synchrotron at Loma Linda. In the design of the accelerator, effort was made to employ commercially available components, or to industrialize the products developed so that later versions of the accelerator could be produced industrially. The magnets could only be fabricated at Fermilab if the schedule was to be met, but efforts were made to transfer that technology to industry. Originally, it was planned to use a 1.7 MeV RFQ fabricated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory as injector, but LBL would have found it difficult to meet the project schedule. After consideration of other options, for example a 3.4 MeV tandem accelerator, a supplier (AccSys Inc.) qualified itself to provide a 2 MeV RFQ on a schedule well matched to the project schedule. This choice was made, but a separate supplier was selected to develop and provide the 425 MHz power amplifier for the RFQ

  9. Intensity possibilities for the Loma Linda Medical Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.E.; Morton, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Based on questions and concerns over the possible intensity limitations of the Loma Linda Medical Synchrotron, a detailed study was conducted in order to determine the possible intensity limitations in the synchrotron as presently configured and what could be done in future machines in order to achieve better intensity performance. The losses in the operating machine were investigated as well as the possible space charge and coherent collective effects limits

  10. Students Development of Food and Health-Related Action Competence - Upscaling LOMA Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Jensen, Kirsten

    , based on preliminary results from LOMA I project, there are indications, that students at the whole school develop healthier eating habits and experience comensality, Sense of Coherence and QOL, when they participate in LOMA educational activities. The evaluation of LOMA II will apply a mixed methods......, that encompass participation from both teachers, pedagogs and students (8-15 years) and teacher-students.The evaluation of LOMA II will apply a mixed methods design, that facilitates a 'realist' (Pawson and Tilley 1998; Carlsson and Simovska 2012) approach to data collection and analysis. Apart from more...... mainstream methods of measurement, action research strategies (Checkland 2000) will be applied at certain stages of the evaluation, e.g. during pilot-projets and in relation to students participation in the 'mid-term-seminar' of the project in 2016. Expected Outcomes It is expected, that LOMA II...

  11. Characterization of Loma Venturilla pegmatites using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Fortes, B.; Caopte Rodriguez, G.; Toujague La Rosa, R.; Sukar Satraputa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and gamma spectrometry Analysis (GEA) were used for the determination of 21 trace elements in geological samples of pegmatites of Loma Venturilla area. Both methods permitted, in general, the determination of K, Cr, Co, Sc, Rb, Cs, Ba, Ta, HF, Th, and U and 10 rare earths elements: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb, and Lu. The results were obtained with good precision and accuracy The knowledge of such concentrations is of great interest in geosciences. The values of the concentrations obtained can be extensively used in petrogenetic studies of those rocks, since they facilitate the evaluation and estimation of the extent of the main process, involved in the generation and differentiation of the melts from which the pegmatites were derivates

  12. Measurements of Loma Linda proton therapy gantry dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, H.D.; Mazur, P.O.; Sim, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the procedures used by the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) to perform tests of dipoles to be installed in the beam lines of the Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center Proton Therapy Facility. The dipoles were manufactured in two styles, one style having a 45 degrees bending angle and the other a 135 degrees bending angle. The tests included magnetic field measurements using a Hall probe and the measurement of coil temperatures, voltages, and water flow rates. The probe was mounted on a movable cart which could be wheeled along the magnet beam pipe; they mounted extensions onto each end of the beam pipe to allow for the probe to measure the magnet end fields. The probe was also mounted at varying transverse positions on the cart to allow for field shape measurements, from which body quadrupole and sextupole coefficients were determined. A longitudinal sampling of the field down the entire length of the magnet allowed the authors to measure the total integrated field of each magnet. Hall probe measurements were controlled by a C program running on a Unix workstation

  13. Measurements of Loma Linda proton therapy gantry dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, H.D.; Mazur, P.O.; Sim, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    We describe the procedures used by the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) to perform tests of dipoles to be installed in the beam lines of the Loma Linda University Medical Center Proton Therapy Facility. The dipoles were manufactured in two styles, one style having a 45 degree bending angle and the other a 135 degree bending angle. The tests included magnetic field measurements using a Hall probe and the measurement of coil temperatures, voltages, and water flow rates. The probe was mounted on a movable cart which could be wheeled along the magnet beam pipe; we mounted extensions onto each end of the beam pipe to allow for the probe to measure the magnet end fields. The probe was also mounted at varying transverse positions on the cart to allow for field shape measurements, from which body quadrupole and sextupole coefficients were determined. A longitudinal sampling of the field down the entire length of the magnet allowed us to measure the total integrated field of each magnet. Hall probe measurements were controlled by a C program running on a Unix workstation

  14. Prospection works for uranium in the sectors Loma Cimarron y Navarro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Olivera, J.; Cervantes, P.; Geler, T.; Fernandez, P.; Villarino, J.; Alcalde, J.

    1995-01-01

    The work show the resultate obtained from the prospection realized on sectors Navarro and Loma Cimarron which belong to e structure facial zone Esperanza. Saying works were projected to search radioactive minerals ore. The main result were the selection of perspective area which have been recommendation to evaluation in depth

  15. Paleoecology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the deposit of diatomite Loma Camastro, Liberia-Guanacaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa-Sojo, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    The use of fossil diatoms have sought to establish the evolution of the paleoecological and sedimentary processes, a section of paleolake in the warehouse Loma Camacho, Liberia-Guanacaste. The same has consisted of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of continental origin, shown as a lacustrine deposit, due to the presence of diatoms as their predominant fossil feature. The stratigraphy and sedimentology are established in detail of a portion of the formation of the Loma indicating, by this analysis, materials reworked of volcaniclastic origin and sedimentary deposits of lacustrine origin. The study has coincided to a sequence of tobitas, differentiated by their granulometry, microscopically corresponded to lodolites or claystones, with concentrations different of diatom fossils and crystals (predominantly quartz and biotic), in a clay matrix. Patterns of variation in the diatom paleocommunities are determined and have been recognized different species. General environmental conditions of paleolake are established, such as pH, productivity, solar radiation, salinity, etc. In addition, changes in diatom communities, sedimentation patterns and relations to the local and regional context were correlated setting dominant paleoenvironmental conditions for that depositional period in Loma Camastro. The main influence has been the seasonal changes in dry and rainy periods and constant volcanic activity of Volcan Rincon de la Vieja [es

  16. Fiscal 1985 research report. Feasibility study on overseas coal mine development (La Loma coal field, Cesar province, Columbia); 1985 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Columbia Censar shu La Loma tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Tomen Corp. was proposed in April 1985 to join in the additional exploration of La Loma mine lot in 1986 through Greenley Co. in America, one of the members of Siminera- Greenley Association which has promoted the survey and exploration of La Loma coal mine lot (20,000ha), Cesar province, Columbia since 1979. In answer to this proposal, Tomen obtained the fiscal 1985 feasibility study subsidy for foreign coal development, and made surveys on the coal seam, coal property, coal deposit, recoverable deposit and profitability of La Loma coal field including La Loma coal mine lot, and further surveys on infrastructure improvement for the future coal development, the policy of Columbian government and various laws concerned. Based on the above survey results, for assessment of this coal field, Tomen Corp. made field survey on the coal field and infrastructures, document collection and hearing from Columbian and U.S. governments and companies, further collection of other documents concerned and information, and analysis of the survey results. As a result, the assessment of La Loma coal field was completed. (NEDO)

  17. El Edificio Alto de los Pinos: una aproximación al espacio doméstico en Salmona desde el límite de la vivienda colectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Quintana Guerrero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es posible identificar el espacio doméstico en un proyecto determinado mediante la búsqueda de sus límites? Para responder a ello el artículo propone una reflexión desde algunos autores reconocidos en la fenomenología, principalmente Henry Maldiney (inspirado a su vez en Merleau-Ponty, debido a la importancia que otorga tanto al cuerpo y su movimiento en la concepción y posterior vivencia del hábitat como a los pares dialécticos, donde residen las dimensiones profundas de la arquitectura. Dicha reflexión se convierte en el sustrato teórico del recorrido imaginario presentado, a través de un proyecto de vivienda colectiva de Rogelio Salmona. En el Edificio Alto de los Pinos se encuentran estrategias similares que en otros proyectos de su autoría, donde el límite se fundamenta en las nociones de acontecimiento y errancia. La idea del edificio multifamiliar como una casa reinterpretada sienta las bases para el enriquecimiento de estudios y propuestas en torno al tema de la habitación contemporánea.

  18. Characterization of Loma Venturilla pegmatites using nuclear techniques; Caracterizacion de las pegmatitas de Loma Venturilla mediante el uso de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Fortes, B; Caopte Rodriguez, G; Toujague La Rosa, R [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana (Cuba); Sukar Satraputa, K [Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-10-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and gamma spectrometry Analysis (GEA) were used for the determination of 21 trace elements in geological samples of pegmatites of Loma Venturilla area. Both methods permitted, in general, the determination of K, Cr, Co, Sc, Rb, Cs, Ba, Ta, HF, Th, and U and 10 rare earths elements: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb, and Lu. The results were obtained with good precision and accuracy The knowledge of such concentrations is of great interest in geosciences. The values of the concentrations obtained can be extensively used in petrogenetic studies of those rocks, since they facilitate the evaluation and estimation of the extent of the main process, involved in the generation and differentiation of the melts from which the pegmatites were derivates.

  19. Succinea peruviana (Gastropoda en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris (Sauria en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa de la presencia del caracol Succinea peruviana en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris, la misma que habita el mesohábitat de Lomas con árboles en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay. Este es el primer informe del consumo de caracoles por lagartijas del Desierto Costero Peruano

  20. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ˜0.5 m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1 m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ˜17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP. Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy

  1. "LinkedIn" loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas paradumos

    OpenAIRE

    Mickēvičs, Rihards

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „"LinkedIn" loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas paradumos” aplūkots mērķa grupas kopējās interneta un sociālo mediju patēriņa tendences, komunikācijas rīku lietojums, vietnes „LinkedIn” loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas aspektā un sava personīgā sociālā zīmola apzināšanās. Darbs balstīts uz četrām galvenajām daļām – teorētisko, metodoloģisko, empīrisko un rezultātu. Pamatojoties uz pieejamo teorētisko bāzi saistībā ar attiecīgo tēmu, tika veikta fok...

  2. Performance of liquid storage tanks during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, M.A.; Mourad, S.A.; Izzeddine, W.

    1991-01-01

    Utilities and industrial facilities in the strong shaking area of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake include a large inventory of tanks of all types. The earthquake induced a few incidents of damage to tanks of old and modern design, and even to a retrofitted tank. This paper documents the performance of tank structures during this seismic event through a detailed description of the damage sustained by ground-based petroleum and water storage tanks and by elevated water tanks. It appears that site amplification of the long period ground motion components was a cause of large amplitude sloshing and the associated damage to tanks built on Bay Mud. It is also apparent that design procedures for ground-based unanchored tanks require a substantial updating to reflect the recent technical advances and the lessons learned for such a type of tanks

  3. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Societal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated by Mileti, Dennis S.

    1993-01-01

    Professional Paper 1553 describes how people and organizations responded to the earthquake and how the earthquake impacted people and society. The investigations evaluate the tools available to the research community to measure the nature, extent, and causes of damage and losses. They describe human behavior during and immediately after the earthquake and how citizens participated in emergency response. They review the challenges confronted by police and fire departments and disruptions to transbay transportations systems. And they survey the challenges of post-earthquake recovery. Some significant findings were: * Loma Prieta provided the first test of ATC-20, the red, yellow, and green tagging of buildings. It successful application has led to widespread use in other disasters including the September 11, 2001, New York City terrorist incident. * Most people responded calmly and without panic to the earthquake and acted to get themselves to a safe location. * Actions by people to help alleviate emergency conditions were proportional to the level of need at the community level. * Some solutions caused problems of their own. The police perimeter around the Cypress Viaduct isolated businesses from their customers leading to a loss of business and the evacuation of employees from those businesses hindered the movement of supplies to the disaster scene. * Emergency transbay ferry service was established 6 days after the earthquake, but required constant revision of service contracts and schedules. * The Loma Prieta earthquake produced minimal disruption to the regional economy. The total economic disruption resulted in maximum losses to the Gross Regional Product of $725 million in 1 month and $2.9 billion in 2 months, but 80% of the loss was recovered during the first 6 months of 1990. Approximately 7,100 workers were laid off.

  4. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Lifelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Anshel J.

    1998-01-01

    To the general public who had their televisions tuned to watch the World Series, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was a lifelines earthquake. It was the images seen around the world of the collapsed Cypress Street viaduct, with the frantic and heroic efforts to pull survivors from the structure that was billowing smoke; the collapsed section of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and subsequent home video of a car plunging off the open span; and the spectacular fire in the Marina District of San Francisco fed by a broken gasline. To many of the residents of the San Francisco Bay region, the relation of lifelines to the earthquake was characterized by sitting in the dark because of power outage, the inability to make telephone calls because of network congestion, and the slow and snarled traffic. Had the public been aware of the actions of the engineers and tradespeople working for the utilities and other lifeline organizations on the emergency response and restoration of lifelines, the lifeline characteristics of this earthquake would have been even more significant. Unobserved by the public were the warlike devastation in several electrical-power substations, the 13 miles of gas-distribution lines that had to be replaced in several communities, and the more than 1,200 leaks and breaks in water mains and service connections that had to be excavated and repaired. Like the 1971 San Fernando, Calif., earthquake, which was a seminal event for activity to improve the earthquake performance of lifelines, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrated that the tasks of preparing lifelines in 'earthquake country' were incomplete-indeed, new lessons had to be learned.

  5. Chapter D. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Aftershocks and Postseismic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    While the damaging effects of the earthquake represent a significant social setback and economic loss, the geophysical effects have produced a wealth of data that have provided important insights into the structure and mechanics of the San Andreas Fault system. Generally, the period after a large earthquake is vitally important to monitor. During this part of the seismic cycle, the primary fault and the surrounding faults, rock bodies, and crustal fluids rapidly readjust in response to the earthquake's sudden movement. Geophysical measurements made at this time can provide unique information about fundamental properties of the fault zone, including its state of stress and the geometry and frictional/rheological properties of the faults within it. Because postseismic readjustments are rapid compared with corresponding changes occurring in the preseismic period, the amount and rate of information that is available during the postseismic period is relatively high. From a geophysical viewpoint, the occurrence of the Loma Prieta earthquake in a section of the San Andreas fault zone that is surrounded by multiple and extensive geophysical monitoring networks has produced nothing less than a scientific bonanza. The reports assembled in this chapter collectively examine available geophysical observations made before and after the earthquake and model the earthquake's principal postseismic effects. The chapter covers four broad categories of postseismic effect: (1) aftershocks; (2) postseismic fault movements; (3) postseismic surface deformation; and (4) changes in electrical conductivity and crustal fluids.

  6. Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzylowska, Eliza M; Jacobson, John D; Bareh, Gihan M; Ko, Edmund Y; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effect the life-long vegetarian diet on male fertility and focused on vegetarians living in the Loma Linda blue zone, a demographic area known for life longevity. The objective was to compare sperm characteristics of vegetarian with non-vegetarian males. The cross-sectional observational study was based on semen analyses of 474 males from 2009 to 2013. Patients categorized themselves as either life-long lacto-ovo vegetarians (N=26; vegetable diet with dairy and egg products), vegans (N=5; strictly vegetables with no animal products) or non-vegetarians (N=443; no diet restrictions). Sperm quality was assessed using a computer-aided sperm analyzer and strict morphology and chromatin integrity were manually evaluated. Lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower sperm concentration (50.7±7.4M/mL versus non-vegetarians 69.6±3.2M/mL, mean±S.E.M.). Total motility was lower in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups (33.2±3.8% and 51.8±13.4% respectively) versus non-vegetarians (58.2±1.0%). Vegans had lowest hyperactive motility (0.8±0.7% versus lacto-ovo 5.2±1.2 and non-vegetarians 4.8±0.3%). Sperm strict morphologies were similar for the 3 groups. There were no differences in rapid progression and chromatin integrity. The study showed that the vegetables-based food intake decreased sperm quality. In particular, a reduction in sperm quality in male factor patients would be clinically significant and would require review. Furthermore, inadequate sperm hyperactivation in vegans suggested compromised membrane calcium selective channels. However, the study results are cautiously interpreted and more corroborative studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estado de conservación de Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn 1949) y de los mamíferos pequeños en las Lomas de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Mena; Martha Williams; Carla Gazzolo; Francesca Montero

    2013-01-01

    The coastline and the western slopes of the Andes are main sites of Peruvian endemic mammals. Along the central coast occurs the only endemic rat from Lima, Zuniga’s dark rice rat, Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn, 1949). It was collected by Enrique Zuñiga in 1942 at Lomas de Atocongo and Cerro San Jerónimo. Since then, sporadic searches have been conducted, not necessarily targeted at finding it, but without records. Our study was aimed at finding evidence of its presence in the Loma formations ar...

  8. A small Bronze Age mining camp: La Loma de la Tejería (Albarracín, Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the research done at Loma de la Tejería (Albarracín, Teruel where a seasonal camp site linked to a mining-metallurgical works has been discovered. Studies on materials show the use of different geological resources: copper minerals, Keuper clays with “Jacintos de Compostela” and volcanic rocks. Pottery residual analysis has documented dairy milky products and alcoholic drinks. Chronologically the site is classified amongst Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, on the presence of Bell Beaker pottery.

    Se presentan los datos de las excavaciones realizadas en la Loma de la Tejería (Albarracín, Teruel en la que se documenta un campamento estacional vinculado a tareas minero-metalúrgicas de pequeña escala. Los estudios realizados sobre el material indican el aprovechamiento de los recursos geológicos locales tanto de mineral de cobre, como de arcillas del Keuper con Jacintos de Compostela y rocas volcánicas. Los análisis de residuos han documentado en la cerámica productos lácteos y bebidas alcohólicas. Cronológicamente el yacimiento se encuadra en el Calcolítico y Bronce Antiguo, con presencia de cerámica campaniforme.

  9. Increasing student diversity and cultural competence as part of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's service mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Forde, Ron

    2012-06-01

    For many years, studies have identified a need for greater racial and ethnic diversity among dental professionals. However, the ability of the field to collectively address the problem has been hindered by the low numbers of underrepresented minority students who apply to dental school. Over the past two decades, college attendance rates have increased and U.S. dental school applications have tripled, but the number of underrepresented minority dental applicants has remained about the same. With the increasing diversity of the U.S. population and specifically that of the state of California, the dental workforce would be enhanced by the presence of more underrepresented minority dentists. Additionally, curricular changes should be implemented to better prepare dental students to meet the oral health care needs of diverse populations. There is general agreement that these workforce and curricular changes would enhance access to care for underserved populations. For seven years, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry participated in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program. The first phase of this national program addressed deficiencies in diversity in dentistry and in access to oral health care. In the second phase, Loma Linda University continued to collaborate with other California dental schools on specific state initiatives. This article provides an overview of the school's efforts to enroll a more diverse student body, enhance all its students' cultural competence, and expand care to underserved populations.

  10. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  11. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for

  12. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  13. Estado de conservación de Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn 1949 y de los mamíferos pequeños en las Lomas de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la costa y vertiente occidental ocurren los principales endemismos de mamíferos peruanos. Así mismo, a lo largo de la costa central, sobresale el único mamífero endémico del departamento de Lima, el ratón arrozalero de Zúñiga, Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn, 1949, registrado en las lomas de Atocongo y el cerro San Jerónimo por Enrique Zúñiga en 1942. Desde entonces se han realizado esporádicas evaluaciones, no necesariamente dirigidas a su búsqueda, aunque sin ningún registro. Nuestro estudio tuvo como objetivo la búsqueda de evidencias de la presencia de M. zunigae en las lomas de Lima, basados en un trampeo no exhaustivo y posteriormente en un análisis de regurgitos de la lechuza de los arenales (Athene cunicularia. Desafortunadamente no registramos ningún individuo de M. zunigae; sin embargo, encontramos evidencias que el impacto de la expansión urbana estaría afectando los ensamblajes de mamíferos pequeños en las lomas de Lima. Varios factores pudieron haber determinado la desaparición de M. zunigae. Entre estas se incluyen la destrucción del hábitat, invasión de especies exóticas y el aislamiento de las lomas.

  14. Re-evaluating the resource potential of lomas fog oasis environments for Preceramic hunter-gatherers under past ENSO modes on the south coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford-Jones, David; Pullen, Alexander G.; Whaley, Oliver Q.; Moat, Justin; Chauca, George; Cadwallader, Lauren; Arce, Susana; Orellana, Alfonso; Alarcón, Carmela; Gorriti, Manuel; Maita, Patricia K.; Sturt, Fraser; Dupeyron, Agathe; Huaman, Oliver; Lane, Kevin J.; French, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Lomas - ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs - were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity's few independent hearths of agriculture and "pristine" civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been much debated. Here we reassess the resource potential of the poorly studied lomas of the south coast of Peru during the long Middle Pre-ceramic period (c. 8000-4500 BP): a period critical in the transition to agriculture, the onset of modern El Niño Southern Oscillation ('ENSO') conditions, and eustatic sea-level rise and stabilisation and beach progradation. Our method combines vegetation survey and herbarium collection with archaeological survey and excavation to make inferences about both Preceramic hunter-gatherer ecology and the changed palaeoenvironments in which it took place. Our analysis of newly discovered archaeological sites - and their resource context - show how lomas formations defined human ecology until the end of the Middle Preceramic Period, thereby corroborating recent reconstructions of ENSO history based on other data. Together, these suggest that a five millennia period of significantly colder seas on the south coast induced conditions of abundance and seasonal predictability in lomas and maritime ecosystems, that enabled Middle Preceramic hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility by settling in strategic locations at the confluence of multiple eco-zones at the river estuaries. Here the foundations of agriculture lay in a Broad Spectrum Revolution that unfolded, not through population pressure in deteriorating environments, but rather as an outcome of resource abundance.

  15. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  16. Deformation from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kevin M.; Ellen, Stephen D.; Peterson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Damage to pavement and near-surface utility pipes, caused by the 17 October 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake, provides evidence for ground deformation in a 663 km2 area near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California (USA). A total of 1427 damage sites, collected from more than 30 sources, are concentrated in four zones, three of which lie near previously mapped faults. In one of these zones, the channel lining of Los Gatos Creek, a 2-km-long concrete strip trending perpendicular to regional geologic structure, was broken by thrusts that were concentrated in two belts, each several tens of meters wide, separated by more than 300 m of relatively undeformed concrete.

  17. A serological and bacteriological survey of dogs to detect Brucella infection in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province Estudio serológico y bacteriológico de brucelosis en perros de Lomas de Zamora, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of the reproductive tract that may cause miscarriage in females, infection of the sexual organs in males and infertility in both sexes. The prevalence of brucellosis in dogs is unknown and little has been done to control the disease, except in certain breeds and some commercial dog kennels. In the course of a free neuter program in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, prevalence of antibodies to Brucella sp., bacteriological isolation and clinical observations were performed. Of 224 dogs studied, 33 (14.7% were found positive for the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT, 24 (10.7% of which were confirmed by IELISA. Of the 33 RSAT positive, 17 (51.5% blood cultures were done, and B. canis were isolated from 2 cases. Since infected dogs have been shown to remain bacteremic for prolonged periods, our results also suggest a risk of human infections in this area.La brucelosis canina causada por Brucella canis es una infección que afecta el tracto reproductivo de los perros y que puede provocar abortos en las hembras, infección de los órganos sexuales en los machos e infertilidad en ambos sexos. Se desconoce la prevalencia de esta enfermedad y las medidas de control se aplican sólo en algunos criaderos comerciales. Durante un programa de castración gratuita de perros llevado a cabo en el Partido de Lomas de Zamora (Gran Buenos Aires se realizaron estudios clínicos, serológicos y bacteriológicos en 224 animales. En la población estudiada, la prueba de microaglutinación rápida en portaobjetos (RSAT resultó positiva en suero de 33 (14,7% perros y fueron confirmadas por IELISA en 24 (10,7% de ellos. A 17 de los 33 perros positivos mediante RSAT (51,5% se les practicaron hemocultivos y en 2 casos se aisló B. canis. Debido a que los perros infectados permanecen bacteriémicos durante períodos prolongados, constituyen un riesgo para la salud pública.

  18. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Burgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1–4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989–1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼6 × 1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 × 1018 and 2 × 1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  19. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo y riesgo cardiovascular global en la población de Tres Lomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Mazzei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:La mortalidad atribuida a las enfermedades cardiovasculares se encuentra en primer lugar y en aumento en los países en vías de desarrollo. En la Argentina, las enfermedades cardiovasculares producen, junto con el cáncer, más del 50% de las muertes anuales. En contraposición a las enfermedades infecciosas, éstas se denominan genéricamente enfermedades no transmisibles y se ha demostrado que son prevenibles en gran medida a través del control y el manejo de los llamados factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Es por ello que la información sobre la prevalencia y la variación en el tiempo de estos factores de riesgo es fundamental para realizar una vigilancia epidemiológica del problema de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la población y, a su vez, para proponer acciones comunitarias preventivas.ObjetivosObtener información sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población de Tres Lomas (Buenos Aires, calcular el riesgo cardiovascular global (RCG y comparar estos resultados con los descriptos para toda la Argentina.Material y métodosSe entrevistaron al azar 522 adultos de Tres Lomas. Se utilizó el cuestionario para vigilancia epidemiológica de la OPS y se realizaron mediciones antropométricas. En 100 individuos se determinaron lípidos y glucemia para estimar el RCG, definido como probabilidad de desarrollar un evento no fatal o muerte coronaria en los próximos 10 años. Por último, estas prevalencias se compararon con las estimadas a nivel nacional.ResultadosHubo menor prevalencia de diabetes (7,7% versus 11,9%; p < 0,0001, tabaquismo (27,7% versus 33,4%; p < 0,0054 y depresión (14,4% versus 22,8%; p < 0,0001, aunque más sobrepeso y obesidad que el promedio país (58,4% versus 49,1%; p < 0,0001. Aunque la medición de la tensión arterial fue más frecuente que el promedio (82,2% versus 68,4%; p < 0,0001, las determinaciones de glucemia (50,2% versus 69,3%; p < 0,0001 y de

  20. Stress transfer by the 1988-1989 M=5.3 and 5.4 Lake Elsman foreshocks to the Loma Prieta fault: Unclamping at the site of peak mainshock slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfettini, H.; Stein, R.S.; Simpson, R.; Cocco, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the stress transferred by the June 27, 1988, M=5.3 and August 8, 1989, M=5.4 Lake Elsman earthquakes, the largest events to strike within 15 km of the future Loma Prieta rupture zone during 74 years before the 1989 M=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. We find that the first Lake Elsman event brought the rupture plane of the second event 0.3-1.6 bars (0.03-0.16 MPa) closer to Coulomb failure but that the Lake Elsman events did not bring the future Loma Prieta hypocentral zone closer to failure. Instead, the Lake Elsman earthquakes are calculated to have reduced the normal stress on (or "undamped") the Loma Prieta rupture surface by 0.5-1.0 bar (0.05-0.10 MPa) at the site where the greatest slip subsequently occurred in the Loma Prieta earthquake. This association between the sites of peak unclamping and slip suggests that the Lake Elsman events did indeed influence the Loma Prieta rupture process. Unclamping the fault would have locally lowered the resistance to sliding. Such an effect could have been enhanced if the lowered normal stress permitted fluid infusion into the undamped part of the fault. Although less well recorded, the ML=5.0 1964 and ML=5.3 1967 Corralitos events struck within 10 km of the southwest end of the future Loma Prieta rupture. No similar relationship between the normal stress change and subsequent Loma Prieta slip is observed, although the high-slip patch southwest of the Loma Prieta epicenter corresponds roughly to the site of calculated Coulomb stress increase for a low coefficient of friction. The Lake Elsman-Loma Prieta result is similar to that for the 1987 M=6.2 Elmore Ranch and M=6.7 Superstition Hills earthquakes, suggesting that foreshocks might influence the distribution of mainshock slip rather than the site of mainshock nucleation. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Plant community dynamics of lomas fog oasis of Central Peru after the extreme precipitation caused by the 1997-98 El Niño event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tovar

    Full Text Available Despite El Niño events being one of the main forces shaping the coastal desert vegetation in South America, the impacts of the high precipitation typical of this rare but recurrent climatic event remain understudied. Here we monitored the plant community of a coastal lomas, a seasonal desert ecosystem, during 1998 and 2001 to analyse its changes during the 1997-98 El Niño and the following La Niña events. We measured species abundance and vegetation cover in 31 plots, and recorded climate variables in Lomas de Lachay, Peru. We found a significant positive correlation between precipitation and vegetation cover, density, alpha diversity (species diversity at the plot level, total richness and abundance of several key species but no correlation with gamma diversity (species diversity at the whole loma level. During the El Niño event, the seasonality, typical of the lomas ecosystem, disappeared, as evidenced by both the similarity of species composition and mean vegetation cover values between most sampling campaigns of 1998 and 1999. Moreover, total richness was lower during the El Niño event than during the humid season of 2000 and 2001 resulting from the dominance of only a few species, such as Nicotiana paniculata and Loasa urens. Temporal-spatial changes in the abundance of the dominant species caused the differences between alpha and gamma diversity, especially during 1999. Within that year, mean alpha diversity showed similar values whilst gamma diversity values were different. The reestablishment of the seasonality of most plant community characteristics and a clear difference between species composition of the humid and the dry season occurred two years after the El Niño event, suggesting a resilient community. This study provides one of the few quantifications of the Peruvian lomas' response to the 1997-98 El Niño event and the following La Niña, one of the most extreme climatic events in the last century.

  2. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  3. Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Laura; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H; Gilkenson, Hannah; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-12-01

    Theory and a growing body of empirical evidence suggest that higher ranking males experience reproductive advantages in group-living mammals. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) exhibit an interesting social system for investigating the relationship between dominance and reproductive success (RS) because they live in multimale multifemale social groups, in which the alpha males can have extraordinarily long tenures (i.e. they coreside with daughters of reproductive age). Genetic paternity was determined from fecal samples for 120 infants born into three social groups of wild C. capucinus at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males produced far more offspring than expected by chance, and significantly high Nonac's B indices (a measure of deviation from a random distribution of RS among potentially breeding individuals) were a feature of six out of eight male tenures. The likelihood of the alpha male siring a particular offspring was predicted by the kin relationship between the mother and the alpha male, as well as the total number of males and females in the group. The almost complete lack of father-daughter inbreeding [Muniz et al., 2006] constitutes an impediment to alpha male reproductive monopolization in this population, particularly toward the end of long alpha male tenures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Akcīzes nodokļa sociālekonomiskā loma Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Ēķe, Sintija

    2009-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma : Akcīzes nodokļa sociālekonomiskā loma Latvijā. Maģistra darba mērķis ir analizēt akcīzes nodokļa lomu ekonomikā un budžeta ieņēmumos, analizēt tā politiku un izstrādāt priekšlikumus akcīzes nodokļa palielināšanai valsts budžetā. Darbs sastāv no ievada, trīs nodaļām, secinājumiem, priekšlikumiem un izmantotās literatūras saraksta. Maģistra darbs ir izstrādāts latviešu valodā un tajā ir 94 lapaspuses, kur ir iekļautas 22 tabulas un 52 attēli. Izmantotās literat...

  5. Transformaciones incrementales en la vivienda informal consolidada: El caso de Santa María de las Lomas, Guayaquil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de Teresa Fernández-Casas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La máxima repercusión que puede tener un proyecto arquitectónico en la transformación social de un barrio no es cambiar la sociedad mediante el proyecto, sino permitir que la sociedad cambie a través de la arquitectura. En el caso de la vivienda informal, esta transformación se produce mediante pequeñas alteraciones incrementales en cada vivienda, clasificadas en tres tipos: improvisaciones, tanteos y aproximaciones. Éstas dan lugar a comportamientos globales lógicos que pueden suponer avances significativos en la estructura social de un barrio. El presente artículo expone el avance parcial de la investigación llevada a cabo en la Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, cuyo objetivo consiste en encontrar influencias mutuas entre las transformaciones físicas de la casa y las transformaciones sociales de la familia, en el barrio informal de Santa María de las Lomas, de Guayaquil. Para ello, se generan diagramas comparativos entre ambos motores de transformación, los cuales describen un detonante de cambio que no es ni la arquitectura ni la sociedad, sino la relación dialéctica entre ambas. 

  6. Response of a 42-storey steel-frame building to the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of 14 acceleration records was obtained from a 42-storey steel-frame building, the Chevron Building, in San Francisco during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Data were analysed using a system identification method based on the discretetime linear filtering, and the least-squares estimation techniques. The results show that the response of the building is dominated by two modes: a translational mode in the weaker (southwest-northeast) principal direction of the building at 0.16 Hz with 5% damping, and a translational-torsional mode along the east-west diagonal of the building's cross-section at 0.20 Hz with 7% damping. There are significant contributions from higher modes at 0.54 Hz, 0.62 Hz, 1.02 Hz and 1.09 Hz. All the modes incorporate some torsion, but the amplitudes of torsional components are small, about 10% of translational amplitudes. Soil-structure interaction influences the vibrations near 1.0 Hz. The contribution of soil-structure interaction to the peak displacements of the building is significant, particularly at lower floors. ?? 1993.

  7. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, part I: Validation using the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We compute ground motions for the Beroza (1991) and Wald et al. (1991) source models of the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake using four different wave-propagation codes and recently developed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. In preparation for modeling the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we use this well-recorded earthquake to characterize how well our ground-motion simulations reproduce the observed shaking intensities and amplitude and durations of recorded motions throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the simulations generate ground motions consistent with the large-scale spatial variations in shaking associated with rupture directivity and the geologic structure. We attribute the small variations among the synthetics to the minimum shear-wave speed permitted in the simulations and how they accommodate topography. Our long-period simulations, on average, under predict shaking intensities by about one-half modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units (25%-35% in peak velocity), while our broadband simulations, on average, under predict the shaking intensities by one-fourth MMI units (16% in peak velocity). Discrepancies with observations arise due to errors in the source models and geologic structure. The consistency in the synthetic waveforms across the wave-propagation codes for a given source model suggests the uncertainty in the source parameters tends to exceed the uncertainty in the seismic velocity structure. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that a source model with slip more evenly distributed northwest and southeast of the hypocenter would be preferable to both the Beroza and Wald source models. Although the new 3D seismic velocity model improves upon previous velocity models, we identify two areas needing improvement. Nevertheless, we find that the seismic velocity model and the wave-propagation codes are suitable for modeling the 1906 earthquake and scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  8. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  9. Estado de conservación de Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn 1949) y de los mamíferos pequeños en las Lomas de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, José Luis; Williams, Martha; Gazzolo, Carla; Montero, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    En la costa y vertiente occidental ocurren los principales endemismos de mamíferos peruanos. Así mismo, a lo largo de la costa central, sobresale el único mamífero endémico del departamento de Lima, el ratón arrozalero de Zúñiga, Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn, 1949), registrado en las lomas de Atocongo y el cerro San Jerónimo por Enrique Zúñiga en 1942. Desde entonces se han realizado esporádicas evaluaciones, no necesariamente dirigidas a su búsqueda, aunque sin ningún registro. Nuestro estudio...

  10. Plant community dynamics of lomas fog oasis of Central Peru after the extreme precipitation caused by the 1997-98 El Niño event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Infantas, Edgar; Teixeira Roth, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    Despite El Niño events being one of the main forces shaping the coastal desert vegetation in South America, the impacts of the high precipitation typical of this rare but recurrent climatic event remain understudied. Here we monitored the plant community of a coastal lomas, a seasonal desert ecosystem, during 1998 and 2001 to analyse its changes during the 1997–98 El Niño and the following La Niña events. We measured species abundance and vegetation cover in 31 plots, and recorded climate variables in Lomas de Lachay, Peru. We found a significant positive correlation between precipitation and vegetation cover, density, alpha diversity (species diversity at the plot level), total richness and abundance of several key species but no correlation with gamma diversity (species diversity at the whole loma level). During the El Niño event, the seasonality, typical of the lomas ecosystem, disappeared, as evidenced by both the similarity of species composition and mean vegetation cover values between most sampling campaigns of 1998 and 1999. Moreover, total richness was lower during the El Niño event than during the humid season of 2000 and 2001 resulting from the dominance of only a few species, such as Nicotiana paniculata and Loasa urens. Temporal-spatial changes in the abundance of the dominant species caused the differences between alpha and gamma diversity, especially during 1999. Within that year, mean alpha diversity showed similar values whilst gamma diversity values were different. The reestablishment of the seasonality of most plant community characteristics and a clear difference between species composition of the humid and the dry season occurred two years after the El Niño event, suggesting a resilient community. This study provides one of the few quantifications of the Peruvian lomas’ response to the 1997–98 El Niño event and the following La Niña, one of the most extreme climatic events in the last century. PMID:29293693

  11. Análisis morfohistológico del sistema reproductor de Bostryx conspersus (Sowerby, 1833 (Gastropoda, Bulimidae de las lomas de Pacta. Lima, Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx spp es uno de los géneros demás alta diversidad de los Bulimulidae; B. conspersus es considerada una especie típica de la malacofauna de Lomas. Nuestro objetivo es contribuir al conocimiento morfohistológico del sistema reproductor a fin de enriquecer la información básica de la reproducción de la especie y que nos sirva a futuro como patrón para comparar otros individuos del mismo género. Se procesaron especímenes maduros, colectados de las Lomas de Pacta, Departamento de Lima, a mediados de 1994; el análisis conquiológico siguió la clave de Arrarte (1953; los especímenes fueron disecados, siguiendo los procedimientos de Beaumont & Cassier (1970. La coloración diferencia¡ siguió el método de la Hematoxilina de Harris-Eosina. Se describe en base a la lectura de las láminas la estructura morfohistológica del complejo gonadal de B. conspersus, destacando entre ellos la glándula del albumen con la presencia de depósitos calcáreos entre las células epiteliales.

  12. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  13. Composición florística de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y Lomas de Ilo, Moquegua, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Arakaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de la composición y riqueza de la flora vascular en la cuenca del Río Ilo- Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo, a lo largo de una gradiente altitudinal que va desde los 0 hasta 4600 m, basado en colectas intensivas, revisión de ejemplares de herbario y consulta bibliográfica. De acuerdo al presente estudio, la flora vascular de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo está integrada por 63 familias, 233 géneros y 394 especies. Las Magnoliopsida representan el 83% de las especies y las Liliopsida el 15%. Las familias con mayor número de géneros y especies son Asteraceae (41 géneros y 60 especies, Poaceae (28 y 44, Solanaceae (11 y 32, Fabaceae (17 y 26, Malvaceae (11 y 21, Brassicaceae (10 y 15, Boraginaceae (9 y 15 y Cactaceae (10 y 14. Las formas biológicas dominantes son las hierbas (72%, seguidas por los arbustos (21%, plantas que pueden ser hierbas o arbustos (5%, árboles (2% y plantas parásitas (menos del 1%. De las 55 especies endémicas del Perú reportadas en el presente estudio, 10 están restringidas al departamento de Moquegua. Se presenta un total de 176 nuevas adiciones a la flora del departamento.

  14. Interpretación fitosociológica de la vegetación de las lomas del desierto peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Galán de Mera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación de las lomas, causada sobre todo por las precipitaciones debidas a la influencia de la corriente fría de Humboldt, constituye la mayor originalidad del desierto peruano y chileno, con un alto número de endemismos que forman asociaciones geovicarias. En este trabajo, presentamos un estudio fitosociológico sobre la vegetación de los medios arenosos de las lomas del desierto costero peruano. De acuerdo con el método de Braun-Blanquet, hemos levantado 32 inventarios fitosociológicos a los que hemos añadido 138 procedentes de la bibliografía. En cada inventario, hemos analizado la composición florística y distintos parámetros ecológicos, como la altitud, el suelo y la geomorfología. Todos los inventarios fueron sintetizados en una tabla para deducir las asociaciones, las unidades fitosociológicas superiores y el origen de su flora. Como resultado, describimos dos nuevas asociaciones del sur del Perú -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae y Palauetum camanensis- weberbaueri, dos alianzas -Nolanion humifusae, del centro del Perú, y Nolanion spathulatae del sur del Perú-, y un nuevo orden -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis-. También se presenta la vegetación de las quebradas en el contexto de las comunidades de riberas de la costa y su alteración por las dunas. Después de la aplicación del índice de Shannon-Wiener sobre las columnas de la tabla sintética, podemos deducir que el aumento de especies ruderales andinas y europeas en la costa central del Perú se ha visto favorecido por una actividad ganadera intensiva. La trashumancia entre los Andes y la costa, desde tiempos preincaicos hasta la actualidad, ha producido la dispersión zoócora de plantas altoandinas hacia la costa; la presencia de plantas europeas tuvo su origen en la colonización española de la costa del Perú.A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert. The vegetation of the sandy hills (

  15. Discovery of Ni-smectite-rich saprolite at Loma Ortega, Falcondo mining district (Dominican Republic): geochemistry and mineralogy of an unusual case of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Esperança; Lewis, John F.; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Domènech, Cristina; Gallardo, Tamara; Longo, Francisco; Galí, Salvador

    2017-10-01

    Hydrous Mg silicate-type Ni-laterite deposits, like those in the Falcondo district, Dominican Republic, are dominated by Ni-enriched serpentine and garnierite. Recently, abundant Ni-smectite in the saprolite zone have been discovered in Loma Ortega, one of the nine Ni-laterite deposits in Falcondo. A first detailed study on these Ni-smectites has been performed (μXRD, SEM, EPMA), in addition to a geochemical and mineralogical characterisation of the Loma Ortega profile (XRF, ICP-MS, XRD). Unlike other smectite occurrences in laterite profiles worldwide, the Loma Ortega smectites are trioctahedral and exhibit high Ni contents never reported before. These Ni-smectites may be formed from weathering of pyroxene and olivine, and their composition can be explained by the mineralogy and the composition of the Al-depleted, olivine-rich parent ultramafic rock. Our study shows that Ni-laterites are mineralogically complex, and that a hydrous Mg silicate ore and a clay silicate ore can be confined to the same horizon in the weathering profile, which has significant implications from a recovery perspective. In accordance, the classification of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite deposit for Loma Ortega would be more appropriate.

  16. Condiciones meteorológicas en las lomas de Mejia en "El Niño 1997-98" y su influencia en la vegetación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó los cambios en la vegetación de las lomas de Mejía -Arequipa y se registró automáticamente temperatura, radiación solar global y neta, temperatura y contenido de agua en el suelo, y precipitación en la Estación Meteorológica Campbell, ubicada en las lomas de Mejía, Distrito de Mejía, Provincia de Islay, Departamento de Arequipa, Perú, a 750 msnm, entre 17Q 03' LS y 71 2 50' LW; ubicada ecológicamente en la zona de vida Matorral desértico -Templado cálido. Durante el ENOS 1997-98 (agosto 97 -marzo 98: la temperatura ambiental promedio osciló entre 14,1 Y 19,1ºC, la precipitación tuvo dos máximos que se alcanzaron en los meses de setiembre con 189,4 mm y 173,6 mm en febrero, teniéndose un acumulado de 715,4 mm y la evaporación acumulada fue de 271 ,8 mm. En la evaluación de la vegetación, resultante de estas condiciones climáticas, se tiene que: antes de "El Niño" se registró 89 especies de plantas, y debido al incremento en abundancia de la precipitación y del contenido hídrico en el suelo se tuvo 170 especies, es decir un aumento del 91 %.

  17. How to improve marketing and customer relationship management of the cottage holiday business RapoJärviLoma, the target market being the residents of St. Petersburg and Moscow?

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Noora

    2011-01-01

    This study was created for a small family business operating under agricultural industry. The business operating by trade name RapoJärviLoma has been renting holiday cottages / holiday apartments in Kymenlaakso, Valkeala area from 2004. The recession of 2009 decreased the number of visits coming from Russia to Finland. The cottage holiday renting business working under agricultural industry didn’t have a marketing plan or a framework for customer relationship management. The objective of ...

  18. Off-fault ground ruptures in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California: Ridge-top spreading versus tectonic extension during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Wells, Ray E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ms 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 18 October 1989 produced abundant ground ruptures in an 8 by 4 km area along Summit Road and Skyland Ridge in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Predominantly extensional fissures formed a left-stepping, crudely en echelon pattern along ridges of the hanging-wall block southwest of the San Andreas fault, about 12 km northwest of the epicenter. The fissures are subparallel to the San Andreas fault and appear to be controlled by bedding planes, faults, joints, and other weak zones in the underlying Tertiary sedimentary strata of the hanging-wall block. The pattern of extensional fissures is generally consistent with tectonic extension across the crest of the uplifted hanging-wall block. Also, many displacements in Laurel Creek canyon and along the San Andreas and Sargent faults are consistent with right-lateral reverse faulting inferred for the mainshock. Additional small tensile failures along the axis of the Laurel anticline may reflect growth of the fold during deep-seated compression. However, the larger ridge-top fissures commonly have displacements that are parallel to the north-northeast regional slope directions and appear inconsistent with east-northeast extension expected from this earthquake. Measured cumulative displacements across the ridge crests are at least 35 times larger than that predicted by the geodetically determined surface deformation. These fissures also occur in association with ubiquitous landslide complexes that were reactivated by the earthquake to produce the largest concentration of co-seismic slope failures in the epicentral region. The anomalously large displacements and the apparent slope control of the geometry and displacement of many co-seismic surface ruptures lead us to conclude that gravity is an important driving force in the formation of the ridge-top fissures. Shaking-induced gravitational spreading of ridges and downslope movement may account for 90¿ or more of the observed displacements on

  19. Gestión económica y medio ambiente de tiempos precolombinos en Loma de Jagüeyes, Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio arqueozoológico realizado en el sitio arqueológico Loma de Jagüeyes, ubicado en el municipio Rafael Freyre, provincia Holguín, el que fue excavado en Marzo del 2004 por el equipo de investigación del Departamento Centro Oriental de Arqueología. El estudio de los materiales arqueozoológicos extraídos han permitido conocer que los aborígenes que habitaron este lugar, clasificados como Agricultores de la Variante Cultural Baní, presentaban una economía basada en el sistema de apropiación faunística básicamente sustentada en la pesca y la recolección marina, con una escasa dependencia de los animales del bosque así como realizar una reconstrucción aproximada al medio ambiente que existió en esos tiempos. Su comportamiento económico es muy semejante al encontrado en el residuario Cayo Bariay, lo que sirve de punto de partida para futuros estudios.

  20. Upper cretaceous ammonite succession (Cenomanian - Coniacian) related to the upper Hondita and Loma Gorda Formations along the Bambuca creek, Aipe, Huila (Colombia, S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarroyo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Bambuca creek section (Aipe - Huila) shows a very good exposition of the upper Magdalena valley cretaceous deposits. To the upper part of the Hondita Formation were recollected acanthoceras sp. and rhynchostreon sp. of the upper Cenomanian. Related to the lower segment of the Loma Gorda Formation were found choffaticeras (c.) cf. segne, fagesia cf. catinus, neoptychites cf. andinus, mitonia gracilis, morrowitessp., nannovascoceras ? sp., quitmaniceras ? sp., benueites ? sp., paramammites ? sp. together with mytiloideskossmati, m. goppelnensis and anomia sp. of the lower Turonian. Following by hoplitoides sp. h. ingens,h. cf. lagiraldae, codazziceras ospinae, allocrioceras sp. that can be representing between the lower and middle Turonian. To the upper part of this segment were collected prionocycloceras sp. p. guayabanum, reesidites subtuberculatum, subprionotropis colombianus, mytiloides scupini, dydimotis sp., gauthiericerassp, anagaudryceras ? sp., eulophoceras jacobi, paralenticeras sieversi, hauericeras cf. madagascarensis, peroniceras (p.) subtricarinatum, forresteria (f.) sp, barroisiceras cf. onilahyense, ankinatsytes venezolanus, with upper Turonian to Coniacian. According to the related fauna it is not possible to establish the Cenomanian/Turonian and Turonian/Coniacian boundaries.

  1. Mājas lapas loma mārketinga komunikācijā: veikalu tīkla "Biotēka" piemērs

    OpenAIRE

    Drizļionoka, Diāna

    2010-01-01

    Autores Diānas Drizļionokas izstrādātā bakalaura darba temats ir „Mājas lapas loma mārketinga komunikācijā: veikalu tīkla „Biotēka” piemērs” . Darba ietvaros veiktā pētījuma mērķis noteikt mājas lapas lomu mazumtirdzniecības veikalu tīkla „Biotēka” mārketinga komunikācijā. Darbā izstrādē autore balstās uz Filipa Kotlera (Philip Kotler) teorētiskajām nostādnēm par mārketingu, Davīda Čefija (David Chaffey) teorētiskajām nostādnēm par interneta mārketingu un mājas lapu, Tomasa Pauela (Thomas Pow...

  2. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical

  3. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  4. Utilización de especies nativas del bosque seco para la recuperación del paisaje en el proceso de cierre del botadero a cielo abierto del distrito Las Lomas-Piura

    OpenAIRE

    Montoro Negrón, Barbara Elizabeth; Montoro Negrón, Barbara Elizabeth; Montoro Negrón, Barbara Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    La presente investigación estudia la fragmentación del paisaje del distrito de Las Lomas en Piura, afectado por la existencia de un botadero a cielo abierto, y la posible restauración del paisaje durante el proceso de clausura. Para lo cual se estudiaron las especies vegetales nativas del bosque seco piurano seleccionando las más resistentes y útiles en el proceso de recuperación, las mismas que fueron colocadas paisajísticamente sobre la cobertura final. Este proceso denominado Fitorremediac...

  5. Coneixements, actituds i percepció versus la infecció per Virus del Papil·loma Humà en els professionals d'infermeria : tendències en salut pública

    OpenAIRE

    Figueras Besalú, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Actualment, s’evidencia una dificultat en el seguiment estricte de les infeccions de transmissió sexual (ITS). A nivell mundial, aquestes causen un problema de Salut Pública (SP) en termes de morbiditat i mortalitat per complicacions i seqüeles que es poden originar si no es diagnostiquen i no es tracten adequadament. Entre les ITS més comunes trobem la provocada pel Virus del Papil·loma Humà (VPH), la principal causant del càncer de cèrvix, entre altres complicacions La família de VPH compta...

  6. Resolution 452/012. It authorize to LUZ DE LOMA S.A to generate wind power thought a generating station located on the 10 and the 12 land register sections in Florida town, as well as its connection to the National Interconnected System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the LUZ DE LOMA S.A company according to the requirements of the National Energy Regulatory Unit and the Energy and Water Services Organization.

  7. Structure of the San Andreas Fault Zone in the Salton Trough Region of Southern California: A Comparison with San Andreas Fault Structure in the Loma Prieta Area of Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, G. S.; Catchings, R.; Scheirer, D. S.; Goldman, M.; Zhang, E.; Bauer, K.

    2016-12-01

    The San Andreas fault (SAF) in the northern Salton Trough, or Coachella Valley, in southern California, appears non-vertical and non-planar. In cross section, it consists of a steeply dipping segment (75 deg dip NE) from the surface to 6- to 9-km depth, and a moderately dipping segment below 6- to 9-km depth (50-55 deg dip NE). It also appears to branch upward into a flower-like structure beginning below about 10-km depth. Images of the SAF zone in the Coachella Valley have been obtained from analysis of steep reflections, earthquakes, modeling of potential-field data, and P-wave tomography. Review of seismological and geodetic research on the 1989 M 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, in central California (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1550), shows several features of SAF zone structure similar to those seen in the northern Salton Trough. Aftershocks in the Loma Prieta epicentral area form two chief clusters, a tabular zone extending from 18- to 9-km depth and a complex cluster above 5-km depth. The deeper cluster has been interpreted to surround the chief rupture plane, which dips 65-70 deg SW. When double-difference earthquake locations are plotted, the shallower cluster contains tabular subclusters that appear to connect the main rupture with the surface traces of the Sargent and Berrocal faults. In addition, a diffuse cluster may surround a steep to vertical fault connecting the main rupture to the surface trace of the SAF. These interpreted fault connections from the main rupture to surface fault traces appear to define a flower-like structure, not unlike that seen above the moderately dipping segment of the SAF in the Coachella Valley. But importantly, the SAF, interpreted here to include the main rupture plane, appears segmented, as in the Coachella Valley, with a moderately dipping segment below 9-km depth and a steep to vertical segment above that depth. We hope to clarify fault-zone structure in the Loma Prieta area by reanalyzing active

  8. Virus del papil.loma humà com a factor pronòstic en les neoplàsies malignes de la vulva i de la vagina

    OpenAIRE

    Fusté Chimisana, Maria Victòria

    2012-01-01

    [cat] El Virus del Papil•loma Humà (VPH) està implicat en la patogènesis dels tumors del tracte genital femení i es detecta en la pràctica totalitat dels carcinomes de cèrvix, considerant-se una causa necessària per al seu desenvolupament. El VPH també sembla estar involucrat en una proporció de tumors de la vulva i de la vagina, però al contrari que en el cèrvix, els carcinomes escamosos de la vulva (CEV) i de la vagina (CEVa) es desenvolupen seguint dues vies etiopatogèniques diferents: una...

  9. ¿La Apoteosis de Heracles o una escena de Apobates? A propósito de una cratera de campana procedente de La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the traditional iconographic identification of the obverse of a 4th century Greek bell crater from the Iberian site of La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia. The scene has been identified as an apotheosis of Heracles. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of its iconography and of a feature neglected in the previous study of the vase by its excavators —the remains of a shield— make it possible to argue in favor of an apobates race instead —the only scene of this type attested in the Iberian Peninsula. I present here an analysis of both iconographic motifs —the apotheosis of Heracles and the apobates race— that will reveal interesting findings on the ways in which images and iconographic types acquire meaning. It also sheds light on the kind of images favored by the receptors of these vases in the Peninsula — the Iberians. An up-to-date catalogue of Attic vases depicting each theme is included.En el presente artículo se revisa la identificación iconográ- fica de la cara A de una cratera griega fragmentaria del siglo IV a.C. procedente del yacimiento ibérico de La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia. La escena se ha identificado tradicionalmente como la apoteosis de Heracles, no obstante, tras un análisis detallado de la misma, en particular del resto de un escudo previamente inadvertido que porta el personaje principal, creemos que la iconografía se corresponde con la del apobates victorioso, un unicum en la Península Ibérica. Presentamos un análisis de ambos motivos iconográficos que revelará interesantes conclusiones sobre el funcionamiento de los tipos iconográficos y mecanismos de creación de significado en la pintura de vasos de la época, así como sobre el tipo de imágenes estimadas por los receptores de esas piezas en la Península Ibérica, los íberos. Se incluye también un catálogo actualizado de los vasos áticos que portan ambos temas.

  10. "A/S PET Baltija" kvalitātes pārvaldību sistēmu loma uzņēmuma konkurētspējas nodrošināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Goldšteins, Jānis

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir ,,A/S PET Baltija’’ kvalitātes pārvaldību sistēmu loma uzņēmuma konkurētspējas nodrošināšanā. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt A/S PET Baltija kvalitātes pārvaldības sistēmu darbības ietekmi uz uzņēmuma konkurētspēju, atklāt problēmas un izstrādāt priekšlikumus problēmu samazināšanai. Bakalaura darbs satur: 65 lapas, 4 tabulas, 24 attēlus. Darba pirmajā daļā autors analizē Eiropas Direktīvu un LR likumdošanas normatīvo aktu analīzi atkritumu apsaimniek...

  11. Sabiedrisko attiecību loma uzņēmuma mērķu sasniegšanā: Latvijas Investīciju un attīstības aģentūras gadījuma analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Adamane, Alise

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Sabiedrisko attiecību loma uzņēmuma mērķu sasniegšanā: LIAA gadījuma analīze”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, kāda ir sabiedrisko attiecību loma Latvijas Investīciju un attīstības aģentūras mērķu sasniegšanā. Darba teorētiskā bāze sastāv no nodaļas par sabiedrisko attiecību raksturojumu, kas sevī ietver sabiedrisko attiecību skaidrojumu, mērķus, funkcijas, sabiedrisko attiecību modeļus, iekšējo un ārējo komunikāciju un nodaļas par sabiedrisko attiecību sk...

  12. Efectos de la variación temporal y los métodos de captura en la eficiencia de un muestreo de coleópteros en la Reserva Natural Loma del Medio, El Bolsón, Río Negro Effects of temporal variation and trapping methods on the efficiency of Coleoptera sampling in Loma del Medio Nature Reserve, El Bolsón, Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sackmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la eficiencia de un muestreo sistemático para una comunidad de coleópteros de bosque subantártico. En particular se evalúa: 1- la conveniencia de repartir el esfuerzo de muestreo a lo largo del tiempo (dentro de una misma temporada de actividad de insectos y entre años, y 2- la eficiencia del uso de dos tipos de trampas diferentes. Se seleccionaron 10 sitios en un bosque de Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupresaceae y Nothofagus dombeyii (Fagaceae en la Reserva Forestal Loma del Medio, El Bolsón, Río Negro. En cada sitio se colocaron nueve trampas de caída que abarcaban una superficie de 100 m² y una trampa Malaise. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos anuales (enero, febrero, marzo y abril durante tres años (2002-2004, y de una semana de duración cada uno. La abundancia de especies fue mayor en enero-febrero que en marzo-abril, la riqueza fue similar y la composición de la comunidad fue marcadamente distinta entre dichos períodos para los tres años. Por otro lado, la riqueza de especies fue similar al considerar uno, dos o tres años de muestreo, y en general la composición de la comunidad no varió entre años para períodos comparables. Sin embargo, la acumulación de especies raras sólo se estabilizó luego de tres años de muestreo. Aunque las trampas Malaise fueron más eficientes (número de especies observadas / individuos capturados que las trampas de caída, los métodos de captura fueron altamente complementarios (25% de especies en común. Para caracterizar esta comunidad en particular, se recomienda distribuir el esfuerzo de muestreo a lo largo de una misma temporada de actividad y aplicar diferentes métodos de muestreos. Con un año de muestreo, bajo las condiciones propuestas anteriormente, se podrá caracterizar la comunidad de forma general, pero hacen falta al menos tres años de muestreo para alcanzar un alto grado de integridad. Se incluye un apéndice con la lista de especies capturadas (N

  13. Televīzijas loma neapmierinātībā ar politiku: LTV1, LNT, TV3 nedēļas analītisko raidījumu satura, to veidotāju un ekspertu vērtējumu analīze (2008.gada oktobris-2009.gada marts)

    OpenAIRE

    Novodvorskis, Vladimirs

    2009-01-01

    Maģistra darbu „Televīzijas loma neapmierinātībā ar politiku: LTV1, LNT, TV3 nedēļas analītisko raidījumu satura, to veidotāju un ekspertu vērtējumu analīze (2008. gada oktobris – 2009. gada marts)” izstrādāja Latvijas Universitātes Komunikācijas studiju nodaļas students Vladimirs Novodvorskis. Darbs veltīts auditorijas negatīvas attieksmes veidošanas problēmas izpētei televīzijas informatīvi analītiskajos raidījumos Panorāma, De facto (LTV1), LNT Top 10 (LNT), Nekā personīga (TV3) pret pol...

  14. Resisting State Iconoclasm Among the Loma of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian Kordt

    -term suppression, including the exposure of secrecy, by the postcolonial authorities. In recent years the famous male ritual association known as Poro has even taken on new significance in the context of political upheaval in the war-torn border area between Guinea and Liberia. Drawing on extensive fieldwork...

  15. Injection septum magnets for the Loma Linda medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The injection beamline runs over the last magnet before a long straight section and is then displaced downward 55.88 cm to the accelerator beamline. The displacement is magnetic and the final deflection onto the synchrotron orbit is by an electric kicker. The first component, the reverse septum magnet, bends the injection beam 25/degree/ downward. This is followed by the injection septum (20/degree/ bend upward) and the final injection kicker (5/degree/ bend upward). The septum magnets produce a peak field of 3.4 K gauss at a current of 28,000 amperes within a 0.1 msec long pulse. The electric kicker produces a field of 7.3 KV/cm with a pulse length of 0.0011 msec. The septum magnets are similar to each other in construction with a bending radium of 72.7 cm. The curvature is required to increase the effective aperture. Each magnet has a single-turn copper coil bonded to a stainless steel plate for reinforcement. This eliminates insulating material, which could be subject to radiation damage, at the septum. The stainless steel plate is welded to the magnet laminations. The current is confined to the septum by the insulation between the laminations, which are a standard core material. The total septum thickness with shield is 1.227 cm. Pulsing the magnet eliminates the need for water cooling. 2 refs., 4 figs

  16. The Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tracy S.; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Feist, Stephen W.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation or small spores in nuclei (i.e., Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selective stains that enhance visualization of spores are recommended. We discovered that the Luna stain, used to highlight eosinophils, red blood cells and chitin in arthropods and other invertebrates, also stains spores of Pseudoloma neurophilia. We compared this stain to the Gram, Fite’s acid fast, Giemsa, and H&E stains on eight aquatic microsporidian organisms that were readily available in our two laboratories: Loma salmonae, Glugea anomala, Pseudoloma neurophilia, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, Pleistophora vermiformis, Glugea sp., Steinhausia mytilovum and an unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis, UK. Based on tinctorial properties and background staining, the Luna stain performed better for detection of 6 of the 8 microsporidia. Gram stain was superior for the two microsporidia from invertebrates, Steinhausia mytilovum and the unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis. PMID:21848126

  17. Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.

  18. Dzimtes faktora loma Latvijas sporta žurnālistikā

    OpenAIRE

    Veide, Edīte

    2009-01-01

    Darba izvēlētā tematika ir par dzimtes faktora lomu sporta žurnālistikā. Lai arī patlaban notiek aktīvas diskusijas par dzimuma līdztiesību visās jomās, tomēr ir sfēras, kurās dzimuma atšķirības ir ļoti ievērojamas. Sports ir tā joma, kurā jau kopš seniem laikiem dzimumam ir bijusi liela nozīme. Šajā jomā dominēja vīrieši, sievietēm atstājot sekundāru pozīciju. Arī sporta žurnālistikā atšķirības nav būtiskas. Tā kā sports vairāk asociējas ar vīriešiem, tad arī sporta žurnālistika tiek att...

  19. Myxomycete diversity in the coastal desert of Peru with emphasis on the lomas formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lado, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from the first survey for myxomycetes in the hyperarid areas of Peru are reported. Sampling over three consecutive years was carried out at 96 localities between 0 and 1500 m elevation. A total of 78 species from 23 genera in all 6 myxomycete orders were determined from 723 collections of myxomycetes. One new species, Didymium peruvianum, is described, 2 species new to the Neotropics, 4 new records for South America and 41 additional new species for Peru are reported, increasing the country catalogue by over 50%. Results show that arid areas are rich in myxomycetes, and that each area has a unique species assemblage. Endemic plants had a particular relevance as myxomycete substrates. The predominance of the order Physarales in arid areas is reinforced, and the ecological importance of coastal fogs (garúas is evident from the results. Comments are included on interesting or rare collections, as are SEM micrographs of several species and statistical evaluation of the results.Se dan a conocer los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre los Myxomycetes de las regiones hiperáridas de Perú. El muestreo, realizado en tres años consecutivos, se ha llevado a cabo en 96 localidades situadas entre 0 y 1500 m de altitud. En total se obtuvieron 723 colecciones de mixomicetes, pertenecientes a 6 órdenes, 23 géneros y 78 especies. Se describe una nueva especie, Didymium peruvianum, 2 especies se citan por primera vez en el Neotrópico, 4 son nuevos registros para América del Sur y 41 especies más son nuevos registros para Perú, con lo que el catálogo del país se incrementa en un 50%. Los resultados muestran que las zonas áridas son ricas en mixomicetes, y que cada area tiene un conjunto único de especies. Las plantas endémicas, dominantes en estos ambientes, tuvieron una relevancia especial como sustrato para los myxomycetes. Se pone de manifiesto el predominio de los representantes del órden Physarales en las zonas áridas, lo que refuerza resultados previos, así como la importancia ecológica de las nieblas costeras (garúas. Se incluyen comentarios de las especies más interesantes o poco comunes, así como fotografías realizadas con microscopio electrónico de barrido, y una evaluación estadística de los resultados.

  20. Integrating Health Promotion, Learning and Sustainability in school foodscapes - the LOMA case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Forbedring af børn og unges sundhed er en væsentlig samfundsmæssig udfordring i både udviklede lande og udviklingslande. Fedme og overvægt blandt børn er øget i løbet af de sidste 10 år og er forbundet med en øget risiko for hjerte-kar-sygdomme og diabetes. Desuden har overvægtige børn har tenden...

  1. Lectures at the international Loma-Koli symposium on anti pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsizer, R.I.

    1975-01-01

    The lecture was on four topics: a) The discovery of diffraction dissociation in antipp→ antippπ + π - at 4.5 and 5.1 GeV/c; b) Results from a study of π - p interactions at 150 GeV/c with the hybrid bubble chamber-proportional-wire chamber spectrometer at the Fermilab and plans for further experiments; c) A two component model for diffraction dissociation of protons; and d) Some technical aspects of the hybrid spectrometer at Fermilab. (L.M.K.)

  2. Characterisation of a low pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris from rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde; Larsen, Thomas Bjerre; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2007-01-01

    A Danish form of Gyrodactylus salaris has been isolated and characterised. It is not pathogenic to Atlantic salmon.......A Danish form of Gyrodactylus salaris has been isolated and characterised. It is not pathogenic to Atlantic salmon....

  3. Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Aiglsperger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite” from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 µm than they are wide (~100 nm. Back-scattered electron (BSE images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE-bearing and form <5 µm thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm? associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v oval forms (<1 µm in diameter with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  4. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... believe a public meeting would be beneficial. If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will...]13'57'' W, (Point J) 32[deg]41'10.2'' N, 117[deg]13'58.2'' W, (Point K) Thence running generally...[deg]12'57.8'' W (C) 32[deg]43'23.4'' N, 117[deg]13'1.3'' W (D) Thence running generally northwest...

  5. Map showing sediment isopachs in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin, Point Conception to Point Loma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Masson, D.G.; McCulloch, D.S.; Grim, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a series of cruises, EEZSCAN 84 (EEZ-SCAN 84 Scientific Staff, 1986), to collect reconnaissance data on the newly proclaimed Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the area out to 200 nautical miles from the coastline of the United States. The cruises systematically surveyed the entire conterminous United States west coast EEZ using the Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scan sonar, a 160-in3 airgun seismic-reflection profiler, a 3.5-kHz high-resolution seismic-reflection profiler, a 10-kHz echo sounder, and a proton-precession magnetometer. The nominal trackline spacing throughout the survey was 30 km.

  6. Instrumental shaking thresholds for seismically induced landslides and preliminary report on landslides triggered by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of seismically induced landslide depends on the characteristics of shaking as well as mechanical properties of geologic materials. A very important parameter in the study of seismically induced landslide is the intensity based on a strong-motion accelerogram: it is defined as Arias intensity and is proportional to the duration of the shaking record as well as the amplitude. Having a theoretical relationship between Arias intensity, magnitude and distance it is possible to predict how far away from the seismic source landslides are likely to occur for a given magnitude earthquake. Field investigations have established that the threshold level of Arias intensity depends also on site effects, particularly the fracture characteristics of the outcrops present. -from Author

  7. Investigation into the applicability of Bond Work Index (BWI) and Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) tests for several biomasses compared to Colombian La Loma coal

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Orla; Eastwick, Carol; Kingman, Sam; Giddings, Donald; Lormor, Stephen; Lester, Edward

    2015-01-01

    With increasing quantities of biomass being combusted in coal fired power stations, there is an urgent need to be able to predict the grindability of biomass in existing coal mills, but currently no standard biomass grindability test exists. In this study, the applicability of the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) and Bond Work Index (BWI) as standard grindability tests for biomass were investigated for commercially sourced wood pellets, steam exploded pellets, torrefied pellets, sunflower p...

  8. Directional wave and temperature data from sixteen buoys at Point Loma, Point La Jolla, Torrey Pines Inner and Torrey Pines Outer, CA, 1995 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0000775)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) is an extensive network for monitoring waves along the coastlines of the United States, with a strong emphasis on our...

  9. Map showing depth to basement in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin, Point Conception to Point Loma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Masson, D.G.; McCulloch, D.S.; Grim, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a series of cruises, EEZSCAN 84 (EEZ-SCAN 84 Scientific Staff, 1986), to collect reconnaissance data on the newly proclaimed Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the area out to 200 nautical miles from the coastline of the United States. The cruises systematically surveyed the entire conterminous United States west coast EEZ using the Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scan sonar, a 160-in3 airgun seismic-reflection profiler, a 3.5-kHz high-resolution seismic-reflection profiler, a 10-kHz echo sounder, and a proton-precession magnetometer. The nominal trackline spacing throughout the survey was 30 km.

  10. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable of being established. It provides statistics that indicate the beneficial effect of improving soil with organic matter and amendments in the survival rate and vegetative growth of tree species.

  11. A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fatigue. Good social support, higher education, and better socioeconomic status are .... School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda,. California ... Address for correspondence: Dr. J. Roberts University of Mississippi,. School of ...

  12. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  13. Directional wave and temperature data from five buoys at Oceanside offshore, Point Loma, Point La Jolla, Torrey Pines outer and Torrey Pines inner, CA, 2002-01 to 2003-06 (NODC Accession 0001072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) is an extensive network for monitoring waves along the coastlines of the United States, with a strong emphasis on our...

  14. Examination of Habitat Fragmentation and Effects on Species Persistence in the Vicinity of Naval Base Pt. Loma and Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, San Diego, CA and Development of a Multi-Species Planning Framework for Fragmented Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Chaparral. Ecological Monographs 70:149-169. Pausas, J. G. 2004. Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean basin...3.2.1  Current Climate and Future Climate Projections ...................................................... 19  3.2.2  Future Habitat Loss and...study area—1953, 1974, 1984, 1995, and 2005. .................. 37  Figure 21. Maxent projections for Neotoma macrotis and underlying climate variables

  15. Ateities įžvalgos kaip e. valdžios plėtros strateginio planavimo sudedamoji dalis: siūlomas įžvalgų tyrimo proceso modelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Grincevičius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tikslas – įvertinti įžvalgų poveikį e. valdžios strateginio planavimo procesui, atliekant šią temą nagrinėjančios literatūros bei skirtingų įžvalgų projektų metodikų analizę ir, sintezavus analizės rezultatus, parengti e. valdžios įžvalgų proceso modelį. Metodologija – tyrime taikyti metodai: literatūros apžvalga bei sisteminės analizės metodas. Rezultatai – išnagrinėtas įžvalgų poveikis e. valdžios plėtros procesams, nagrinėjant jį įvairių strateginio planavimo, politinių sprendimų priėmimo dimensijų kontekste, atlikta skirtingų įžvalgų metodikų analizė, remiantis ja, parengtas e. valdžios ateities įžvalgų tyrimo proceso modelis. Tyrimo ribotumas – nepaisant to, kad egzistuoja nemažai bandymų analizuoti e. valdžios strateginį planavimą ir ateities įžvalgas kaip du atskirus fenomenus, tvirtos teorijos, kompleksiškai apimančios abu reiškinius ir atskleidžiančios galimas jų sąveikos ribas, nėra, taigi nėra ir aiškios tyrimo metodologijos. Todėl egzistuoja tam tikra tikimybė, kad, nagrinėjant skirtingas įžvalgų metodikas, galėjo būti parinkti ne visi kintamieji, būtini tiksliam įžvalgų proceso įvertinimui. Praktinė reikšmė – tyrimo rezultatai gali būti taikomi kaip pagrindas organizuojamam įžvalgų proceso projektavimui, jau atlikto tyrimo proceso vertinimui ar siekiant geriau suprasti įžvalgų procesą sudarančius elementus bei jų tarpusavio ryšius. Vertingumas – nepaisant to, kad pasaulinėje prognozavimo praktikoje jau ne pirmus metus egzistuoja priemonės, leidžiančios tinkamai įvertinti ir padėti pasiruošti įvairaus pobūdžio ilgalaikiams iššūkiams, Lietuvoje bei daugelyje kitų Rytų Europos šalių planavimo procesas vis dar vyksta centralizuoto, penkmečiu paremto, planavimo tradicijomis. Dėl šios priežasties buvusio socialistinio bloko valstybės nuo kitų regionų atsilieka e. valdžios ir kitos tematikos ateities įžvalgų metodika paremtų projektų skaičiumi (Keenan M., Popper R., 2008, todėl atsiranda šios srities informacijos tuštuma. Nedidelę jos dalį bandoma užpildyti šiuo straipsniu. Raktažodžiai – ateities įžvalgos, e. valdžia, strateginis planavimas, prognozavimo metodikos. Tyrimo tipas – požiūrio pristatymas.

  16. Banku loma noziedzīgi iegūtu līdzekļu legalizācijas un terorisma finansēšanas novēršanā

    OpenAIRE

    Beirote, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Bankas līdz pat šim brīdim ir bijušas lielākā privātā sektora pārstāves, kas ir veicinājušas naudas atmazgāšanas un terorisma finansēšanas atklāšanu, tādēļ autors ar šī darba palīdzību vēlas norādīt tieši uz banku nozīmīgo lomu noziedzīgi iegūtu līdzekļu legalizācijas un terorisma finansēšanas novēršanā. Valsts institūcijas nevar bez finanšu iestāžu starpniecības šādus nelikumīgus darījumus izsekot, un saukt pie kriminālās atbildības vainīgās personas. Darbā ir analizēts noziedzīgi iegūtu lī...

  17. Pretterorisma līdzekļu tiesiskais regulējums Eiropas Savienībā un Eiropas Kopienu tiesas loma tā piemērošanā

    OpenAIRE

    Tāluma, Kristīne

    2009-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir izvērtēt pašreizējo Eiropas Savienības pretterorisma tiesību aktu tiesiskā regulējuma efektivitāti, īpašu vērību pievēršot Eiropas Kopienu tiesas lomai, piemērojot pretterorisma tiesisko regulējumu, un Tiesas veiktajai tiesiskā regulējuma iztulkošanai, izanalizēt Tiesas veikto tiesību aktu iztulkojumu, norādīt uz to nepilnībām un piedāvāt iespējamos risinājumus. Darbā sniegts gan vispārīgs konspektīvs Eiropas Savienības pretterorisma politikas un tiesiskā regulēju...

  18. Bibliotekāru loma bibliotēkas un bibliotekāra tēla veidošanā Tīmekļa 2.0 resursos

    OpenAIRE

    Moskina, Viktorija

    2010-01-01

    Tīmeklis 2.0 sniedz lielākas iespējas nekā vienkārši meklēt, lasīt un pārvietoties informācijas telpā. Tas ir interaktīvs: virtuālās sarunas, personalizācija, individuālisms. Uzsvars uz cilvēku mijiedarbību raksturo Tīmekli 2.0 kā izteikti sociālu tīmekli, kurš pirmajā plāna izvirza indivīdu prasmi socializēties. Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot, cik veiksmīgi bibliotekāri tiek galā ar bibliotēkas un bibliotekāru tēla veidošanu Tīmekļa 2.0 resursos un sniegt ieteikumus Latvijas bibliotekārie...

  19. A review of vagus nerve stimulation as a therapeutic intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson RL; Wilson CG

    2018-01-01

    Rhaya L Johnson,1 Christopher G Wilson1,2 1Lawrence D Longo MD Center for Perinatal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA Abstract: In this review, we provide an overview of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical uses of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as well as information about the ongoing studies and preclinical research to expand the use of VNS to addition...

  20. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the University of Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to take up this role until after having the opportunity to learn from the first holder of this post, the Australian Geoffrey. Dahlenburg. The College of Medicine opened its doors in September ... Executive Dean of the COM, first reported to the world ... Loma Linda University School of Public Health, Loma Linda, California, USA.

  1. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexander N Pisarchik1 Rider Jaimes-Reátegui2. Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, Leon 37150, Guanajuato, Mexico; Universidad de Guadalajara, Campus Universitario Los Lagos, Enrique Díaz de León, Paseo de Las Montañas, Lagos del Moreno 47460, Jalisco, Mexico ...

  2. Notes on the "Lima orchid" Chloraea undulata and its record in the hills of Asia, Cañete, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Lleellish Juscamayta, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Chloraea undulata es una orquídea endémica del Perú. Originalmente colectada por Antonio Raimondi en el siglo XIX, fué reconocida como una especie característica de las lomas de Lima hasta mediados del siglo pasado. Desde entonces, la especie ha sido considerada desaparecida de las lomas costeras y especialmente del Cerro Amancaes, su localidad tipo, que hoy integra el casco urbano de la capital. En el presente trabajo, se documenta su presencia en las lomas de Asia 100 km al sur de Lima y se...

  3. Letters of Map Change (LOMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Documents, including different types of Letters of MAP Revision (LOMR) and Letters of Map Amendment (LOMA), which are issued by FEMA to revise or amend the flood...

  4. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  5. Applications of the Strategic Defense Initiative's Compact Accelerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montanarelli, Nick

    1992-01-01

    ...) was recently incorporated into the design of a cancer therapy unit at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, an SDI sponsored compact induction linear accelerator may replace Cobalt 60 radiation...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was approved by the Loma Linda University. Institutional Review Board (IRB) ... about exclusive breastfeeding, he encouraged me to follow the instructions. .... Women also cited the benefits of adhering to exclusive breastfeeding for ...

  7. Disease: H01212 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iott PR, Finch JT, Carrell RW, Lomas DA ... TITLE ... Familial dementia caused by polymerization of mutant neuroserpin. ... JOURNAL ... Nat...ure 401:376-9 (1999) DOI:10.1038/43894 ... PMID:19164889 ... AUTHORS ... Belorgey D, Haggl

  8. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use.Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture.Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for ecological restoration of lomas should include sustainable agroforestry

  9. Developing a clinical proton accelerator facility: Consortium-assisted technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.M.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A hospital-based proton accelerator facility has emerged from the efforts of a consortium of physicists, engineers and physicians from several high-energy physics laboratories, industries and universities, working together to develop the requirements and conceptual design for a clinical program. A variable-energy medical synchrotron for accelerating protons to a prescribed energy, intensity and beam quality, has been placed in a hospital setting at Loma Linda University Medical Center for treating patients with localized cancer. Treatments began in October 1990. Scientists from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory; Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories; the Paul Scherrer Institute; Uppsala, Sweden; Argonne, Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories; and Loma Linda University, all cooperated to produce the conceptual design. Loma Linda University contracted with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to design and build a 250 MeV synchrotron and beam transport system, the latter to guide protons into four treatment rooms. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories consulted with Loma Linda University on the design of the beam delivery system (nozzle). A gantry concept devised by scientists at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory, was adapted and fabricated by Science Applications International Corporation. The control and safety systems were designed and developed by Loma Linda University Radiation Research Laboratory. Presently, the synchrotron, beam transport system and treatment room hardware have been installed and tested and are operating satisfactorily

  10. Examining participation in relation to students’ development of health-related action competence in a school food setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    : Current study is an example of how the IVACE matrix can be applied in order to plan, conduct and evaluate LOMA educational activities. It is an aspiration of the authors that this could be considered as a contribution to the HPS scientific community. Also, this would be useful for other schools...... skills that made students able to take action regarding food and health in everyday life. Methods: Research was undertaken as a single case study of the development of an integrated education and health program called LOMA-Local Food (LOMA) in a secondary school in Denmark. Qualitative methods were...... applied, including an action research component, where researcher and teachers examined how students developed action competence. The program was based on a whole school approach with the aim of improving F&HRAC. As a way to obtain this, students participated in planning, preparing, cooking and serving...

  11. Effect of "El Niño 1997-98" event in the development of Ismene amanea es (Amaryllldaceae, Liliopsidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Agüero, Silvia; Suni, Mery

    2014-01-01

    En años de condiciones climatológicas normales el inicio de los meses de humedad en las lomas es en junio; la especie bulbifera Ismene amaneaes "amancaes" es una de las primeras en rebrotar en relación a otras herbáceas, por lo que resulta ser una indicadora del inicio de la humedad en las lomas. El presente estudio realizado en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Prov. Huaura, Opto. Lima, presenta datos de los registros realizados entre julio 1997 y mayo 1998. Las evaluaciones periódicas in sítu ...

  12. The use of augmented reality glasses in central line simulation: "see one, simulate many, do one competently, and teach everyone"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang CY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Y Huang,1 Jonathan B Thomas,2 Abdullah Alismail,3 Avi Cohen,1 Waleed Almutairi,3 Noha S Daher,4 Michael H Terry,5 Laren D Tan1,3 1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Hyperbaric and Sleep Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Zapara School of Business, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA, USA; 3Cardiopulmonary Sciences Department, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 4Department of Allied Health Studies, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 5Department of Respiratory Care, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR glasses in central line simulation by novice operators and compare its efficacy to standard central line simulation/teaching. Design: This was a prospective randomized controlled study enrolling 32 novice operators. Subjects were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either simulation using the augmented virtual reality glasses or simulation using conventional instruction. Setting: The study was conducted in tertiary-care urban teaching hospital. Subjects: A total of 32 adult novice central line operators with no visual or auditory impairments were enrolled. Medical doctors, respiratory therapists, and sleep technicians were recruited from the medical field. Measurements and main results: The mean time for AR placement in the AR group was 71±43 s, and the time to internal jugular (IJ cannulation was 316±112 s. There was no significant difference in median (minimum, maximum time (seconds to IJ cannulation for those who were in the AR group and those who were not (339 [130, 550] vs 287 [35, 475], p=0.09, respectively. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in median total procedure time (524 [329, 792] vs 469 [198, 781], p=0.29, respectively. There was a significant

  13. Immunological Determinants of the Granulomatous Response in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of this model may advance the development of a vaccine against human .... lomas that were significantly smaller than those pro- duced during a primary ..... breeding and main- taining them in captivity as well as animal welfare con-.

  14. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  15. Postoperative upper airway problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-06-09

    Jun 9, 2003 ... contact ulcer of the vocal cords – may progress to granu- loma ... cartilages, or from LMA cuff pressure at the point where it lies unprotected in the pyriform fossa. ... ber of reasons, least of all for its cost. Intra-operative diffu-.

  16. Diferencias de dureza del agua y las tasas de longevidad en la península de nicoya y los otros distritos de Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner A. Mora-Alvarado

    2015-09-01

    Verificar si el consumo de agua “dura” es un factor protector común de la longevidad de los habitantes en las restantes “Zonas Azules” del mundo, a saber Cerdeña (Italia, Okinawa (Japón, Loma Linda (California EUA e Icaria (Grecia.

  17. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... hiking and equestrian trail that originates at the Loma Alta Trailhead and travels east through the..., including hiking, equestrian, and bicycle use. Shortly after acquiring the land, the NPS closed the route to... leadership after an adequate analysis of the benefits, impacts, and economic cost of alternative courses of...

  18. Descripción del cromosoma profásico en la meiosis I de Bostryx conspersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Siles-Vallejos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx es uno de los géneros de mayor diversidad dentro de los Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, siendo B. conspersus una especie endémica del ecosistema de Lomas, del desierto Costero peruano. En el presente trabajo los cromosomas de la profase I de meiosis de los espermatocitos de Bostryx conspersus son descritos.

  19. Feeding holy bodies: A study on the social meanings of a vegetarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years ago National Geographic magazine reported that the Loma Linda Seventh-day Adventist population is one of the communities in the world that lives longer and with a higher quality of life thanks in part to the biological benefits of a vegetarian diet. Along with National Geographic, other media outlets have reported ...

  20. A review of vagus nerve stimulation as a therapeutic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson RL

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhaya L Johnson,1 Christopher G Wilson1,2 1Lawrence D Longo MD Center for Perinatal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA Abstract: In this review, we provide an overview of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved clinical uses of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS as well as information about the ongoing studies and preclinical research to expand the use of VNS to additional applications. VNS is currently FDA approved for therapeutic use in patients aged >12 years with drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. Recent studies of VNS in in vivo systems have shown that it has anti-inflammatory properties which has led to more preclinical research aimed at expanding VNS treatment across a wider range of inflammatory disorders. Although the signaling pathway and mechanism by which VNS affects inflammation remain unknown, VNS has shown promising results in treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as sepsis, lung injury, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and diabetes. It is also being used to control pain in fibromyalgia and migraines. This new preclinical research shows that VNS bears the promise of being applied to a wider range of therapeutic applications. Keywords: vagus nerve stimulation, pediatrics, inflammation, peripheral nerve stimulation, autonomic circuits

  1. Research Study of River Information Services on the US Inland Waterway Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    9 7.1.3 Interface with ACEIT ...higher management. 7.1.3 Interface with ACEIT During the implementation of LOMA it turned out that the procedures to meet the IT security requirements...from ACEIT were difficult to identify and caused far more effort on project management and development than initially estimated. Also the strict IT

  2. SLC positron source: Simulation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitthan, R.; Braun, H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Helm, R.H.; Kulikov, A.V.; Odian, A.C.; Pei, G.X.; Ross, M.C.; Woodley, M.D.

    1991-06-01

    Performance of the source was found to be in good general agreement with computer simulations with S-band acceleration, and where not, the simulations lead to identification of problems, in particular the underestimated impact of linac misalignments due to the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. 13 refs., 7 figs

  3. Conjugated fatty acids and methane production by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil alone or mixed with fish oil and/or malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Transvaginal retropubic sling systems: efficacy and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan CP

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christina P Moldovan,1 Michelle E Marinone,2 Andrea Staack3 1Department of Psychology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, United States of America; 2School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, United States of America; 3Department of Urology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California, United States of America Abstract: Stress urinary incontinence is a common, disabling, and costly medical problem that affects approximately 50% of women with urinary incontinence. Suburethral retropubic slings have been developed as a minimally invasive and effective surgical option, and they have been used as a first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence since 1995. However, complications including vaginal extrusion, erosion, pain, bleeding, infections, lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary retention, and incontinence have been reported with use of the slings. Several companies manufacture sling kits, and the sling kits vary with regard to the composition of the mesh and introducer needle. The aim of this review was to determine which sling kit was most effective for patients, had minimal reported side effects, and was best accepted by patients and surgeons. In a review of the literature, it was found that a total of 38 studies were published between 1995 and 2014 that reported on eight tension-free retropubic sling kits: SPARC, RetroArc, Align, Advantage, Lynx, Desara, Supris, and Gynecare TVT. The Gynecare TVT was the most cited sling kit; the second most cited was the SPARC. This review provides a summary of the studies that have examined positive and negative outcomes of the retropubic tension-free suburethral sling procedure using various sling kits. Overall, the results of the literature review indicated that data from comparisons of the available sling kits are insufficient to make an evidenced-based recommendation. Therefore, the decision regarding which sling kit is appropriate to use in

  5. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R.; Acosta, L.; Zavala, E. P.; Rocha, M. F.; Centeno, S. A.

    2005-10-01

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Perú are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV 4He+ and 12.0 MeV 12C3+ were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the 16O(d,p) 17O, 16O(d,α) 14N and 12C(d,p0) 13C reactions.

  6. Proton Radiation Therapy in the Hospital Environment: Conception, Development, and Operation of the Initial Hospital-Based Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D.; Wroe, Andrew J.

    The world's first hospital-based proton treatment center opened at Loma Linda University Medical Center in 1990, following two decades of development. Patients' needs were the driving force behind its conception, development, and execution; the primary needs were delivery of effective conformal doses of ionizing radiation and avoidance of normal tissue to the maximum extent possible. The facility includes a proton synchrotron and delivery system developed in collaboration with physicists and engineers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and from other high-energy-physics laboratories worldwide. The system, operated and maintained by Loma Linda personnel, was designed to be safe, reliable, flexible in utilization, efficient in use, and upgradeable to meet demands of changing patient needs and advances in technology. Since the facility opened, nearly 14,000 adults and children have been treated for a wide range of cancers and other diseases. Ongoing research is expanding the applications of proton therapy, while reducing costs.

  7. Variations in strength and slip rate along the san andreas fault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C H; Wesnousky, S G

    1992-04-03

    Convergence across the San Andreas fault (SAF) system is partitioned between strike-slip motion on the vertical SAF and oblique-slip motion on parallel dip-slip faults, as illustrated by the recent magnitude M(s) = 6.0 Palm Springs, M(s) = 6.7 Coalinga, and M(s) = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquakes. If the partitioning of slip minimizes the work done against friction, the direction of slip during these recent earthquakes depends primarily on fault dip and indicates that the normal stress coefficient and frictional coefficient (micro) vary among the faults. Additionally, accounting for the active dip-slip faults reduces estimates of fault slip rates along the vertical trace of the SAF by about 50 percent in the Loma Prieta and 100 percent in the North Palm Springs segments.

  8. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Shedlock, K. M.; Tanner, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billi...

  9. Report on 2005 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    California 681 1 World Trade Center Long Beach 683 2180 Burbank Boulevard Woodland Hills 684 ASW Center Point Loma 685 Fallbrook Detachment NSWC Crane...Sep 30 2009 680 California 681 682 1 World Trade Center Long Beach, CA Commission recommendation(s) affected by this installation: Number...184 Create a Naval Intergrated Weapons & Armaments Research, Development & Acquisition, Test & Evaluation Center Closure or realignment actions taken

  10. Speech Research: A Report on the Status and Progress of Studies on the Nature of Speech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, and Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    consider the vertical dimension, shown in Figure 7. In this plot, the lineup point--zero time--was the onset of voicing for the vowel. Implosion for...Review of Educational Research, 1973, 43, 115-137. Zakia, R. D., & Haber, R. N. Sequential letter and word recognition in deaf and hearing subjects...University of Stockholm, 1974, 26, 1-19. Lomas, J., & Kimura, D. Intrahemispheric interaction between speaking and sequential manual activity

  11. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sta. Catarina, 02550 DF, México; Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Materiales Avanzados, camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4 sección, 78216 SLP, México; Centro de Investigación de Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de ...

  12. Stanford: SLC back in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    During January, Stanford's SLC Linear Collider began producing Z particles again after the major disruptions in October due to the Loma Prieta earthquake. What's more, the pulse repetition rate climbed smoothly from 60 to 120 Hz as part of the ongoing collider improvement programme. Although the SLC luminosity has not quite returned to its best pre-quake levels, the collider managed to produce enough Z particles to permit Mark II physicists to test their newly installed Vertex Detection System (VDS)

  13. Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey: Completion report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil’s Canyon.

  14. USAWC Coronary Risk and Fitness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-04

    USAWC, Carlisle Barracks, PA Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional Estado Mayor (Seccion Sequnda) COL Robert I. Stewart Lomas de Sotelo, Mexico , D.F. CO...five a day. rhese foods should be drawn mainly from vegetable sources, preferably from whole foods such as avocados, seeds, adn nuts (including...8217 7.66 Have you ever had tuberculosis (TB, 7.71 Has anyone in your family (natural 7.75 Do you now have cancer ’consumption)? parents, brother or sister

  15. Preventing Ototoxic Synergy of Prior Noise Trauma during Aminoglycoside Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Hongzhe Li, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Loma Linda Veterans Association for Research and Education Redlands, CA 92373-5181 REPORT DATE: June...Veterans Association for Research and Education Redlands, CA 92373-5181 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...sound exposure, is particularly associated with military environments, especially when sustaining blast injuries. These injuries are frequently treated

  16. Rethinking Disasters: Finding Efficiencies Through Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    in FEMA.4 Dating back to 1989 and 1992, catastrophic disasters, such as Hurricane Hugo , the Loma Prieta earthquake, and Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki...is over-engineered resulting in missed opportunities to capitalize on collaborative, decentralized solutions. As Hurricane Sandy ripped through the...generated intense criticism of the federal response effort.5 In 2006, despite recognition of the catastrophic effects caused by Hurricane Katrina

  17. Interactions Between IGFBP-3 and Nuclear Receptors in Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Genova, Italy . September 2008. 14 Conclusions Thus, we conclude that IGFBP-3 is a potent apoptosis inducer with potential implications in...11780 Pecan Way Loma Linda, CA 92354 Ph: (909) 799-1510 E-mail: kukwhalee@mednet.ucla.edu Present Position Assistant...Metabolism Utilizing IGFBP-3 KO mice. GRS/IGF 4th International Congress. Genova, Italy . September 2008. Poster presentations Lee, K.-W

  18. Proceedings of the Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors on Operational Performance Held in San Diego, California on 4-5 April 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-05

    organization, the social interpersonal environment, and the person -system of the organizational member. Now, most of the research in the civilian sector is...Individual Differences/ Dr. Vickers, NHRC Group Charateristics Dr. Palinkas, NHRC 1500 - Multiple Stressors LCDR Banta, NHRC 1525 - Data Integralion for...necessary to take people over there and return if you wish. This evening, we have a social hour planned at the Submarine Base at Point Loma, which is about 10

  19. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. M E Sánchez-Vergara1 M Rivera2 R A Torres-García1 C O Perez-Baeza1 E A Loza-Neri1. Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Avenida Universidad Anáhuac 46, Col. Lomas Anáhuac, 52786, Huixquilucan, Estado de México, México; Instituto de Física, Dpto. Materia Condensada ...

  20. Primer registro de Empidonax fulvifrons en Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Muñoz; Wayne J Arendt; Liliana Chavarria; Pablo Somarriba; Aura L. Cruz

    2009-01-01

    English title: First documented report of buff-breasted fl ycatcher Empidonax fulvifrons in Nicargua. A buff-breasted flycatcher (Empidonax fulvifrons) was observed on 4 January 2008 in Loma Fría, Dipilto Municipality, Department of Nueva Segovia. The bird was sited in a pasture with scattered pines (Pinus oocarpa) adjacent to a pine-oak forest. It formed part of a...

  1. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs No. 268

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-21

    COSTA RICA INDICTMENT OF DRUG TRAFFICKERS San Jose LA NACION in Spanish 24 Aug 76 pp 10a, 11a PA [Text] Third Arraigning Judge Maria Luisa Castillo has...been distributing drugs in Las Lomas de Chapultepec . The prisoners will today be turned over to the Directorate General of Pre- Trial Investigations...Guerra, Mary Iraida Rengifo Castillo , Zaida Maria Porras de Marcano and Mercedes Teodora Perez Zambrano were arrested on 5 August. Ten jars containing

  2. Heterogeneous slip and rupture models of the San Andreas fault zone based upon three-dimensional earthquake tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Crystal fault zones exhibit spatially heterogeneous slip behavior at all scales, slip being partitioned between stable frictional sliding, or fault creep, and unstable earthquake rupture. An understanding the mechanisms underlying slip segmentation is fundamental to research into fault dynamics and the physics of earthquake generation. This thesis investigates the influence that large-scale along-strike heterogeneity in fault zone lithology has on slip segmentation. Large-scale transitions from the stable block sliding of the Central 4D Creeping Section of the San Andreas, fault to the locked 1906 and 1857 earthquake segments takes place along the Loma Prieta and Parkfield sections of the fault, respectively, the transitions being accomplished in part by the generation of earthquakes in the magnitude range 6 (Parkfield) to 7 (Loma Prieta). Information on sub-surface lithology interpreted from the Loma Prieta and Parkfield three-dimensional crustal velocity models computed by Michelini (1991) is integrated with information on slip behavior provided by the distributions of earthquakes located using, the three-dimensional models and by surface creep data to study the relationships between large-scale lithological heterogeneity and slip segmentation along these two sections of the fault zone.

  3. Controls on the long term earthquake behavior of an intraplate fault revealed by U-Th and stable isotope analyses of syntectonic calcite veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randolph; Goodwin, Laurel; Sharp, Warren; Mozley, Peter

    2017-04-01

    U-Th dates on calcite precipitated in coseismic extension fractures in the Loma Blanca normal fault zone, Rio Grande rift, NM, USA, constrain earthquake recurrence intervals from 150-565 ka. This is the longest direct record of seismicity documented for a fault in any tectonic environment. Combined U-Th and stable isotope analyses of these calcite veins define 13 distinct earthquake events. These data show that for more than 400 ka the Loma Blanca fault produced earthquakes with a mean recurrence interval of 40 ± 7 ka. The coefficient of variation for these events is 0.40, indicating strongly periodic seismicity consistent with a time-dependent model of earthquake recurrence. Stochastic statistical analyses further validate the inference that earthquake behavior on the Loma Blanca was time-dependent. The time-dependent nature of these earthquakes suggests that the seismic cycle was fundamentally controlled by a stress renewal process. However, this periodic cycle was punctuated by an episode of clustered seismicity at 430 ka. Recurrence intervals within the earthquake cluster were as low as 5-11 ka. Breccia veins formed during this episode exhibit carbon isotope signatures consistent with having formed through pronounced degassing of a CO2 charged brine during post-failure, fault-localized fluid migration. The 40 ka periodicity of the long-term earthquake record of the Loma Blanca fault is similar in magnitude to recurrence intervals documented through paleoseismic studies of other normal faults in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range Province. We propose that it represents a background rate of failure in intraplate extension. The short-term, clustered seismicity that occurred on the fault records an interruption of the stress renewal process, likely by elevated fluid pressure in deeper structural levels of the fault, consistent with fault-valve behavior. The relationship between recurrence interval and inferred fluid degassing suggests that pore fluid pressure

  4. Stress sensitivity of fault seismicity: A comparison between limited-offset oblique and major strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Stein, R.S.; Simpson, R.W.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional inventory of the southern San Francisco Bay area faults and use it to calculate stress applied principally by the 1989 M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and to compare fault seismicity rates before and after 1989. The major high-angle right-lateral faults exhibit a different response to the stress change than do minor oblique (right-lateral/thrust) faults. Seismicity on oblique-slip faults in the southern Santa Clara Valley thrust belt increased where the faults were unclamped. The strong dependence of seismicity change on normal stress change implies a high coefficient of static friction. In contrast, we observe that faults with significant offset (>50-100 km) behave differently; microseismicity on the Hayward fault diminished where right-lateral shear stress was reduced and where it was unclamped by the Loma Prieta earthquake. We observe a similar response on the San Andreas fault zone in southern California after the Landers earthquake sequence. Additionally, the offshore San Gregorio fault shows a seismicity rate increase where right-lateral/oblique shear stress was increased by the Loma Prieta earthquake despite also being clamped by it. These responses are consistent with either a low coefficient of static friction or high pore fluid pressures within the fault zones. We can explain the different behavior of the two styles of faults if those with large cumulative offset become impermeable through gouge buildup; coseismically pressurized pore fluids could be trapped and negate imposed normal stress changes, whereas in more limited offset faults, fluids could rapidly escape. The difference in behavior between minor and major faults may explain why frictional failure criteria that apply intermediate coefficients of static friction can be effective in describing the broad distributions of aftershocks that follow large earthquakes, since many of these events occur both inside and outside major fault zones.

  5. Influencia del evento "El Niño 1997-98" en el desarrollo de Ismene amancaes (Amaryllldaceae, Liliopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Agüero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En años de condiciones climatológicas normales el inicio de los meses de humedad en las lomas es en junio; la especie bulbifera Ismene amaneaes "amancaes" es una de las primeras en rebrotar en relación a otras herbáceas, por lo que resulta ser una indicadora del inicio de la humedad en las lomas. El presente estudio realizado en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Prov. Huaura, Opto. Lima, presenta datos de los registros realizados entre julio 1997 y mayo 1998. Las evaluaciones periódicas in sítu de plantas juveniles permitieron determinar la variación del área foliar, número de hojas, diámetro y altura del cuello del bulbo, asimismo, se cuantificó la humedad del suelo. En las plantas adultas se registró las etapas de su ciclo. Los resultados obtenidos fueron relacionados con el retraso de los meses húmedos de "lomas" (agosto 97 y su duración hasta 1998. La temperatura y humedad fluctuantes registradas durante "El Niño" incidió en el acelerado desarrollo de los individuos. Las plantas juveniles mostraron la mayor área foliar a inicios de setiembre (83,9 cm2 por plama y fue decreciendo hacia octubre en relación directa del contenido de humedad en el suelo. El 30% de las plantas adultas florecieron y sólo el 40% de éstas fructificaron, lo que redujo su capacidad de propagación sexual. El incremento de la humedad del suelo, en los meses siguientes, no influyó en el nuevo rebrote de la planta a diferencia de otras especies que si reiniciaron o prolongaron su ciclo.

  6. Reading a 400,000-year record of earthquake frequency for an intraplate fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randolph T; Goodwin, Laurel B; Sharp, Warren D; Mozley, Peter S

    2017-05-09

    Our understanding of the frequency of large earthquakes at timescales longer than instrumental and historical records is based mostly on paleoseismic studies of fast-moving plate-boundary faults. Similar study of intraplate faults has been limited until now, because intraplate earthquake recurrence intervals are generally long (10s to 100s of thousands of years) relative to conventional paleoseismic records determined by trenching. Long-term variations in the earthquake recurrence intervals of intraplate faults therefore are poorly understood. Longer paleoseismic records for intraplate faults are required both to better quantify their earthquake recurrence intervals and to test competing models of earthquake frequency (e.g., time-dependent, time-independent, and clustered). We present the results of U-Th dating of calcite veins in the Loma Blanca normal fault zone, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, United States, that constrain earthquake recurrence intervals over much of the past ∼550 ka-the longest direct record of seismic frequency documented for any fault to date. The 13 distinct seismic events delineated by this effort demonstrate that for >400 ka, the Loma Blanca fault produced periodic large earthquakes, consistent with a time-dependent model of earthquake recurrence. However, this time-dependent series was interrupted by a cluster of earthquakes at ∼430 ka. The carbon isotope composition of calcite formed during this seismic cluster records rapid degassing of CO 2 , suggesting an interval of anomalous fluid source. In concert with U-Th dates recording decreased recurrence intervals, we infer seismicity during this interval records fault-valve behavior. These data provide insight into the long-term seismic behavior of the Loma Blanca fault and, by inference, other intraplate faults.

  7. Reading a 400,000-year record of earthquake frequency for an intraplate fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randolph T.; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Sharp, Warren D.; Mozley, Peter S.

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the frequency of large earthquakes at timescales longer than instrumental and historical records is based mostly on paleoseismic studies of fast-moving plate-boundary faults. Similar study of intraplate faults has been limited until now, because intraplate earthquake recurrence intervals are generally long (10s to 100s of thousands of years) relative to conventional paleoseismic records determined by trenching. Long-term variations in the earthquake recurrence intervals of intraplate faults therefore are poorly understood. Longer paleoseismic records for intraplate faults are required both to better quantify their earthquake recurrence intervals and to test competing models of earthquake frequency (e.g., time-dependent, time-independent, and clustered). We present the results of U-Th dating of calcite veins in the Loma Blanca normal fault zone, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, United States, that constrain earthquake recurrence intervals over much of the past ˜550 ka—the longest direct record of seismic frequency documented for any fault to date. The 13 distinct seismic events delineated by this effort demonstrate that for >400 ka, the Loma Blanca fault produced periodic large earthquakes, consistent with a time-dependent model of earthquake recurrence. However, this time-dependent series was interrupted by a cluster of earthquakes at ˜430 ka. The carbon isotope composition of calcite formed during this seismic cluster records rapid degassing of CO2, suggesting an interval of anomalous fluid source. In concert with U-Th dates recording decreased recurrence intervals, we infer seismicity during this interval records fault-valve behavior. These data provide insight into the long-term seismic behavior of the Loma Blanca fault and, by inference, other intraplate faults.

  8. TREATMENT OF PSORIASIS WITH HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Molochkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a disease with growing incidence predominantly affecting young and middle-aged patients. It is characterized by frequent exacerbations, insufficient efficacy of the routine therapy and common adverse effects. Thus, use of alternative therapies is of great importance. Aim: To assess efficacy and safety of homeopathic medicine Loma Lux Psoriasis in patients with different forms of psoriasis. Materials and methods: 45 patients with progressive (n=17 and stable (n=28 psoriasis and mean PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index value 17.3 (5–30 were treated with homeopathic medicine Loma Lux Psoriasis in combination with topical medicines: salicylic Vaseline 2%, tar and naphthalane preparations, ointments with fluocinolone acetonide and mometasone, betametasone/salicylic acid combinations. Diet was also recommended. Results: After 12 weeks, significant improvement (PASI decrease 75–100% was demonstrated in 40%  of the patients including completely absent skin desquamation, resorption of psoriatic papules and patches with residual hyper- or depigmentation. 57.8% of the patient had moderate improvement (PASI decrease 25–75%. In one patient with only slight improvement (PASI decrease less than 25% treatment was prolonged for 4  weeks and significant improvement was achieved. Therapy was well tolerated in all patients. No side effects or treatment-related complications were reported. Clinical recover was associated with marked tendency to improvement of blood biochemistry and immunology: elevation of immunoregulatory index up to 1.6 and T-helpers content up to 44.3%. Conclusion: Homeopathic medicine Loma Lux Psoriasis is characterized by good efficacy and safety profile and may be recommended as addon to comprehensive treatment of stable and progressing psoriasis.

  9. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  10. Experiencias de urbanismo: los proyectos urbanos de Hannes Meyer en México (1938-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Franklin Unkind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hannes Meyer arrived in Mexico in 1938 to take part in the XVIth International Housing and Town Planning Congress. One year later he founded the Institute for Urban Development and Planning and stayed in Mexico for the next ten years undertaking various urban projects such as the Lomas de Becerra Apartment Block, the Corpus Christi block, and the Agua Hedionda beach resort. Each one of these is the result of a dialectic process with his previous phases of work in which it is possible to see elements such as his Swiss-German and Soviet ideas. Over this article his emphasis on science will be highlighted.

  11. Operation & Maintenance Environmental Impact Statement for the Federal Facilities at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, Addressing Limited Season Extension of Operation. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    azteca Aca r ina I sopoda Ar renur us Asellus Lirceus Castropoda Anic ola Diptera Campe loma Tipulidae (S) Gyraulus Ceratopogonidae Helisoma...turbidity could affect the primary productivity in the area for a brief period. Solar energy entering a body of water is converted by microscopic...8217. 4 U 0 Cd co m4 Z i C4 i dio C. ’. U ’U d 0 . C dd W 𔃾 Cd 4 d d > d - U 0 - C ’. i d . - d 44tl n C> - _4 In 0 0 -d W - C C. U : A i ’U 0 di -0 A

  12. Supporting Command and Control (C2) of an Embarked Commander: Tunneling SIPRNet Data Across an UNCLAS Wireless LAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    that you did to help me through this process. Your efforts and guidance truly made this a success. To SPAWAR SCTD expert Stephanie Koontz , your...ty%20and%20Safety%20Services/05– 500%20Security%20Services/5510.36A.pdf [accessed June 19, 2011]. [28] S. Koontz . “Secret client tunneling...devices - KOV-26 talon user procedures.” Unpublished survey, SPAWAR, Point Loma, CA. [29] S. Koontz . “Secret client tunneling devices - KIV-54 user

  13. Aspectos a considerar para la promoción de la participación de los pobladores de Mangomarca, SJL, en las acciones que potencien los beneficios de sus áreas ecológica y arqueológica

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Castañeda, Jovana

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación nace del reconocimiento de la existencia de un área ecológica (las lomas) y un área arqueológica (las huacas) dentro del territorio de la Urbanización Mangomarca ubicada en el distrito de San Juan de Lurigancho, como recursos potenciales para el desarrollo de esta comunidad, alrededor de los cuales se han formado algunas organizaciones con la finalidad de conservarlos y promocionarlos, sin embargo las acciones que desarrollan no son articuladas y no ...

  14. Population density and reproduction of two Peruvian leaf-eared mice (Phyllotis spp. Densidad poblacional y reproducción de dos ratones orejudos del Perú (Phyllotis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA ARANA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population density and reproduction were studied in two leaf-eared mice (Phyllotis spp. in the Peruvian locality known as Lomas de Lachay. Density varied between 0-3 individuals ha-1 in P. andium, and between 0-12 individuals ha-1 in P. amicus. An annual cycle of population abundance was observed in both species. Phyllotis amicus showed no seasonal reproductive activity, but P. andium had seasonal reproduction with pregnant females principally observed between July and September. Differences in juvenile weight were related to litter size. It is likely that two young was the optimal litter size in the harsh and seasonal xeric environment of Lomas de Lachay. Our results suggest that P. amicus maintains low, highly dispersed populations in a harsh environment, and can reproduce at any time of the year, whereas P. andium appears to be a more irruptive species closely tied to rainfall patternsLa densidad poblacional y reproducción de dos ratones orejudos (Phyllotis spp. fueron estudiadas en la localidad peruana Lomas de Lachay. La densidad varió entre 0-3 individuos ha-1 en P. andium, y entre 0-12 individuos ha-1 en P. amicus. En ambas especies se observaron cambios poblacionales que sugieren la existencia de ciclos anuales en la abundancia poblacional. El patrón reproductivo en las dos especies de Phyllotis fue claramente distinto. Phyllotis amicus mostró una actividad reproductiva no estacional, mientras que P. andium tuvo una reproducción estacional observándose hembras preñadas principalmente entre julio y septiembre. La diferencia en el peso de los juveniles estuvo relacionada con el tamaño de la camada. Es probable que en las Lomas de Lachay el tamaño de camada óptimo sea de dos individuos. Nuestros resultados sugieren que P. amicus es una especie que mantiene poblaciones bajas, altamente dispersas en áreas desérticas, y que puede reproducirse durante todo el año; mientras que P. andium parece ser una especie que irrumpe más en

  15. Data Files for Ground-Motion Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Scenario Earthquakes on the Northern San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Barall, Michael; Brocher, Thomas M.; Dolenc, David; Dreger, Douglas; Graves, Robert W.; Harmsen, Stephen; Hartzell, Stephen; Larsen, Shawn; McCandless, Kathleen; Nilsson, Stefan; Petersson, N. Anders; Rodgers, Arthur; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Zoback, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This data set contains results from ground-motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, seven hypothetical earthquakes on the northern San Andreas Fault, and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The bulk of the data consists of synthetic velocity time-histories. Peak ground velocity on a 1/60th degree grid and geodetic displacements from the simulations are also included. Details of the ground-motion simulations and analysis of the results are discussed in Aagaard and others (2008a,b).

  16. Viticultura tropical a gran altitud. Condiciones y expresiones del terroir

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Quijano Rico

    2009-01-01

    Nuestro proyecto se inició en 1982 en la Loma de Puntalarga, entre 2500 y2600 metros de altitud, a 5,78 ºN y 72,98 ºW, en la cordillera oriental de los Andes. Las variedades más utilizadas actualmente son Pinot noir, Riesling y cruzamientos de Riesling x Silvaner. Desde 1984 se realizan trabajos de investigación sobre temas pertinentes. La baja latitud, la elevada altitud, el volumen de precipitación relativamente modesto y la transparencia del cielo, determinan el flujo de radiación solar in...

  17. Stanford: SLC back in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    During January, Stanford's SLC Linear Collider began producing Z particles again after the major disruptions in October due to the Loma Prieta earthquake. What's more, the pulse repetition rate climbed smoothly from 60 to 120 Hz as part of the ongoing collider improvement programme. Although the SLC luminosity has not quite returned to its best pre-quake levels, the collider managed to produce enough Z particles to permit Mark II physicists to test their newly installed Vertex Detection System (VDS)

  18. Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, M.G.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometrically documented in the wall and the floor observing some anomalies of the gamma ray intensity (up to 1700 c.p.s.) associated with the poor iron ore. In those points were collected solid sample. The obtained results were very important (uranium concentrations values up to 3500 ppm)

  19. Malalties de transmissió sexual a urgències pediàtriques

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Sabogal, Diana; Curcoy Barcenilla, Ana Isabel; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Giménez Roca, Clara; Luaces Cubells, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Determinar les característiques dels pacients diag- nosticats de malalties de transmissió sexual (MTS) a urgèn- cies i establir la freqüència en què són degudes a abús sexual. Mètode. Estudi retrospectiu fet entre el gener del 2007 i el desembre del 2011. S'inclouen els pacients menors de 18 anys diagnosticats a urgències d'MTS -infecció per Neisse- ria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema palli- dum, , virus d'immunodeficiència humana (VIH), virus del pa- pil loma humà (VPH) i virus...

  20. Estudio de la dinámica poblacional del lepidóptero Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) en la provincia de Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    López Sebastián, Emili

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la dinámica poblacional de Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera; Notodontidae) en cinco áreas de pinar ubicadas en el norte de la provincia de Valencia (España): Loma Valluenga (Rincón de Ademuz), Los Ances, La Jarilla y Las Umbrías (Los Serranos) y Pla de l’Albercoquer-Corral de Pija (Camp de Túria); la primera y última de estas masas forestales son de origen natural y regeneración espontánea, mientras que el resto son repoblaciones de origen artific...

  1. Fuentes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Los análisis presentados en este libro se basan en la observación de los rituales enumerados en la siguiente lista. El material audiovisual está en curso de tratamiento. Una parte será editada y la otra archivada en un acervo destinado a la consulta. Note 1 : Los pueblos mencionados aparecen en negritas en el mapa 1. Es preciso notar que los pueblos de El Capulín, El Tejocote y Loma Maguey forman parte de la zona de Apetzuca.Note 2 : Ceremonias: Excepto las dos ceremonias individuales...

  2. Timing and nature of alluvial fan and strath terrace formation in the Eastern Precordillera of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Kathryn; Owen, Lewis A.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Meigs, Andrew; Costa, Carlos; Caffee, Marc W.; Masana, Eulalia; Ahumada, Emilio

    2013-11-01

    Sixty-eight 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages are presented to define the timing of alluvial fan and strath terrace formation in the hyper-arid San Juan region of the Argentine Precordillera. This region is tectonically active, and numerous fault scarps traverse Quaternary landforms. The three study sites, Marquesado strath complex, Loma Negra alluvial fan and Carpintería strath complex reveal a history of alluvial fan and strath terrace development over the past ˜225 ka. The Marquesado complex Q3m surface dates to ˜17 ± 3 ka, whereas the Loma Negra Q1ln, Q2ln, Q3ln, Q4ln, and Q5ln surfaces date to ˜24 ± 3 ka, ˜48 ± 2 ka, ˜65 ± 13 ka, ˜105 ± 21 ka, and ˜181 ± 29 ka, respectively. The Carpintería complex comprises eight surfaces that have been dated and include the Q1c (˜23 ± 3 ka), Q2c (˜5 ± 5 ka), Q3ac (˜25 ± 12 ka), Q3bc (˜29 ± 15 ka), Q4c (˜61 ± 12 ka), Q5c (˜98 ± 18 ka), Q6c (˜93 ± 18 ka), and Q7c (˜212 ± 37 ka). 10Be TCN depth profile data for the Loma Negra alluvial fan complex and Carpintería strath terrace complex, as well as OSL ages on some Carpintería deposits, aid in refining surface ages for comparison with local and global climate proxies, and additionally offer insights into inheritance and erosion rate values for TCNs (˜10 × 10410Be atoms/g of SiO2 and ˜5 m Ma-1, respectively). Comparison with other alluvial fan studies in the region show that less dynamic and older preserved surfaces occur in the Carpintería and Loma Negra areas with only younger alluvial fan surfaces preserved both to the north and south. These data in combination with that of other studies illustrate broad regional agreement between alluvial fan and strath terrace ages, which suggests that climate is the dominant forcing agent in the timing of terrace formation in this region.

  3. Experiencias de urbanismo: los proyectos urbanos de Hannes Meyer en México (1938-1949)

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Franklin Unkind

    2013-01-01

    Hannes Meyer arrived in Mexico in 1938 to take part in the XVIth International Housing and Town Planning Congress. One year later he founded the Institute for Urban Development and Planning and stayed in Mexico for the next ten years undertaking various urban projects such as the Lomas de Becerra Apartment Block, the Corpus Christi block, and the Agua Hedionda beach resort. Each one of these is the result of a dialectic process with his previous phases of work in which it is possible to see e...

  4. Evolution of the northern santa cruz mountains by advection of crust past a san andreas fault bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R S

    1990-07-27

    The late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California, reflect uplift associated with the nearby restraining bend on the San Andreas fault. Excellent correspondence of the coseismic vertical displacement field caused by the 17 October 1989 magnitude 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and the present elevations of these terraces allows calculation of maximum long-term uplift rates 1 to 2 kilometers west of the San Andreas fault of 0.8 millimeters per year. Over several million years, this uplift, in concert with the right lateral translation of the resulting topography, and with continual attack by geomorphic processes, can account for the general topography of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains.

  5. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  6. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  7. Localization and upregulation of survivin in cancer health disparities: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salma Khan,1,2 Heather Ferguson Bennit,1,2 Malyn May Asuncion Valenzuela,1,2 David Turay,1,3 Carlos J Diaz Osterman,1,2 Ron B Moyron,1,2 Grace E Esebanmen,1,2 Arjun Ashok,1,2 Nathan R Wall1,2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA Abstract: Survivin is one of the most important members of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, as it is expressed in most human cancers but is absent in normal, differentiated tissues. Lending to its importance, survivin has proven associations with apoptosis and cell cycle control, and has more recently been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment and immune evasion as a result of its extracellular localization. Upregulation of survivin has been found in many cancers including breast, prostate, pancreatic, and hematological malignancies, and it may prove to be associated with the advanced presentation, poorer prognosis, and lower survival rates observed in ethnically diverse populations. Keywords: survivin, cancer, exosomes, health disparity

  8. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx; Murillo, G. [Departamento del Acelerador Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Apartado postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Policroniades, R. [Departamento del Acelerador Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Apartado postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Acosta, L. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Zavala, E.P. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, IPN, CP 07738 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Centeno, S.A. [Department of Scientific Research, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10028 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Peru are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} and 12.0 MeV {sup 12}C{sup 3+} were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O, {sup 16}O(d,{alpha}) {sup 14}N and {sup 12}C(d,p{sub 0}) {sup 13}C reactions.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences among a Community of Resilient Centenarians and Seniors: Implications for a Chronic Disease Prevention Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Torres, Xochitl; Valladares, Johanny; Pasco-Rubio, Marco; Dougherty, Molly; Kim, Wonha

    2018-03-11

    Research has linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with chronic disease in adults and diminished life span. Adverse biological embedding of ACEs potentially occurs through inflammatory mechanisms; inflammatory marker alterations are identified as candidate biomarkers for mediating health consequences. Lifestyle practices of residents of California's Loma Linda Blue Zone, one of five worldwide longevity hotspots, may provide insight into inflammation remediation and chronic disease prevention. Little research has been done on centenarians' early-life experiences or on ACEs in a longevity community. To interview centenarians and seniors in this region regarding their childhood experiences to inform chronic disease prevention frameworks. Qualitative study of Loma Linda Blue Zone community members. Childhood exposures and practices were assessed using focus groups and semistructured key informant interviews, with open-ended questions on general hardships and ACEs and supplemented with lifestyle and resiliency factor questions. Data were audiorecorded and transcribed. Integrative grounded theory methods guided coding and theming. Exposure to ACEs and practice of resiliency factors. Participants (7 centenarians and 29 seniors) reported exposure to multiple ACEs (domains: Economic deprivation, family dysfunction, and community violence). Community members reported practicing resiliency factors, each with anti-inflammatory properties suggesting mitigation of ACE-related toxic stress. This is one of the first studies of its kind to identify a community of resilient members despite their tremendous burden of ACEs. Embedding the identified resiliency factors into chronic disease prevention frameworks has potential for mitigating systemic inflammation, alleviating chronic disease burden, and promoting a culture of health.

  10. Benralizumab: a unique IL-5 inhibitor for severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan LD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laren D Tan,1 Jennifer M Bratt,2 Dorottya Godor,3 Samuel Louie,2 Nicholas J Kenyon2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3School of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: The presence of eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of chronic and acute inflammation in asthma. An estimated 5%–10% of the 300 million people worldwide who suffer from asthma have a severe form. Patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation represent approximately 40%–60% of this severe asthmatic population. This form of asthma is often uncontrolled, marked by refractoriness to standard therapy, and shows persistent airway eosinophilia despite glucocorticoid therapy. This paper reviews personalized novel therapies, more specifically benralizumab, a humanized anti-IL-5Rα antibody, while also being the first to provide an algorithm for potential candidates who may benefit from anti-IL-5Rα therapy. Keywords: asthma, eosinophils, asthma treatments, benralizumab, IL-5, IL-5Rα, MEDI-563

  11. Intelektuālo darbinieku motivācija

    OpenAIRE

    Šilovska, Elīna

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt uzņēmuma Color Expert – Storch LV SIA darbinieku motivācijas sistēmu, tās īstenošanu darba procesā, novērtēt sistēmas efektivitāti un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās pilnveidošanai. Darbs sastāv no 3 nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā pētīta motivācija jēdziena būtība, intelektuālo darbinieku loma un īpatnības. Otrajā nodaļā analizētas jaunākās motivācijas teorijas, kā arī vadītāja loma darbinieku motivācijā. Trešajā nodaļā veikts pētījums par uzņēmumu Color Expert – Sto...

  12. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste; Fud-program 2010. Program foer forskning, utveckling och demonstration av metoder foer hantering och slutfoervaring av kaernavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  13. Workshop on the accelerator for particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Ujeno, Y.

    1991-02-01

    A two-day workshop on the accelerator for particle therapy was held on August 22-23, 1990, with the aim of mutual understanding of medical accelerators among investigators. The state-of-the-art facilities in Japan and medical proton accelerators in Japan and other countries were introduced. This is a compilation of papers presented at the workshop: (1) particle radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS); (2) proton therapy; (3) treatment planning, especially for photon and electron therapies; (4) heavy ion synchrotron project at the NIRS; (5) medical proton accelerator project of Tsukuba University and recent status of Loma Linda University Medical Center Proton Beam Facility; (6) inspection report on the Loma Linda University Medical Center Proton Beam Facility; (7) accelerator project of Kyoto University; (8) actual conditions of the 7 MeV proton linear accelerator; (9) design study of superconducting compact cyclotron prototype model; (10) medical superconducting prototype cyclotron; (11) RCNP cyclotron cascade project; (12) beam extraction from synchrotron; (13) radiation safety design in high energy particle accelerator facilities. (N.K.)

  14. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  15. A school-wide assessment of social media usage by students in a US dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, M R; Christensen, H L; Nelson, B A

    2014-11-01

    Social media sites have become an established means of communication due to the exponential growth in number of users across the world and the encouragement of interaction between users through site features. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which Loma Linda University School of Dentistry students use social media accounts, the types of accounts they prefer, their interest in incorporating social media into courses and their perceptions of the usefulness of social media in private practice. In addition, we wanted to determine the degree of student interest in the integration of these social tools into their instruction. One thousand one hundred and sixty-two students from Loma Linda University School of Dentistry were invited by e-mail to complete a confidential 18 item multiple choice survey through Surveymonkey.com. The overall response rate was 30% (n = 351) from the pooled response periods; the first in 2011 and the second in 2013. Similar to other studies, Facebook was used by 91% of the School of Dentistry students, and less than half used Google+, Twitter and LinkedIn. Of the respondents, 68% of students reported communicating on social media daily and 80% saw value for practising dentists to operate accounts. Time and privacy concerns were the largest barriers to usage at 16% and 12% respectively. One third of respondents were in favour of the incorporation of social media in their courses.

  16. Claves para la formación ciudadana en la era digital Keys for citizen education in digital era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazo Monsalve César

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza cómo a través de prácticas comunitarias con tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC se desarrollan competencias para el ejercicio ciudadano, al tiempo que se fortalecen capacidades para la apropiación tecnológica. La reflexión se hace a partir de las conclusiones del trabajo de investigación Medios ciudadanos en la Red: prácticas de empoderamiento en ‘HiperBarrio Colombia’, en el cual se presenta el registro narrativo de una experiencia en la vereda La Loma del corregimiento de San Cristóbal, Medellín. The following article attempts to analyze how abilities for citizens’ exercise are developed, as well as capacities to technological appropriation get stronger by means of communal practices using information and communication technologies (ICT. The observations rise from the conclusions made in a research project Medios ciudadanos en la Red: prácticas de empoderamiento en ‘HiperBarrio Colombia’ (Citizens media on the Net: empowerment practices carried out in ‘HiperBarrio Colombia’ in which a narrative record of an experience that took place in La Loma, located in San Cristobal, Medellín.

  17. Registros de la vegetación en la Costa peruana en relación con el fenómeno El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available REGISTRES DE LA VEGETATION SUR LA COTE PERUVIENNE LIES AU PHENOMENE EL NIÑO. Pendant les événements récents du phénomène El Niño, plusieurs changements dans la flore de la côte péruvienne ont été observés, en particulier dans les associations connues comme l'Algarrobal (forêt désertique et des Lomas (oasis de brouillard. La plus grande disponibilité d’eau produit un large développement des espèces de ces écosystèmes. Les variations associées à un événement très fort, comme celui de 1982-1983, peuvent durer plus d’un an, avant que les conditions végétales normales soient restituées. Enfin, on présente une liste de nouvelles espèces et nouveaux registres de végétations pour la côte du Pérou. Se han observado modificaciones en la flora y vegetación de dos asociaciones de la costa peruana: el Algarrobal y las Lomas, ocurridas durante los recientes eventos del fenómeno El Niño. La mayor disponibilidad de recurso hídrico favorece un amplio desarrollo de las especies vegetales de dichos ecosistemas. Se muestra que las variaciones asociadas a un evento muy fuerte como El Niño de 1982-1983 pueden durar más de un año antes de que se restituya la vegetación normal. Finalmente se presentan nuevas especies y nuevos registros efectuados en la costa del Perú durante los últimos 45 años. VEGETATION RECORDS ALONG THE PERUVIAN COAST IN THE RELATION WITH EL NIÑO PHENOMENON. Several changes in the flora and vegetation of the Algarrobal (desert forest and Lomas (fog oasis associations of the Peruvian coast have been observed during the recent El Niño events. The higher availability of hydric resources leads to a large development of species in these ecosystems. It is shown that the variations related to a very strong event, like El Niño of 1982-1983, may remain a time span exceeding a year before the return of the normal vegetal conditions. Finally, a summary list of new species and new records for the Peruvian coast

  18. A comparative study of the prevalence of hyperkalemia with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Sadjadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Ali Sadjadi1, James I McMillan1, Navin Jaipaul1, Patricia Blakely1, Su Su Hline21Section of Nephrology (111N, Jerry L Pettis Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Divison of Nephrology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USABackground and objectives: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB are increasingly used in a variety of settings including heart failure, renal failure, arterial hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperkalemia with ACEI and ARB use, in a population of the United States veterans.Design, settings, material, and measurements: Retrospective observational cohort study of 1163 patients on ACEIs and 1168 patients on ARBs in a single Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Electronic medical records were reviewed over a 12-month period with data collected on various demographic, laboratory, comorbidity, and medication related variables. Results: Hyperkalemia (>5 mEq/L was observed in 20.4% of patients on ACEIs and 31.0% on ARBs. Severe hyperkalemia (6 mEq/L or higher, was observed in 0.8% of ACEI and 2.8% of ARB users. In univariate logistic regression analyses, diabetes mellitus; serum glucose, total carbon dioxide content, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were significantly associated with hyperkalemia. ARB use, when compared to ACEI, was associated with a 42% increase in odds of hyperkalemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; p = 0.001 in a model including adjustment for GFR and a 56% increase in odds of hyperkalemia (OR = 1.56; p < 0.001 in a model including adjustment for serum creatinine.Conclusions: Hyperkalemia, associated with the use of ACEIs and ARBs, is usually mild and severe hyperkalemia is rare. Hyperkalemia is more common with ARBs than ACEIs. ARB use, when compared to ACEI use, may significantly and independently be associated with increased odds of

  19. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Particle Therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Particle Therapy using Proton and Ion Beams - From Basic Principles to Daily Operations and Future Concepts by Andreas Peter (Head of Accelerator Operations, Heidelberg Ion Beam Theraps Centre (HIT), Germany) Part I: Tuesday, September 11, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant ) • An introduction about the historical developments of accelerators and their use for medical applications: tumour treatment from X-rays to particle therapy • Description of the underlying physics and biology of particle therapy; implications on the requirements for the needed beam parameters (energy, intensity, focus, beam structure) • Accelerator technology used for particle therapy so far: cyclotrons and synchrotrons • Particle therapy facilities worldwide: an overview and some examples in detail: PSI/Switzerland, Loma Linda/USA, HIMAC/Japan, HIT/Heidelberg, CNAO/Italy Part II: Wednesday, September 12, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CER...

  20. Researching quality of life in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Tonón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life considers at the same time objective and subjective circumstances of people life. In 1995 was created the International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS whose purposes are to promote and encourage research in the field of quality-of-life studies and provide an organization through which all academic and professional researchers interested in QOL studies may coordinate their efforts to advance the field of QOL studies within various disciplines. In the case of Argentina since 2004, the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora has organized the Research Program in Quality of life to develop different kind of projects about quality of life in different fields, trying to be considered by national institutions that decide public policies. 

  1. Building configuration and seismic design: The architecture of earthquake resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C.; Reitherman, R.; Whitaker, D.

    1981-05-01

    The architecture of a building in relation to its ability to withstand earthquakes was determined. Aspects of round motion which are significant to building behavior are discussed. Results of a survey of configuration decisions that affect the performance of buildings with a focus on the architectural aspects of configuration design are provided. Configuration derivation, building type as it relates to seismic design, and seismic design, and seismic issues in the design process are examined. Case studies of the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Loma Linda, California, and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, Japan, are presented. The seismic design process is described paying special attention to the configuration issues. The need is stressed for guidelines, codes, and regulations to ensure design solutions that respect and balance the full range of architectural, engineering, and material influences on seismic hazards.

  2. Facilities for radiotherapy with ion beams status and worldwide developments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five years after the first ion beam therapy in Berkeley around 25,000 cancer patients worldwide have been treated successfully. Ion accelerators, designed for nuclear research, delivered most of this treatment. The first hospital-based facility started operation in 1998 at Loma Linda California, the first for heavier ions at Chiba, Japan in 1994 and the first commercially delivered facilities started operation in 1998 at Kashiwa, Japan. In 2000, the Harvard Medical Centre, Boston, US, will commence operation and several new facilities are planned or under construction worldwide, although none in Australia. This paper will discuss the physical and biological advantages of ion beams over x-rays and electrons. In the treatment of cancer patients ion beam therapy is especially suited for localised tumours in radiation sensitive areas like skull or spine. Heavier ions are also effective in anoxic tumour cells (found around the normally oxygenated cell population). An additional advantage of the heavier carbo...

  3. Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical grado II y III: Estudio morfométrico de sus diferencias y relación con el Virus del Papiloma Humano

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco García, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    El propòsit del nostre treball és valorar morfomètricament les diferències existents entre la Neoplàsia Intraepitelial Cervical (CIN) grau 2 i 3, així com el tipus de Virus del Papil·loma Humà (VPH) present, estudiat mitjançant Hibridació in situ.Hem estudiat 66 peces quirúrgiques d'exèresi del coll uterí de pacients amb diagnòstic histològic de CIN 2 i 82 de CIN 3. Hem demostrat amb el nostre estudi que la superfície afectada en el coll cervical per CIN 3 és significativament més gran que la...

  4. Valor del ADN-VPH en el cribado de la población oportunista en el departamento 6 de Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Moya, María

    2012-01-01

    La infecció pel Virus del Papil.loma Humà (VPH) és la causa principal de gairebé tots els casos de càncer cervical. En països on s'apliquen de manera programada tècniques de detecció, hi ha una disminució de la incidència i la mortalitat del càncer cervical. La detecció del VPH és un avenç important per a la prevenció del càncer en permetre un diagnòstic precoç de lesions cancerígenes. És per això que, es va decidir estudiar durant un any a la població de pacients que acudien a les consultes ...

  5. A study of radon indoor concentration; Un estudio de concentracion de radon intramuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Ruiz, W.; Segovia, N.; Ponciano, G. [ININ, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was realized a study of radon concentration in houses of Mexico City and in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre of Salazar, State of Mexico. The radon determination in air was realized with solid nuclear track detectors and with Honeywell and Alpha guard automatic equipment. The results show that the majority of houses have values under 148 Bq/m{sup 3} obtaining some housings with upper values located in the Lomas zone. A study in smokers houses and another of controls showed very similar distributions. It was studied the day time fluctuations finding that radon increases considerably during the dawn. Some upper values obtained in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre were remedied with ventilation. (Author)

  6. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  7. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AT THE WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA, "NEVADO DE TOLUCA" MEXICO, DURING THE DRY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on grassland primary productivity for the wildlife protected area Nevado de Toluca (APFF Nevado de Toluca. We evaluated three communities in this area during dry season: Loma Alta, La Peñuela y Agua Blanca. Following Hodgson (1994, for this study we used exclusion cages. Vegetation was cut every 28 days during a five months sampling period. A randomized block design was used, where the blocks represented the grassland communities and the different months constituted treatments. The month of September showed the higher production (610.3 kg/ha DM. No significant differences were observed among communities (P >0.05. In conclusion, these communities have similar low primary productivity through the evaluation dry season months, which in addition was found lower in comparison to other areas, therefore livestock grazing in this region should be limited this season.

  8. Towards fully non-inductive current drive operation in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Crisanti, F.; Alper, B.

    2002-01-01

    Quasi steady operation has been achieved at JET in the high confinement regime with Internal Transport Barriers, ITBs. The ITBs' performances are maintained up to 11 s. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time, is already approaching a current resistive time. The high performance phase is limited only by plant constraints. The radial profiles of the thermal electron and ion pressures have steep gradients typically at mid-plasma radius. A large fraction of non-inductive current (above 80%) is sustained throughout the high performance phase with a poloidal beta exceeding unity. The safety factor profile plays an important role in sustaining the ITB characteristics. In this regime where the self-generated bootstrap current (up to LOMA) represents 50% of the total current, the resistive evolution of the non-monotonic q-profile is slowed down by using off-axis lower hybrid current drive. (authors)

  9. Absolute measurements methods for proton beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    A widespread interest in improving proton beam characteristics and related dosimetry became apparent in the recent years, even if the advantages of protons in radiotherapy were pointed out since 1946. The early treatments by proton beams were made for a long time on a small number of patients in very few accelerators sharing their use with nuclear-physics experiments. The first proton accelerator totally dedicated to radiotherapy was established just in 1990 at the Loma Linda Medical Center in the USA. A further reason of the slowly growing use of protons for therapy in the early years, was the lack of adequate means for accurate localization of the treatment volume. The potentialities of protons in imparting a largest part of their energy to very small volumes became exploitable only after the established clinical use of accurate imaging techniques such as based on CT, NMR, PET, etc

  10. A new Miocene baleen whale from Peru deciphers the dawn of cetotheriids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Felix G.; Lambert, Olivier; de Muizon, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Cetotheriidae are an iconic, nearly extinct family of baleen whales (Mysticeti) with a highly distinct cranial morphology. Their origins remain a mystery, with even the most archaic species showing a variety of characteristic features. Here, we describe a new species of archaic cetotheriid, Tiucetus rosae, from the Miocene of Peru. The new material represents the first mysticete from the poorly explored lowest portion of the highly fossiliferous Pisco Formation (allomember P0), and appears to form part of a more archaic assemblage than observed at the well-known localities of Cerro Colorado, Cerro los Quesos, Sud-Sacaco and Aguada de Lomas. Tiucetus resembles basal plicogulans (crown Mysticeti excluding right whales), such as Diorocetus and Parietobalaena, but shares with cetotheriids a distinct morphology of the auditory region, including the presence of an enlarged paroccipital concavity. The distinctive morphology of Tiucetus firmly places Cetotheriidae in the context of the poorly understood `cetotheres' sensu lato, and helps to resolve basal relationships within crown Mysticeti.

  11. Radiation tests of the EMU spacesuit for the International SpaceStation using energetic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Shavers, M.

    2001-06-04

    Measurements using silicon detectors to characterize theradiation transmitted through the EMU spacesuit and a human phantom havebeen performed using 155 and 250 MeV proton beams at the Loma LindaUniversity Medical Center (LLUMC). The beams simulate radiationencountered in space, where trapped protons having kinetic energies onthe order of 100 MeV are copious. Protons with 100 MeV kinetic energy andabove can penetrate many centimeters of water of other light materials,so that astronauts exposed to such energetic particles will receive dosesto their internal organs. This dose can be enhanced or reduced byshielding - either from the spacesuit or the self-shielding of the body -but minimization of the risk depends on details of the incident particleflux (in particular the energy spectrum) and on the dose responses of thevarious critical organs.

  12. A study of radon indoor concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Ruiz, W.; Segovia, N.; Ponciano, G.

    2000-01-01

    It was realized a study of radon concentration in houses of Mexico City and in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre of Salazar, State of Mexico. The radon determination in air was realized with solid nuclear track detectors and with Honeywell and Alpha guard automatic equipment. The results show that the majority of houses have values under 148 Bq/m 3 obtaining some housings with upper values located in the Lomas zone. A study in smokers houses and another of controls showed very similar distributions. It was studied the day time fluctuations finding that radon increases considerably during the dawn. Some upper values obtained in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre were remedied with ventilation. (Author)

  13. Boron isotopic composition of tertiary borate deposits in the Puna Plateau of the Central Andes, NW Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemann, Simone; Franz, Gerhard; Viramonte, Jose G.; Alonso, Ricardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The most important borate deposits in South America are concentrated in the Central Andes. The Neogene deposits are located in the Puna Plateau of N W Argentina. These continental deposits are stratiform in the tectonically deformed Tertiary rocks. The largest borate accumulations Tincalayu, Sijes and Loma Blanca are part of the Late Miocene Sijes Formation, composed by different evaporitic and clastic units. In the main borate units of each location different phases of borates dominate. In Tincalayu the mayor mineral is borax with minor amounts of kernite and other rare borate minerals (ameginite, rivadavite, etc.). The principal minerals in Loma Blanca are borax with minor ulexite and inyoite. In the two main units of Sijes hydroboracite and colemanite are the major minerals; inyoite and ulexite appear subordinately. The deposition of the borates is due to a strong evaporation in playa lakes, which were fed by boron bearing thermal fluids (Alonso and Viramonte 1990). From Loma Blanca we determined δ 11 B values of ulexite (- 6.3 %0), inyoite (-12.7 %0) and terrugite (-16.2 %0); and from Tincalayu the δ 11 B values of borax (-10.5 %0), tincal (-12.2 %0) kernite (-11.7 %0) and inderite (-15.4 %0). The borates of Sijes are hydroboracite (-16.8 %0 to -17.2 %0), ulexite (-22.4 %0) and inyoite (-28.5 %0 to -29.6 %0). In order to get information about the δ 11 B values and pH of a boron solution we analysed the thermal spring of Antuco. It has a δ 11 B of -12.5%0 at a pH of 7.9. The presently forming ulexite deposit has a δ 11 B of -22.4%0. Borates within one depositional unit show a decreasing δ 11 B value sequence from the Na-Borates to the Ca-Borates related to the boron coordination of the minerals (Oi et al. 1989). The difference in the δ 11 B values excludes the precipitation in equilibrium from solutions with constant pH. According to results from previous work on Neogene borates (Turkey, USA) we interpret the borate succession due to

  14. GENITAL CONDYLOMAS. PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Aslamazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the papilloma virus infection. As it became known in October 2008, the nobel prize in the field of medicine and physiology this year is awarded to the German doctor of Harald Zur Hausen who has proved the role of the human papilloma virus as causative factor of the cervical carcinoma. This is epoch making discovery because of human papilloma virus is most frequent of sexually transmitted infections. The authors demonstrated the high HPV prevalence. One of the most frequent manifestations of this infection is in more details presented pointed condy loma, clinical course of the disease and differential diagnostics of its various forms. Considering treatment inefficiency, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the only opportunity available to keep a human from the illness development is a specific immune prevention.Key words: papillomavirus infection, pointed condylomas, precancers, prevention.

  15. Radio alternativa y prácticas de memoria: experiencia del semillero Movimientos Sociales y Comunicación Alternativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Gallego

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of 2011, the Social Movements and AlternativeCommunication hotbed, from the Faculty of SocialCommunication for Peace of Universidad Santo Tomás, hasconducted a training work for researchers in the field of alternativecommunication, social movements and memory.From this exercise, this article is originated and it describes aresearch project developed by the members of the hotbed duringthe first half of 2012: “Alternative Communication andMemory”, which was based on the 1430 radial proposal. Thisproposal aimed to be linked to the Communicators Networkof San Cristóbal, Loma Sur, and to ask for the size of memorythat can be explored from alternative radio practices, understoodas communication spaces different from the traditionaland massive spaces. This article also refers to some classroomresearch on social movements and alternative media, to theextent that they expand and problematize the issues that thehotbed concerns on.

  16. Fauna Characterization of the Order Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera in Five Different of Localities of the Colombian Llanos Orientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fraija Fernández

    2006-01-01

    collection there were used butterfly nets and Vansorem-Rydon traps. Samples were collected in two seasons of years 2003, 2004 and 2005 with four days of visit in each sample. Exists a report of 469 specimens distributed in six families as follows Hesperidae, Papilionidae,  Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. In total thisfamilies were distributed in 37 genus and 45 species. Because of the composition of ropaloceros' fauna San Antonio, Con Esto Tengo and Loma Linda locations presented the greatest similarities followed by Buena Vista and Cafam, according to UPGMA analysis through Jaccard coefficient. The obtained data reveals the richness in the fauna found in fragments of ecosystems proper of the colombian llanos orientales, and the importance of following and monitoring, them and the necessity of management and conservation plans for this areas.

  17. Legitiming psychiatrists rather than curing patients. The shock therapy in Buenos Aires, Argentina (1930-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Golcman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explain the theoretical and clinical use of shock therapies in Argentine psychiatric field, particularly in the province of Buenos Aires between 1930 and 1970. It is argued that it is necessary to study the theoretical and clinical psychiatric work, in order to learn how psychiatrists interpreted mental pathology. Thus two distinct scenarios are analyzed: first academia, emphasizing on medical texts expressing discussions held at congresses, conferences, university chairs, and secondly in hospital settings, represented by a population of chronic patients in a hospital on the outskirts of the Capital Federal, the Esteves Hospital of Lomas de Zamora. The use of shock therapy in the hands of psychiatrists, changed the way of understanding madness and transformed the daily course of hospitals. Therefore, the presence of such therapies was relevant to legitimize the discipline, regardless of the “effectiveness” with patients.

  18. Mobile satellite services for public safety, disaster mitigation and disaster medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freibaum, Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.

  19. Towards fully non-inductive current drive operation in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaudon, X. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Crisanti, F. [Association Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy); Alper, B. [Euratom-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2002-01-01

    Quasi steady operation has been achieved at JET in the high confinement regime with Internal Transport Barriers, ITBs. The ITBs' performances are maintained up to 11 s. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time, is already approaching a current resistive time. The high performance phase is limited only by plant constraints. The radial profiles of the thermal electron and ion pressures have steep gradients typically at mid-plasma radius. A large fraction of non-inductive current (above 80%) is sustained throughout the high performance phase with a poloidal beta exceeding unity. The safety factor profile plays an important role in sustaining the ITB characteristics. In this regime where the self-generated bootstrap current (up to LOMA) represents 50% of the total current, the resistive evolution of the non-monotonic q-profile is slowed down by using off-axis lower hybrid current drive. (authors)

  20. Did mud contribute to freeway collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Friberg, Paul A.; Busby, Robert; Field, Edward F.; Jacob, Klaus H.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    At least 41 people were killed October 17 when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, Calif., collapsed during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Seismologists studying aftershocks concluded that soil conditions and resulting ground motion amplification were important in the failure of the structure and should be considered in the reconstruction of the highway.Structural design weaknesses in the two-tiered freeway, known as the Cypress structure, had been identified before the tragedy. The seismologists, from Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., and the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., found that the collapsed section was built on fill over Bay mud. A southern section of the Cypress structure built on alluvium of Quaternary age did not collapse (see Figure 1).

  1. Survivin-T34A: molecular mechanism and therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Aspe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan R Aspe, Nathan R WallCenter for Health Disparities Research and Molecular Medicine, Division of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin's threonine 34 to alanine (T34A mutation abolishes a phosphorylation site for p34(cdc2–cyclin B1, resulting in initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cancer cells; however, it has little known direct effects on normal cells. The possibility that targeting survivin in this way may provide a novel approach for selective cancer gene therapy has yet to be fully evaluated. Although a flurry of work was undertaken in the late 1990s and early 2000s, only minor advances on this mutant have recently taken place. We recently described that cells generated to express a stable form of the mutant protein released this survivin-T34A to the conditioned medium. When this conditioned medium was collected and deposited on naive tumor cells, conditioned medium T34A was as effective as some chemotherapeutics in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and when combined with other forms of genotoxic stressors potentiated their killing effects. We hope with this review to revitalize the T34A field, as there is still much that needs to be investigated. In addition to determining the therapeutic dose and the duration of drug therapy required at the disease site, a better understanding of other key factors is also important. These include knowledge of target cell populations, cell-surface receptors, changes that occur in the target tissue at the molecular and cellular level with progression of the disease, and the mechanism and site of therapeutic action.Keywords: survivin, T34A, apoptosis, proliferation, therapy

  2. Ciclos tectónicos, volcánicos y sedimentarios del Cenozoico del sur de Mendoza-Argentina (35°-37°S y 69°30'W Cenozoic tectonic, volcanic and sedimentary cycles in southern Mendoza Province, Argentina (35°-37°S y 69°30'W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Combina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la estratigrafía sedimentaria y volcánica asociada a los procesos de deformación de las unidades con edades del Cretácico Tardío al Plioceno Tardío aflorantes en el sur de Mendoza, Argentina, entre los ríos Atuel y Barrancas en el ámbito de la Cordillera Principal. Se proponen tres ciclos tectovolcano-sedimentarios, limitados por discordancias regionales generadas por la acción de las Fases Incaica, Quechua, Pehuenche y Diaguita. El primer ciclo comprende las unidades volcánicas y sedimentarias del Cretácico Superior hasta el Oligoceno Superior (Formaciones Roca y Pircala-Coihueco y el Ciclo Eruptivo Molle. El segundo abarca desde el Oligoceno Tardío al Mioceno Tardío (Formación Agua de la Piedra y las Andesitas Huincán. Por último, el tercer ciclo comprende desde el Mioceno Tardío al Plioceno (Formaciones Butaló, Pincheiras, Loma Fiera, Río Diamante y las Andesitas La Brea.This article describes the volcanic and sedimentary stratigraphy and their associated proces-ses with the Andean deformation during the Late Cretaceous to Late Pliocene. The studied área is located between the Atuel and Barrancas rivers and the Main Cordillera, in southern Mendoza, Argentina. Three tectovolcano-sedimentary cycles limited by regional discordances (Inca, Quechua, Pehuenche and Diaguita are proposed. The first comprises Upper Oligocene to Upper Miocene volcanic and sedimentary units (Roca and Pircala-Coihueco formations and the Volcanic Cycle Molle. The second extends from the Late Oligocene to Late Miocene (Agua de la Piedra Formation and the Huincán Andesites volcanic cycle. Finally, the third cycle ranges from the Late Miocene to Pliocene (Butaló, Pincheiras, Loma Fiera and Rio Diamante formations and La Brea Andesites.

  3. Metales traza en el agua de poro de suelos bajo producción intensiva de bovinos de carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Susana Heredia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El agua de poro, que esta en contacto con el suelo, puede ser una herramienta útil para predecir el comportamiento ambiental de los distintos componentes que puede almacenar la zona no saturada y transmitir a los acuíferos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: evaluar los metales traza y la evolución del agua de poro en columnas de suelo no disturbadas y caracterizar las relaciones existentes entre las distintas variables edáficas analizadas. Estudiar la influencia que tiene sobre las mismas la posición topográfica y el tiempo de confinamiento animal y, determinar las especies iónicas presentes en el agua de poro. Para esto se tomaron muestras no disturbadas de suelos en columnas de Hapludoles, en tres situaciones topográficas y dos tiempos de confinamiento animal. Se analizaron pH, CE y elementos traza en suelos y agua de poro. Se realizo una especiación química para estudiar la saturación en las distintas sales. La cantidad de metales traza lixiviadas fue del 2,1% del total de iones lixiviados. Con el aumento del numero de lixiviados el pH disminuye en la solución del suelo y se desaliniza. Topográficamente en las lomas, en coincidencia con los comederos es donde hay mayor presencia de metales traza. No hubo diferencias significativas en el contenido de los mismos según el tiempo de ocupación, aunque en masa el total de metales que se lixiviarían en las lomas fue de 161 kg.ha-1.año-1 en el C1 y 204 kg.ha-1.año-1 en el C2. El hierro y el cinc son los metales componentes traza que aparecieron con mayor abundancia en los lixiviados.

  4. Bronchial thermoplasty: implementing best practice in the era of cost containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan LD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Laren D Tan,1 Nicholas Kenyon,2 Ken Y Yoneda,2 Samuel Louie2 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Hyperbaric and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, USA Abstract: Increasing dependence on advanced technologies in the 21st century has created a dilemma between the practice and business of medicine. From information technology to robotic surgery, new technologies have expanded treatment possibilities and have potentially improved patient outcomes and safety. Simultaneously, their escalating costs limit access for certain patients and health care facilities. Nevertheless, medical decisions should not simply be based on cost. Input from physicians and other health care specialists as well as adherence to best practice position statements, are vital to implementing truly cost-effective strategies in medicine. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT, a US Food and Drug Administration approved bronchoscopy procedure in difficult-to-control persistent asthma, is a prime example of a new technology facing cost and implementation challenges. We discuss the specific indications and contraindications for BT and review recent real-world experiences that can provide the foundation for building a comprehensive asthma program that provides BT for difficult-to-control asthma patients who fail national guideline treatment recommendations after an adequate clinical trial of one. We also offer insight into the barriers to implementing a successful BT program and strategies for overcoming them. Keywords: asthma, severe asthma, severe refractory asthma, biologic resistant asthma, BT

  5. Heavy metals and pesticide exposure from agricultural activities and former agrochemical factory in a Salvadoran rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Edgar; Ribó, Alexandre; Mejía, Roberto; López, Alejandro; Belteton, Wilfredo; Comandari, Aimee; Orantes, Carlos M; Pleites, Ernesto B; Hernández, Carlos E; López, Dina L

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide handling in farming activities involves substantial hazards for the rural population and for the environment. In Latin America, it is estimated that the population at risk of being affected by heavy metals is over 4 million. This research describes the different types of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals in a rural population (Loma del Gallo), considering both environmental and occupational exposure. This study consists of an inspection in a former pesticide factory (QUIMAGRO), analysis of heavy metals in samples from surface and ground water in the community close to the factory, and a survey to the local population about their perceptions of pesticide exposures. Containers with 34.6 tons of chemicals improperly stored were identified in the former factory and removed by the government. Arsenic and cadmium were found in groundwater, and the highest values were 0.012 and 0.004 mg/l, respectively. These contaminants were also detected in most surface water samples, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.0001 mg/l, respectively. Results of the survey show that of the 44 participants 42 % were farmers. Farmers used 19 different pesticide products containing 11 active ingredients. The most used active ingredients were paraquat (65 %), methamidophos (35 %), and atrazina (29 %). Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use personal protective equipment. In addition to the pesticides used in the agriculture of the area, pesticide containers were removed from the QUIMAGRO area, but the pollution was still present at time of sampling and it is evident by the odor of the site. Surface water had the major concentration of heavy metals than the groundwater. Loma del Gallo population has been exposed to toxic pesticide from QUIMAGRO and agriculture for many years. The farmers carry out mishandling of pesticides and they not use PPE.

  6. El suicidio en la novela romántica cubana

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    Abdeslam Azougarh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Souligner les traits spécifiques de pays récemment indépendants, avec l'intention de créer chez les différents secteurs de la population hispano-américaine une mentalité appropriée pour la consolidation de nations nouvelles et souveraines est une des caractéristiques les plus importantes du romantisme hispano-américain. Il s’agit d’examiner la dimension idéologique de l’exposition nationaliste et américaniste des écrivains en nous basant sur la représentation du suicide principalement dans le roman romantique cubain Cecilia Valdés o la Loma del ángel de Cirilo Villaverde.Destacar los rasgos diferenciales de los países recién independizados con el objetivo de crear entre los distintos sectores de la población hispanoamericana de una mentalidad apropiada para la consolidación de naciones nuevas y soberanas es una de las características más importantes del romanticismo hispanoamericano.Se trata de examinar la dimensión ideológica del planteamiento nacionalista y americanista de los escritores basándonos en la representación del suicidio principalmente en la novela romántica cubana Cecilia Valdés o la Loma del ángel de Cirilo Villaverde.

  7. Discrete Scaling in Earthquake Precursory Phenomena: Evidence in the Kobe Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Sornette, Didier; Wakita, Hiroshi; Tsunogai, Urumu; Newman, William I.; Saleur, Hubert

    1996-10-01

    We analyze the ion concentration of groundwater issuing from deep wells located near the epicenter of the recent earthquake of magnitude 6.9 near Kobe, Japan, on January 17, 1995. These concentrations are well fitted by log-periodic modulations around a leading power law. The exponent (real and imaginary parts) is very close to those already found for the fits of precursory seismic activity for Loma Prieta and the Aleutian Islands. This brings further support for the general hypothesis that complex critical exponents are a general phenomenon in irreversible self-organizing systems and particularly in rupture and earthquake phenomena. Nous analysons les fluctuations de concentrations ioniques de l'eau issue de puits profonds situés à proximité de l'épicentre du récent tremblement de terre de magnitude 6.9 proche de Kobe au Japon, le 17 janvier 1995. Ces fluctuations sont bien reproduites par des modulations log-périodiques autour d'une loi de puissance. Les parties réelle et imaginaire de l'exposant sont très proches de celles trouvées précédemment pour les tremblements de terre de Loma Prieta et des Iles Aléoutiennes. Ces résultats renforcent l'hypothèse que des exposants critiques complexes sont une propriété générale des phénomènes de croissance irréversible, et en particulier des problèmes de rupture et des tremblements de terre.

  8. Los diagnósticos y las historias clínicas de mujeres en los hospicios de Buenos Aires entre 1900-1930 The diagnoses and clinical histories of women in the psychiatric hospital of Buenos Aires between 1900-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Eva Navarlaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la singularidad de los aspectos ligados a los diagnósticos psiquiátricos en las mujeres alienadas entre los años 1900 y 1930 en Argentina; que permiten ubicar diferencias en los supuestos etiológicos que explican la enfermedad mental entre hombres y mujeres. Se analizan los diseños de las historias clínicas de mujeres del Hospital Nacional de Alienadas (actual Hospital Moyano y del Asilo de Lomas de Zamora (actual Hospital Interzonal Esteves de Temperley. Se cruzan los datos obtenidos con fuentes primarias del campo de la medicina y la psiquiatría que trabajan sobre la particularidad de la alienación en la mujer. Se indagan las causas y explicaciones singulares que se han sostenido en éste contexto histórico y su diferencia con las de los enfermos varones para la misma época.This paper analyzes the uniqueness of the associated issues with psychiatric diagnoses in alienated women between 1900 and 1930 in Argentina that allow locating differences in the etiological assumptions that explain the mental illness between men and women. Designs of clinical records of women in the Hospital Nacional de Alienadas (now Hospital Moyano and the Asilo de Lomas de Zamora (now Hospital Interzonal Esteves de Temperley are analyzed. Data obtained with primary sources of medicine and psychiatry is intersected, which work on the particularity of alienation in women. It is inquired the causes and singular explanations that have been held in this historical context and their difference in those male patients for the same period.

  9. Inpatient charges and mental illness: Findings from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1999–2007

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    Jim E Banta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Jim E Banta1, Ivorie Belk1, Kedon Newton1, Abdullah Sherzai21Department of Health Policy and Management, 2Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Inpatient costs related to mental illness are substantial, though declining as a percentage of overall mental health treatment costs. The public sector has become increasingly involved in funding and providing mental health services. Nationwide Inpatient Sample data for the years 1999–2007 were used to: 1 examine Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance charges related to mental illness hospitalizations, including trends over time; and 2 examine trends in mental comorbidity with physical illness and its effect on charges. There were an estimated 12.4 million mental illness discharges during the 9-year period, with Medicare being the primary payer for 4.3 million discharges, Medicaid for 3.3 million, private insurance for 3.2 million, and 1.6 million for all other payers. Mean inflation-adjusted charges per hospitalization were US$17,528, US$15,651, US$10,539, and US$11,663, respectively. Charges to public sources increased for schizophrenia and dementia-related discharges, with little private/public change noted for mood disorders. Comorbid mood disorders increased dramatically from 1.5 million discharges in 1999 to 3.4 million discharges in 2007. Comorbid illness was noted in 14.0% of the 342 million inpatient discharges during the study period and was associated with increased charges for some medical conditions and decreased charges for other medical conditions.Keywords: hospital charges, comorbidity, mood disorders, dementia, schizophrenia

  10. Observaciones sobre la ecología poblacional del ratón doméstico en Lachay, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBSERVATIONS SUR L'ÉCOLOGIE DES POPULATIONS DE SOURIS DOMESTIQUES DE LACHAY, PÉROU. L’étude de l’écologie des populations de souris domestiques (Mus musculus des “lomas de Lachay” met en évidence leur réaction aux variations climatiques et florales au début et pendant la saison sèche. Dans les trois secteurs étudiés, situés à des altitudes différentes, la densité de population de cette espèce diminue d’une façon très importante durant la saison sèche. Les mâles sont toujours plus nombreux que les femelles. La distribution des individus dans l’espace ne montre pas de différences significatives entre les trois secteurs. Ces résultats suggèrent que l’abondance de la végétation est probablement un des facteurs les plus importants dans la régulation de la densité de population de cette espèce. De plus, les femelles semblent plus sensibles que les mâles aux conditions climatiques difficiles de la saison sèche. Se estudiaron algunos aspectos de la ecología poblacional del ratón doméstico (Mus musculus durante el inicio y transcurso de la estación seca en las lomas de Lachay. La abundancia poblacional del ratón doméstico disminuyó drásticamente en los tres sectores estudiados a diferentes altitudes durante la estación seca. Las proporciones de sexo mostraron que el número de machos fue siempre mayor al número de hembras. El ámbito de hogar no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 en los tres sectores estudiados. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la abundancia de plantas es probablemente uno de los factores más importantes en la regulación de la población de esta especie. Además, se formula la hipótesis que las hembras son más sensibles que los machos a las difíciles condiciones climáticas de la estación seca. NOTES ON THE POPULATION ECOLOGY OF THE DOMESTIC MOUSE IN LACHAY, PERU. In this article we present some aspects related to the population ecology of Mus musculus at

  11. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  12. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    Juan Barranco Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) jbarranc@fisica.ugto.mx Guillermo Contreras Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Merida (Mexico) jgcn@mda.cinvestav.mx David Delepine Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) delepine@fisica.ugto.mx Mauro Napsuciale Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) mauro@fisica.ugto.mx The XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields (MWPF) took place from 20-26 October 2011, in the city of León, Guanajuato, México. This is a biennial meeting organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society designed to gather specialists in different areas of high energy physics to discuss the latest developments in the field. The thirteenth edition of this meeting was hosted by the Department of Cultural Studies of Guanajuato University in a nice environment dedicated to the Arts and Culture. The XIII MWPF was organized by three working groups who organized the corresponding sessions around three topics. The first one was Strings, Cosmology, Astroparticles and Physics Beyond the Standard Model. In this category we included: Cosmic Rays, Gamma Ray Bursts, Physics Beyond the Standard Model (theory and experimental searches), Strings and Cosmology. The working group for this topic was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra and Myriam Mondragón. The second topic was Hadronic Matter which included Perturbative QCD, Jets and Diffractive Physics, Hadronic Structure, Soft QCD, Hadron Spectroscopy, Heavy Ion Collisions and Soft Physics at Hadron Colliders, Lattice Results and Instrumentation. The working group for this topic was integrated by Wolfgang Bietenholz and Mariana Kirchbach. The third topic was

  13. Amphibole stability using new thermobarometric formulations on calc-alkaline magmas of Volcán Doña Inés, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, R. A.; Walker, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Location and delineation of subvolcanic magma chambers have heavily relied on geophysical, particularly seismic, data. However, new and improved thermobarometric formulations can yield equally important constraints on the depths and conditions of magmatic storage and movement. The objective of this study was to utilize the single phase thermobarometric algorithms of Ridolfi et al. (2010) to determine the conditions of amphibole stability in the volcanic system beneath Volcán Doña Inés, a large stratovolcano from the Mid-Late Miocene magmatic arc in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, Chile. According to Moulds (1989), Doña Inés had three main eruptive vents: the main central vent; a second vent low on its flanks, called Loma Doña Inés; and a sister cone, called Gemelas. The barometric, thermometric, hygrometric, and oxygen fugacity formulations of Ridolfi et al. (2010) are based on the total aluminum (AlT) content, the silicon index (Si*), the octahedral aluminum index ([6]Al*), and the magnesium index (Mg*) of the amphibole grains, respectively. For this study, 120 amphiboles from 20 andesite-dacite samples from Doña Inés were analyzed approximately 30 times per grain with an electron microprobe. Amphibole compositions range from tschermakitic pargasite, to magnesiohornblende, to magnesiohastingsite, with the central vent crystals exhibiting the widest variability. Preliminary results from the thermobarometer indicate that amphibole crystallization beneath the central vent occurred between 213-928 ± 102 MPa and 872-1016 ± 22 *C, with magmatic water contents of approximately 5.2-9.9 ± 1.5 wt%. Conditions of formation of amphibole at Loma Doña Inés were between 230-405 ± 37 MPa and 901-980 ± 22 *C, with approximately 5.4-6.2 ± 0.9 wt% magmatic H2O and were similar at the sister cone Gemelas: 259-309 ± 34 MPa, 902-952 ± 22 *C, and 5.1-6.2 ± 0.9 wt% magmatic H2O. Temperatures obtained from amphibole stability agree well with the previous from

  14. Mentoring Cambodian and Lao health professionals in tobacco control leadership and research skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, L Hyder; Job, J; Knutsen, S; Montgomery, S; Petersen, F; Rudatsikira, E; Singh, P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the programme was to ultimately affect public health practice and policy in the Kingdom of Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) by training key health professionals to conduct tobacco control research. Encouraged by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global partnership formed to build effective leadership to develop and guide national tobacco control agendas. The partners were the Ministries of Health (Cambodia and Lao PDR), non-government organisations (Adventist Development and Relief Agency in Cambodia and Laos) and an academic institution (Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA). 16 health professionals, 10 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR, were selected by local advisory committees to enter a two-year, intensive tobacco research graduate certificate and research training programme. We developed a "Global Tobacco Control Methods" (GTCM) 28 unit certificate programme that was offered in five sessions from September 2003 to September 2005 at the National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. As part of their coursework, the 16 trainees actively participated in the development and implementation of two research projects. In the first project, "Healthy Doc Healthy Patient" (HDHP), trainees adapted an existing, self-administered questionnaire designed to assess health practices and beliefs of medical students in Cambodia and Lao PDR. The second project involved the design of a national prevalence of tobacco use and health beliefs study in Cambodia using a multi-stage, cluster sample method. Trainees were sponsored to attend and present at international tobacco control conferences to enhance their awareness of the tobacco epidemic. As of September 2005, 14 trainees (8 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR) completed the courses in the GTCM certificate programme. The HDHP study sampled four medical school classes (years 3, 4, 5 and 6) in both Cambodia (n = 330, 71.1% response rate

  15. Ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se desconocen muchos aspectos de la ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus (Dixon & Huey 1970 y P. gerrhopygus (Weigmann, 1834. En el presente trabajo investigamos algunos aspectos del nicho de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas (RNP. Se evaluó y comparó la distribución, uso de hábitats (nicho espacial, horarios de actividad (nicho temporal y dieta (nicho trófico de estas dos especies de gecónidos. Adicionalmente, se estimó la oferta de recursos alimentarios mediante el uso de trampas pit-fall. Phyllodactylus angustidigitus estuvo presente en la mayoría de las localidades evaluadas, y fue registrado en los hábitats de desierto y lomas. Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus fue registrado únicamente en la Península de Paracas y en el oasis de Sta. Cruz, en los hábitats de desierto, lomas y oasis. Ambas especies fueron registradas en actividad sólo en horarios nocturnos. La dieta de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus estuvo caracterizada principalmente por el consumo de insectos. Ambas especies presentaron dietas de tipo generalistas, debido a la amplitud del nicho trófico, y oportunistas, debido a la semejanza en la composición de sus dietas con la oferta estimada de recursos alimentarios en el medio ambiente. Las dietas de ambas especies fueron semejantes. Adicionalmente, la cercanía filogenética entre P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus producen semejanzas en el nicho espacial (uso de hábitats, temporal (horarios de actividad, y en sus dietas. Estas importantes similitudes en el uso de los recursos del medio, pueden derivar en una potencial competencia por los recursos de su medio ambiente entre estos gecónidos simpátricos. La información proporcionada en este trabajo demuestra la necesidad de diseñar una adecuada estrategia para garantizar el estado de conservación de P. angustidigitus.

  16. Desarrollo reproductivo del “amancay” Ismene amancaes (Amaryllidaceae en su ambiente natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery L. Suni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ismene amancaes “amancay” es una especie bulbosa característica de las formaciones vegetales denominadas “Lomas” de la costa central del Perú. Emerge al iniciar el periodo de neblina que ocurre en junio, durante el invierno. Presenta flores grandes amarillas y con agradable aroma, muy apreciadas y de valor ornamental. A fin de conocer el desarrollo reproductivo de Ismene amancaes en su ambiente natural se hicieron muestreos mensuales de sus bulbos durante todo un año. Se realizaron observaciones del interior del bulbo para determinar el inicio de la formación y desarrollo de las yemas florales y se relacionó con la formación de sus hojas y la humedad edáfica. Se puede indicar que las primeras yemas florales se hacen evidentes el año anterior a su emergencia, en el mes de diciembre, alcanzando el máximo número de yemas florales en febrero (periodo de verano. La diferenciación de las yemas florales se inicia luego de haberse formado las hojas que saldrán el siguiente año y en el periodo de máximo descenso de la humedad edáfica y de incremento de la temperatura (noviembre. La inflorescencia es la única ramificación que se forma mientras que la yema apical continua formando hojitas. En junio, la pequeña inflorescencia alcanza el cuello del bulbo y avanza seguido por las hojas formadas antes de la inflorescencia siendo envolventes a la inflorescencia misma y a la yema foliar apical. La yema foliar continuará su desarrollo y en julio dos de sus hojas salen del bulbo, las siguientes aun pequeñas quedan dentro y brotarán en el periodo de Lomas del siguiente año. Se puede señalar que el éxito reproductivo de Ismene amancaes en su etapa inicial es dependiente de los fotoasimilados acumulados como biomasa del bulbo en el periodo de Lomas anterior.

  17. Late Quaternary geomorphic history of a glacial landscape - new sedimentary and chronological data from the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.-H.; Preusser, F.; Zech, R.; Ilgner, J.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    Throughout the Central Andes, glacial landscapes have long been used for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary glaciations and landscape evolution. Much work has focused on the Andes in Peru, Chile and the Bolivian Altiplano, whereas relatively little data has been published on glaciation history in the eastern Andean ranges and slopes. Even less is known with regard to the postglacial evolution of these glacial landscapes. In the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), local maximum advances probably peaked around 20-25 ka BP and were followed by significant readvances between ~12-16 ka BP. This generally points to temperature controlled maximum glacial advances along the humid eastern slopes of the Central Andes, which is supported by glacier-climate-modelling studies. However, most studies include only marginal information with regard to the complex geomorphic and sedimentary situation in the Cordillera de Cochabamba. Furthermore, the chronological results are afflicted with several methodological uncertainties inherent to surface exposure dating and call for application of alternative, independent age dating methods. Therefore this study aims at i) documenting and interpreting the complex glacial geomorphology of the Huara Loma valley in the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), ii) analyzing the involved units of glacial sediments, and iii) improving the chronological framework by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating (14C). For this purpose, geomorphic mapping was combined with field documentation of sedimentary profiles. The involved sediments were subject to geochemical and mineralogical analysis in order to deduce information on their erosional and weathering histories. In addition, the interpretation of OSL ages from glacial and proglacial sediments integrated several methodological procedures with regard to sample preparation and statistical analysis of the measurements in order to increase the degree of confidence. These

  18. Evidence-based research: understanding the best estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer JG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Janet G Bauer,1 Sue S Spackman,2 Robert Fritz,2 Amanjyot K Bains,3 Jeanette Jetton-Rangel3 1Advanced Education Services, 2Division of General Dentistry, 3Center of Dental Research, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry, Loma Linda, CA, USA Introduction: Best estimates of intervention outcomes are used when uncertainties in decision making are evidenced. Best estimates are often, out of necessity, from a context of less than quality evidence or needing more evidence to provide accuracy. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to understand the best estimate behavior, so that clinicians and patients may have confidence in its quantification and validation. Methods: To discover best estimates and quantify uncertainty, critical appraisals of the literature, gray literature and its resources, or both are accomplished. Best estimates of pairwise comparisons are calculated using meta-analytic methods; multiple comparisons use network meta-analysis. Manufacturers provide margins of performance of proprietary material(s. Lower margin performance thresholds or requirements (functional failure of materials are determined by a distribution of tests to quantify performance or clinical competency. The same is done for the high margin performance thresholds (estimated true value of success and clinician-derived critical values (material failure to function clinically. This quantification of margins and uncertainties assists clinicians in determining if reported best estimates are progressing toward true value as new knowledge is reported. Analysis: The best estimate of outcomes focuses on evidence-centered care. In stochastic environments, we are not able to observe all events in all situations to know without uncertainty the best estimates of predictable outcomes. Point-in-time analyses of best estimates using quantification of margins and uncertainties do this. Conclusion: While study design and methodology are variables known to validate the quality of

  19. Status and perspectives of the studies on anomalous phosphene perceptions in the frame of the ALTEA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Carozzo, Simone; Casolino, Marco; de Martino, Angelo; di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Paci, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Adele; Sannita, Walter G.; Zaconte, Veronica; Schardt, Dieter; Khan, Elias; Marechal, Francoise; Nelson, Gregory; Obenaus, Andre; Titova, Elena

    One of the major aims of the ALTEA program is to study the anomalous phosphenes per-ceptions reported by astronauts since Apollo 11 lunar flight. This is pursued via space and ground-based experiments. The ALTEA detection systems in the ISS allow concurrent mea-surement of the particles travelling through the brain/eyes of the astronauts (discriminating Z and trajectory of the ions), as well as the electrophysiological brain activity, including the retinogram, and the instances of phosphene perceptions. These measurements permitted to document the electrophysiological responses to particle passages concomitant with phosphene perception with links between the electrophysiological signals and ions traveling through the eye. We have also measured the average number of ions impinging in the eye / brain of the astronaut per minute. On ground-based experiments we have measured the mouse electrophys-iological responses to very short (¡ 5 ms) 12C bursts in the eyes, and the summation effect of the 12C/light stimuli concomitance. We also studied hadron therapy patients reporting phosphenes when irradiated. At the carbon-ion treatment unit at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) we also em-ployed electrophysiological recording, while at the proton therapy center in Orsay, France and at Loma Linda (CA, USA) we are collecting subjective data from treated patients. In the GSI case we have been able to measure electrophysiological responses to ion bursts and to link the perceptions to specific irradiated regions. At Loma Linda the perceived phosphenes correlate temporally with individual accelerator spills, so that the patients can count them. They appear bright white or intense cobalt blue (essentially no other colors) depending on the portion of the eye/optic nerve receiving dose. Foul or burning smells and taste illusions that may last from days to more than a week were also reported during irradiation. In Orsay patients routinely perceive flashes, mostly light blue, but also white

  20. The effect of humor on short-term memory in older adults: a new component for whole-person wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Schwab, Ernie; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Deshpande, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    For older adults, the damaging effects of aging and stress can impair the ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor, with its associated mirthful laughter, can reduce stress and cortisol, a stress hormone. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampus neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether watching a humorous video had an effect on short-term memory in an older population. The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California. The research team recruited 20 normal, healthy, older adults, 11 males and 9 females. The humor group (n = 10, mean = 69.3 ± 3.7 y) self-selected 1 of 2 humorous videos--a Red Skelton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos--and watched it for 20 min. A control group (n = 10, mean = 68.7 ± 5.5 y) sat calmly for 20 min and were not allowed to read, sleep, or talk on a cell phone. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess short-term memory--learning ability, delayed recall, and visual recognition. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at predetermined times. Learning ability improved by 38.5% and 24.0% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P = .014). Delayed recall improved by 43.6% and 20.3% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P =.029). Within the humor group, delayed recall (43.6%) was significant compared with learning ability (38.5%) (P = .002). At 3 predetermined time points, significant decreases in salivary cortisol were observed in the humor group (P = .047, P = .046, and P = .062, respectively). The study's findings suggest that humor can have clinical benefits and rehabilitative implications and can be implemented in programs that support whole-person wellness for older adults. Learning ability and delayed recall are important to these individuals for a better quality of life--considering mind, body, spirit, social, and economic

  1. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Sadjadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed-Ali Sadjadi1,2, Navin Jaipaul1,21Jerry L Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, 2Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01 in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS] and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001, and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02 and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and

  2. Avoiding secondary skin graft donor site morbidity in the fibula free flap harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul D; Fleck, Terry; Heffelfinger, Ryan; Blackwell, Keith E

    2008-12-01

    To compare donor site morbidity in patients who have undergone fibula free flap reconstruction in which the skin graft was taken from the expected cutaneous paddle of the fibula with the known complications of the popular technique of obtaining a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) from a secondary donor site. Cohort study. The tertiary care centers at Loma Linda University Medical Center and University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center. From September 1, 2006, to March 30, 2007, 30 patients underwent fibula free flap harvest by 2 surgeons at separate tertiary care centers. Twenty-one of those procedures took place at the University of California, Los Angeles, and 9 at Loma Linda University. Patients included 15 men (50%) and 15 women (50%), with a mean age of 58 (range, 19-88) years. All 30 patients underwent fibula free flap harvest with a split-thickness skin graft (graft thickness, 0.04 cm), obtained from osteocutaneous paddle using a 5.1-cm-wide dermatome, as well as oral cavity and oropharyngeal reconstruction with the de-epithelialized skin paddle. Measures of donor site morbidity, including graft failure and wound breakdown, and measures of recipient site morbidity, including flap failure, hardware complications, intraoral complications, and the need for additional surgery. Of the 30 patients who underwent this procedure, 4 had partial skin graft failures, for a complete skin graft survival of 87%. There were no complete skin graft losses. Regarding the fibula osteocutaneous free flap, there were no complete flap losses, 1 skin paddle necrosis that required debridement, 2 postoperative orocutaneous fistulas, 1 case of infected/extruded hardware, and 1 adhesion formation that required additional surgery for lysis of adhesion and placement of the split-thickness skin graft. The outlined novel technique has similar rates of free flap survival and skin graft take compared with previously described methods. Harvesting the skin graft over the expected

  3. Validation study of a computer-based open surgical trainer: SimPraxis® simulation platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran LN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Linh N Tran,1 Priyanka Gupta,2 Lauren H Poniatowski,2 Shaheen Alanee,3 Marc A Dall’Era,4 Robert M Sweet21Department of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 2Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Technological advances have dramatically changed medical education, particularly in the era of work-hour restrictions, which increasingly highlights a need for novel methods to teach surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a novel, computer-based, interactive, cognitive simulator for training surgeons to perform pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND.Methods: Eight prostate cancer experts evaluated the content of the simulator. Contextual aspects of the simulator were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The experts and nine first-year residents completed a simulated PLND. Time and deviations were logged, and the results were compared between experts and novices using the Mann–Whitney test.Results: Before training, 88% of the experts felt that a validated simulator would be useful for PLND training. After testing, 100% of the experts felt that it would be more useful than standard video training. Eighty-eight percent stated that they would like to see the simulator in the curriculum of residency programs and 56% thought it would be useful for accreditation purposes. The experts felt that the simulator aided in overall understanding, training indications, concepts and steps of the procedure, training how to use an assistant, and enhanced the knowledge of anatomy. Median performance times taken by experts and interns to complete a PLND procedure on the simulator were 12.62 and 23.97 minutes, respectively. Median deviation from the incorporated procedure pathway for experts was 24.5 and was 89 for novices

  4. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  5. An imaging informatics-based system to support animal studies for treating pain in spinal cord injury utilizing proton-beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mao, Xiao W.; Kotha, Nikhil

    2015-03-01

    In previous years we demonstrated an imaging informatics system designed to support multi-institutional research focused on the utilization of proton radiation for treating spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. This year we will demonstrate an update on the system with new modules added to perform image processing on evaluation data using immunhistochemistry methods to observe effects of proton therapy. The overarching goal of the research is to determine the effectiveness of using the proton beam for treating SCI-related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning. The research is a joint collaboration between three major institutes, University of Southern California (data collection/integration and image analysis), Spinal Cord Institute VA Healthcare System, Long Beach (patient subject recruitment), and Loma Linda University and Medical Center (human and preclinical animal studies). The system that we are presenting is one of its kind which is capable of integrating a large range of data types, including text data, imaging data, DICOM objects from proton therapy treatment and pathological data. For multi-institutional studies, keeping data secure and integrated is very crucial. Different kinds of data within the study workflow are generated at different stages and different groups of people who process and analyze them in order to see hidden patterns within healthcare data from a broader perspective. The uniqueness of our system relies on the fact that it is platform independent and web-based which makes it very useful in such a large-scale study.

  6. The implementation of base isolation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of base isolation as an innovative means of providing earthquake resistance to structural systems was met initially with a great deal of skepticism by the engineering community. Today, however, it is on the cutting edge of seismic-resistance engineering, as evidenced by the rapidly increasing number of buildings, both new construction and retrofit, using this earthquake-resistant technique. It is now generally accepted that a base-isolated building will perform better than a conventional fixed-base building in moderate or strong earthquakes. In the structures in which it has been used so far, the major benefit has been to reduce the effects of seismic forces on contents and internal equipment, more than justifying the increased cost of isolated construction. This review will mainly cover the development and application of base isolation to buildings in the US. The acceptance of this approach has been slow, but as a result of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake there is an increasing interest in its use for repair of buildings damaged in that earthquake and for the retrofit of historic buildings that are considered vulnerable to earthquake loading. Base isolation may play a major role in the future in projects as diverse as advanced nuclear reactors and public housing in developing countries

  7. Feeding holy bodies: A study on the social meanings of a vegetarian diet to Seventh-day Adventist church pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago National Geographic magazine reported that the Loma Linda Seventh-day Adventist population is one of the communities in the world that lives longer and with a higher quality of life thanks in part to the biological benefits of a vegetarian diet. Along with National Geographic, other media outlets have reported since then that the Adventist religious community considers a plant-based diet a very important factor for a healthy lifestyle. Adventists have been promoting this type of diet worldwide for more than 150 years. This article is an attempt to understand from a social-scientific perspective the origin of the importance they lend to diet and see whether this helps explain why approximately 150 years after the founding of the church, diet remains crucial for Adventists around the world. The conclusion proposed is that Adventists understood the adoption of a plant-based diet as a special divine instruction in order to nourish their new identity as a special people differentiated from the rest of society. This was possible through a desecularisation of diet that placed food in the moral category of the Adventist belief system. Keywords: Seventh-day Adventist Church; vegetarian diet; religion; health; desecularisation; identity

  8. Developments in the design of proton and ion accelerators for medical use

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1998-01-01

    Accelerators and medicine have been close companions since cyclotrons first made biological studies with particle beams possible in the 1930s. Later improvements, such as H-minus (H-) extraction, made cyclotrons the foremost, commercially-available producer of medical isotopes. Although the world's first hospital-based proton treatment centre, Loma Linda, uses a synchrotron, the cyclotron is now al so establishing a dominance in proton centres using passive beam spreading. However, two trends indicate a slightly different direction. The first is towards light ions and the second is towards 'penc il' beam scanning with active energy control. Together, these point to a new generation of synchrotrons with slow-beam-extraction systems that allow time for on-line dosimetry and provide very smooth spills. There are several variants for the slow extraction including the use of a betatron core and rf knockout. There are also methods for improving the spill quality such as rf channelling buckets a nd rf noise. The use...

  9. Publiskās runas izmantošana mutvārdu iemaņu pilnveidošanā

    OpenAIRE

    Zorģe, Inta

    2008-01-01

    Diplomdarbs risina publiskās runas izmantošanas problēmas, lai attīstītu mutvārdu iemaņas. Diplomdarbs sastāv no ievada, četrām nodaļām, literatūras saraksta un pielikumiem. Diplomdarbs ietver sevī atbilstošas teorētiskās literatūras apskatu un analīzi, kā arī atspoguļo iegūto teorētisko zināšanu pielietojumu publiskās runas iemaņu attīstīšanai praksē. Pētījumā analizētas publiskās runas iezīmes, veidi, kā arī attiecīgo iemaņu realizēšana praksē. Darbā uzsvērta skolotāja loma runa...

  10. On the Seismic Response of Protected and Unprotected Middle-Rise Steel Frames in Far-Field and Near-Field Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Foti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several steel moment-resisting framed buildings were seriously damaged during Northridge (1994; Kobe (1995; Kocaeli, Turkey (1999, earthquakes. Indeed, for all these cases, the earthquake source was located under the urban area and most victims were in near-field areas. In fact near-field ground motions show velocity and displacement peaks higher than far-field ones. Therefore, the importance of considering near-field ground motion effects in the seismic design of structures is clear. This study analyzes the seismic response of five-story steel moment-resisting frames subjected to Loma Prieta (1989 earthquake—Gilroy (far-field register and Santa Cruz (near-field register. The design of the frames verifies all the resistance and stability Eurocodes’ requirements and the first mode has been determined from previous shaking-table tests. In the frames two diagonal braces are installed in different positions. Therefore, ten cases with different periods are considered. Also, friction dampers are installed in substitution of the braces. The behaviour of the braced models under the far-field and the near-field records is analysed. The responses of the aforementioned frames equipped with friction dampers and subjected to the same ground motions are discussed. The maximum response of the examined model structures with and without passive dampers is analysed in terms of damage indices, acceleration amplification, base shear, and interstory drifts.

  11. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane

    2013-01-01

    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  12. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  13. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  14. Constraint-induced aphasia therapy versus intensive semantic treatment in fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilssens, Ineke; Vandenborre, Dorien; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Visch-Brink, Evy; Mariën, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The authors compared the effectiveness of 2 intensive therapy methods: Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT; Pulvermüller et al., 2001) and semantic therapy (BOX; Visch-Brink & Bajema, 2001). Nine patients with chronic fluent aphasia participated in a therapy program to establish behavioral treatment outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CIAT or BOX). Intensive therapy significantly improved verbal communication. However, BOX treatment showed a more pronounced improvement on two communication-namely, a standardized assessment for verbal communication, the Amsterdam Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (Blomert, Koster, & Kean, 1995), and a subjective rating scale, the Communicative Effectiveness Index (Lomas et al., 1989). All participants significantly improved on one (or more) subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (Graetz, de Bleser, & Willmes, 1992), an impairment-focused assessment. There was a treatment-specific effect. BOX treatment had a significant effect on language comprehension and semantics, whereas CIAT treatment affected language production and phonology. The findings indicate that in patients with fluent aphasia, (a) intensive treatment has a significant effect on language and verbal communication, (b) intensive therapy results in selective treatment effects, and (c) an intensive semantic treatment shows a more striking mean improvement on verbal communication in comparison with communication-based CIAT treatment.

  15. Bērnu mārketinga attīstība Latvijas lielāko pārtikas produktu ražotāju tirgus darbībās

    OpenAIRE

    Lūse, Ieva

    2010-01-01

    Uzņēmumi visā pasaulē arvien vairāk sāka apzināties bērnu potenciālu tirgū un aktivizē savu komunikāciju ar bērnu auditoriju. Bērni vienlaicīgi tirgū pilda vairākas lomas kā patērētāji, iniciatori, ietekmētāji un lēmēji par pirkumu un pircēji šodien un nākotnē, kļūstot par daudzu uzņēmumu produkcijas pamata patērētājiem. Ņemot vērā tēmas aktualitāti autore par maģistra darba mērķi izvirza apzināt un analizēt lielāko Latvijas pārtikas produktu ražotāju aktivitāti bērnu mārketing...

  16. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-01-01

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004)

  17. Draft environmental statement related to the Western Nuclear, Inc. Split Rock Mill (Fremont County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of Source Material License SUA-56 (with amendments) issued to Western Nuclear, Inc. (WNI), for the operation of the Split Rock uranium mill near Jeffrey City and the Green Mountain ion-exchange facility, both in Fremont County, Wyoming. The license also permits possession of material from past operations at four ancillary facilities in the Gas Hills mining area--the Bullrush, Day-Loma, Frazier-Lamac, and Rox sites (Docket No. 40-1162). The Split Rock mill is an acid-leach, ion-exchange and solvent-extraction uranium-ore processing mill with a design capacity of 1540 MT (1700 tons) of ore per day. WNI has proposed by license amendment request to increase the storage capacity of the tailings ponds in order to permit the continuation of present production rates of U 3 O 8 through 1996 using lower-grade ores. Conditions for the protection of the environment include reclamation, tailings, stabilization, archeological survey, monitoring, etc

  18. Final environmental statement related to the Western Nuclear, Inc., Split Rock Uranium Mill (Fremont County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of Source Material License SUA-56 (with amendments) issued to Western Nuclear, Inc. (WNI), for the operation of the Split Rock Uranium Mill near Jeffrey City and the Green Mountain Ion-Exchange Facility, both in Fremont County, Wyoming. The license also permits possession of material from past operations at four ancillary facilities in the Gas Hills mining area - the Bullrush, Day-Loma, Frazier-Lamac, and Rox sites (Docket No. 40-1162). However, although heap leaching operations were previously authorized at Frazier-Lamac, there has never been any processing of material at this site. The Split Rock mill is an acid-leach, ion-exchange and solvent-extraction uranium-ore processing mill with a design capacity of 1540 MT (1700 tons) of ore per day. WNI has proposed by license amendment request to increase the storage capacity of the tailings ponds in order to permit the continuation of present production rates of U 3 O 8 through 1996 using lower-grade ores

  19. Corrosion of bare carbon steel as a passive sensor to assess moisture availability for biological activity in Atacama Desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Luis; Davila, Alfonso F; Soliz, Alvaro; Saldivia, Jessica

    2018-02-28

    Here we consider that the corrosion of polished bared metal coupons can be used as a passive sensor to detect or identify the lower limit of water availability suitable for biological activity in Atacama Desert soils or solid substrates. For this purpose, carbon steel coupons were deposited at selected sites along a west-east transect and removed at predetermined times for morphological inspection. The advantage of this procedure is that the attributes of the oxide layer (corrosion extent, morphology and oxide phases) can be considered as a fingerprint of the atmospheric moisture history at a given time interval. Two types of coupons were used, long rectangular shaped ones that were half-buried in a vertical position, and square shaped ones that were deposited on the soil surface. The morphological attributes observed by SEM inspection were found to correlate to the so-called humectation time which is determined from local meteorological parameters. The main finding was that the decreasing trend of atmospheric moisture along the transect was closely related to corrosion behaviour and water soil penetration. For instance, at the coastal site oxide phases formed on the coupon surface rapidly evolve into well-crystallized species, while at the driest inland site Lomas Bayas only amorphous oxide was observed on the coupons.

  20. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  1. Demographic study of two population outbreaks of Elasmoderus wagenknechti (Liebermann) (Orthoptera: Tristiridae) in the transitional desert of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Pizarro, Jorge; Vega, Solange; Vásquez, Hernán; Elgueta, Mario; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Under certain environmental conditions, several species of grasshoppers inhabiting rangeland areas (e.g., inter-valleys) of the Chilean transitional desert can irrupt demographically. One of them is Elasmoderus wagenknechti (Liebermann), an endemic species. We studied two outbreaks occurred in 1996 and 1999. The objectives of the research were to (i) estimate some demographic parameters associated with the aforementioned events, and (ii) compare between them the population parameters. The parameters we studied were density (ind/m(2)), sexual proportion, female fertility (i.e., eggs/female), and the relationship eggs/female versus female size. Density (ind/m(2)) ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 in 1996 and from 0.5 to 0.6 in 1999. ANOVA-tests registered differences in density among study sites and between years. In some of the study sites, females were more abundant than males (e.g., Lomas del Sauce). Females fertility ranged from 27 to 39 eggs per female, with significant differences among sites in 1996 but not in 1999. For females of 30-50 mm body size, a linear relationship was detected between egg number/female and body size. It is concluded that the E. wagenknechti outbreaks are site-specific in the study area and that the demographic parameters examined show a high variability among sites and between events.

  2. A knowledge acquisition process to analyse operational problems in solid waste management facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokas, Ioannis M; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios C

    2006-08-01

    The available expertise on managing and operating solid waste management (SWM) facilities varies among countries and among types of facilities. Few experts are willing to record their experience, while few researchers systematically investigate the chains of events that could trigger operational failures in a facility; expertise acquisition and dissemination, in SWM, is neither popular nor easy, despite the great need for it. This paper presents a knowledge acquisition process aimed at capturing, codifying and expanding reliable expertise and propagating it to non-experts. The knowledge engineer (KE), the person performing the acquisition, must identify the events (or causes) that could trigger a failure, determine whether a specific event could trigger more than one failure, and establish how various events are related among themselves and how they are linked to specific operational problems. The proposed process, which utilizes logic diagrams (fault trees) widely used in system safety and reliability analyses, was used for the analysis of 24 common landfill operational problems. The acquired knowledge led to the development of a web-based expert system (Landfill Operation Management Advisor, http://loma.civil.duth.gr), which estimates the occurrence possibility of operational problems, provides advice and suggests solutions.

  3. Wear Calculation for Sliding Friction Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Springis G.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ums Mūsdienu ražošanas procesa viens no pamatmērķiem ir produkcijas kvalitātes līmeņa paaugstināšana, tas nozīmē arī dažādu izstrādājumu nepieciešamā kalpošanas laika nodrošināšanu un nodilumizturības palielināšanu. Svarīga loma šī uzdevuma sasniegšanā ir salāgojamo detaļu kalpošanas laika prognozēšanai, kas ir ļoti aktuāls jautājums, jo attīstoties dažādām ražošanas, kā arī mēriekārtu tehnoloģijām, kļūst iespējams arvien precīzāk noteikt nepieciešamos datus, kuri vēlāk tiek izmantoti arī analītiskajos aprēķinos.

  4. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.

  5. Seismic response of transamerical building. I. Data and preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Safak, E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present preliminary analyses of a set of acceleration response records obtained during the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (Ms = 7.1) from the 60-story vertically tapered, pyramid-shaped Trans-america Building-a landmark of San Francisco. The building was instrumented in 1985 with 22 channels of synchronized sensors consisting of 13 uniaxial accelerometers deployed throughout the structure and connected to a central recording system and three triaxial strong-motion accelerographs at three different levels of the structure. No free-field accelerographs are at the site. The acceleration records permit the study of the behavior of this unique structure. The predominant translational response of the building and the associated frequency at approximately 0.28 Hz are identified from the records and their Fourier amplitude spectra. The records do not indicate any significant torsional motion. However, there is rocking type soil-structure interaction, and an associated frequency of approximately 2.0 Hz is identified from the Fourier amplitude spectra of the differential motions between the ground level and that at the basement. In addition, the response spectra for the basement motions indicate significant resonance in both directions at a period of approximately 0.5 seconds.

  6. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTIONS IN SPINAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA MORALES LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the factors associated with postoperative infections in spinal surgery. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted in the spine surgery department of the Medical Unit of High Specialty (UMAE at the Hospital of Traumatology and Orthopedics Lomas Verdes, Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS between January 01, 2013 and June 30, 2014 through medical records of the service and the records of clinical care. Data were gathered in accordance with the records of patients with infection after spinal surgery. The factors considered were age group, etiologic agent, surgical site, type of treatment, bleeding volume and pharmacotherapy. Frequency and descriptive statistic was conducted. The rank sum test with the Wilcoxon test for a single sample was performed in different measurements; Pearson's correlation was calculated and all p<0.05 values were considered significant. Results: The sample was composed of 14 patients of which 11 were female (78.6% and 3 male (21.4% with predominance of surgical area in the lumbar and dorsolumbar region. There was a significant correlation between the surgical time and the amount of bleeding with p<0.001. Conclusions: It was clear that the infections present in patients after spinal surgery are multifactorial. However, in this study the correlation between time of surgery and bleeding amount had the highest importance and relevance.

  7. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC's seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility's structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a open-quotes reality basisclose quotes for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures

  8. Development of Optimal Viscous Dampers for RC Structures in Near Field Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthanpurayil, Arun M.; Reynolds, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches show that more than 50% of the economic loss in earthquakes is due to damage of non-structural elements: $8 billion loss in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and $18.5 billion in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. An approach to reduce the economic loss during a seismic event without compromising the structural safety aspect is to incorporate special mechanical devices like fluid viscous dampers in the parent structural system. A recent study carried out to assess the efficacy of viscous dampers in reducing nonstructural damage of low, medium and high rise structures shows that; linear dampers are well suited for low rise category whereas the medium and high rise category requires nonlinear dampers. In this paper an analytical approach is adopted to derive the optimal combination of damper design parameters for all the three categories of structure subjected to near field ground motion. Linear time history analysis by direct time integration was carried out for the linear viscous dampers, while the parameters of the nonlinear viscous dampers were obtained using nonlinear modal time history analysis (Fast Nonlinear analysis). The results of the study are presented in the form of a set of design curves which can be used for the initial selection of parameters for Damper design

  9. Modelamiento de material particulado emitidos por coquización. Municipio de Samaca, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramos Moreno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelamiento de la dispersión de los contaminantes en la atmósfera es una herramienta que permite realizar predicciones a escalas urbanas y regionales de la calidad del aire en este caso para sólidos totales en suspensión (PST y material particulado (MP10 provenientes de la zona productora de coque del municipio de Samacá compuesta por las veredas Loma Redonda, La Chorrera y Salamanca. Para el modelamiento se tuvo en cuenta el modelo de dispersión Gaussiana a través del software AERMOD. Para la evaluación de los contaminantes, se analizaron dos ambientes de modelación: urbano y rural. Se determinaron las concentraciones de PST y MP10 (μg/m3 durante 18 días por medio de monitoreo a través de dos estaciones ubicadas en el hospital del municipio y en la vereda salamanca encontrando que superan los límites permisibles (100 y 50 μg/m3 fijados en la Resolución 610 de 2010 del MAVDT. Se analizó la información meteorológica y topográfica complementada con el inventario de fuentes de emisión como información de entrada para el proceso de modelamiento de contaminantes atmosférica emitida por coquización.

  10. Cilvēka attēlojums nacionālsociālisma laikā: vācu cilvēka tēls plakātos

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemele, Agnese

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „Cilvēka attēlojums nacionālsociālisma laikā: vācu cilvēka tēls plakātos” tiek noskaidrota sievietes, vīrieša un jaunieša loma sabiedrībā. No 1933. līdz 1945. gadam Vācijā pastāvošā nacionālsociālistiskās ideoloăija ietekmēja propagandas saturu, kā arī noteica sabiedrības locekĜu domāšanas veidu un uzskatus. Darba gaitā tiek aplūkotas tā laika Vācijā valdošās politiskās idejas, mediju un propagandas, kā arī Trešā reiha valodas īpatnības. Darba galvenais pētījumu...

  11. VA announces aggressive new approach to produce rapid improvements in VA medical centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA announced steps that it is taking as part of an aggressive new approach to produce rapid improvements at VA’s low-performing medical facilities nationwide (1. VA defines its low-performing facilities as those medical centers that receive the lowest score in its Strategic Analytics for Improvement and Learning (SAIL star rating system, or a one-star rating out of five. The SAIL star rating was initiated in 2016 and uses a variety of measures including mortality, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, hospital complications, physician productivity and efficiency. A complete listing of the VA facilities, their star ratings and the metrics used to determine the ratings is available through the end of fiscal year 2017 (2. Based on the latest ratings, the VA currently has 15 one-star facilities including Denver, Loma Linda, and Phoenix in the Southwest (Table 1. Table 1. VA facilities with one-star ratings …

  12. Brine chemistry and control of adverse chemical reactions with natural gas production. Annual report, July 1990-June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, J.E.; Kan, A.T.; Cao, X.; Hunter, M.; Tomson, M.B.

    1991-08-01

    A significant quantity of brine is produced along with nearly all gas production. In addition to disposal, three specific chemistry problems occur: (1) scale formation; (2) carbon dioxide corrosion; (3) solids or turbidity production. Additionally, there are numerous specific analytical chemistry issues which require attention. Several research oriented small test squeezes were performed in the Delee Well. Results of these test squeezes were used to better design a full-sized squeeze at the O'Daniels No. 2 Well in the Alta Loma East field, near Galveston, Texas. Sulfate scale formation is common in offshore gas production, because of the high sulfate content in sea water. Preliminary work has been completed on sulfate scale prediction for the common scales of calcium, strontium and barium. These predictive algorithms have been developed for field use and are based upon readily measured brine parameters. Corresponding laboratory work on sulfate inhibition has been started using a newly developed high temperature and pressure flow through apparatus. Flow through core tests have been conducted to determine the important mechanisms of inhibition retention and release in the field. These results are summarized along with their major implications to squeeze design. Also, a new method has been developed and a patent application filed for low level phosphonate inhibition analysis in produced brines.

  13. [Assessment of progesterone levels on the day of the hCG administration as a predictor of success of antagonist stimulation protocols for IVF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably-Ambe, Alberta; Roque-Sánchez, Armando Miguel; Soriano-Ortega, Karla Patricia; Carballo-Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán-Monterrosas, Leonor

    2015-03-01

    There are reports of deleterious effect when progesterone concentration is high during the follicular phase in cycles of in vitro fertilization. In our environment has not carried out a study to evaluate the pregnancy rate compared with progesterone concentration on the day of application of hCG. To evaluate the pregnancy rate and outcome of in vitro fertilization cycle according to serum progesterone concentration on the day of application of hCG. A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 486 cycles of in vitro fertilization was done in the Centro Mexicano de Fertilidad of CEPAM (Hospital Angeles de las Lomas) from January 2009 to February 2014. We included all cases where it was used a stimulation protocol GnRH antagonist flexible scheme. When levels of progesterone are high, those of estradiol are also high and the number of retrieved oocytes and oocyte quality are lower. There was no difference in the percentage of fertilization, but at higher concentration of progesterone lower percentage of embryonic segmentation. Difference was recorded in the pregnancy rate only when progesterone concentration on the day of hCG application was > 4 ng/mL. Pregnancy rate decreases when the concentration of progesterone on the day of hCG application is ≥ 4 ng/mL.

  14. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  15. Library of molecular associations: curating the complex molecular basis of liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maass Thorsten

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology approaches offer novel insights into the development of chronic liver diseases. Current genomic databases supporting systems biology analyses are mostly based on microarray data. Although these data often cover genome wide expression, the validity of single microarray experiments remains questionable. However, for systems biology approaches addressing the interactions of molecular networks comprehensive but also highly validated data are necessary. Results We have therefore generated the first comprehensive database for published molecular associations in human liver diseases. It is based on PubMed published abstracts and aimed to close the gap between genome wide coverage of low validity from microarray data and individual highly validated data from PubMed. After an initial text mining process, the extracted abstracts were all manually validated to confirm content and potential genetic associations and may therefore be highly trusted. All data were stored in a publicly available database, Library of Molecular Associations http://www.medicalgenomics.org/databases/loma/news, currently holding approximately 1260 confirmed molecular associations for chronic liver diseases such as HCC, CCC, liver fibrosis, NASH/fatty liver disease, AIH, PBC, and PSC. We furthermore transformed these data into a powerful resource for molecular liver research by connecting them to multiple biomedical information resources. Conclusion Together, this database is the first available database providing a comprehensive view and analysis options for published molecular associations on multiple liver diseases.

  16. [Laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Martin, Antonio; Díaz-Pizarro-Graf, José Ignacio; Muñoz-Hinojosa, Jorge Demetrio; Valdés-Castañeda, Alberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Omar; Bertrand, Martin Marie

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is currently accepted and widespread worldwide. However, according tol the surgical experience on this approach, surgical and short-term oncologic results may vary. Studies comparing laparoscopic vs. open surgery in our population are scarce. To determine the superiority of the laparoscopic vs. open technique for colorectal cancer surgery. This retrospective and comparative study collected data from patients operated on for colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2011 at the Angeles Lomas Hospital, Mexico. A total of 82 patients were included in this study; 47 were operated through an open approach and 35 laparoscopically. Mean operative time was significantly lower in the open approach group (p= 0.008). There were no significant difference between both techniques for intraoperative bleeding (p= 0.3980), number of lymph nodes (p= 0.27), time to initiate oral feeding (p= 0.31), hospital stay (p= 0.12), and postoperative pain (p= 0.19). Procedure-related complications rate and type were not significantly different in both groups (p= 0.44). Patients operated laparoscopically required significantly less analgesic drugs (p= 0.04) and less need for epidural postoperative analgesia (p= 0.01). Laparoscopic approach is as safe as the traditional open approach for colorectal cancer. Early oncological and surgical results confirm its suitability according to this indication.

  17. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  18. Noliktavu vadības sistēmas (WMS) ieviešana un ieviešanas rezultātu analīze loģistikas uzņēmumā AS ,,Dominante Loģistikas Sistēma

    OpenAIRE

    Morozovs, Gļebs

    2010-01-01

    Darbā „Noliktavu vadības sistēmas (WMS) ieviešana un ieviešanas rezultātu analīze loģistikas uzņēmumā AS „Dominante Loģistikas Sistēma„ tiek pētīta noliktavu vadības sistēmas ievešanas ietekme uz loģistikas uzņēmumu. Darbā izpētīts loģistikas saturs un funkcionālās sfēra, aplūkoti noliktavu un transporta loģistika pamatprincipi un mijiedarbība, analizētas loģistikas attīstības tendences un loma Latvijas tautsaimniecība. Izpētīti noliktavu un transporta loģistikas instrumenti, raksturota infor...

  19. Organic pollutants in the coastal environment off San Diego, California. 2: Petrogenic and biogenic sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.; Yu, C.C.; Zeng, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results from the measurements of aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons in the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) effluents are mainly petroleum derived; those in the Tijuana River runoff have largely originated from terrestrial plants with visible petroleum contamination; and those in the sea surface microlayer, sediment traps, and sediments at various coastal locations off San Diego have mostly resulted from biogenic contributions with enhanced microbial products in the summer season. Rainfall in the winter season appeared to amplify the inputs from terrestrial higher plants to the coastal areas. The PLWTP discharged approximately 3.85 metric tons of n-alkanes (C 10 -C 35 ) in 1994, well below the level (136 metric tons) estimated in 1979. The input of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the Tijuana River was about 0.101 metric tons in 1994. Diffusion, solubilization, evaporation, and microbial degradation seemed partially responsible for the difference in the concentrations and compositions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in different sample media, although the relative importance of each mechanism cannot be readily discerned from the available data. The results from analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbon compositional indices are generally consistent with those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  20. Final Report “Physiological, demographic, competitive and biogeochemical controls on the response of California’s ecosystems to environmental change”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulden, Michael L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-02-08

    The Loma Ridge Global Change Experiment is a large, well-replicated water and nitrogen input manipulation in the Santa Ana Mountain foothills that operated with DOE support from 2006 to 2015. The experiment considers the effects of increased and decreased water input and increased N input on two adjacent ecosystem types: California Annual Grassland (GL), which is dominated by exotic, Eurasian grasses and forbs, and Coastal Sage Shrubland (CSS), which is dominated by native, drought deciduous, perennial shrubs. The experiment proceeded in two phases: "Phase I Severe treatment", and "Phase II Return to ambient". Phase I showed very rapid change in species composition or ANPP with altered water or N input (low resistance), whereas Phase II showed a very rapid return to initial conditions once ambient water or N input were restored (high resilience). The severe drought treatment killed most of the shrubs in the dry plots and opened the canopy to herbaceous species, but this damage was ephemeral, and the shrubland community is recovering through the mechanisms and patterns that more typically mediate recovery from crown fire. The pattern of low resistance and high resilience carries implications for other "global change experiments", which have often also seen large and rapid treatment effects (low resistance), but have less frequently considered the subsequent recovery or resilience of the system.

  1. Izpildes pamatrādītāju modelēšana un implementēšanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nozīmīga loma organizācijas darbības uzlabošanā un novērtēšanā ieņem izpildes pamatrādītāji. Tie palīdz novērtēt organizācijas darbību mērot nodefinētos mērķus tādā veidā nosakot vai nodefinētie mērķi tiek sasniegti. Lai novērtētu organizācijas darbību, nepieciešams izveidot indikatoru modeli. Maģistra darbā “Izpildes pamatrādītāju modelēšana un implementēšanas iespējas” apskatītas literatūrā pieejamās izpildes pamatrādītāju modeļa izveidošanas metodes un izveidots indikatoru modelis izmantoj...

  2. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  3. Accelerated Monte Carlo system reliability analysis through machine-learning-based surrogate models of network connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.E.; Song, J.; Work, D.B.

    2017-01-01

    The two-terminal reliability problem in system reliability analysis is known to be computationally intractable for large infrastructure graphs. Monte Carlo techniques can estimate the probability of a disconnection between two points in a network by selecting a representative sample of network component failure realizations and determining the source-terminal connectivity of each realization. To reduce the runtime required for the Monte Carlo approximation, this article proposes an approximate framework in which the connectivity check of each sample is estimated using a machine-learning-based classifier. The framework is implemented using both a support vector machine (SVM) and a logistic regression based surrogate model. Numerical experiments are performed on the California gas distribution network using the epicenter and magnitude of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake as well as randomly-generated earthquakes. It is shown that the SVM and logistic regression surrogate models are able to predict network connectivity with accuracies of 99% for both methods, and are 1–2 orders of magnitude faster than using a Monte Carlo method with an exact connectivity check. - Highlights: • Surrogate models of network connectivity are developed by machine-learning algorithms. • Developed surrogate models can reduce the runtime required for Monte Carlo simulations. • Support vector machine and logistic regressions are employed to develop surrogate models. • Numerical example of California gas distribution network demonstrate the proposed approach. • The developed models have accuracies 99%, and are 1–2 orders of magnitude faster than MCS.

  4. Latvijas Komercbanku pasīvās operācijas, to nozīme stabilitātes nodrošināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Supe, Gita

    2014-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir izanalizēt banku pasīvo operāciju nozīmi Latvijas komercbanku stabilitātes nodrošināšanā, kā arī apskatīt, kādi ir banku pasīvo operāciju ietekmējošie faktori, un kā tie ietekmē Latvijas komercbanku darbību. Lai sasniegtu izvirzīto mērķi darba gaitā tika veikti šādi uzdevumi: •raksturotas banku pasīvās operācijas un loma stabilitātes nodrošināšanā; •izpētīti Latvijas komercbanku pasīvi laika periodā 2010. – 2013.g. •izanalizēta banku pasīvo operāciju faktoru ietekm...

  5. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  7. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  8. Breeding ecology of the southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, in an agrosystem of south–eastern Spain: the surprisingly excellent breeding success in a declining population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Rueda, G.; Abril-Colon, I.; Lopez-Orta, A.; Alvarez-Benito, I.; Castillo-Gomez, C.; Comas, M.; Rivas, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, is declining at the Spanish and European level. One cause of this decline could be low reproductive success due to low availability of prey in agricultural environments. To investigate this possibility we analysed the breeding ecology of a population of southern shrike in an agrosystem in Lomas de Padul (SE Spain). Our results suggest the population is declining in this area. However, contrary to expectations, the population showed the highest reproductive success (% nests in which at least one egg produces a fledgling) reported for this species to date (83.3%), with a productivity of 4.04 fledglings per nest. Reproductive success varied throughout the years, ranging from 75% in the worst year to 92.9% in the best year. Similarly, productivity ranged from 3.25 to 5.0 fledglings per nest depending on the year. Other aspects of reproductive biology, such as clutch size, brood size, and nestling diet, were similar to those reported in other studies. Based on these results, we hypothesise that the determinant of population decline acts on the juvenile fraction, drastically reducing the recruitment rate, or affecting the dispersion of adults and recruits. Nevertheless, the exact factor or factors are unknown. This study shows that a high reproductive success does not guarantee good health status of the population. (Author)

  9. Šausmu estētika E.A.Po darbos

    OpenAIRE

    Pērkone, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Bailes ir viena no spēcīgākajām cilvēka emocijām, tādēļ tās tiek aplūkotas daudzos literatūras veidos, sākot no folkloras un beidzot ar šausmu stāstiem. Viens no labakājiem šausmu stāstu autoriem ir amerikānis Edgars Alans Po. Viņa devums literatūrā tiek vērtēts pretrunīgi, tādēļ ir interesanti tuvāk izpētīt Po darbu īpatnības. Šajā bakalaura darbā tiek apskatīta šausmu literatūras veidu attīstība un E.A. Po vieta un loma šajā procesā. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir atrast šausmu literatūras e...

  10. Late Cenozoic basin evolution and fold-thrust deformation in the southern Central Andes: Initial constraints from synorogenic deposits of the Precordillera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, M.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Stockli, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Precordillera region of the Argentine Andes, Cenozoic shortening associated with flattening of the Pampean segment of the subducting Nazca plate has resulted in a series of thin skinned fold-thrust systems that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin deposits. The kinematic and temporal evolution of the Andean Precordillera can be approached through detailed analyses of the sedimentary fill now preserved in intermontane regions and the bedrock low-temperature thermochronology of the fold-thrust belt. In this project, we focus on Neogene foreland basin fill exposed in the central and eastern Precordillera along the San Juan River (Quebrada Albarracín and Pachaco regions), on the western flank of the Sierra Talacasto, and in the Loma de las Tapias area near the Ullum dam. The sedimentary successions exposed in these regions record the hinterland development of the Frontal Cordillera (detrital zircon provenance and composition of sandstone and conglomeratic units), regional volcanism (pyroclastic flows and tuffaceous sandstone units), and initial construction of the Precordillera (fault cutoff relationships, growth strata, and paleocurrent changes). We investigate the development and subsequent partitioning and deformation of these synorogenic sections using sediment provenance (detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, conglomerate clast counts, sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements), facies analysis of measured stratigraphic successions, and initial apatite (U-Th)/He cooling histories to constrain the age of uplift-induced exhumation of successive thrust sheets in the Andean Precordillera.

  11. Demographics of US pediatric contact dermatitis registry providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Alina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Children are as likely as adults to be sensitized and reactive to contact allergens. However, the prevailing data on pediatric allergic contact dermatitis are quantitatively and qualitatively limited because of a narrow geographic localization of data-reporting providers. The aim of the study was to present the first quarter results from the Loma Linda Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry focused on registered providers who self-identified as providing care for pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) within the United States. The US providers were invited to join the registry via completion of an online, secure, 11-question registration survey addressing demographics and clinical practice essentials. The presented results reflect data gathered within the first quarter of registry recruitment; registration is ongoing. Of 169 responders from 48 states, the majority of providers were female (60.4%), academic (55.6%), and dermatologists (76.3%). Based on individual provider averages, the minimum cumulative number of pediatric patch-test evaluations performed each year ranged between 1372 and 3468 children. The Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry provides a description of the current leaders in the realm of pediatric ACD and gaps, which are in need of attention. The registry allows for a collaborative effort to exchange information, educate providers, and foster investigative research with the hope of legislation that can reduce the disease burden of ACD in US children.

  12. Exam stressors, modulating variables and academic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was raised four objectives: a to establish the profile of stress descriptive review of the higher education students, b identify areas that cause more stress on the students of higher education when presenting a review c distinguish socio-demographic variables and situational which provide significant differences in stress examination of students in higher education d determining the relationship between stress examination and the number of subjects disapproved of the students in higher education. It is based on the model theoretically systemic cognoscitivism academic stress which is derived from the slope of transaccionalista Research Program Person-environment. To achieve these goals, a study was conducted transectional not experimental and correlational through the implementation of the Inventory Stress Test to 343 students, of the Preparatory Lomas of the city of Durango, in the state of Durango, Mexico. Its main results allow establishing a descriptive profile of stress examination of students in higher education, as well as confirm the modulatory effect of the variables and gender semester and the positive correlation between stress and the number of examination subject disapproved.

  13. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  14. Corrosion of Bare Carbon Steel as a Passive Sensor to Assess Moisture Availability for Biological Activity in Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Luis; Davila, Alfonso F.; Soliz, Alvaro; Saldivia, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    In this work we suggest the corrosion of polished bared metal coupons as a passive sensor to detect or identify the lower limit of water availability that could be suitable for biological activity in the Atacama Desert on soil or solid substrates. For this purpose, carbon steel coupons were deposited in selected sites along a west-east transect and removed at predetermined times for morphological inspection. The advantage of this procedure is that the attributes of the oxide layer (corrosion extent, morphology and oxide phases) can be considered as a fingerprint of the atmospheric moisture history at a given time interval. Two types of coupons were used, a long rectangular shape that are half-buried in a vertical position, and square shape that are deposited on the soil surface. The morphological attributes observed by SEM inspection is correlated to the so-called humectation time which is determined from local meteorological parameters. The main result is that the decreasing trend of atmospheric moisture along the transect is closely related to corrosion behavior and water soil penetration. For instance, while in the coastal site oxide phases formed on the coupon surface rapidly evolve to well- crystallized species, in the driest inland site Lomas Bayas only amorphous oxide is observed.

  15. Kansai dialekts Japānas populārajā kultūrā – anime un manga.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubene, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Kansai dialekts Japānas populārajā kultūrā - anime un manga” ir veltīts Kansai dialekta lomas izpētei šajos populārās kultūras medijos. Pētījums atspoguļo stereotipus, kas mūsdienu japāņu sabiedrībā saistās ar Kansai dialektu un tā tipisku runātāju. Tiek apskatīti anime un mangas personāži kā šo stereotipu nesēji. Darbs sastāv no četrām daļām. Pirmā daļa sniedz teorētisko bāzi, kas ir nepieciešama, lai izprastu stereotipu par Kansai dialektu rašanās vēsturiskos un sociālo...

  16. Problemáticas ambientales en el área de Los Antiguos, provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelina Maribel Díaz Viegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este informe se presentan los resultados de una beca de iniciación a la investigación para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, cuyo objetivo consistió en la identificación de los usos del suelo y las problemáticas ambientales en el área de Los Antiguos. La metodología utilizada consistió en búsquedas bibliográficas, interpretación visual de imágenes satelitales de alta resolución espacial, relevamientos de campo y entrevistas a informantes calificados. Se detectaron como principales problemas ambientales los asociados con la disposición de los residuos urbanos y tratamiento de líquidos cloacales, inundaciones en la rivera del lago Buenos Aires y en zonas urbanas, deslizamiento de laderas en la loma Del Mirador, entre otros. En el informe se explican estas problemáticas, se analiza la legislación vigente y se proponen algunas medidas de mitigación.

  17. Changes in composition and structure of a tropical dry forest following intermittent Cattle grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stern

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwestern Costa Rica, cattle are being used as a "management tool" to reduce the amount of combustible material, mainly dominated by Hyparrhenia rufa, an African grass. This project is being developed within Parque Nacional Palo Verde and Reserva Biológica Lomas Barbudal, both of which fonn part of the only remaining tropical dry forests in Mesoamerica. To determine the short-term effects of cattle grazing on the natural vegetation, we compared the floristic composition within Palo Verde in an area under intermittent cattle grazing with an area that has not been grazed. There were significantly fewer plant species in the area with intermittent cattle grazing compared to the area with no grazing. Floristic composition of these two habitats was different as reflected by both Fisher's alpha values and the Shannon index of diversity, both of which were significantly higher in the ungrazed site. The ungrazed area contained more plant species and was more similar to mature forest. The structure of the vegetation was significantly different between the intermittently grazed and ungrazed sites with more small stems (1-5 cm dbh and fewer large stems (>5 cm dbh in the intermittently grazed habitat. These results indicate that cattle grazing has an impact on the dry forest by reducing the relative abundance and density of larger tree species and by changing the species composition and structure of the community. The current management plan implemented in Palo Verde and Lomas Barbudal is not appropriate because of the impact that cattle have on the structure of the natural vegetation and should not be considered a viable alternative in other protected areas of dry forest in the Neotropics. We suggest that alternative fire prevention measures be evaluated including hand-cutting H. rufa, the creation of more frequent and larger fire breaks, and the development of green breaks.En el noroeste de Costa Rica se utiliza ganado como una "herramienta de

  18. Validity of dietary recall over 20 years among California Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, G E; Lindsted, K D; Knutsen, S F; Beeson, W L; Bennett, H; Shavlik, D J

    1998-10-15

    Past dietary habits are etiologically important to incident disease. Yet the validity of such measurements from the previous 10-20 years is poorly understood. In this study, the authors correlated food frequency results that were obtained in 1994-1995 but pertained to recalled diet in 1974 with the weighted mean of five random 24-hour dietary recalls obtained by telephone in 1974. The subjects studied were 72 Seventh-day Adventists who lived within 30 miles of Loma Linda, California; had participated in a 1974 validation study; were still alive; and were willing to participate again in 1994. A method was developed to allow correction for random error in the reference data when these data had differentially weighted components. The results showed partially corrected correlation coefficients of greater than 0.30 for coffee, whole milk, eggs, chips, beef, fish, chicken, fruit, and legumes. Higher correlations on average were obtained when the food frequencies were scored simply 1-9, reflecting the nine frequency categories. The 95% confidence intervals for 15 of the 28 correlations excluded zero. Incorporation of portion size information was unhelpful. The authors concluded that in this population, data recalled from 20 years ago should be treated with caution but, for a number of important foods, that the degree of validity achieved approached that obtained when assessing current dietary habits.

  19. Galvenais varonis Dž.K.Roulingas romānu sērijā "Harijs Poters"

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsone, Ineta

    2012-01-01

    Dotā bakalaura darba temats ir "Galvenais varonis Dž.K. Roulingas romānu sērijā "Harijs Poters". Pirmajā nodaļā es analizēju sērijas popularitāti, publicēšanas datus un apbalvojumus, ko saņēmusi Dž.K. Roulinga. Otrajā nodaļā tiek analizēti dažādi raksturojuma veidi. Sīkāk tiek pētīta galvenā varoņa un citu nozīmīgāko tēlu loma. Meklējuma literatūras elementi,kas dod pamatu galvenā varoņa izaugsmei, tika analizēti detalizēti. Trešajā nodaļā tiek analizēta galvenā varoņa izaugsme šajā romānu sē...

  20. Synergy Between Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Conservation Science Supports Forest Preservation in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dustin Becker

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the desires of individuals while sustaining ecological "public goods" is a central challenge in natural resources conservation. Indigenous communities routinely make common property decisions balancing benefits to individuals with benefits to their communities. Such traditional knowledge offers insight for conservation. Using surveys and field observations, this case study examines aspects of indigenous institutions and ecological knowledge used by rural Ecuadorians to manage a forest commons before and after interacting with two U.S.-based conservation NGOs: Earthwatch Institute and People Allied for Nature. The rural farming community of Loma Alta has legal property rights to a 6842-ha watershed in western Ecuador. This self-governing community curtailed destruction of their moist forest commons, but not without the influence of modern scientific ecological knowledge. When Earthwatch Institute scientists provided evidence that forest clearing would reduce water supply to the community, villagers quickly modified land allocation patterns and set rules of use in the forest establishing the first community-owned forest reserve in western Ecuador. This case demonstrates that synergy between traditional knowledge and western knowledge can result in sustaining both ecosystem services and biodiversity in a forest commons.

  1. Predicting academic performance and clinical competency for international dental students: seeking the most efficient and effective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, D Graham; Whittaker, John M

    2005-02-01

    Measures used in the selection of international dental students to a U.S. D.D.S. program were examined to identify the grouping that most effectively and efficiently predicted academic performance and clinical competency. Archival records from the International Dental Program (IDP) at Loma Linda University provided data on 171 students who had trained in countries outside the United States. The students sought admission to the D.D.S. degree program, successful completion of which qualified them to sit for U.S. licensure. As with most dental schools, competition is high for admission to the D.D.S. program. The study's goal was to identify what measures contributed to a fair and accurate selection process for dental school applicants from other nations. Multiple regression analyses identified National Board Part II and dexterity measures as significant predictors of academic performance and clinical competency. National Board Part I, TOEFL, and faculty interviews added no significant additional help in predicting eventual academic performance and clinical competency.

  2. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. Šiuolaikinės architektūros orientyrai: ikoniški pastatai hierarchinės klasifikacijos sistemoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almantas Bružas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Architektūros orientyrai dažnai aptariami bendrai su gamtinės aplinkos elementais ir nenagrinėjami atsietai. Tačiau pastarųjų metų miestų vystymo tendencijos, nuolat didėjantis antropogeninių orientyrų skaičius miestovaizdyje bei auganti jų svarba reikalauja atidesnio požiūrio į šiuos miestų urbanistinės struktūros elementus. Straipsnyje aptariamas ikoniškų pastatų fenomenas bei kiti šiuolaikiniai architektūros orientyrai – aplinkoje savo fizinėmis bei estetinėmis savybėmis išsiskiriantys pastatai, urbanistiniai elementai bei šių kompleksai. Atsižvelgiant į pastarųjų metų miestų raidos kryptis bei urbanizuotos erdvės suvokimo sampratos pokyčius, siūloma šiuolaikinės architektūros orientyrus skirstyti į ikoniškos architektūros, erdvinės struktūros dominančių ir išsiskiriančių ženklų hierarchinius tipus. Aptariamos skirtingų tipų architektūros orientyrų skiriamosios savybės.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  4. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-07-01

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004).

  5. Integrāļa attīstības vēsture un daudzveidība

    OpenAIRE

    Baune, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba “Integrāļu attīstības vēsture un daudzveidība” mērķis ir izpētīt integrāļu attīstības vēsturi un to, kā apgūst integrāļu teoriju mūsdienās, saistot to laukumu un tilpumu aprēķināšanu, iepriekš izpētot būtiskos jautājumus skolas matemātikas programmās. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no ievada, trīs nodaļām un secinājumiem. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek aplūkots matemātikas priekšmets un tā vēsturiskā loma cilvēces attīstībā. Otrajā nodaļā tiek aplūkota integrāļu rašanās un attīstības vēsture....

  6. Results of comparative RBMK neutron computation using VNIIEF codes (cell computation, 3D statics, 3D kinetics). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, A.N.; Zhitnik, A.K.; Zvenigorodskaya, O.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In conformity with the protocol of the Workshop under Contract {open_quotes}Assessment of RBMK reactor safety using modern Western Codes{close_quotes} VNIIEF performed a neutronics computation series to compare western and VNIIEF codes and assess whether VNIIEF codes are suitable for RBMK type reactor safety assessment computation. The work was carried out in close collaboration with M.I. Rozhdestvensky and L.M. Podlazov, NIKIET employees. The effort involved: (1) cell computations with the WIMS, EKRAN codes (improved modification of the LOMA code) and the S-90 code (VNIIEF Monte Carlo). Cell, polycell, burnup computation; (2) 3D computation of static states with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes and comparison with results of computation with the NESTLE code (USA). The computations were performed in the geometry and using the neutron constants presented by the American party; (3) 3D computation of neutron kinetics with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes. These computations were performed in two formulations, both being developed in collaboration with NIKIET. Formulation of the first problem maximally possibly agrees with one of NESTLE problems and imitates gas bubble travel through a core. The second problem is a model of the RBMK as a whole with imitation of control and protection system controls (CPS) movement in a core.

  7. Impact of implant design on primary stability of orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Ottenstreuer, Stephanie; Su, Yu-Yu; Drescher, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal anchorage with mini-implants has greatly broadened the treatment possibilities in orthodontics over the last few years. To reduce implant failure rates, it is advisable to obtain adequate primary stability. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the impact of implant design and dimension on primary stability. Forty-two porcine iliac bone segments were prepared and embedded in resin. To evaluate the primary stability, we documented insertion torques of the following mini-implants: Aarhus Screw, AbsoAnchor, LOMAS, Micro-Anchorage-System, ORLUS and Spider Screw. In each bone, five Dual Top Screws were inserted for reference purposes to achieve comparability among the specimens. We observed wide variation in insertion torques and hence primary stability, depending on mini-implant design and dimension; the great impact that mini-implant diameter has on insertion torques was particularly conspicuous. Conical mini-implants achieved higher primary stabilities than cylindrical designs. The diameter and design of the mini-implant thread have a distinctive impact on primary stability. Depending on the region of insertion and local bone quality, the choice of the mini-implant design and size is crucial to establish sufficient primary stability.

  8. An imaging informatics-based system utilizing DICOM objects for treating pain in spinal cord injury patients utilizing proton beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.; Chun, Sophia; Gridley, Daila S.

    2014-03-01

    Many US combat personnel have sustained nervous tissue trauma during service, which often causes Neuropathic pain as a side effect and is difficult to manage. However in select patients, synapse lesioning can provide significant pain control. Our goal is to determine the effectiveness of using Proton Beam radiotherapy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning. The project is a joint collaboration of USC, Spinal Cord Institute VA Healthcare System, Long Beach, and Loma Linda University. This is first system of its kind that supports integration and standardization of imaging informatics data in DICOM format; clinical evaluation forms outcomes data and treatment planning data from the Treatment planning station (TPS) utilized to administer the proton therapy in DICOM-RT format. It also supports evaluation of SCI subjects for recruitment into the clinical study, which includes the development, and integration of digital forms and tools for automatic evaluation and classification of SCI pain. Last year, we presented the concept for the patient recruitment module based on the principle of Bayesian decision theory. This year we are presenting the fully developed patient recruitment module and its integration to other modules. In addition, the DICOM module for integrating DICOM and DICOM-RT-ION data is also developed and integrated. This allows researchers to upload animal/patient study data into the system. The patient recruitment module has been tested using 25 retrospective patient data and DICOM data module is tested using 5 sets of animal data.

  9. Genetic structure and divergence in populations of Lutzomyia cruciata, a phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector of Leishmania mexicana in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg

    2013-06-01

    The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sediment-induced amplification and the collapse of the Nimitz Freeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Friberg, P.A.; Busby, R.; Field, E.F.; Jacob, K.H.; Borcherdt, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    THE amplification of ground motion by low-seismic-velocity surface sediments is an important factor in determining the seismic hazard specific to a given site. The Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989 was the largest event in the contiguous United States in 37 years, and yielded an unparalleled volume of seismic data from the main shock and aftershock sequence1. These data can be used to image the seismic source, to study detailed Earth structure, and to study the propagation of seismic waves both through bedrock at depth and through sediment layers near the surface. Near the edge of San Francisco Bay, site conditions vary considerably on scales of hundreds of metres. The collapsed section of the two-tiered Nimitz Freeway in Oakland was built on San Francisco Bay mud, whereas stiffer alluvial sediments underlie a southern section that was damaged but did not collapse. Here we analyse high-quality, digital aftershock recordings from several sites near the Nimitz Freeway, and conclude that soil conditions and resulting ground-motion amplification may have contributed significantly to the failure of the structure.

  11. Applications of proton and deuteron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Princeton, NJ (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Applications of positive and negative hydrogen and deuterium ion accelerators beyond basic research are increasing. Large scale proposed national laboratory/industrial projects include the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) which will utilize protons, and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) which will accelerate a deuteron beam into a lithium target. At the small scale end, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator based systems have been built for neutron activation analysis and for applications such as explosive detection. At an intermediate scale, the Loma Linda proton therapy accelerator is now successfully treating a full schedule of patients, and more than half a dozen such hospital based units are under active study world-wide. At this same scale, there are also several ongoing negative ion, military accelerator projects which include the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the Neutral Particle Beam Space Experiment (NPBSE). These respective deuterium and hydrogen accelerators, which have not been previously described, are the focus of this paper. (orig.)

  12. La Nueva Teoría Estratégica y la comunicación científica en la región Caribe / The New Strategic Theory and science communication in the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Antonio Canella López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La Nueva Teoría Estratégica es aplicada en investigaciones desde el Foro Iberoamericano Sobre Estrategias de Comunicación que articula acciones con redes y universidades. Vincula actores internacionales de las Universidades: Sergio Arboleda de Colombia, Autónoma de Santo Domingo, de República Dominicana y Nacional de Lomas Zamora de Argentina. Se pretende promover una estrategia para la comunicación científica en la región Caribe. El caso presentado es la realización de la Revista científica/académica, denominada Comunicaribe, (en construcción. Existe déficit de publicaciones académicas en Open Access en la región y el fomento del estimulo para animar a los autores de la región a la producción global desde lo local. Las metodologías propuestas son elaboradas desde la Nueva teoría Estratégica, centrándonos en la primera seña, conocida como el cambio de paradigma del pensamiento Complejo. Aplicamos tres conceptos para el diagnóstico del caso: el principio dialógico, el principio recursivo y el principio hologramático. Resultados: esperamos lograr la puesta en marcha de la publicación, tal como se ha realizado con una serie de ellas, en América y Europa. Conclusiones: los aspectos de la Teoría son tantos y tan abonados por las metodologías propuestas que permite articular en la diversidad de situaciones. Abstract The New Strategic Theory is applied to research from the FISEC ( Ibero-American Forum on Communication Strategies that articulates shares networks and universities. In the present case relates international actors Universities: Sergio Arboleda from Colombia, Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, and National Lomas Zamora of Argentina. The research is conducted in order to promote a strategy for scientific communication in the Caribbean region. The case presented is to conduct scientific / academic journal called Comunicaribe currently under construction. They motivate this embodiment

  13. Finite-Source Inversion for the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake using 3D Velocity Model Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

    2008-12-01

    We determine finite fault models of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using 3D Green's functions. Because of the dense station coverage and detailed 3D velocity structure model in this region, this earthquake provides an excellent opportunity to examine how the 3D velocity structure affects the finite fault inverse solutions. Various studies (e.g. Michaels and Eberhart-Phillips, 1991; Thurber et al., 2006) indicate that there is a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas Fault along the Parkfield segment. Also the fault zone at Parkfield is wide as evidenced by mapped surface faults and where surface slip and creep occurred in the 1966 and the 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. For high resolution images of the rupture process"Ait is necessary to include the accurate 3D velocity structure for the finite source inversion. Liu and Aurchuleta (2004) performed finite fault inversions using both 1D and 3D Green's functions for 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using the same source paramerization and data but different Green's functions and found that the models were quite different. This indicates that the choice of the velocity model significantly affects the waveform modeling at near-fault stations. In this study, we used the P-wave velocity model developed by Thurber et al (2006) to construct the 3D Green's functions. P-wave speeds are converted to S-wave speeds and density using by the empirical relationships of Brocher (2005). Using a finite difference method, E3D (Larsen and Schultz, 1995), we computed the 3D Green's functions numerically by inserting body forces at each station. Using reciprocity, these Green's functions are recombined to represent the ground motion at each station due to the slip on the fault plane. First we modeled the waveforms of small earthquakes to validate the 3D velocity model and the reciprocity of the Green"fs function. In the numerical tests we found that the 3D velocity model predicted the individual phases well at frequencies lower than 0

  14. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.; ,

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County

  15. Humors Effect on Short-term Memory in Healthy and Diabetic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Schwab, Ernie; Deshpande, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    With aging, the detrimental effects of stress can impair a person's ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor and its associated mirthful laughter can reduce stress by decreasing the hormone cortisol. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampal neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. Objectives • The study intended to examine the effect of watching a humor video on short-term memory in older adults. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, CA, USA. The study included 30 participants: 20 normal, healthy, older adults-11 males and 9 females-and 10 older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-6 males and 4 females. The study included 2 intervention groups of older adults who viewed humorous videos, a healthy group (humor group), aged 69.9 ± 3.7 y, and the diabetic group, aged 67.1 ± 3.8 y. Each participant selected 1 of 2 humorous videos that were 20 min in length, either a Red Skeleton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos. The control group, aged 68.7 ± 5.5 y, did not watch a humor video and sat in quiescence. A standardized, neuropsychological, memory-assessment tool, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), was used to assess the following abilities: (1) learning, (2) recall, and (3) visual recognition. The testing occurred twice, once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the humorous video for the humor and diabetic groups, and once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the period of quiescence for the control group. At 5 time points, measurements of salivary cortisol were also obtained. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to measure significance of the data based on the 3 groups. In the humor, diabetic, and control groups, (1) learning ability improved by 38.5%, 33.4%, and 24.0%, respectively (P = .025); (2) delayed recall improved by 43.6%, 48.1%, and 20.3%, respectively (P = .064); and (3) visual recognition

  16. The Brahea edulis palm forest in Guadalupe Island: A North American fog oasis? El palmar de Brahea edulis de Isla Guadalupe: ¿Un oasis de niebla en Norteamérica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO P GARCILLÁN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a factor that affects deeply the structure of vegetation of coastal deserts. Guadalupe is an oceanic island located 260 km off the coast of Baja California, and is one of the few places of the Sonoran Desert coasts with scarped coastal topography and frequent fog. With the aim to identify the effect of fog on the community of the palm forest (palmar of Brahea edulis located in the northern tip of the island: (1 we analyzed the richness and composition of vascular plants in the palmar compared to the remainder of the island, and (2 we analyzed the altitudinal variation of the abundance of palms, herbs and mosses to identify if there is altitudinal variation of the vegetation. Although species composition was not different between palmar and the rest of island, species richness and vascular plant cover were greater in the palmar. On the other hand, we found a clear altitudinal zonation of the vegetation in the palmar that is similar to that found in South American fog-driven plant communities such as the lomas. Thus, the palmar community of Guadalupe Island may be considered as a fog oasis, one of the very few that occur in North America.La niebla es un factor que afecta profundamente la estructura de la vegetación de los desiertos costeros. Guadalupe es una isla oceánica a 260 km de la costa de Baja California y constituye uno de los pocos lugares de la costa del Desierto Sonorense donde se reúnen una topografía escarpada próxima a la costa y una alta frecuencia de nieblas. Con el objeto de identificar el efecto de la niebla sobre la comunidad del palmar de Brahea edulis presente en la ladera norte de la isla: (1 analizamos la diferencia de la riqueza y la composición de plantas vasculares del palmar respecto del resto de la isla, y (2 analizamos la variación altitudinal de la abundancia de palmas, plantas acompañantes y musgo para determinar si existe variación altitudinal de la vegetación. Encontramos que, aunque la composici

  17. Estabilidad estructural y P en fracciones de agregados en la cuenca del Aº El Divisorio (Coronel Pringles, BA Structural stability and phosphorus in soil aggregate fractions in El Divisorio stream catchment area (Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Cacchiarelli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la calidad del agua en el embalse Paso de las Piedras se ha visto afectada por la eutrofización, perjudicando la provisión para la población de Bahía Blanca y alrededores. Se ha señalado a la actividad agropecuaria como originaria del aumento de la concentración de fósforo (P en el arroyo El Divisorio, que desemboca en el embalse. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar las relaciones entre algunas propiedades relacionadas con el potencial de contaminación de estos suelos: la estabilidad estructural, la distribución de tamaños de agregados y las concentraciones de las formas de P en los diferentes agregados. Se seleccionaron 16 transectas en lotes de productores a lo largo del curso del arroyo. Se tomaron muestras de suelo (0-5 cm en las posiciones loma (L, media loma (M y bajo (B. Se determinaron los diámetros medios ponderado en seco (DMPs y en húmedo (DMPh, calculándose el cambio en el diámetro medio ponderado (CDMP. Se determinaron los contenidos de P orgánico (Po e inorgánico (Pi en cada una de las posiciones y tamaños de agregados. Si bien los suelos de la cuenca mostraron buenos valores de estabilidad estructural, las fuerzas físicas provenientes de la actividad agrícola favorecieron la destrucción de los agregados menos estables encontrándose gran cantidad de material fino (In the last years, water quality in the Paso de las Piedras reservoir has been affected by eutrophication, leading to problems in the provision of potable water to the population of Bahía Blanca city and surrounding areas. Agricultural activity has been pointed out as the possible non-point source of P contaminating the El Divisorio stream, which flows directly into the reservoir. The objective of this work was to assess some selected edaphic properties associated with the contamination potential of soils such as structural stability, aggregate distribution and concentration of organic (Po and inorganic (Pi P in the

  18. Protontherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaburiaud, G.; Ferrand, R.; Delacroix, S.; Meroneinc, S.; Habrand, J.C.; Mazeron, J.J.; Caneva, S.; Schuff, J.; Policastro, L.; Kreiner, A.

    1999-01-01

    Proton therapy is one of the most powerful irradiation techniques in conformal radiotherapy nowadays. The ballistic properties of proton beams with energies ranging between 65 and 250 MeV. the technological approaches. and the procedures applied for the existing clinical protocols and trials are the basis to achieve higher doses at the clinical targets, while keeping the dose to surrounding critical organs below the tolerance levels In this work we present an overview of the status of proton therapy in the world, as well as the basis. the tools, the clinical applications and some specific examples from the proton therapy center in Orsay France. In clinical operation since 1991. Since 1954, a limited number of facilities, devoted to nuclear physics, have been shared or converted to medical applications following ideas published by Wilson and others. The first large hospital-based proton therapy facility in Loma Linda, California begun treatments in 1990, based on the experience of centers having treated a large number of patients, like Berkeley, Boston and Moscow. Since then, the medical use of proton beams has gained a worldwide interest. Around 20 facilities are in operation (for protons and heavy ion therapy), and more than 25000 patients have been treated. More than 10 hospital-based projects are under development, mainly in US and laden. Two facilities (Chiba and Darmstadt) [18, 25], are following the pioneer work of Berkeley with heavy particle therapy, to associate the biological and the physical advantages of these particles over the conventional radiotherapy with photons and electrons having lower Linear Energy Transfer. The main components of a proton therapy facility are: the accelerator with the complementary systems, the beam transport system (towards one or more treatment or experimental rooms), the building with shielded areas. the beam shaping devices, the patient positioning system, the control system and the clinical environment (patient and

  19. Zur funktionalen Analyse von litauischen Fragesätzen

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    Gertrud Bense

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available DĖL LIETUVIŲ KALBOS KLAUSIAMŲJŲ SAKINIŲ ANALIZĖSSantraukaKomunikacinė intencija „stimuliavimas užpildyti informacijos spragą“ atitinka komunikaci­nės veiklos tipą klausti, išreikštą klausimo-atsakymo funkciniu vienetu. Kalbinės klausimo iš­raiškos priemonės gali būti įvairios, nors svarbiausiųjų atstovu laikomas klausiamasis sakinys. Nesunku įrodyti, kad formaliai apibūdintas klausiamasis sakinys (leksikos, intonacijas, žodžių tvarkos atžvilgiu nei vartojamas tiktai intencijai „klausti“ realizuoti (plg.: – Ar negalėtumėt iškviesti greitąją pagalbą? – = (mandagus prašymas, kuris iš adresato reikalauja ne informacijos spra­gos užpildymo, bet apskritai veiklos, nei yra vienintelė jos išraiškos forma (plg. : – Išaiškink savo vakarykštį elgimąsi? – = liepimas, laukiant informacijos iš adresato pusės. Todėl siūloma ne pagal formą, bet pagal komunikacinę funkciją atskirti visus klausiamojo pobūdžio pasakymus nuo neklausiamųjų. Taigi, aprėpdama tam tikru mastu sakinio/pasakymo ryšius su kontekstu ir su komunikacine situacija, funkcinė analizė nagrinėja kalbinių priemonių tarpusavio sąveiką, kuri sąlygoja atitinkamą klausimo supratimą.

  20. El Chicamocha: Río del Vino de Gran Altura

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    Marco Quijano Rico

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro proyecto de viticultura tropical de calidad se inició en la Loma de Puntalarga, en el Valle del Sol en 1982. Los viñedos están situados a gran altura entre los 2400 y los 2600 metros, en terrenos inclinados, consuelos de buena vocación vitícola, bastante brillo solar, calor diurno, frío nocturno y déficit hídrico; condiciones necesarias para producir uvas de alta calidad para vinificación. El cultivo se viene extendiendo desde los años noventa por diversos lugares. En este proceso el río Chicamocha parece ejercer un efecto similar al de otros ríos del vino. Entre los ríos más representativos del hábitat tradicional de las variedades cultivadas en la región, Riesling blanca y Pinot noir, están respectivamente el Rin en Alemania y el Saona en Francia. La distribución geográfica del desarrollo vitícola sigue la dirección del curso del río Chicamocha y prácticamente recubre a la de en claves poblacionales que influenciaba el centro religioso de Sogamoso, antes de la llegada de los españoles en 1537. Algo similar sucede con la distribución de cepas descendientes de la variedad Mission, probablemente introducida por jesuitas a Firavitoba en el siglo XVII. Parece que estos fenómenos podrían relacionarse en menor o mayor grado con la historia geológica regional, en particular la del río Chicamocha. Su conocimiento puede proporcionar valiosas claves sobre los fundamentos del “terroir” y contribuir a acrecentar el carisma, asentado en la calidad, que ya revela el vino regional.

  1. Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Statistics of Oldest Old People (>80 Years Living in Ikaria Island: The Ikaria Study

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    Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica have been named the “Blue Zones”. Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the “Blue Zones”. The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+ men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample. Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the “secrets” of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life.

  2. Cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation in the Upper Guinea forest, West Africa

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    James A. Fraser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural valuation of biodiversity has taken on renewed importance over the last two decades as the ecosystem services framework has become widely adopted. Conservation initiatives increasingly use ecosystem service frameworks to render tropical forest landscapes and their peoples legible to market-oriented initiatives such as REDD+ and biodiversity offsetting schemes. Ecosystem service approaches have been widely criticized by scholars in the social sciences and humanities for their narrow focus on a small number of easily quantifiable and marketable services and a reductionist and sometimes simplistic approach to culture. We address the need to combine methods from each of the "three cultures" of natural science, quantitative social science, and qualitative social science/humanities in conceptualizing the relationship between cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation. We combine qualitative data with forest inventories and a quantitative index of cultural value to evaluate the relationship between cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation in Upper Guinea forest in Liberia, West Africa. Our study focuses on "sacred agroforests," spaces that are associated with Mande macro-language speaking groups such as the Loma. We demonstrate that sacred agroforests are associated with different cultural values compared with secondary forests. Although biodiversity and biomass are similar, sacred agroforests exhibit a different species composition, especially of culturally salient species, increasing overall landscape agro-biodiversity. Sacred agroforests are also shaped and conserved by local cultural institutions revolving around ancestor worship, ritual, and the metaphysical conceptual category "salɛ." We conclude that to understand the relationship between cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation, interpretivist approaches such as phenomenology should be employed alongside positivist ecosystem service frameworks.

  3. SU-F-T-211: Evaluation of a Dual Focusing Magnet System for the Treatment of Small Proton Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, TT; McAuley, GA; Heczko, S; Slater, J [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, A [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate magnetic focusing for small volume proton targets using a doublet combination of quadrupole rare earth permanent magnet Halbach cylinder assemblies Methods: Monte Carlo computer simulations were performed using the Geant4 toolkit to compare dose depositions of proton beams transported through two focusing magnets or in their absence. Proton beams with energies of 127 MeV and initial diameters of 5, 8 and 10 mm were delivered through two identical focusing magnets similar to those currently in experimental use at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Analogous experiments used optimized configurations based on the simulation results. Dose was measured by a diode detector and Gafchromic EBT3 film and compared to simulation data. Based on results from the experimental data, an additional set of simulations was performed with an initial beam diameter of 18 mm and a two differing length magnets (40mm & 68mm). Results: Experimental data matched well with Monte Carlo simulations. However, under conditions necessary to produce circular beam spots at target depth, magnetically focused beams using two identical 40 mm length magnets did not meet all of our performance criteria of circular beam spots, improved peak to entrance (P/E) dose ratios and dose delivery efficiencies. The simulations using the longer 68 mm 2nd magnet yielded better results with 34% better P/E dose ratio and 20–50% better dose delivery efficiencies when compared to unfocused 10 mm beams. Conclusion: While magnetic focusing using two magnets with identical focusing power did not yield desired results, ongoing Monte Carlo simulations suggest that increasing the length of the 2nd magnet to 68 mm could improve P/E dose ratios and dose efficiencies. Future work includes additional experimental validation of the longer 2nd magnet setup as well as experiments with triplet magnet systems. This project was sponsored with funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1).

  4. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US and Russian EVA Suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27 percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the bare phantom head

  5. Dynamic changes to survivin subcellular localization are initiated by DNA damage

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    Maritess Gay Asumen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Maritess Gay Asumen1, Tochukwu V Ifeacho2, Luke Cockerham3, Christina Pfandl4, Nathan R Wall31Touro University’s College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA; 2University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Center for Health Disparities Research and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University, CA, USA; 4Green Mountain Antibodies, Burlington, VT, USAAbstract: Subcellular distribution of the apoptosis inhibitor survivin and its ability to relocalize as a result of cell cycle phase or therapeutic insult has led to the hypothesis that these subcellular pools may coincide with different survivin functions. The PIK kinases (ATM, ATR and DNA-PK phosphorylate a variety of effector substrates that propagate DNA damage signals, resulting in various biological outputs. Here we demonstrate that subcellular repartitioning of survivin in MCF-7 cells as a result of UV light-mediated DNA damage is dependent upon DNA damage-sensing proteins as treatment with the pan PIK kinase inhibitor wortmannin repartitioned survivin in the mitochondria and diminished it from the cytosol and nucleus. Mitochondrial redistribution of survivin, such as was recorded after wortmannin treatment, occurred in cells lacking any one of the three DNA damage sensing protein kinases: DNA-PK, ATM or ATR. However, failed survivin redistribution from the mitochondria in response to low-dose UV occurred only in the cells lacking ATM, implying that ATM may be the primary kinase involved in this process. Taken together, this data implicates survivian’s subcellular distribution is a dynamic physiological process that appears responsive to UV light- initiated DNA damage and that its distribution may be responsible for its multifunctionality.Keywords: survivin, PIK kinases, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK

  6. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: II. Influence of the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of animals than adults. If social cues are safer and/or more reliable to use than asocial cues for learning about predators, then it is expected that the development of this behavior will be affected by the social environment. Our study examined the influence of the social environment on antipredator behavior in infant, juvenile, and adult wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve in Costa Rica during presentations of different species of model snakes and novel models. We examined (a) the alarm calling behavior of the focal animal when alone versus in the vicinity of conspecific alarm callers and (b) the latency of conspecifics to alarm call once the focal animal alarm called. Focal animals alarm called more when alone than after hearing a conspecific alarm call. No reliable differences were found in the latencies of conspecifics to alarm call based on age or model type. Conspecifics were more likely to alarm call when focal individuals alarm called at snake models than when they alarm called at novel models. Results indicate (a) that alarm calling may serve to attract others to the predator's location and (b) that learning about specific predators may begin with a generalized response to a wide variety of species, including some nonthreatening ones, that is winnowed down via Pavlovian conditioned inhibition into a response directed toward specific dangerous species. This study reveals that conspecifics play a role in the development of antipredator behavior in white-faced capuchins. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Koristocetus pescei gen. et sp. nov., a diminutive sperm whale (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Kogiidae from the late Miocene of Peru

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    A. Collareta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among odontocetes, members of the family Kogiidae (pygmy and dwarf sperm whales are known as small-sized and in many respects enigmatic relatives of the great sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus. Most of the still scanty fossil record of Kogiidae is represented by isolated skulls and ear bones from Neogene deposits of the Northern Hemisphere, with the significant exception of Scaphokogia, a highly autapomorphic genus from late Miocene deposits of the Pisco Formation exposed along the southern coast of Peru. Here we report on a new fossil kogiid from Aguada de Lomas, a site where the late Miocene beds of the Pisco Formation are exposed. This specimen consists of an almost complete cranium representing a new taxon of Kogiidae: Koristocetus pescei gen. et sp. nov. Koristocetus mainly differs from extant Kogia spp. by displaying a larger temporal fossa and well-individualized dental alveoli on the upper jaws. Coupled with a relatively elongated rostrum, these characters suggest that Koristocetus retained some degree of raptorial feeding abilities, contrasting with the strong suction feeding specialization seen in Recent kogiids. Our phylogenetic analysis recognizes Koristocetus as the earliest branching member of the subfamily Kogiinae. Interestingly, Koristocetus shared the southern coast of present-day Peru with members of the genus Scaphokogia, whose unique convex rostrum and unusual neurocranial morphology seemingly indicate a peculiar foraging specialization that has still to be understood. In conclusion, Koristocetus evokes a long history of high diversity, morphological disparity, and sympatric habits in fossil kogiids, thus suggesting that our comprehension of the evolutionary history of pygmy and dwarf sperm whales is still far from being exhaustive.

  8. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Peruvian adolescents living in a peri-urban shantytown: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbs, Elizabeth S; Viñoles, José; Alarcón, Jorge O; Johnson, Heather M; Zunt, Joseph R

    2017-05-22

    Adults of the peri-urban Peruvian shantytown of Lomas de Zapallal have a high prevalence of risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-likely due to behavioral choices established during childhood and adolescence. To guide the development of community-based risk reduction programs, we assessed the prevalence of risk factors for developing CVD among adolescents. We collected cross sectional data from adolescents of Peruvian peri-urban shantytown to evaluate four domains of CVD risk factors: (1) clinical (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids), (2) anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), (3) behavioral (physical activity, diet, and substance abuse), and (4) psychosocial (mental health and violence). We enrolled 275 adolescents (56.4% female, mean age 14 years). Prevalence of overweight or obese status was 27.8%. High blood pressure was more common in males (37.4%) than females (20.5%) (p = 0.002). Total cholesterol was elevated (>170 mg/dL) in nearly half (45.5%) of the adolescents, and 71% had impaired fasting blood glucose (>100 mg/dL). Females were less likely to exercise daily (95.4%) than males (84.2%) (p = 0.002) but reported higher rates of depression (66.4%), anhedonia (67.6%), and self-harm behavior (37.9%) (all p < 0.01). Adolescents living in the peri-urban population of Puente Piedra had high prevalence of risk factors for future development of CVD; preventative efforts focused on improving nutrition, increasing physical inactivity, and addressing mental health conditions could reduce such risk factors.

  9. The effects of simultaneous exercise and psychotherapy on depressive symptoms in inpatient, psychiatric older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Son D; Marshak, Helen H; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Luu, Sen M; Berk, Lee S; McMahon, Paul T; Riggs, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Depression is the leading cause of early death, affecting 15% of Americans older than 65 y and costing $43 billion each year. The current mental health service system for seniors, particularly for the population hospitalized in acute inpatient psychiatric units, is fragmented because of poor funding and a shift to a transitory health care paradigm, leading to inadequate treatment modalities, questionable quality of care, and lack of research demonstrating the superiority of a particular treatment. These issues are likely to lead to a public health crisis in the coming years. To investigate the effectiveness of combining exercise and psychotherapy in improving acute depressive symptoms among older adults who were receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Based on rolling admissions, inpatients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. The study was blinded and controlled. This study took place in inpatient psychiatric units at the Loma Linda University's Behavioral Medicine Center (LLUBMC) in Redlands, California. Participants were 78 inpatients, aged 50-89 y. Participants in the simultaneous exercise and psychotherapy (STEP) group (n = 26) took part in exercise and received psychotherapy for 30 min per session, whereas those in the TALK group (n = 26) received individual psychotherapy for 30 min per session. Participants in the control group (n = 26) served as a comparison group, receiving standard therapy. The effects of the interventions were determined by assessing differences from baseline to postintervention in the symptomatology of all 3 groups. The research team also administered the Behavioral and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-32) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) pre- and postintervention. At posttest, the STEP group (M = 4.24, SE = 0.62) had a better response than the TALK group (M = 11.34, SE = 0.62, P exercise program consisting of 30 min of walking in conjunction with individual psychotherapy was an effective

  10. Memoria cultural etnobotánica en la vereda El Hatillo, cabecera municipal El Paso, Departamento del Cesar-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Carmelo Manco-Jaraba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnobotany studies the knowledge produced by the interaction between society and the use of plants that have been transmitted between generations and are still preserved in the different sectors of the rural community of the El Hatillo, Jurisdiction of La Loma de calentura, Town of El Paso, Cesar. Currently, very few ethnobotanical studies have been done in Colombia: ethnobotanical studies in the central Andes: Spread of knowledge about the use of plants by characteristics of the informants, use of plants by farmer groups in the tropical belt of Paramillo National Natural Park, and utility and value in use of ethnobotany, a study in the state of Putumayo, among others. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to be done throughout the Colombian territory, as many of these communities are currently being affected by mining and military activities among others. Objective: This research was conducted with the aim of rescuing the ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods: For collection, classification and preservation of popular ethnobotanical knowledge, tools like the plant spreadsheet model, community interviews, focus groups, pictures, videos, audio and taxonomic samples were used. Results: 44 samples of plants with different uses were obtained, each one with its own scientific name and family. The most common use was medicinal, the most used part is the leaf, and the way of preparation is cooking. Conclusion: Currently, this community must to be be relocated because it is affected by the direct environmental impact due to coal dust release as well as vibrations due to mining blast, which affects surface waters, groundwater and soil composition.

  11. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES THAT MAY AFFECT HEALTH BEHAVIOR AND WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH AMONG BLACK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Design Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Setting Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. Participants 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Main Outcome Measures Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Results Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. Conclusions A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study. PMID:20073146

  12. Department of Defense support to spill response operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducey, D.L. Jr.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD), operating through the Directorate of Military Support in the Department of the Army, supports state, local and other federal agency response operations in a wide range of natural and man-caused emergencies. Examples within the past six years include the Ashland Oil tank collapse in Floreffe, Pennsylvania, Exxon Valdez cleanup, Loma Prieta earthquake, hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, Mexico City earthquake, Armero (Columbia) volcanic eruption, and Puerto Rico floods and mud slides. From March 24 to September 27, 1989, the period of the Exxon Valdez initial cleanup operations, DOD provided military and civilian personnel, US Navy ships for housing response workers, cargo and medical evacuation aircraft (fixed wing and helicopters), skimmers, modified dredges, landing craft, Dracones, Zodiak boats, radios, computers, and other miscellaneous equipment. This was in addition to assets of the Alaska Army and Air National Guard, which were committed by the governor. Support was provided to the US Coast Guard on scene coordinator and supervised by the Alaska Oil Spill Joint Task Force. The General Accounting Office, in its January 1990 report, Federal Costs Resulting from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, estimated that DOD spent $62.8 million through September 30, 1989, the largest expenditure by any federal agency. Use of military resources is a realistic scenario in certain situations. Primary responders at the federal and state level should understand how to request and employ these assets. This paper provides a background on DOD support to disaster relief operations, and discusses the types of support available to agencies responding to natural or man-caused emergencies, request and approval mechanisms, the Department of Defence organization to provide support, and reimbursement of the department

  13. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Carl Edward; DeWitt, Joel M.; Benton, Eric R.; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Benton, Eugene V.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range (∼< 10 μm) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching (∼< 1 μm) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/μm. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  14. Hotspots, Lifelines, and the Safrr Haywired Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. L.; Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Though California has experienced many large earthquakes (San Francisco, 1906; Loma Prieta, 1989; Northridge, 1994), the San Francisco Bay Area has not had a damaging earthquake for 25 years. Earthquake risk and surging reliance on smartphones and the Internet to handle everyday tasks raise the question: is an increasingly technology-reliant Bay Area prepared for potential infrastructure impacts caused by a major earthquake? How will a major earthquake on the Hayward Fault affect lifelines (roads, power, water, communication, etc.)? The U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) program's Haywired disaster scenario, a hypothetical two-year earthquake sequence triggered by a M7.05 mainshock on the Hayward Fault, addresses these and other questions. We explore four geographic aspects of lifeline damage from earthquakes: (1) geographic lifeline concentrations, (2) areas where lifelines pass through high shaking or potential ground-failure zones, (3) areas with diminished lifeline service demand due to severe building damage, and (4) areas with increased lifeline service demand due to displaced residents and businesses. Potential mainshock lifeline vulnerability and spatial demand changes will be discerned by superimposing earthquake shaking, liquefaction probability, and landslide probability damage thresholds with lifeline concentrations and with large-capacity shelters. Intersecting high hazard levels and lifeline clusters represent potential lifeline susceptibility hotspots. We will also analyze possible temporal vulnerability and demand changes using an aftershock shaking threshold. The results of this analysis will inform regional lifeline resilience initiatives and response and recovery planning, as well as reveal potential redundancies and weaknesses for Bay Area lifelines. Identified spatial and temporal hotspots can provide stakeholders with a reference for possible systemic vulnerability resulting from an earthquake sequence.

  15. Viticultura tropical a gran altitud. Condiciones y expresiones del terroir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Quijano Rico

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro proyecto se inició en 1982 en la Loma de Puntalarga, entre 2500 y2600 metros de altitud, a 5,78 ºN y 72,98 ºW, en la cordillera oriental de los Andes. Las variedades más utilizadas actualmente son Pinot noir, Riesling y cruzamientos de Riesling x Silvaner. Desde 1984 se realizan trabajos de investigación sobre temas pertinentes. La baja latitud, la elevada altitud, el volumen de precipitación relativamente modesto y la transparencia del cielo, determinan el flujo de radiación solar incidente y su composición espectral, así como la amplitud del cambio de temperatura entre el día y la noche y las bajas temperaturas nocturnas, que son los rasgos del clima frío imperante en la región. El comportamiento de las cepas y las características del vino indican que las condiciones climáticas locales, pueden considerarse térmicamente equivalentesa las de ciertos territorios tradicionales renombrados. La coexistencia durante el año de todos los estadios de vegetación de la vid y la producción de vendimias con buen contenido de azúcar y niveles suficientes de acidez, hace posible la elaboración de vinos de calidad sobresaliente, de modo secuencial y continuo.En los viñedos del proyecto, las condiciones climáticas anuales son equivalentesa las otoñales, de maduración de las uvas en regiones septentrionales y australes. Al mismo tiempo, el flujo de radiación solar no sufre cambios notables y es rico en las longitudes de onda del ultravioleta B. Los dos factores pueden marcar las características de las uvas, haciendo parte así del efecto terroir.

  16. Habitat features influencing jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae occupancy in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanny Arroyo-Arce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat characteristics and human activities are known to play a major role in the occupancy of jaguars Panthera onca across their range, however the key variables influencing jaguar distribution in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica, have yet to be identified. This study evaluated jaguar occupancy in Tortuguero National Park and the surrounding area. Jaguar detection/non-detection data was collected using digital camera traps distributed within the boundaries of the protected area. Local community members were also interviewed to determine jaguar occurrence in the Park’s buffer zone. Occupancy models were then applied to identify the habitat characteristics that may better explain jaguar distribution across the study area. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 4 339 camera trap days were used to identify 18 individual jaguars inside the protected area; 17 of these jaguars were exclusively detected within the coastal habitat, whilst the remaining individual was detected solely within the interior of the Park. Interviewees reported 61 occasions of jaguar presence inside the buffer zone, between 1995 and 2013, with 80% of these described by the communities of Lomas de Sierpe, Barra de Parismina and La Aurora. These communities also reported the highest levels of livestock predation by jaguars (85% of attacks. In the study area, jaguar occurrence was positively correlated with the seasonal presence of nesting green turtles Chelonia mydas, and negatively correlated with distance to the Park boundary. Our findings suggested that the current occupancy of the jaguar in the study area may be a response to: 1 the vast availability of prey (marine turtles on Tortuguero beach, 2 the decline of its primary prey species as a result of illegal hunting inside the Park, and 3 the increase in anthropogenic pressures in the Park boundaries. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1449-1458. Epub 2014 December 01.

  17. High Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension Complicates the Care of Infants with Omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Shandee; Baerg, Joanne; Deming, Douglas; St Peter, Shawn D; Hopper, Andrew; Goff, Donna A

    2017-01-01

    Omphalocele is one of the most common abdominal wall defects. Many newborn infants born with omphalocele present with significant respiratory distress at birth, requiring mechanical ventilatory support, and have clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Little information exists on the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension in this cohort of infants. To describe the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension among infants with omphalocele. This is a multicenter retrospective chart review of demographic data and clinical characteristics of infants with omphalocele admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of Loma Linda University Children's Hospital and Children's Mercy Hospital between 1994 and 2011. Echocardiogram images were reviewed for pulmonary hypertension, and statistical analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 32/56 (57%) infants with omphalocele. Compared to infants without pulmonary hypertension, infants with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have a liver-containing defect (16/32 [50%] vs. 5/24 [21%], p = 0.03), require intubation at birth (18/32 [56%] vs. 6/24 [17%], p = 0.03), and die during initial hospitalization (12/32 [38%] vs. 2/24 [8%], p = 0.01). The majority of infants with omphalocele have evidence of pulmonary hypertension which is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiograms to screen for pulmonary hypertension should be obtained at ≥2 days of life in infants with omphalocele, especially in those with liver within the omphalocele sac and/or in those infants who require intubation at birth to screen for pulmonary hypertension. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of Seismic Hazards at California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS)Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    The California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) has responsibility for design, construction, and maintenance of approximately 12,000 state bridges. CALTRANS also provides oversight for similar activities for 12,200 bridges owned by local agencies throughout the state. California is subjected to a M6 or greater seismic event every few years. Recent earthquakes include the 1971 Mw6.6 San Fernando earthquake which struck north of Los Angeles and prompted engineers to begin retrofitting existing bridges and re-examine the way bridges are detailed to improve their response to earthquakes, the 1989 Mw6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake which destroyed the Cypress Freeway and damaged the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, and the 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge earthquake in the Los Angeles area which heavily damaged four major freeways. Since CALTRANS' seismic performance goal is to ensure life-safety needs are met for the traveling public during an earthquake, estimating earthquake magnitude, peak bedrock acceleration, and determining if special seismic considerationsare needed at specific bridge sites are critical. CALTRANS is currently developing a fourth generation seismic hazard map to be used for estimating these parameters. A deterministic approach has been used to develop this map. Late-Quaternary-age faults are defined as the expected seismic sources. Caltrans requires site-specific studies to determine potential for liquefaction, seismically induced landslides, and surface fault rupture. If potential for one of these seismic hazards exists, the hazard is mitigated by avoidance, removal, or accommodated through design. The action taken, while complying with the Department's "no collapse" requirement, depends upon many factors, including cost.

  19. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; De Witt, Joel M [OSU, PHYSICS; Benton, Eric R [OSU, PHYSICS; Yasuda, Nakahiro [NIRS, HIMAC; Benton, Eugene V [UNIV OF SAN FRANCISCO

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}< 10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}< 1 {mu}m) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  20. Proton therapy for pediatric cranial tumors: preliminary report on treatment and disease-related morbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, Bruce; Archambeau, John O.; Nguyen, M. Connie; Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia; Schulte, Reinhard; Alvarez, Ofelia; Bedros, Antranik A.; Kaleita, Thomas; Moyers, Michael; Miller, Daniel; Slater, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Accelerated protons were used in an attempt to limit treatment-related morbidity in children with tumors in or near the developing brain, by reducing the integral dose to adjacent normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Children treated with protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center between August 1991 and December 1994 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-eight children, aged 1 to 18 years, were identified as at risk for brain injury from treatment. Medical records, physical examinations, and correspondence with patients, their parents, and referring physicians were analyzed. The investigators tabulated post-treatment changes in pre-treatment signs and symptoms and made judgments as to whether improvement, no change, or worsening related to disease or treatment had supervened. Magnetic resonance images were correlated with clinical findings and radiographic impressions were tabulated. Results: Follow-up ranged from 7 to 49 months (median 25 months). Four instances of treatment-related morbidity were identified. Forty-one instances of site-specific, disease-related morbidity were identified: 15 improved or resolved and 26 remained unchanged after treatment. Four patients had radiographic evidence of local failure. Three of these patients, including two with high-grade glioma, have died. Conclusion: Early treatment-related morbidity associated with proton therapy is low. Tumor progression remains a problem when treating certain histologies such as high-grade glioma. Escalating the dose delivered to target volumes may benefit children with tumors associated with poor rates of local control. Long-term follow-up, including neurocognitive testing, is in progress to assess integral-dose effects on cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes in children with cranial tumors

  1. Pandemic H1N1 in Canada and the use of evidence in developing public health policies--a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosella, Laura C; Wilson, Kumanan; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Chu, Anna; Upshur, Ross; Willison, Donald; Deeks, Shelley L; Schwartz, Brian; Tustin, Jordan; Sider, Doug; Goel, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    When responding to a novel infectious disease outbreak, policies are set under time constraints and uncertainty which can limit the ability to control the outbreak and result in unintended consequences including lack of public confidence. The H1N1 pandemic highlighted challenges in public health decision-making during a public health emergency. Understanding this process to identify barriers and modifiable influences is important to improve the response to future emergencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the H1N1 pandemic decision-making process in Canada with an emphasis on the use of evidence for public health decisions. Using semi-structured key informant interviews conducted after the pandemic (July-November 2010) and a document analysis, we examined four highly debated pandemic policies: use of adjuvanted vaccine by pregnant women, vaccine priority groups and sequencing, school closures and personal protective equipment. Data were analysed for thematic content guided by Lomas' policy decision-making framework as well as indicative coding using iterative methods. We interviewed 40 public health officials and scientific advisors across Canada and reviewed 76 pandemic policy documents. Our analysis revealed that pandemic pre-planning resulted in strong beliefs, which defined the decision-making process. Existing ideological perspectives of evidence strongly influenced how information was used such that the same evidentiary sources were interpreted differently according to the ideological perspective. Participants recognized that current models for public health decision-making failed to make explicit the roles of scientific evidence in relation to contextual factors. Conflict avoidance theory explained policy decisions that went against the prevailing evidence. Clarification of roles and responsibilities within the public health system would reduce duplication and maintain credibility. A more transparent and iterative approach to incorporating evidence

  2. Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Castilla, Angélica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Marrugo-Negrete, José

    2014-03-01

    Coal mining is a source of pollutants that impact on environmental and human health. This study examined the metal content and the transcriptional status of gene markers associated with oxidative stress, metal transport and DNA damage in livers of feral mice collected near coal-mining operations, in comparison with mice obtained from a reference site. Mus musculus specimens were caught from La Loma and La Jagua, two coal-mining sites in the north of Colombia, as well as from Valledupar (Cesar Department), a city located 100km north of the mines. Concentrations in liver tissue of Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As were determined by differential stripping voltammetry, and real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Compared with the reference group (Valledupar), hepatic concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in animals living near mining areas. In exposed animals, the mRNA expression of NQ01, MT1, SOD1, MT2, and DDIT3 was 4.2-, 7.3-, 2.5-, 4.6- and 3.4-fold greater in coal mining sites, respectively, than in animals from the reference site (pmining may generate pollutants that could affect the biota, inducing the transcription of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress, metal exposure, and DNA damage. These changes may be in part linked to metal toxicity, and could have implications for the development of chronic disease. Therefore, it is essential to implement preventive measures to minimize the effects of coal mining on its nearby environment, in order to protect human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional differences in attitudes that may affect health behavior and willingness to participate in research among Black Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E

    2009-01-01

    To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study.

  4. The Mw6.0 24 August 2014 South Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Pollitz, Fred F.; Murray, Jessica R.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Schwartz, David P.; Blair, James Luke; Ponti, Daniel J.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Shelly, David R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Boatwright, John; Aagaard, Brad T.; Wald, David J.; Allen, Richard M.; Barnhart, William D.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, which occurred at 10:20 UTC 24 August 2014 was the largest earthquake to strike the greater San Francisco Bay area since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The rupture from this right‐lateral earthquake propagated mostly unilaterally to the north and up‐dip, directing the strongest shaking toward the city of Napa, where peak ground accelerations (PGAs) between 45%g and 61%g were recorded and modified Mercalli intensities (MMIs) of VII–VIII were reported. Tectonic surface rupture with dextral slip of up to 46 cm was observed on a 12.5 km long segment, some of which was along a previously mapped strand of the West Napa fault system, although the rupture extended to the north of the mapped Quaternary strand. Modeling of seismic and geodetic data suggests an average coseismic slip of 50 cm, with a maximum slip of about 1 m at depths of 10–11 km. We observed up to 35 cm of afterslip along the surface trace in the week following the mainshock, primarily along the southern half of the surface rupture that experienced relatively little coseismic offset. Relocation of the sparse aftershock sequence suggests en echelon southwest‐ and northeast‐dipping fault planes, reflective of the complex fault geometry in this region. The Napa basin and historic and late Holocene alluvial flood deposits in downtown Napa amplified the ground motions there. Few ground failures were mapped, reflecting the dry season (as well as a persistent drought that had lowered the groundwater table) and the short duration of strong shaking in the epicentral area.

  5. Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Attitude, Access and Confidence: A comparison of dental hygiene and dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Victoria; Cardenas, Melissa; Charles, Anne Laure; Hernandez, Estefany; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Kwon, So Ran

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether current educational strategies at a dental institution in the United States made a difference in dental hygiene (DNHY) and dental students' (D3) learning outcomes in the four domains of evidence-based practice (EBP), knowledge, attitude, accessing evidence, and confidence (KACE), following a 12-week research design course. Methods: All participants DNHY (n=19) and D3 (n=96) enrolled in the research design course at Loma Linda University completed a paper KACE survey distributed on the first day of class. Students completed the KACE survey once more at the end of the 12-week course. Pre- and post-survey results were compared both within and between the DNHY and D3 student groups to identify the learning outcomes in the four domains of EBP; knowledge, attitude, accessing evidence, and confidence in EBP. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile all variables in the study; the level of significance was set at α=0.05. Results: All DNHY students (n=19) completed the pre and post KACE surveys; of the D3 (n=96) students enrolled in the course 82% (n=79) competed the post-survey. Comparison of the survey results showed that both DNHY and D3 students demonstrated statistically significant increases in their level of knowledge and attitude (p 0.05). Conclusion: DNHY and D3 students increased their knowledge and developed more positive attitudes towards EBP following a 12-week research design course. Study results identify improvement areas for EBP knowledge acquisition including determining levels of evidence, analysis of study results, and evaluating the appropriateness of research study designs through the use of validated EBP survey instrument. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  6. Estrategia para el desarrollo y transformación de la lengua materna en la Facultad de Cultura Física de Matanzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cárdenas Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se señala, y muy acertadamente, por Lomas, Osoro y Tusón, (1992 que la finalidad principal de la enseñanza de la lengua materna es dotar al alumnado de los recursos de expresión, comprensión, y reflexión sobre los usos lingüísticos y comunicativos, que le permitan una utilización adecuada de los diversos códigos lingüísticos y no lingüísticos disponibles en situaciones y contextos variados, con diferente grado de formalización o planificación en sus producciones orales y escritas. (En: Cárdenas 2004. Esto demanda trabajar con un enfoque funcional – comunicativo, sistémico e integrador que incida directa y favorablemente en el sujeto-objeto de la educación, el alumno, y que asegure en todos y cada uno de los niveles, un pensamiento creativo, desarrollador y transformador que a la vez implique el tránsito del conocimiento siempre de forma cualitativamente ascendente. La Competencia Comunicativa con la que el alumno debe poseer al acceder al nivel universitario asegurará la calidad de la docencia y contribuirá, en el plano real de las tareas de aprendizaje, a la comprensión y producción de significados en temas generales y especializados relacionados no solo con el deporte, y logre aprender y aplicar estrategias para interpretar el mundo mientras asume una actitud investigativa y responsable en el mejoramiento de su entorno, todo sobre la base del uso correcto de un instrumento básico: la lengua materna. La estrategia de la lengua materna en la Facultad de Cultura Física se proyecta sobre los siguientes fundamentos lingüísticos, psicológicos y metodológicos:

  7. Nasal valve evaluation in the Mexican-Hispanic (mestizo) nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Sánchez Y Béjar, Fernando; Arcaute Aizpuru, Fernando; Maulen Radován, Irene E; de la Garza Hesles, Héctor

    2018-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the angle of the internal nasal valve in Mexican patients with the "mestizo nose" feature and without nasal obstructive symptoms. The work was prospective, comparative, and observational in nature and included patients >14 years of age who were seen in the Otolaryngology Department at the Los Angeles Lomas Hospital between April and May 2016. The angle of the internal nasal valve was measured in 30 patients without obstructive symptoms. Endoscopic examination was performed with a 0° endoscope framed with tape at a 13-mm distance from the endoscope's tip, and digital photographs of the internal nasal valve were taken. The measurement of the angle of the internal nasal valve was made in sexagesimal degrees using Golden Ratio v3.1 (2012) software. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel v15.13.3. The angles of the internal nasal valve of the patients were (mean ± standard deviation) 24.07 ± 4.8° for the right nasal cavity and 25.07 ± 5.0° for the left nasal cavity, wider than the angle reported in the normal Caucasian nose established in the literature. According to our results, the Mexican-Hispanic mestizo nose has a wider angle in the internal nasal valve than that considered normal in the literature (10°-15°). We believe it is necessary to undertake a second study and add an airflow resistance measurement with a rhinomanometry procedure so we can compare the results with those in the Caucasian population. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. Weighing the Oligocene extensional event in the Salar de Atacama Basin by analysis of depth-converted sections and geophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascunan, S. A.; Maksymowicz, A.; Martínez, F.; Becerra, J.; Rubilar, J. F.; Arriagada, C.; Peña Gomez, M. A.; Gómez, I.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple studies of industry seismic lines across the Salar de Atacama Basin, in the Central Andes of northern Chile (22°-24°S), have led to opposite interpretations regarding its internal architecture, particularly for the Cenozoic successions. These differences can be attributed to the yet uncertain stratigraphy of the 5425 m-deep Toconao-1 well, its relation to outcrops around the El Bordo Escarpment, the tie between the well and the seismic lines, and the lack of a depth conversion of these lines. An analysis of these data allows for the proper location in the depth domain of the most important reflectors found in line Z-1G010, which intersects the borehole. The vertical seismic profile and the density log show that the most significant change in lithological properties occurs at ca. 1 s TWT (1580 m), at the transition from mainly evaporitic deposits to more clastic units, presumably belonging to the Loma Amarilla Formation. This modification in velocity and density can be seen in the seismic line as a major west-dipping surface, dubbed the San Pedro Reflector (SPR). The use of 3D software and the depth conversion allow following the SPR along most of the basin. The surface shows an east-to-west, south-to-north increase in depth, reaching a maximum close to 8 km. The geometry of the surface closely follows the trend of the El Bordo Escarpment. Based on paleomagnetic data, recent mapping and geochronology data, the reflector is estimated to have formed during the Oligocene. Additional extensional features confirm its origin due to small-scale collapse of the Cordillera de Domeyko after the Eocene Incaic Event, after which the deformation front migrated eastwards, thus explaining the presence of extension and compression along the margin at the same time. This change in stress state also affected other parts of the range, such as the Calama Basin.

  9. Advances in soil-structure interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    It is utmost important that lifeline infrastructures (such as bridges, hospitals, power plants, dams etc.) are safe and functional during earthquakes as damage or collapse of these structures may have far reaching implications. A lifeline's failure may hamper relief and rescue operations required just after an earthquake and secondly its indirect economical losses may be very severe. Therefore, safety of these structures during earthquakes is vital. Further, damage to nuclear facilities during earthquake may lead to disaster. These structures should be designed adequately taking into account all the important issues. Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) is one of the design issues, which is often overlooked and even in some cases ignored. The effects of dynamic SSI are well understood and practiced in the nuclear power industry (for large foundations of the nuclear containment structures) since sixties. However, in last decade, there are many advances in techniques of SSI and those need to be incorporated in practice. Failures of many structures occurred during the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge, California earthquakes and the 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake due to SSI or a related issue. Many jetties had failed in Andaman and Nicobar islands due to Sumatra earthquake and ensuing tsunamis. It is because of this recent experience that the importance of SSI on dynamic response of structures during earthquakes has been fully realized. General belief that the SSI effects are always beneficial for the structure is not correct. Some cases have been presented where it is shown that SSI effects are detrimental for the stability of the structure. This paper addresses the effects of dynamic SSI on the response of the structures and explains its importance. Further advances in SSI studies have been discussed

  10. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estrés de examen, variables moduladoras y reprobación escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se planteó cuatro objetivos: a establecer el perfil descriptivo del estrés de examen de los alumnos de educación media superior, bidentificar las materias que más estrés provocan en los alumnos de educación media superior al momento de presentar un examen, c distinguir las variables sociodemográficas y situacionales que establecen diferencias significativas en el estrés de examen de los alumnos de educación media superior y d determinarla relación que existe entre el estrés de examen y el número de materias reprobadas en los alumnos de educación media superior. Se fundamenta teóricamente en el modelo sistémico cognoscitivista del estrés académico que se deriva de la vertiente transaccionalista del Programa de Investigación Persona-Entorno. Para el logro de dichos objetivos se realizó un estudio transeccional, no experimental y correlacional mediante la aplicación del Inventario del Estrés de Examen a 343 alumnos del Colegio de Bachilleres Lomas de la ciudad de Durango, en el estado de Durango, México. Sus principales resultados permiten establecer un perfil descriptivo del estrés de examen de los alumnos de educación media superior, así como confirmar el papel modulador de las variables género y semestre y la correlación positiva entre el estrés de examen y el número de materia reprobadas.

  12. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union.

  13. Adolescents' utilisation of psychiatric care, neighbourhoods and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Ivert

    Full Text Available Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13-18 years (N=18,417, who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6%. The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas, do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our

  14. Long‐term creep rates on the Hayward Fault: evidence for controls on the size and frequency of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Bilham, Roger; Ponce, David A.; Boatwright, John; Caskey, S. John

    2012-01-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in California exhibits large (Mw 6.5–7.1) earthquakes with short recurrence times (161±65 yr), probably kept short by a 26%–78% aseismic release rate (including postseismic). Its interseismic release rate varies locally over time, as we infer from many decades of surface creep data. Earliest estimates of creep rate, primarily from infrequent surveys of offset cultural features, revealed distinct spatial variation in rates along the fault, but no detectable temporal variation. Since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE), monitoring on 32 alinement arrays and 5 creepmeters has greatly improved the spatial and temporal resolution of creep rate. We now identify significant temporal variations, mostly associated with local and regional earthquakes. The largest rate change was a 6‐yr cessation of creep along a 5‐km length near the south end of the HF, attributed to a regional stress drop from the LPE, ending in 1996 with a 2‐cm creep event. North of there near Union City starting in 1991, rates apparently increased by 25% above pre‐LPE levels on a 16‐km‐long reach of the fault. Near Oakland in 2007 an Mw 4.2 earthquake initiated a 1–2 cm creep event extending 10–15 km along the fault. Using new better‐constrained long‐term creep rates, we updated earlier estimates of depth to locking along the HF. The locking depths outline a single, ∼50‐km‐long locked or retarded patch with the potential for an Mw∼6.8 event equaling the 1868 HF earthquake. We propose that this inferred patch regulates the size and frequency of large earthquakes on HF.

  15. Implications of next generation attenuation ground motion prediction equations for site coefficients used in earthquake resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Proposals are developed to update Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published as American Society of Civil Engineers Structural Engineering Institute standard 7-10 (ASCE/SEI 7–10). The updates are mean next generation attenuation (NGA) site coefficients inferred directly from the four NGA ground motion prediction equations used to derive the maximum considered earthquake response maps adopted in ASCE/SEI 7–10. Proposals include the recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of (average shear velocity to 30-m depth). The NGA coefficients are shown to agree well with adopted site coefficients at low levels of input motion (0.1 g) and those observed from the Loma Prieta earthquake. For higher levels of input motion, the majority of the adopted values are within the 95% epistemic-uncertainty limits implied by the NGA estimates with the exceptions being the mid-period site coefficient, Fv, for site class D and the short-period coefficient, Fa, for site class C, both of which are slightly less than the corresponding 95% limit. The NGA data base shows that the median value  of 913 m/s for site class B is more typical than 760 m/s as a value to characterize firm to hard rock sites as the uniform ground condition for future maximum considered earthquake response ground motion estimates. Future updates of NGA ground motion prediction equations can be incorporated easily into future adjustments of adopted site coefficients using procedures presented herein. 

  16. Ecología y ocupación del espacio en los Andes Tropicales durante los últimos veinte milenios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1973-01-01

    dans les brouillards tièdes correspondant a la saison sèche de la sierra (forte subsidence de l'anticyclone pacifique, inversion thermique à basse altitude et réactivation du courant froid. Elle est aussi affectée par la transgression lente liée a la fusion des islandsis qui se fait a un rythme très différent (millénaire de celui de la fusion des glaciers de montagne (séculaire: les bruines (garuas alimentent la végétation des 'lomas' et une vie intense se développe le long du littoral. Plusieurs sites correspondant au début du post-Glaciaire (optimum climatique des latitudes moyennes jalonnent la côte et les 'lomas'. On peut penser que les chasseurs et récolteurs de cette époque se déplaçaient sai-complémentaires. Cette utilisation pouvait varier en fonction également de fluctuations courtes- par exemple éloignement momentané du courant froid côtier - alors que les milieux forestiers sont beaucoup plus stables. Les bassins intra andins bien protégés semblent avoir été les berceaux de l'agriculture andine, alors que la cote, avec les 'lomas' et surtout les vallées tièdes aux faibles amplitudes thermiques a été celui de la maîtrise de l'eau (environ 2.000 ans BP. La culture du mais apparaît sur la cote entre 1.500 et 1.200 B.P, soit 2.000 ans plus tard que dans les Andes, et va orienter la cote définitivement vers l'agriculture, favorisant ainsi la constitution d'unités politiques et le développement urbain. Cette fixation humaine était cependant restée assez souple pour que chaque unité politique conserve des territoires mis en valeur aux différents paliers écologiques, utilisant ainsi au maximum les facettes écologiques andines (verticalité

  17. Ciri Visual Komik Strip Sunda Opat Madhab Setan dalam Majalah Manglé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Kasmana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Opat Madhab Setan, sebuah komik strip yang diterbitkan Manglé, majalah berita, sastra dan budaya Sunda hadir Maret hingga Desember 1988 dalam 42 edisi. Komikus berusaha mengangkat budaya Sunda melalui penggambaran ilustrasi yang khas dalam menyusun unsur visual melalui komposisi cukup kental dengan nilai Sunda dan kesundaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui serta memahami bagaimana budaya Sunda direpresentasikan melalui gambar dan tulisan. Selain itu untuk mengidentifikasi unsur-unsur dalam komik, yang menjadi ciri visual dan karakter sebuah komik Sunda. Penelitian menggunakan analisis isi kualitatif untuk membuka dan memaparkan dengan teliti bagaimana unsur-unsur pada sebuah cerita diungkapkan. Dari penelitian disimpulkan komik Opat Madhab Setan memiliki ciri visual, gaya gambar semi realis, banyak menangkap gestur, tidak detail, inkonsistensi ukuran panel dan tidak rapih, tipografi tulisan manual menggunakan huruf besar, dominasi normal baloons, dan panel gabungan interdependen, onomatopea yang khas dalam bahasa Sunda. Budaya Sunda direpresentasikan melalui cerita, penokohan orang Sunda berupa karakterisasi stereotype, gambaran fisik postur, gestur, facial, serta latar Islam digambarkan sebagai sistem religi yang dianut, bahasa yang digunakan bahasa Sunda loma/lancaran. Kampung Sunda dihadirkan melalui arsitektur rumah panggung, gambaran alam dengan budaya sawah dan ladangnya, atribut berupa benda pakai, interaksi sosial, kepercayaan serta nilai-nilai kempimpinan yang ada di masyarakat Sunda. Kata Kunci: budaya; karakter visual; komik; komik strip; Sunda.Opat Madhab Setan, a comic strip published by Manglé; Sundanese news, literature, and culture magazine from March to December 1988 in 42 editions. The comic artist tries to depict Sundanese culture through a distinguished illustration in making up the visual elements by taking into account the compositions of societies and its value. The aims of this research are to discovering and

  18. Microbial filaments in stromatolites and laminites of Balbuena III Sequence (Maastrichtian/Danian of Yacoraite Formation in Metán-Alemania Sub-basin, Salta region, Argentina, and its alaeoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Roemers-Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Bacia de Salta localiza-se no noroeste argentino e sua origem está relacionada a um rifte intracontinental, formado durante o Cretáceo e início do Paleógeno. Subdivide-se em quatro sub-bacias (Lomas de Olmedo a leste; Sey a oeste; Tres Cruces a norte; e Metán-Alemania a sul que foram preenchidas por sedimentos dos Subgrupos Pirgua (fase sin-rifte, Balbuena e Santa Bárbara (fase sag . O Subgrupo ou Supersequência Balbuena é dividido em quatro sequências: Balbuena I, II, III e IV, da base para o topo. O presente estudo identificou filamentos microbianos em imagens geradas pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura em amostras de estromatólitos e laminitos da Sequência Balbuena III (Maastrichtiano/Daniano da Formação Yacoraite, na Sub-bacia Metán-Alemania, região do dique Cabra Corral, distrito de Coronel Moldes, Argentina. A ocorrência desses filamentos, identificados em calcários formados em períodos de clima árido e depositados no intervalo de lago fechado da sequência em estudo, indica a influência de atividade biológica na formação dessas rochas. A identificação dos filamentos microbianos, preservados a partir de estruturas de cianobactérias, auxilia a interpretação paleoambiental, uma vez que a ocorrência desses microorganismos é limitada à zona fótica e é comum a ambientes estressantes. Os laminitos da área de estudo foram interpretados como formados em planícies lamosas supralitorâneas na zona vadosa, enquanto os estromatólitos se formaram em ambiente sublitorâneo, estando constantemente submersos. Além dos microbialitos, ocorrem na Sequência Balbuena III fácies carbonáticas, siliciclásticas e mistas, depositadas em ambiente lacustre.

  19. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  20. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  1. Quantitative Mapping of Precursory Seismic Quiescence Before Large Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukomm, S.; Wiemer, S.; Giardini, D.

    2002-12-01

    A relative decrease of aftershock activity before the occurrence of large aftershocks to M6+ mainshocks is one of only few earthquake precursors accepted for the IASPEI preliminary list of significant earthquake precursors. If one considers earthquake rate to be dependent on stressing rate, aftershocks sequences offer in fact an ideal environment to detect precursory quiescence before large earthquakes: The numerous aftershocks allow a much higher spatial and temporal resolution of transients in seismicity than possible with the average background rate of micro-earthquakes. Past studies of precursory quiescence before larger aftershocks, however, have largely been based on bulk value. The aim of this study is to map the temporal and spatial variability of activity rate within several rich aftershock sequences, and, possibly, exploit the results for improving real time probabilistic aftershock hazard assessment. We introduce a new algorithm based on fitting the modified Omori law to the aftershock sequences. At arbitrarily chosen grid points, the Omori parameters of the sub-samples containing all aftershock within 5 or 10 km of the node are estimated at time t. We calculate the number of aftershocks N +/- dN in the time interval t + dt using the relevant four Omori parameters (p, c and k) parameters and their corresponding standard deviations estimated using a bootstrap analysis. The difference between the forecasted and the observed number of aftershocks, normalized by the standard deviation of the forecast, is our estimator of rate change. The algorithm is tested on synthetic aftershock sequences containing artificial quiescences in order to calibrate the free parameters for optimal detection of precursory quiescence. We then perform our spatial and temporal mapping for several prominent Californian and Japanese aftershock sequences (Landers, Hector Mine, Northridge, Loma Prieta, Kobe, Western Tottori and Hokkaido). Preliminary results suggest that we cannot

  2. USGS GNSS Applications to Earthquake Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Murray, J. R.; Minson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid characterization of earthquake rupture is important during a disaster because it establishes which fault ruptured and the extent and amount of fault slip. These key parameters, in turn, can augment in situ seismic sensors for identifying disruption to lifelines as well as localized damage along the fault break. Differential GNSS station positioning, along with imagery differencing, are important methods for augmenting seismic sensors. During response to recent earthquakes (1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah, 2012 Brawley Swarm and 2014 South Napa earthquakes), GNSS co-seismic and post-seismic observations proved to be essential for rapid earthquake source characterization. Often, we find that GNSS results indicate key aspects of the earthquake source that would not have been known in the absence of GNSS data. Seismic, geologic, and imagery data alone, without GNSS, would miss important details of the earthquake source. That is, GNSS results provide important additional insight into the earthquake source properties, which in turn help understand the relationship between shaking and damage patterns. GNSS also adds to understanding of the distribution of slip along strike and with depth on a fault, which can help determine possible lifeline damage due to fault offset, as well as the vertical deformation and tilt that are vitally important for gravitationally driven water systems. The GNSS processing work flow that took more than one week 25 years ago now takes less than one second. Formerly, portable receivers needed to be set up at a site, operated for many hours, then data retrieved, processed and modeled by a series of manual steps. The establishment of continuously telemetered, continuously operating high-rate GNSS stations and the robust automation of all aspects of data retrieval and processing, has led to sub-second overall system latency. Within the past few years, the final challenges of

  3. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina, E-mail: kcaballerog@unicartagena.edu.co; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus, E-mail: joliverov@unicartagena.edu.co

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose–response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Mice were exposed to coal dust-contaminated sand. • mRNA Markers for PAH exposure, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress increased. • ALT activity in plasma increased at the highest exposure to coal dust. • Liver tissues of exposed

  4. Micro-and nanodosimetry for radiobiological planning in radiotherapy and cancer risk assessment in radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    . Microdosimetric and nanodosimetric measurements of 250 MeV proton radiation fields at the proton accelerator of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) using SOI microdosimeter and gas nanodosimeter will be presented. Good agreement between GEANT Monte Carlo simulations of ionization cluster and pattern of deposited energies measured by nanodosimeter and microdosimeter have been achieved. Replacement of a gas nanodosimeter with 10 nm SV volume of a silicon detector is a challenge. However with the development of Si nanotechnology it is feasible and track structure sensitive array of 3D submicron size Si detectors will be presented. Challenges in the conversion of Si microdosimetric and nanodosimetric spectra to tissue equivalent will be discussed. This project is a large scale collaboration with ANSTO and U NSW in Australia and LLUMC, USNA, Johns Hopkins Uni and MSKCC in the USA

  5. Analyzing post-wildfire erosional processes and topographic change using hydrologic monitoring and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry at the storm event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, R. J.; Barth, N. C.; Gray, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydro-geomorphic response in recently burned watersheds is highly dependent on the timing and magnitude of subsequent rainstorms. Recent advancements in surveying and monitoring techniques using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry can support the rapid estimation of near cm-scale topographic response of headwater catchments (ha to km2). However, surface change due to shallow erosional processes such as sheetwash and rilling remain challenging to measure at this spatial extent and the storm event scale. To address this issue, we combined repeat UAV-SfM surveys with hydrologic monitoring techniques and field investigations to characterize post-wildfire erosional processes and topographic change on a storm-by-storm basis. The Las Lomas watershed ( 15 ha) burned in the 2016 San Gabriel Complex Fire along the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California. Surveys were conducted with a consumer grade UAV; twenty-six SfM control markers; two rain gages, and two pressure transducers were installed in the watershed. The initial SfM-derived point cloud generated from 422 photos contains 258 million points; the DEM has a resolution of 2.42 cm/pixel and a point density of 17.1 pts/cm2. Rills began forming on hillslopes and minor erosion occurred within the channel network during the first low intensity storms of the rainy season. Later more intense storms resulted in substantial geomorphic change. Hydrologic data indicate that during one of the intense storms total cumulative rainfall was 58.20 mm and peak 5-min intensity was 38.4 mm/hr. Poststorm field surveys revealed evidence of debris flows, flash flooding, erosion, and fluvial aggradation in the channel network, and rill growth and gully formation on hillslopes. Analyses of the SfM models indicate erosion dominated topographic change in steep channels and on hillslopes; aggradation dominated change in low gradient channels. A contrast of 5 cm exists between field

  6. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  7. Reconstrucción espacial y temporal de la ocurrencia de avalanchas de nieve en los Andes patagónicos utilizando técnicas dendrocronológicas Dendrochronological reconstruction of spatial and temporal patterns of snow avalanches in the Patagonian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CASTELLER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las avalanchas de nieve representan un importante riesgo natural en diversas regiones montañosas alrededor del mundo. Daños a infraestructura y pérdidas de vidas humanas son reportados frecuentemente en relación a eventos catastróficos de avalanchas. En los Andes, numerosas obras de infraestructura se ubican en zonas vecinas a senderos de avalanchas, de las que poco se conoce sobre sus alcances máximos, periodos de retorno y presiones de impacto. A través de la implementación de técnicas dendrocronológicas hemos reconstruido las fechas de ocurrencia y áreas de influencia de eventos pasados de avalanchas de nieve. Ejemplares de Nothofagus pumilio con perturbaciones visibles de avalanchas fueron muestreados en sectores del canal, bordes y zonas de frenado de 11 senderos de avalanchas ubicados en Loma de las Pizarras, próximo a El Chaltén, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Además, áreas de control fueron muestreadas para determinar las condiciones de crecimiento en árboles no afectados por avalanchas. Nuestros análisis indican que las cicatrices, las variaciones de excentricidad en el leño, los cambios abruptos de crecimiento y la presencia de leño de tensión son los principales indicadores dendrocronológicos en N. pumilio asociados a la ocurrencia de avalanchas. Basados en una ponderación cuantitativa de los indicadores y en la profundidad de muestreo, calculamos un índice de ocurrencia de eventos, el cual nos permitió determinar para cada sendero los años con ocurrencia de avalanchas. Considerando de manera integral la actividad de avalanchas en los 11 senderos muestreados, los años con mayor ocurrencia de eventos fueron 1936, 1966, 1978 y 1995. Complementariamente, registros climáticos fueron analizados con el objetivo de determinar las relaciones entre los años con ocurrencia de avalanchas y las variaciones mensuales de precipitación y temperatura. Se observa que los años con gran frecuencia de avalanchas est

  8. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Ramiro; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar

    2009-01-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al 2 O 3 and CaO contents with increasing SiO 2 suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 ± 21 Ma and 1373 ± 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T DM model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while ε Nd(1330) values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 ± 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T DM model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and ε Nd(1330) values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval plutons. The Porvenir, San Cristobal and Piso Firme plutons

  9. Development of a State-Wide 3-D Seismic Tomography Velocity Model for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C. H.; Lin, G.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.; Waldhauser, F.; Hardebeck, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report on progress towards the development of a state-wide tomographic model of the P-wave velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle of California. The dataset combines first arrival times from earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded on regional network stations and travel times of first arrivals from explosions and airguns recorded on profile receivers and network stations. The principal active-source datasets are Geysers-San Pablo Bay, Imperial Valley, Livermore, W. Mojave, Gilroy-Coyote Lake, Shasta region, Great Valley, Morro Bay, Mono Craters-Long Valley, PACE, S. Sierras, LARSE 1 and 2, Loma Prieta, BASIX, San Francisco Peninsula and Parkfield. Our beta-version model is coarse (uniform 30 km horizontal and variable vertical gridding) but is able to image the principal features in previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, such as the high-velocity subducting Gorda Plate, upper to middle crustal velocity highs beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Coast Ranges, the deep low-velocity basins of the Great Valley, Ventura, and Los Angeles, and a high- velocity body in the lower crust underlying the Great Valley. The new state-wide model has improved areal coverage compared to the previous models, and extends to greater depth due to the data at large epicentral distances. We plan a series of steps to improve the model. We are enlarging and calibrating the active-source dataset as we obtain additional picks from investigators and perform quality control analyses on the existing and new picks. We will also be adding data from more quarry blasts, mainly in northern California, following an identification and calibration procedure similar to Lin et al. (2006). Composite event construction (Lin et al., in press) will be carried out for northern California for use in conventional tomography. A major contribution of the state-wide model is the identification of earthquakes yielding arrival times at both the Northern California Seismic

  10. Australian proton therapy facilities - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleasel, S.; Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of cancer; both in the curative treatment of localised disease and in alleviating symptoms in more advanced disease. Radiotherapy is usually given with megavoltage X-rays which give good penetration at depth and a lower dose on the skin. The aim is to give a high dose to the tumour while keeping the dose to normal tissues as low as possible. While X-rays continue beyond the target volume, protons and other charged particles have a finite range in tissue and this allows the high dose region to closely conform to the tumour, thereby giving the best chance of tumour control with minimum side effects. This is particularly important for small tumours adjacent to critical normal structures. The unmodified Bragg peak is too narrow to be useful but can be spread out to cover the tumour. Protons of energy 70 - 250 MeV are required to achieve the optimal depth in the body. Protons have been used for cancer treatment since 1954 but most of these treatments have been given in physics-based facilities which do not provide an ideal environment for the patient and may have only limited beam time available. A dedicated, hospital based facility was built at Loma Linda in California in 1991 and has now treated over 5,000 patients. Several other centres are being built in the USA, Japan and Europe and one is now being considered for Australia. Early 1998 Hitachi Australia Ltd. was asked to research the possibility of building a facility in Australia to serve Oceania. Two major hospitals showed interest, Royal Brisbane Hospital and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. Both hospitals are undergoing redevelopment and have space for a building 3 stories high with a foot-print of approximately 50 m x 50 m. What is proposed for Australia is a principally clinical research facility with a dedicated area for physics research. A Steering Committee will be established to develop a document for presentation to Government. The facility

  11. Socio-environmental health analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O’ Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales’s municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA’s) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA’s drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride

  12. Seismomagnetic effects from the long-awaited 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Sasai, Y.; Egbert, G.D.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Precise measurements of local magnetic fields have been obtained with a differentially connected array of seven synchronized proton magnetometers located along 60 km of the locked-to-creeping transition region of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield, California, since 1976. The M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004, occurred within this array and generated coseismic magnetic field changes of between 0.2 and 0.5 nT at five sites in the network. No preseismic magnetic field changes exceeding background noise levels are apparent in the magnetic data during the month, week, and days before the earthquake (or expected in light of the absence of measurable precursive deformation, seismicity, or pore pressure changes). Observations of electric and magnetic fields from 0.01 to 20 Hz are also made at one site near the end of the earthquake rupture and corrected for common-mode signals from the ionosphere/magnetosphere using a second site some 115 km to the northwest along the fault. These magnetic data show no indications of unusual noise before the earthquake in the ULF band (0.01-20 Hz) as suggested may have preceded the 1989 ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Nor do we see electric field changes similar to those suggested to occur before earthquakes of this magnitude from data in Greece. Uniform and variable slip piezomagnetic models of the earthquake, derived from strain, displacement, and seismic data, generate magnetic field perturbations that are consistent with those observed by the magnetometer array. A higher rate of longer-term magnetic field change, consistent with increased loading in the region, is apparent since 1993. This accompanied an increased rate of secular shear strain observed on a two-color EDM network and a small network of borehole tensor strainmeters and increased seismicity dominated by three M 4.5-5 earthquakes roughly a year apart in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Models incorporating all of these data indicate increased slip at depth in the region

  13. Nuclear Crisis Communications: The Plan Worked. A Critique of NRC Communications in the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor Crisis - 12073

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Eliot; Harrington, Holly; Schmidt, Rebecca [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    'Call the AV-Photo folks and get someone in here to shoot b-roll. We'll never be able to accommodate the network cameras and the only way I can get this to the media is to produce it ourselves'. Eliot Brenner, Director NRC Office of Public Affairs, March 12, 2011. For the past four years we have been speaking to audiences at Waste Management about communications issues. Last year, though we were kept from attending because of the federal budget crisis, our surrogates described to you the lessons the nuclear industry should draw from the BP Gulf oil spill crisis. Those remarks were delivered 11 days before the Fukushima Daiichi tragedy became the nuclear landmark of a generation - an industry changing event with worldwide ramifications, both in science and regulation and in communications. Eliot Brenner cut his teeth on crisis communication in the aviation industry where tragedy unfolds rapidly. He has been a speech-writer to three cabinet secretaries, spokesman for the Federal Aviation Administration and now spokesman for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since 2004. Holly Harrington manages the NRC crisis response program and has 26 years federal public affairs experience, including eight years at the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Her crisis experience includes the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, numerous hurricanes and floods, Sept 11, and, now Fukushima Daiichi. Rebecca Schmidt is a veteran government relations professional whose decades in Washington include service with the House Armed Services Committee, the House Budget Committee and the Secretary of Defense. Collectively, the Offices of Public Affairs and Congressional Affairs conducted the largest outreach for the agency since Three Mile Island. We worked with the basic rule, described to Waste Management last year just 11 days before Fukushima - communicate early, often and clearly. The response - while not without its problems and lessons - went as smoothly as a chaotic event like

  14. In vivo evaluation of a conjugated poly(lactide-ethylene glycol nanoparticle depot formulation for prolonged insulin delivery in the diabetic rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lomas Tomar,1,2 Charu Tyagi,1,3 Manoj Kumar,2 Pradeep Kumar,1 Harpal Singh,2 Yahya E Choonara,1 Viness Pillay11University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa; 2Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India; 3VSPG College, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, IndiaAbstract: Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and polylactic acid (PLA-based copolymeric nanoparticles were synthesized and investigated as a carrier for prolonged delivery of insulin via the parenteral route. Insulin loading was simultaneously achieved with particle synthesis using a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, and the effect of varied PEG chain lengths on particle size and insulin loading efficiency was determined. The synthesized copolymer and nanoparticles were analyzed by standard polymer characterization techniques of gel permeation chromatography, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro insulin release studies performed under simulated conditions provided a near zero-order release pattern up to 10 days. In vivo animal studies were undertaken with varied insulin loads of nanoparticles administered subcutaneously to fed diabetic rabbits and, of all doses administered, nanoparticles containing 50 IU of insulin load per kg body weight controlled the blood glucose level within the physiologically normal range of 90–140 mg/dL, and had a prolonged effect for more than 7 days. Histopathological evaluation of tissue samples from the site of injection showed no signs of inflammation or aggregation, and established the nontoxic nature of the prepared copolymeric nanoparticles. Further, the reaction profiles for PLA-COOH and NH2-PEGDA-NH2 were elucidated using molecular mechanics energy relationships in vacuum and in a solvated system by exploring the spatial disposition of various

  15. Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O' Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-06-01

    In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales's municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA's drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride was found

  16. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  17. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, E.B.; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D.; Liwnicz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments per week. Results: At a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years (0.6-6.8 years), 6/27 patients experienced local failure (all located within the irradiated field), and 4/27 patients had died. By anatomic site these data translated into rates of local control and survival of 87% (13/15 patients) and 93% (14/15 patients) for central tumors, 71% (5/7 patients) and 86% (6/7 patients) for hemispheric tumors, and 60% (3/5 patients) and 60% (3/5 patients) for tumors located in the brainstem. Proton radiation therapy was generally well tolerated. All children with local control maintained their performance status. One child with associated neurofibromatosis, Type 1, developed Moyamoya disease. All six patients with optic pathway tumors and useful vision maintained or improved their visual status. Conclusions: This report on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas confirms proton radiation therapy as a safe and efficacious 3-D conformal treatment

  18. Status and needs for seismic instrumentation of structures along the Hayward fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Çelebi, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The inventory of structures in heavily urbanized communities within the greater San Francisco (SF) Bay area that will experience strong ground motions from the rupture of the Hayward Fault includes a variety of types of recent and older structures built with a variety of materials and to different code standards. Those who remember the effects of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake on structures in the San Francisco Bay area also remember the collapse of one upper-deck segment of the Bay Bridge that halted transportation for approximately five weeks. In order to understand how these structures respond to earthquake motions and to improve building practices to resist these strong motions it is imperative that owners of these structures as well as governmental organizations acquire shaking response data from instrumented (or yet to be instrumented structures) during the forecast events. Within California, such data are acquired mainly by California Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey. A small number of private owners contribute to this effort. The inventory of existing instrumented structures is much less than 0.1% of the total, and thus statistically it is not sufficient. For example, some of the existing important regular or lifeline structures are not instrumented(e.g. Bart Trans-Bay Tunnel, many segments of the Bart elevated structures in the proximity of the Hayward Fault, the yet to be completed eastern part of San Francisco Bay Bridge, Hetch-Hetchy pipeline system crossing the Hayward Fault)even though attempts and proposals have been developed to do so in the past. This paper presents a critical assessment of the status quo and the future needs for instrumentation of structures in the greater SF Bay area that includes the Hayward Fault. There are many new attempts and successes in instrumentation of structures in this region. Two successful examples are provided here, but more needs to be done. The paper does not present new research results

  19. The effects of weekly augmentation therapy in patients with PiZZ α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid ST

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ST Schmid,1 J Koepke,1 M Dresel,1 A Hattesohl,1 E Frenzel,2 J Perez,3 DA Lomas,4 E Miranda,5 T Greulich,1 S Noeske,1 M Wencker,6 H Teschler,6 C Vogelmeier,1 S Janciauskiene,2,* AR Koczulla1,*1Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 3Department of Cellular Biology, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain; 4Department of Medicine, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 5Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Istituto Pasteur – Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Pneumology, West German Lung Clinic, Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The major concept behind augmentation therapy with human α1-antitrypsin (AAT is to raise the levels of AAT in patients with protease inhibitor phenotype ZZ (Glu342Lys-inherited AAT deficiency and to protect lung tissues from proteolysis and progression of emphysema.Objective: To evaluate the short-term effects of augmentation therapy (Prolastin® on plasma levels of AAT, C-reactive protein, and chemokines/cytokines.Materials and methods: Serum and exhaled breath condensate were collected from individuals with protease inhibitor phenotype ZZ AAT deficiency-related emphysema (n = 12 on the first, third, and seventh day after the infusion of intravenous Prolastin. Concentrations of total and polymeric AAT, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and C-reactive protein were determined. Blood neutrophils and primary epithelial cells were also exposed to Prolastin (1 mg/mL.Results: There were significant fluctuations in serum (but not in exhaled breath condensate levels of AAT polymers, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL

  20. The Pulse Azimuth effect as seen in induction coil magnetometers located in California and Peru 2007–2010, and its possible association with earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Dunson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The QuakeFinder network of magnetometers has recorded geomagnetic field activity in California since 2000. Established as an effort to follow up observations of ULF activity reported from before and after the M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 by Stanford University, the QuakeFinder network has over 50 sites, fifteen of which are high-resolution QF1005 and QF1007 systems. Pairs of high-resolution sites have also been installed in Peru and Taiwan.

    Increases in pulse activity preceding nearby seismic events are followed by decreases in activity afterwards in the three cases that are discussed here. In addition, longer term data is shown, revealing a rich signal structure not previously known in QuakeFinder data, or by many other authors who have reported on pre-seismic ULF phenomena. These pulses occur as separate ensembles, with demonstrable repeatability and uniqueness across a number of properties such as waveform, angle of arrival, amplitude, and duration. Yet they appear to arrive with exponentially distributed inter-arrival times, which indicates a Poisson process rather than a periodic, i.e., stationary process.

    These pulses were observed using three-axis induction coil magnetometers that are buried 1–2 m under the surface of the Earth. Our sites use a Nyquist frequency of 16 Hertz (25 Hertz for the new QF1007 units, and they record these pulses at amplitudes from 0.1 to 20 nano-Tesla with durations of 0.1 to 12 s. They are predominantly unipolar pulses, which may imply charge migration, and they are stronger in the two horizontal (north-south and east-west channels than they are in the vertical channels. Pulses have been seen to occur in bursts lasting many hours. The pulses have large amplitudes and study of the three-axis data shows that the amplitude ratios of the pulses taken from pairs of orthogonal coils is stable across the bursts, suggesting a similar source.

    This paper presents three

  1. Radiation Shielding of Lunar Regolith/Polyethylene Composites and Lunar Regolith/Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quincy F.; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Zhou, Jianren

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is a complex mixed field of ionizing radiation that can pose hazardous risks to sophisticated electronics and humans. Mission planning for lunar exploration and long duration habitat construction will face tremendous challenges of shielding against various types of space radiation in an attempt to minimize the detrimental effects it may have on materials, electronics, and humans. In late 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) discovered that water content in lunar regolith found in certain areas on the moon can be up to 5.6 +/-2.8 weight percent (wt%) [A. Colaprete, et. al., Science, Vol. 330, 463 (2010). ]. In this work, shielding studies were performed utilizing ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and aluminum, both being standard space shielding materials, simulated lunar regolith/ polyethylene composites, and simulated lunar regolith mixed with UHMWPE particles and water. Based on the LCROSS findings, radiation shielding experiments were conducted to test for shielding efficiency of regolith/UHMWPE/water mixtures with various percentages of water to compare relative shielding characteristics of these materials. One set of radiation studies were performed using the proton synchrotron at the Loma Linda Medical University where high energy protons similar to those found on the surface of the moon can be generated. A similar experimental protocol was also used at a high energy spalation neutron source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). These experiments studied the shielding efficiency against secondary neutrons, another major component of space radiation field. In both the proton and neutron studies, shielding efficiency was determined by utilizing a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) behind various thicknesses of shielding composite panels or mixture materials. Preliminary results from these studies indicated that adding 2 wt% water to regolith particles could increase shielding of

  2. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  3. From tomographic images to fault heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Local Earthquake Tomography (LET is a useful tool for imaging lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The pattern of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies, in relation to the seismicity distribution along active fault zones. can shed light on the existence of discrete seismogenic patches. Recent tomographic studies in well monitored seismic areas have shown that the regions with large seismic moment release generally correspond to high velocity zones (HVZ's. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the seismogenic behavior of faults and the velocity structure of fault zones as inferred from seismic tomography. First, we review some recent tomographic studies in active strike-slip faults. We show examples from different segments of the San Andreas fault system (Parkfield, Loma Prieta, where detailed studies have been carried out in recent years. We also show two applications of LET to thrust faults (Coalinga, Friuli. Then, we focus on the Irpinia normal fault zone (South-Central Italy, where a Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred in 1980 and many thousands of attershock travel time data are available. We find that earthquake hypocenters concentrate in HVZ's, whereas low velocity zones (LVZ’ s appear to be relatively aseismic. The main HVZ's along which the mainshock rupture bas propagated may correspond to velocity weakening fault regions, whereas the LVZ's are probably related to weak materials undergoing stable slip (velocity strengthening. A correlation exists between this HVZ and the area with larger coseismic slip along the fault, according to both surface evidence (a fault scarp as high as 1 m and strong ground motion waveform modeling. Smaller wave-length, low-velocity anomalies detected along the fault may be the expression of velocity strengthening sections, where aseismic slip occurs. According to our results, the rupture at the nucleation depth (~ 10-12 km is continuous for the whole fault lenoth (~ 30 km, whereas at shallow depth

  4. The HayWired Scenario - How Can the San Francisco Bay Region Bounce Back Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wein, A. M.; Cox, D. A.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K.; Johnson, L. A.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    example, a roughly $50 billion investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude (M) 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The earthquake hazard from the Hayward Fault remains high, however, and work still needs to be done to ensure that the region is ready for an earthquake like that in the HayWired scenario.

  5. Navier-Stokes analysis and experimental data comparison of compressible flow within ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Reichert, B. A.; Sirbaugh, J. R.; Wellborn, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    . The present study compares results for both the Baldwin-Lomas and k-epsilon turbulence models and is conducted with a refined grid. For the transition duct, two inlet conditions were considered, the first with straight flow and the second with swirling flow. The first case permits examination of the effects of the geometric transition on the flow field, while the second case includes the rotational flow effect characteristic of a gas turbine engine.

  6. Lesson's-learned from a 2003-2006 USA-Honduras NGO and University Geosciences Education Partnership in Land use Land / Land Cover Change Analysis using Remote Sensing and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = http://www.fundacionsave.com/home_eng.html In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal

  7. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, E.B. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics and Dept. of Pathology; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States). Section of Radiation Oncology; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Liwnicz, B. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments per week. Results: At a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years (0.6-6.8 years), 6/27 patients experienced local failure (all located within the irradiated field), and 4/27 patients had died. By anatomic site these data translated into rates of local control and survival of 87% (13/15 patients) and 93% (14/15 patients) for central tumors, 71% (5/7 patients) and 86% (6/7 patients) for hemispheric tumors, and 60% (3/5 patients) and 60% (3/5 patients) for tumors located in the brainstem. Proton radiation therapy was generally well tolerated. All children with local control maintained their performance status. One child with associated neurofibromatosis, Type 1, developed Moyamoya disease. All six patients with optic pathway tumors and useful vision maintained or improved their visual status. Conclusions: This report on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas confirms proton radiation therapy as a safe and efficacious 3-D conformal treatment

  8. Multi-annual climate in Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar, Atacama Desert, Chile Clima multianual en el Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar, Desierto de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW V. THOMPSON

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The lomas formations of the Peruvian and Atacama deserts are characterized by both climatic and floristic spatial heterogeneity, as well as non-contiguous pockets of relatively distinct flora. We examined two distinct types of communities in Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar in Chile, the low-elevation arroyo and bajada community, and the high-elevation fog-zone community. We determined the distribution with elevation of the dominant perennial plant species in a single arroyo community, as well as the distribution of associated climatic characteristics. Climatic conditions (including air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction were recorded from June, 1999, to March, 2001, for the arroyo, as well as for a medium-elevation inland site with little vegetation, and a high-elevation fog-zone site with copious vegetation. The fog layer, or camanchaca, derived from the marine inversion layer ubiquitous to the Peruvian and Atacama deserts was found to be more persistent, though weaker, during the summer months and somewhat more condensed and shallower in the winter months, with uncharacteristically dry air and high temperatures occurring at and above 400 m elevation during the late fall and early winter of 2000. The reduction or increase in the maximum elevation of the camanchaca or a change in the rainfall regime of the park may have broad implications for the distribution or even presence of certain species in Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar. Vegetation patterns appear to be strongly dependent on inversion layer development, and perhaps on its subsidence during the winter. A number of species prevalent at low-elevation sites may have little advantage at a high-elevation foggy site, whereas the consistently high humidity at low elevations would be a boon to any desert plant accustomed to low precipitation. If we are to successfully assess the effects of changes in southern Pacific weather patterns, it will become necessary to more

  9. Journal of Proton Therapy: Call for Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Journal of Proton Therapy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comFor more information, please visit www. protonjournal.comwww. protonjournal.org **************************************Journal of Proton Therapy Welcomes Editorial Board Members Chee-Wai Cheng, PhD Dr. Cheng is the Director of Proton Medical Physics at the University Hospitals as well as Professor of Clinical Radiation Oncology at the Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.Carlos Vargas, MDDr. Vargas is a Radiation Oncologist at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona. Luca Cozzi, PhD Dr. Cozzi is a Clinical Research Scientist at the Department of Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery at Humanitas Cancer Center, Milan, Italy.Ted Ling, MD Dr. Ling is a Resident Physician at the Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California, USA.Haibo Lin, PhD Dr. Lin is a Medical Physicist at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.Xiaodong Zhang, PhD Dr. Zhang is an Associate Professor at the Department of Radiation Physics

  10. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit HELVACI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins, and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey, California (USA, Central Andes (South America and Tibet (Central Asia. The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka, California (Boron, and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca. Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and

  11. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  12. Agricultural producers, undulated pampa and edaphic problems. A study of case in the Buenos Aires north-east Productores agropecuarios, pampa ondulada y problemáticas edáficas. Un estudio de caso en el noreste bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tsakoumagkos

    2010-01-01

    (loma y bajo. A partir del catastro municipal aplicamos una encuesta a una muestra estratificada estadísticamente representativa, por ubicación y tamaño de lotes. Sobre la misma realizamos el muestreo que nos permitió analizar los siguientes parámetros: profundidad del horizonte, densidad aparente, materia orgánica, acidez, nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio. Calculamos el contenido de materia orgánica y de nitrógeno por hectárea, y el deterioro relativo. Realizamos test de hipótesis de comparación de medias, prueba F y prueba t; y, calculamos finalmente los deterioros relativos. Utilizamos como indicador el contenido de materia orgánica por hectárea, dada su mayor sensibilidad a los cambios en las condiciones del suelo. Dos de nuestros principales hallazgos nos indican, en primer lugar, que al cultivar en lomas y con siembra directa, todos los tipos de productores presentaron los valores más bajos de deterioro relativo, excepto los familiares no capitalizados que obtienen los menores deterioros relativos con labranza convencional, aún en los bajos. Estos productores utilizan la ganadería en rotación con los cultivos como táctica de cuidado del suelo. Los empresarios capitalizados presentan los mayores valores de deterioro relativo en los bajos. Los familiares presentan menores pérdidas, cuando son capitalizados logran las mejores situaciones relativas al aplicar siembra directa en los bajos. En segundo lugar, ninguna dimensión -tipo de productor, estrategias productivas, ambientes- analizada aisladamente determina el deterioro relativo de los suelos. Pero, al mismo tiempo, ninguno puede ser descartado sino que debería ser incluido en una combinación que integre las condiciones de ambiente y las estrategias productivas de los diferentes tipos de productores que manejan los suelos.

  13. Intraspecific venom variation in the medically significant Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): biodiscovery, clinical and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Scheib, Holger; Gren, Eric C K; Cochran, Chip; Person, Carl E; Koludarov, Ivan; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K; King, Glenn F; Antunes, Agosthino; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2014-03-17

    Due to the extreme variation of venom, which consequently results in drastically variable degrees of neutralization by CroFab antivenom, the management and treatment of envenoming by Crotalus oreganus helleri (the Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), one of the most medically significant snake species in all of North America, has been a clinician's nightmare. This snake has also been the subject of sensational news stories regarding supposed rapid (within the last few decades) evolution of its venom. This research demonstrates for the first time that variable evolutionary selection pressures sculpt the intraspecific molecular diversity of venom components in C. o. helleri. We show that myotoxic β-defensin peptides (aka: crotamines/small basic myotoxic peptides) are secreted in large amounts by all populations. However, the mature toxin-encoding nucleotide regions evolve under the constraints of negative selection, likely as a result of their non-specific mode of action which doesn't enforce them to follow the regime of the classic predator-prey chemical arms race. The hemorrhagic and tissue destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) were secreted in larger amounts by the Catalina Island and Phelan rattlesnake populations, in moderate amounts in the Loma Linda population and in only trace levels by the Idyllwild population. Only the Idyllwild population in the San Jacinto Mountains contained potent presynaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex characteristic of Mohave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) and Neotropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). The derived heterodimeric lectin toxins characteristic of viper venoms, which exhibit a diversity of biological activities, including anticoagulation, agonism/antagonism of platelet activation, or procoagulation, appear to have evolved under extremely variable selection pressures. While most lectin α- and β-chains evolved rapidly under the influence of positive Darwinian selection, the β-chain lectin of

  14. Is Your Class a Natural Disaster? It can be... The Real Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, J. S.; Furlong, K.

    2003-12-01

    " historical earthquakes (ex. the students get alerted, like any other real-time alert, to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake). Students are then responsible for going through a series of tasks mimicking real earthquake response teams. Teacher feedback compares students' decisions against the actual decisions of the earthquake professionals, giving student assessment meaning and validity. Additionally, it sets up wonderful post-role-play research projects for students to investigate the complex, long-term impacts of the historical earthquake. The integration of technology with education is a critical part of the authentic science experience. Telecommunication improvements are making sets of current, robust resources needed for open-ended investigations increasingly available to students. In the RTEE system, the near real-time determination of earthquake information and subsequent delivery of that information to earthquake professionals is a reality that can be shared with students in their classrooms. The specific focus of the RTEE system is to improve the delivery of real-time earthquake education resources to educators and their students. By coupling the Earthworm system with relevant high-quality educational materials, we hope to provide a critical resource for understanding the societal impacts of earthquakes.

  15. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting;Geoquimica e assinaturas Nd-Sr do Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, provincia Rondoniana-San Ignacio, pre-cambriano de Bolivia Oriental: caracterizacao petrogenetica de um arco magmatico no mesoproterozoico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Ramiro, E-mail: rmatoss@igc.usp.b [Universidad Mayor de San Andre (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva, E-mail: wteixeir@usp.b, E-mail: jsbetten@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar, E-mail: geraldes@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FG/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia

    2009-07-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO contents with increasing SiO{sub 2} suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 {+-} 21 Ma and 1373 {+-} 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 {+-} 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval

  16. Radiation beamline testbeds for the simulation of planetary and spacecraft environments for human and robotic mission risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the inter-national space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Med-ical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  17. Australian national proton facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities and apart from the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory and some low energy machines for eye treatment, only small numbers of patients were treated in each centre and conditions were less than optimal. Limited beam time and lack of support facilities restricted the type of patient treated and conventional fractionation could not be used. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. Since the development of hospital-based facilities, such as the one in Loma Linda in California, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in the low dose volume is likely to be particularly

  18. Rolado de fachinales y calidad de suelos en el Chaco occidental, Argentina Roller-chopping of shrub-thickets and soil quality in the western Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Anriquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región chaqueña occidental la sustentabilidad de establecimientos ganaderos es reducida, debido a la existencia de grandes áreas dominadas por arbustos de los géneros Acacia, Celtis y Prosopis (´fachinales´ que generan baja capacidad receptiva y escasa accesibilidad del ganado. Con el propósito de controlar estas especies improductivas y aumentar la oferta forrajera en dichas áreas, se utilizan comúnmente prácticas agronómicas como por ejemplo el rolado, que generalmente es acompañado por siembra de pasturas y/o fuego prescrito. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de estas prácticas sobre algunos indicadores de calidad de suelo, tales como densidad aparente, carbono orgánico total, carbono orgánico particulado, respiración edáfica, carbono de la biomasa microbiana, actividad deshidrogenasa, en tres sitios característicos de la región: Alto, Media Loma y Bajo. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron rolado, rolado con siembra de Panicum maximum cv. trichoglume cv green panic, y rolado seguido por fuego prescrito. La densidad aparente, el carbono orgánico total, el carbono orgánico particulado y el carbono de la biomasa microbiana no fueron alterados por los tratamientos. Una mayor actividad deshidrogenasa se observó en el sitio Bajo, independientemente de los tratamientos y probablemente debido a un mayor contenido de agua del suelo. La respiración edáfica aumentó en el sitio Alto en todos los tratamientos, probablemente debido a la modificación de la actividad microbiana del suelo, atribuible al estímulo producido por los exudados radiculares del green panic y de las herbáceas nativas que aparecieron después de los tratamientos. En general, los indicadores de calidad de suelo no fueron afectados significativamente por los tratamientos usados, hecho atribuible a la baja intensidad de aplicación del rolado y de las prácticas asociadas (siembra de pasturas y fuegos prescriptos. No obstante, hubo un efecto

  19. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    results at that time. CDMG eventually published the second edition map in 1992 following the Governor's Board of Inquiry on the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and at the demand of Caltrans. The third edition map was published by Caltrans in 1996 utilizing GIS technology to manage data that includes a simplified three-dimension geometry of faults and to facilitate efficient corrections and revisions of data and the map. The spatial relationship of fault hazards with highways, bridges or any other attribute can be efficiently managed and analyzed now in GIS at Caltrans. There has been great confidence in using DSHA in bridge engineering and other applications in California, and it can be confidently applied in any other earthquake-prone region. Earthquake hazards defined by DSHA are: (1) transparent and stable with robust MCE moment magnitudes; (2) flexible in their application to design considerations; (3) can easily incorporate advances in ground motion simulations; and (4) economical. DSHA and neo-DSHA have the same approach and applicability. The accuracy of DSHA has proven to be quite reasonable for practical applications within engineering design and always done with professional judgment. In the final analysis, DSHA is a reality-check for public safety and PSHA results. Although PSHA has been acclaimed as a better approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is DSHA, not PSHA, that has actually been used in seismic hazard assessment for building and bridge engineering, particularly in California.

  20. Focal Mechanism of a Catastrophic Earthquake of the Last Rococo Period (1783) in Southern Italy Retrieved by Inverting Historical Information on Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

    2007-05-01

    Using geophysical inversion to discover the fault source of a blind earthquake, that took place before the invention of the seismograph, seemed impossible. We demonstrated that sometimes it is possible using our simplified KF model (Sirovich, 1996) through automatic genetic inversion (Gentile et al., 2004 in BSSA; Sirovich and Pettenati, 2004 in JGR), and determined it conclusively by treating the Coalinga 1983, Loma Prieta 1989, and Northridge 1994 earthquakes (Pettenati and Sirovich, 2007 in BSSA). KF is able to simulate the body-wave radiation from a linear source, and eleven source parameters are retrieved: the three nucleation coordinates, the fault-plane solution, the seismic moment, the rupture velocities and lengths along-strike and anti-strike, the shear wave velocity in the half-space. To find the minima on the hypersurface of the residuals in the multi-parameter model space, we use a genetic process with niching since we have already shown that the problem is bimodal for pure dip-slip mechanisms. The objective function of the nonlinear inversion is the sum of the squared residuals (calculated-minus-observed intensity at all sites). Here, we use the very good intensity data provided in the MCS scale by the INGV of Italy for the M 6.9 earthquake of Feb. 5, 1783 (see the Italian intensity data bank on http:emidius.mi.ingv.it/DOM/consultazione.html). The data of 1783 were created by seismologists and historians who interpreted the reports of the time and many other historical sources. Given the limitations of the KF approach, we limited our inversion to a square area of 200 by 200 km around the most heavily damaged zone. 341 surveyed towns and hamlets received intensity degrees by INGV (we discarded 6 of them as statistical outliers according to the classical Chauvenet method). Thus, 335 data were inverted. The match between experimental and synthetic isoseismals is really noteworthy. The found mechanism is almost pure dip-slip and, thus, the problem is

  1. Using Mobile Health Gamification to Facilitate Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Skills Practice in Child Anxiety Treatment: Open Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, Gede; Parmanto, Bambang; Lomas, James; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kendall, Philip C; Silk, Jennifer

    2018-05-10

    an adjunctive component to brief cognitive behavioral therapy in an open clinical trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of gamification, we compared the app usage data at posttreatment with the earlier version of SmartCAT without gamification. Gamified SmartCAT was used frequently throughout treatment. On average, patients spent 35.59 min on the app (SD 64.18) completing 13.00 activities between each therapy session (SD 12.61). At the 0.10 significance level, the app usage of the gamified system (median 68.00) was higher than that of the earlier, nongamified SmartCAT version (median 37.00, U=76.00, Pcognitive behavioral therapy treatment. Integrating an mHealth gamification platform within treatment for anxious children seems to increase involvement in shorter treatment. Further study is needed to evaluate increase in involvement in full-length treatment. ©Gede Pramana, Bambang Parmanto, James Lomas, Oliver Lindhiem, Philip C Kendall, Jennifer Silk. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 10.05.2018.

  2. Experimental microdosimetry in high energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Bednar, J.; Vlcek, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.-F.; Molokanov, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    To determine microdosimetric characteristics in the beams and fields of high energy panicles with the goal, also, to compare the classical method of experimental microdosimetry, a tissue equivalent low pressure proportional counter (TEPC) with the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrometer based on a chemically etched polyallyldiglycolcarbonate as a track etched detector (TED). To test the use of TED LET spectrometer in the conditions, where the use or TEPC is not possible (high energy charged particle beams at high dose rates). The results obtained with the TEPC NAUSICAA were used in this work to compare them with other data. This TEPC measures directly the linear energy in the interval between 0.15 and 1500 keV/μm in tissue, the low gas pressure (propan based TE mixture) permits to simulate a tissue element of about 3 μm. It can be used in the fields with instantaneous dose equivalent rates between 1 μSv/hour and 1 mSv/ hour. TED LET spectrometer developed to determine LET spectra between 10 and 700 keV/μm in tissue. Primarily, track-to-bulk etch rate ratios are determined through the track parameters measurements, the spectra of these ratios are convened to LET spectra using the calibration curve established by means of heavy charge panicles. The critical volume of thi spectrometer is supposed to be a few nm. There is no limit of use for the dose rate, the background tracks limit the lowest threshold to about 1 mSv, the overlapping of tracks (the highest one) to 100 mSv. Both experimental microdosimetry methods have been used in on board aircraft radiation fields, in on-Earth high energy radiation reference fields, and in the beams of protons with energies up to 300 MeV (Dubna, Moscow, Loma Linda). First, it should be emphasized, that in all high energy radiation fields studied, we concentrated our analysis on the region, where both methods overlap, i.e. between 10 and 1000 keV/μm in tissue. It should be also stressed, that the events observed in this region

  3. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    showed evidence of contaminant exposure as indicated by fish health indicators and reproductive biomarker results. Multiple health indicators including altered body and organ weights and high health assessment index scores may be associated with elevated Se concentrations in fish from the Colorado River at Loma, Colorado and Needles. Although grossly visible external or internal lesions were found on most fish from some sites, histopathological analysis determined many of these to be inflammatory responses associated with parasites. Edema, exophthalmos, and cataracts were noted in fish from sites with elevated Se concentrations. Intersex fish were found at seven of 14 sites and included smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu), largemouth bass (M. salmoides), catfish, and carp and may indicate exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. A high proportion of smallmouth bass from the Yampa River at Lay (70%) was intersex but the cause of this condition is unknown. Male carp, bass, and catfish with low concentrations of vitellogenin were common in the CRB. Comparatively high vitellogenin concentrations (>0.2 mg/mL) were measured in male bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR and the Colorado River at Imperial Dam and indicate exposure to estrogenic or anti-androgenic chemicals. Anomalous reproductive biomarkers including low GSI and gonadal abnormalities (calcifications, edema, and parasites) observed in fish downstream of Phoenix are likely related to the poor water-quality of the Gila River in this area.

  4. Investigation of ULF magnetic pulsations, air conductivity changes, and infra red signatures associated with the 30 October Alum Rock M5.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several electromagnetic signal types were observed prior to and immediately after 30 October 2007 (Local Time M5.4 earthquake at Alum Rock, Ca with an epicenter ~15 km NE of San Jose Ca. The area where this event occurred had been monitored since November 2005 by a QuakeFinder magnetometer site, unit 609, 2 km from the epicenter. This instrument is one of 53 stations of the QuakeFinder (QF California Magnetometer Network-CalMagNet. This station included an ultra low frequency (ULF 3-axis induction magnetometer, a simple air conductivity sensor to measure relative airborne ion concentrations, and a geophone to identify the arrival of the P-wave from an earthquake. Similar in frequency content to the increased ULF activity reported two weeks prior to the Loma Prieta M7.0 quake in 1989 (Fraser-Smith, 1990, 1991, the QF station detected activity in the 0.01–12 Hz bands, but it consisted of an increasing number of short duration (1 to 30 s duration pulsations. The pulsations peaked around 13 days prior to the event. The amplitudes of the pulses were strong, (3–20 nT, compared to the average ambient noise at the site, (10–250 pT, which included a component arising from the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART operations. The QF station also detected different pulse shapes, e.g. negative or positive only polarity, with some pulses including a combination of positive and negative. Typical pulse counts over the previous year ranged from 0–15 per day, while the count rose to 176 (east-west channel on 17 October, 13 days prior to the quake. The air conductivity sensor saturated for over 14 h during the night and morning prior to the quake, which occurred at 20:29 LT. Anomalous IR signatures were also observed in the general area, within 50 km of the epicenter, during the 2 weeks prior to the quake. These three simultaneous EM phenomena were compared with data collected over a 1–2-year period at the site. The data was also compared against accounts of air

  5. Earthquake prediction in Japan and natural time analysis of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, S.; Varotsos, P.

    2011-12-01

    ' (SES) data are available as in Greece, the natural time analysis of the seismicity after the initiation of the SES allows the determination of the time window of the impending mainshock through the evolution of the value of κ1 itself. It was found to work also for the 1989 M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. If SES data are not available, we solely rely on the evolution of the fluctuations of κ1 obtained by computing κ1 values using a natural time window of certain length sliding through the earthquake catalog. The fluctuations of the order parameter, in terms of variability, i. e., standard deviation divided by average, was found to increase dramatically when approaching the 11 March M9 super- giant earthquake. In fact, such increase was also found for M7.1 Kobe in 1995, M8.0 Tokachi-oki in 2003 and Landers and Hector-Mines earthquakes in Southern California. It is worth mentioning that such increase is obtained straghtforwardly from ordinary earthquake catalogs without any adjustable parameters.

  6. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation-induced T helper Cell Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridley, Daila S.

    2008-01-01

    photons. Over the course of this research, tissues other than spleens were archived and with funding obtained from other sources, including the Department of Radiation Medicine at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, some additional assays were performed. Furthermore, groups of additional mice were included that were pre-exposed to low-dose photons before irradiating with acute photons, protons, and simulated solar particle event (SPE) protons. Hence, the original support together with the additional funding for our research led to generation of much valuable information that was originally not anticipated. Some of the data has already resulted in published articles, manuscripts in review, and a number of presentations at scientific conferences and workshops. Difficulties in reliable and reproducible quantification of secreted cytokines using multi-plex technology delayed completion of this study for a period of time. However, final analyses of the remaining data are currently being performed and should result in additional publications and presentations in the near future. Some of the most notable conclusions, thus far, are briefly summarized below: - Distribution of leukocytes were dependent upon cell type, radiation quality, body compartment analyzed, and time after exposure. Low-dose protons tended to have less effect on numbers of major leukocyte populations and T cell subsets compared to low-dose photons. - The patterns of gene and cytokine expression in CD4+ T cells after protracted low-dose irradiation were significantly modified and highly dependent upon the total dose and time after exposure. - Patterns of gene and cytokine expression differed substantially among groups exposed to low-dose photons versus low-dose protons; differences were also noted among groups exposed to much higher doses of photons, protons, and simulated SPE protons. - Some measurements indicated that exposure to low-dose photon radiation, especially 0.01 Gy, significantly 'normalized

  7. Functional Analysis in Public Sector Funkcinė analizė viešajame sektoriuje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2011-02-01

    š privataus sektoriaus „pasiskolintų“ ir viešajam sektoriui pritaikytų efektyvaus valdymo priemonių yra strateginis planavimas. Rengiant viešojo sektoriaus institucijų strateginius veiklos planus ir jų įgyvendinimo priemones, būtina vadovautis valstybės plėtros prioriteto, rinkos kaip institucijų veiklos reguliatoriaus pagrįstumo ir kitais principais. Siekiant įgyvendinti tokius principus, tikslinga taikyti funkcinės analizės metodą. Tyrimo tikslas – atskleisti funkcinės analizės esmę viešajame sektoriuje. Tokio tikslo pasirinkimą lėmė aktuali viešojo sektoriaus veiklos neefektyvumo problema. Tikslui pasiekti straipsnyje nagrinėjami įvairių mokslininkų bei praktikų pateikti funkcinės analizės tikslai ir uždaviniai, funkcinės analizės technologija, siūloma taikyti viešajam sektoriui. Naudojamas kokybinis tyrimo metodas – mokslinės literatūros analizė, vertinimas ir apibendrinimas.

    Raktiniai žodžiai: viešasis sektorius, viešojo administravimo reforma, viešosios institucijos, funkcinė analizė, efektyvumas.

  8. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, William T.

    2006-01-01

    compared to those in conventional (photon) treatments. Wilson wrote his personal account of this pioneering work in 1997. In 1954 Cornelius Tobias and John Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory (former E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) of the University of California, Berkeley performed the first therapeutic exposure of human patients to hadron (deuteron and helium ion) beams at the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron. By 1984, or 30 years after the first proton treatment at Berkeley, programs of proton radiation treatments had opened at: University of Uppsala, Sweden, 1957; the Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory (MGH/HCL), USA, 1961; Dubna (1967), Moscow (1969) and St Petersburg (1975) in Russia; Chiba (1979) and Tsukuba (1983) in Japan; and Villigen, Switzerland, 1984. These centers used the accelerators originally constructed for nuclear physics research. The experience at these centers has confirmed the efficacy of protons and light ions in increasing the tumor dose relative to normal tissue dose, with significant improvements in local control and patient survival for several tumor sites. M.R. Raju reviewed the early clinical studies. In 1990, the Loma Linda University Medical Center in California heralded in the age of dedicated medical accelerators when it commissioned its proton therapy facility with a 250-MeV synchrotron. Since then there has been a relatively rapid increase in the number of hospital-based proton treatment centers around the world, and by 2006 there are more than a dozen commercially-built facilities in use, five new facilities under construction, and more in planning stages. In the 1950s larger synchrotrons were built in the GeV region at Brookhaven (3-GeV Cosmotron) and at Berkeley (6-GeV Bevatron), and today most of the world's largest accelerators are synchrotrons. With advances in accelerator design in the early 1970s, synchrotrons at Berkeley and Princeton accelerated ions with atomic numbers between 6 and 18, at

  9. Metales pesados en hongos de areas contaminadas Heavy metals in wild mushrooms from contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moyano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos, saprobios y micorrícicos, desempeñan un papel importante en los eco­sistemas forestales, en especial en los ciclos biogeoquímicos. Los saprobios actúan en los procesos de degradación y mineraliza­ción de la materia orgánica, mientras que los micorrícicos son esenciales en la adquisi­ción y translocación de los nutrientes a las plantas huéspedes. En lugares contaminados por metales pesados la simbiosis micorrícica confiere resistencia a la plantas; en algunos casos se ha demostrado que plantas infecta­das pueden sobrevivir más fácilmente a la contaminación que las no micorrizadas. El micelio secuestra la fracción asimilable de los metales pesados disminuyendo la trans­locación a las plantas. Los cuerpos fructífe­ros de los hongos son consumidos por una gran cantidad de animales y también por el hombre. Algunas setas silvestres tienen un alto valor nutricional y son un recurso natu­ral con un valor económico importante. Sin embargo, la acumulación de metales pesa­dos por los hongos puede representar un riesgo para la salud tanto para humanos como para otros seres vivos. Suelos, hongos y hojarasca fueron mues­treados en una zona contaminada con meta­les pesados en las proximidades de una mina de Pb-Zn (Cd, actualmente abando­nada (Loma Charra, Soria. Los contenidos de metales en suelos, hojarascas y hongos indican un elevado grado de contaminación en relación a áreas cercanas, utilizadas como control, no afectadas por actividad minera. En el suelo los contenidos de Zn: 797-3540 mg/kg, Cd: 2,1-10 mg/kg y Pb: 1485-8166 mg/kg, en hojarasca (Zn: 92­1475 mg/kg; Cd 0,9-4,2 mg/kg; Pb: 54­2756 mg/kg y en setas (Zn 118-915 mg/kg; Cd: 1,2-45,2 mg/kg y Pb 12-1475 mg/kg. Los factores de bioacumulación indican alto riesgo medioambiental.Saprotroph and mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in forest ecosystem, particu­lary in the biogeochemical cycles. Sapro­ troph fungi are crucial for degradation of the

  10. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  11. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  12. Preparations for the next generation of clinical trials with proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhauser, W.D.; Smith, A.R.; Fitzek, M.; Ibbott, G.; Munzenrider, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: As proton radiation therapy centers become more widely available, we anticipate an increase in clinical proton therapy research, e.g. clinical trials to compare the efficacy of proton therapy with that of conformal photon therapy. In this presentation, we explore some of the quality assurance (QA) work that will be necessary to support multi-institution clinical trials to include facilities in Europe, Asia and the United States. Specifically, we shall concentrate on three areas pertaining to practical clinical proton dosimetry for which clear, concise, and coherent guidance is needed. First, the existing proton therapy dosimetry protocols (e.g. ICRU Report 59, IAEA TRS-398) provide general methods that are well suited for adoption in proton therapy. Many additional techniques are required in order to implement dosimetry in a contemporary proton clinic. For example, special situations arise for small fields including those for radiosurgery and ocular treatments, and for rotational therapy. Fortunately, this additional information is emerging from various proton therapy centers. For example, Vatnitsky et al. described the dosimetry of small beams, Newhauser et al. described absolute proton dosimetry techniques for radiosurgery and for ocular beams. Newhauser et al. also reported on a general formalism and practical methods for dosimetry measurements in a rotational proton gantry. Our aim is to discuss some specific needs for the standardization of these tasks, which will be essential in achieving adequate uniformity in multi-institution clinical trials. Second, we will discuss means to standardize of writing the physics QA portion of protocols for multi-institution clinical trials, through which a statistically significant number of patient outcomes may be obtained more rapidly. Surprisingly, only two multi-institution proton clinical trials have been undertaken (a skull base sarcoma trial and a prostate cancer trial, both shared between MGH and Loma Linda

  13. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William T.

    2006-03-16

    treatment volume compared to those in conventional (photon) treatments. Wilson wrote his personal account of this pioneering work in 1997. In 1954 Cornelius Tobias and John Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory (former E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) of the University of California, Berkeley performed the first therapeutic exposure of human patients to hadron (deuteron and helium ion) beams at the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron. By 1984, or 30 years after the first proton treatment at Berkeley, programs of proton radiation treatments had opened at: University of Uppsala, Sweden, 1957; the Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory (MGH/HCL), USA, 1961; Dubna (1967), Moscow (1969) and St Petersburg (1975) in Russia; Chiba (1979) and Tsukuba (1983) in Japan; and Villigen, Switzerland, 1984. These centers used the accelerators originally constructed for nuclear physics research. The experience at these centers has confirmed the efficacy of protons and light ions in increasing the tumor dose relative to normal tissue dose, with significant improvements in local control and patient survival for several tumor sites. M.R. Raju reviewed the early clinical studies. In 1990, the Loma Linda University Medical Center in California heralded in the age of dedicated medical accelerators when it commissioned its proton therapy facility with a 250-MeV synchrotron. Since then there has been a relatively rapid increase in the number of hospital-based proton treatment centers around the world, and by 2006 there are more than a dozen commercially-built facilities in use, five new facilities under construction, and more in planning stages. In the 1950s larger synchrotrons were built in the GeV region at Brookhaven (3-GeV Cosmotron) and at Berkeley (6-GeV Bevatron), and today most of the world's largest accelerators are synchrotrons. With advances in accelerator design in the early 1970s, synchrotrons at Berkeley and Princeton accelerated ions with atomic numbers

  14. Impresiones y recuerdos: José Silverio Gómez 1801-1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Pittier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo del sabio conservacionista Henri Pittier (1857-1950 que data de 1904 es posiblemente el primer testimonio sobre la excepcional longevidad de los habitantes de la Península de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Fue el estadístico costarricense Carlos Raabe quien llamó mi atención sobre este ensayo cuando en 2007 diversos medios de comunicación del mundo dan a conocer a la, así llamada, “Blue Zone” de Nicoya. La organización National Geographic había acuñado tres años antes en un artículo de su conocida revista el término Blue Zone para designar tres bolsones de súper longevidad en el mundo: Okinawa en Japón, Cerdeña en Italia y Loma Linda en California, EEUU. Más tarde, y a raíz de una ponencia sobre la excepcionalmente baja mortalidad de los nonagenarios costarricenses que presenté en la XXV Conferencia Mundial de la Unión Internacional para el Estudio Científico de la Población (IUSSP en Tours, Francia y tras cuidadoso examen de la evidencia científica, National Geographic incluye a la península de Nicoya como la cuarta Blue Zone del mundo. Henri Pittier se anticipa, entonces, cien años en descubrir la Blue Zone de Nicoya.¿Quién es Henri Pittier?Una rápida búsqueda en Google da cuenta de que el más antiguo y más famoso parque nacional de Venezuela, establecido en 1938, se denomina Henri Pittier en reconocimiento al botánico y geógrafo suizo de ese nombre que se estableció en ese país en 1917 y que publicó en 1926 el “Manual de las Plantas Usuales de Venezuela” una obra clásica reeditada varias veces y utilizada hasta nuestros días. Pittier publicó cerca de 300 obras, entre los que se cuenta otra obra clásica: “Primitia Flora Costaricensis” (1907. Henri Pittier es de la estirpe de los sabios naturalistas del Siglo XIX como Humboldt o Darwin. Llega a Costa Rica en 1887 invitado por las visionarias autoridades de educación costarricense de entonces quienes al mando de Mauro Fernández y Ricardo Jim

  15. Los grupos étnicos en la cuenca del Chuquimayo, siglos 15 y 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Dans les provinces actuelles de San Ignacio et Jaén (département de Cajamarca, Pérou, ont vécu de nombreux groupes ethniques dont il n'existe plus aucun représentant, ce qui empêche d'en faire une étude ethnologique. Le seul moyen qui nous reste pour connaître quelque chose d'eux est constitué par les sources écrites des seizième et dix-septième siècles. 2. On a cru a tort que l'un des groupes ethniques les plus représentatifs de la province de Jaén était celui appelé Pacamuros ou Bracamoros, groupe que l'on situait dans l'angle formé par les rios Chinchipe et Marañon. Les documents historiques montrent que ce groupe était installé dans le bassin du rio Zamora, dans la partie centrale de la nouvelle province équatorienne de Santiago-Zamora. 3. Les groupes ethniques des provinces de San Ignacio et Jaén étaient concentrés préférentiellement dans les bassins de rios Chuquimayo ou Chinchipe, Chirinos, Tabaconas et à l'Ouest du Marañon. Ils travaillaient des terres de cordillère froides et d'autres situées en forêt chaude ou l'humidité est constante et la flore très développée. 4. Les groupes ethniques furent les suivants: I Nehipe ou Chuquimayo ou Chinchipe, 2 Chirinos, 3 Perico, 4 Pacaraes, 5 Mandinga, 6 Tabancaras, 7 Joroca, 8 Jo-lluca, 9 Llanqueconi, 10} Tomependa, 11 Chamaya, 12 Bagua, 13 Copallin, 14 Canas de Cacahuari o Lomas del Viento, 15 Comechingon, 16 Huambucos, 17 Maracacona, 18 Moqui, 19 Girapaconi, 20 Tamborapa et quatre autres qui ont vécu a proximité des sources du Chinchipe et le long du Marañón mais dont nous ignorons les noms. Les espagnols ont appelé chaque groupe provincia. 5. Les Tabaconas et les Huambos furent deux curacazgos ou royaumes andins de langue rurashimi qui se situaient respectivement a l'Ouest et au Sud des groupes humains déjà cités. Ils ont fait partie de l'Empire des Incas. 6. Les groupes de Jaén ont pratiqué une agriculture de subsistance la base de l

  16. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer V (NMHT-V) EUROTHERM seminar No 108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Lacroix, David; Zianni, Xanthippi

    2017-01-01

    is the support by the Société Francaise de Thermique, LEMTA laboratory, CNRS, University. of Lorraine, Quantiheat European Project (S. Gomes), The European Research Group for Heat Transfer at the Nanoscale (S. Volz) and the Institute of Optic (P. Ben-Abdallah). The next NMTH conference is scheduled in Lapland, Finland, December 2018 and will be organized by Professor Mika PRUNILLA and the VTT (http://www.vttresearch.com) NMHT-V focused on ▪ Conductive heat transfer at short scales of length and time, ▪ Thermal radiation at subwavelength scale, ▪ Heat and mass transfer in solid/liquid interfaces The main topics of the seminar were ∘ Phonon, electron, mass transport ∘ Thermal Metrology at Micro/Nanoscales ∘ Computational Methods in Micro/Nanoscale Transport ∘ Micro/Nanoscale Interfacial Transport Phenomena ∘ Micro/Nanoscale Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer ∘ Micro/Nanoscale Thermal Radiation ∘ Thermoelectricity/Thermophotovoltaics ∘ Biomedical Applications of Micro/Nanoscale Transport. Chairs K. Termentzidis, CNRS researcher, LEMTA-CNRS, Nancy, France D. Lacroix, Professor, LEMTA-Un. Lorraine, Nancy, France X. Zianni, Professor, TEI of Sterea Ellada, Greece Scientific Committee (22 members) J-H. Bahk, Un. Cincinnati, U.S. P. Ben-Abdallah, Institut d’Optique, Orsay, France O. Bourgeois, Institut Néel, Grenoble, France Y. Chalopin, EM2C, Châtenay-Malabry, France P.-O. Chapuis, CETHIL, INSA-Lyon, France S. Dilhaire, LOMA, Un. Bordeaux, France D. Donadio, Max-Planck, Germany S. Gomes, CETHIL, INSA-Lyon, France A. Kent, Un. Nottingham, U.K. A. Kittel, Un. Oldenburg, Germany E. Lampin, IEMN, Un. Lille 1, France V. Lysenko, INL, INSA-Lyon, France J. Lukes, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. M. Martin-Gonzalez, IMM, Spain S. Merabia, Intitut Lumière Matière, Lyon 1, France N. Papanikolaou, Demokritos, Greece G. Pernot, LEMTA, Un. Lorraine, France B. Perrin, INSP – Univ. Paris 6, France S. Shevlin, Materials Chemistry, UCL, U.K C. Sotomayor

  17. Obituary: Malcolm Raff (1940-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuch, H.

    2011-12-01

    ... and demanded excellence. Over the following decades we built a highly functioning group. We were tested by the Loma Prieta Earthquake and the Oakland Hills Fire. We were recognized by our clients and our peers as a reliable, professional caliber, citizen volunteer group. We earned their trust and respect, from which Mal derived a level of satisfaction." For these and other contributions, Mal Raff (radio amateur WA2UNP) was inducted posthumously into CQ Magazine's Amateur Radio Hall of Fame. In a conversation reminiscent of a scene from the TV sitcom "Big Bang Theory," Mal and his friend Tanya Renner once speculated on what superpower they would want, should they ever become superheroes. Mal said he would choose clarity. "Yet, Mal already had clarity," recalls Tanya. "The ability to perceive, without obscurity, was one of Mal's numerous and wonderful traits. He understood the individuality of each being, bird or human, he met. He also had the foresight to adapt to challenging new projects, and bountifully contributed knowledge based on his amazing experiences. Mal was equally my mentor, friend, and superhero of clarity." "Above all, to me, Mal had a big heart and a big brain--a rare and potent combination," recalls colleague Kevin Hockett. "He was a clear example of a person who never stopped growing, who always found new things to learn and master and love. I won't now be able to see a chromatogram trace, a bird preening in shade, or a star turning out its light, and not equally see Mal." Former flight student Juan Richardson reminisces, "The first time I saw Mal I thought that he looked like an interesting person who might be worth getting to know. That turned out to be truer than I expected. One tip-off was those bushy, wild, out-of-control eyebrows. Then there was the Berkeleyesque attire with science oriented T-shirts. Here was definitely a person who was going to be the person who he wanted to be, with minimal accommodation to societal norms. People liked that

  18. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    has increased due to, inter alia, the realization that the revolution in energy use that must occur for climate change targets to be met means major changes in the fabric of the existing dwelling stock, dwellings constructed before building regulations demanded high energy performance standards. It is argued that the building sector, in general, and the existing dwelling stock, in particular, can contribute more cost effectively and more significantly in quality and quantity terms than any other sector (Amstalden et al., 2007; Lomas, 2010; Ürge-Vorsatz, et al., 2007. This has provoked calls for new and improved instruments to meet the energy saving potential of existing dwellings. Despite many of the same instruments being used for decades there is little solid information on many crucial dimensions of how instruments operate and on what impact they have. The few evaluations and reviews that do take place are commonly focused on theoretical energy savings and costs and instrument strengths and weaknesses. Instruments commonly appear and disappear without undergoing improvement or change or contributing to policy learning. Many instruments are laden with assumptions about the target group that are never formally or comprehensively proved or debunked. Little theorizing takes place on the type of instruments most suited to the target group. Fundamentally, there is a serious lack of information surrounding the effectiveness of instruments assumed to be making climate change targets a reality. It is the above mentioned information deficits that influenced the objectives and structure of this thesis. Instruments are examined from different angles and viewpoints, from experts, owner occupiers, official evaluations and front-runner countries. Assessment frameworks were developed to tease out how well instruments truly function. Households in receipt of instruments such as the EPC and energy audit were compared to households not in receipt of instruments. Moreover, the