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  1. 1989 Loma Prieta, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred near Loma Prieta in the Santa Cruz mountains. Movement occurred along a 40-km segment of the San Andreas fault from southwest...

  2. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Tectonic Processes and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    If there is a single theme that unifies the diverse papers in this chapter, it is the attempt to understand the role of the Loma Prieta earthquake in the context of the earthquake 'machine' in northern California: as the latest event in a long history of shocks in the San Francisco Bay region, as an incremental contributor to the regional deformation pattern, and as a possible harbinger of future large earthquakes. One of the surprises generated by the earthquake was the rather large amount of uplift that occurred as a result of the reverse component of slip on the southwest-dipping fault plane. Preearthquake conventional wisdom had been that large earthquakes in the region would probably be caused by horizontal, right-lateral, strike-slip motion on vertical fault planes. In retrospect, the high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains and the elevated marine terraces along the coast should have provided some clues. With the observed ocean retreat and the obvious uplift of the coast near Santa Cruz that accompanied the earthquake, Mother Nature was finally caught in the act. Several investigators quickly saw the connection between the earthquake uplift and the long-term evolution of the Santa Cruz Mountains and realized that important insights were to be gained by attempting to quantify the process of crustal deformation in terms of Loma Prieta-type increments of northward transport and fault-normal shortening.

  3. Spatio-temporal evolution of aftershock energy release following the 1989, MW6.9, LOMA Prieta earthquake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Dragomir

    2017-06-01

    We apply a stochastic model to study Benioff strain release after the Mw6.9 October 18, 1989 Loma Prieta strong earthquake in north California, USA. The model is developed, following a compound Poisson process and contours the evolution of strain release during the aftershock sequence following the main shock occurrence. First, the temporal evolution of the aftershock decay rate was modeled by the Restricted Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (RETAS) model and after that the recognized best fit model is integrated into the strain release stochastic analysis. The applied stochastic model of Benioff strain release empowers a more detailed study by detecting possible deviations between observed data and model. Real values of the cumulative Benioff strain release surpass the expected modeled ones, indicating, that large aftershocks cluster at the beginning of the Loma Prieta sequence immediately after the occurrence of the main shock. Strain release spatial analysis reveals release patterns, which change during the aftershock sequence.

  4. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for

  5. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  6. Seismomagnetic effect generated by the October, 1989, ML, 7.1 Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. J.; Johnston, M. J. S.

    A differentially connected array of proton magnetometers operated within the epicentral region of the October 18, 1989, ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake for 12 years from 1974 to 1986. The closest magnetometer station was located 7.3 km from the epicenter of the earthquake and within 3 km of the site where anomalous ULF magnetic noise measurements were observed. Following the earthquake, the magnetometers were reinstalled with sensors replaced in the original undisturbed sensor holders. Comparison of pre-1986 total intensity magnetic field data with data obtained during the months following the earthquake indicate local offsets of about 1 nT may have been generated at stations nearest the epicenter. Tests on other continuous differenced data from 1983 to present indicate that offsets determined could be biased by as much as 0.7 nT. The offsets can be approximately fit with a simple seismomagnetic model of the earthquake for which 1.9 m of right lateral and 1.3 m of dip slip (southwest side up) occurred on a fault patch between 6 km and 18 km deep and 45 km long. The total rock magnetization is assumed to be 1.5 A/m. Since the offset has persisted following the earthquake, an alternate explanation in terms of electokinetic effects is unlikely even though transient ground water flow occurred following the earthquake. Comparison of pre-1986 and similar post-seismic total magnetic field noise does not indicate any change caused by aliasing of ULF (0.01 Hz-10 Hz) magnetic noise in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  7. Deformation from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kevin M.; Ellen, Stephen D.; Peterson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Damage to pavement and near-surface utility pipes, caused by the 17 October 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake, provides evidence for ground deformation in a 663 km2 area near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California (USA). A total of 1427 damage sites, collected from more than 30 sources, are concentrated in four zones, three of which lie near previously mapped faults. In one of these zones, the channel lining of Los Gatos Creek, a 2-km-long concrete strip trending perpendicular to regional geologic structure, was broken by thrusts that were concentrated in two belts, each several tens of meters wide, separated by more than 300 m of relatively undeformed concrete.

  8. Chapter D. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Aftershocks and Postseismic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    While the damaging effects of the earthquake represent a significant social setback and economic loss, the geophysical effects have produced a wealth of data that have provided important insights into the structure and mechanics of the San Andreas Fault system. Generally, the period after a large earthquake is vitally important to monitor. During this part of the seismic cycle, the primary fault and the surrounding faults, rock bodies, and crustal fluids rapidly readjust in response to the earthquake's sudden movement. Geophysical measurements made at this time can provide unique information about fundamental properties of the fault zone, including its state of stress and the geometry and frictional/rheological properties of the faults within it. Because postseismic readjustments are rapid compared with corresponding changes occurring in the preseismic period, the amount and rate of information that is available during the postseismic period is relatively high. From a geophysical viewpoint, the occurrence of the Loma Prieta earthquake in a section of the San Andreas fault zone that is surrounded by multiple and extensive geophysical monitoring networks has produced nothing less than a scientific bonanza. The reports assembled in this chapter collectively examine available geophysical observations made before and after the earthquake and model the earthquake's principal postseismic effects. The chapter covers four broad categories of postseismic effect: (1) aftershocks; (2) postseismic fault movements; (3) postseismic surface deformation; and (4) changes in electrical conductivity and crustal fluids.

  9. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  10. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Fire, Police, Transportation and Hazardous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anne, Craig; Scawthorn, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this chapter discuss some of the failures and successes that resulted from the societal response by a multitude of agencies to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Some of the lessons learned were old ones relearned. Other lessons were obvious ones which had gone unnoticed. Still, knowledge gained from past earthquakes spawned planning and mitigation efforts which proved to be successful in limiting the aftermath effects of the Loma Prieta event. At least four major areas of response are presented in this chapter: the Oakland Police Department response to the challenge of controlled access to the Cypress freeway collapse area without inhibiting relief and recovery efforts; search and rescue of the freeway collapse and the monumental crisis management problem that accompanied it; the short- and long-term impact on transbay transportation systems to move a large work force from home to business; and the handling of hazardous material releases throughout the Bay Area.

  11. A new nonlinear finite fault inversion with three-dimensional Green's functions: Application to the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Archuleta, Ralph J.

    2004-02-01

    We present a new procedure to invert for kinematic source parameters on a finite fault. On the basis of the reciprocity relation of the Green's functions, we use a newly developed fourth-order viscoelastic finite-difference algorithm to calculate three-dimensional (3-D) Green's functions (actually the tractions) on the fault. We invert the data for the unknown source parameters at the nodes (or corners) of the subfaults. The source parameters within a subfault area are allowed to vary; this variation is calculated through bilinear interpolation of the four nodal quantities. We have developed a global nonlinear inversion algorithm that is based on simulated annealing methods to solve efficiently for the nodal parameters. We apply this method to the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, M 6.9 earthquake for both a 1-D and 3-D velocity structure. We show (1) the bilinear interpolation technique reduces the dependence of inversion results on the subfault size by naturally including the effects of nearby subfaults. (2) While the number of synthetic seismograms that must be computed is greatly increased by the bilinear interpolation, the structure of the inversion method minimizes the actual numbers of computations. (3) As expected, complexity in the velocity structure is mapped into the source parameters that describe the rupture process; there are significant differences between faulting models derived from 1-D and 3-D structural models.

  12. Broadband study of the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Kanamori, Hiroo; Satake, Kenji

    1990-01-01

    We determined the source characteristics of the Oct. 18, 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake using teleseismic data. The solution from body waves gives a mechanism with dip=70°, rake=138°, and strike=128°, and a seismic moment of 3×10^(26) dyne-cm (M_w=6.9). This solution is similar to those obtained from long-period Rayleigh and Love waves, P_(nL) waves, and first-motion data. The body wave form suggests a depth of about 15 km. The effective duration of the source is 6 sec, which sugges...

  13. Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 18, 1989, Part 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On October 17, 1989, a 7.1 magnitude earthquake occurred near Loma Prieta in the Santa Cruz Mountains. This earthquake is also known as the "San Francisco World...

  14. Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 18, 1989, Part 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On October 17, 1989, a 7.1 magnitude earthquake occurred near Loma Prieta in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Movement occurred along a 40-km segment of the San Andreas...

  15. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  16. Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  18. Ground fracturing at the southern end of Summit Ridge caused by October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake sequence (maps of Summit Ridge Shear Zones, en echelon tension cracks, complex and compound fractures, and small faults that formed coactively with the earthquake sequence)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martosudarmo, S.Y. [BPP Technologi, Jakarta (Indonesia); Johnson, A.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Harry Fielding Reid Earthquake Research Lab.; Fleming, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989 was the first of three large earthquakes that occurred in California in less than 5 years. The main shock of the Loma Prieta earthquake was deep-seated, the rupture zones of the main shock did not reach the surface, and the earthquake produced enigmatic surface ruptures along the frontal faults of the Coast Range and in the epicentral area that were explained in several quite different ways. The Landers earthquake of 28 June 1992 was near surface and produced more than 80 km of spectacular surface rupture of many different kinematic expressions. Detailed study of fractures at Landers has provided a basis for re-evaluating earlier work on fractures produced by the Loma Prieta earthquake. This paper is a description of some of the fractures produced by the Loma Prieta earthquake and a discussion of their causes. Detailed mapping (scale of 1:250) in an area on either side of Summit Road and between Morrell Cutoff Road in the northwest and the intersection of Summit Road and San Jose-Soquel Road in the southeast has provided documentation of fracture orientations and differential displacements required to decipher the ground deformation in that area during the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  19. The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 : a brief geologic view of what caused the Loma Prieta earthquake and implications for future California earthquakes: What happened ... what is expected ... what can be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter L.; Page, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault, in California, is the primary boundary between the North American plate and the Pacific plate. Land west of the fault has been moving northwestward relative to land on the east at an average rate of 2 inches per year for millions of years. This motion is not constant but occurs typically in sudden jumps during large earthquakes. This motion is relentless; therefore earthquakes in California are inevitable.

  20. The Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989, A UCSC Student Oral History Documentary Projec

    OpenAIRE

    Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2006-01-01

    On October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p.m. a 6.9 magnitude earthquake on the San Andreas Fault shook the Central Coast of California and lasted for fifteen seconds. The epicenter of the quake lay near Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, about ten miles northeast of the city of Santa Cruz, deep in the redwoods of Forest of Nisene Marks State Park. The focus point was at a depth of ten miles. This earthquake killed sixty-three people and injured 3,757 others, and caused an estimated six billion...

  1. Earthquake and bay: Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    The magnitude-7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake, which ruptured a segment of the San Andreas fault on October 17, 1989, and caused extensive damage over a large area of central California, also produced substantial motions in nearby Monterey Bay (Figure 1). Earthquake effects included a tsunami, or seismic sea wave, and subsequent surface water oscillations that were detected for about 24 hours following the main shock and widespread, substantial slumping of sediments on the Monterey Bay continental shelf and along the walls of Monterey Submarine Canyon.

  2. Retrospective Forecast Test for the 1989 Loma Prieta Sequence Based on Physical and Statistical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segou, M.; Parsons, T.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We implement a retrospective forecast test specific to the 1989 Loma Prieta sequence and we focus on the comparison between two realizations of the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model and twenty-one models based on Coulomb stress change calculations and rate-and-state theory (CRS). We find that: (1) ETAS models forecast the spatial evolution of seismicity better in the near-source region, (2) CRS models can compete with ETAS models at off-fault regions and short-periods after the mainshock, (3) adopting optimally oriented planes as receivers could lead to better performance for short-time period up to a few days, whereas geologically specified planes should be implemented at long-term forecasting, and (4) CRS models based on shear stress have comparable performance with other CRS models, with the benefit of fewer free parameters involved in the stress calculations. The above results show that physics-based and statistical forecast models are complimentary, and that future forecasts should be combinations of ETAS and CRS models in space and time. We note that the realization in time and space of the CRS models involves a number of critical parameters ('learning' phase seismicity rates, regional stress field, loading rates on faults), which should be retrospectively tested to improve the predictive power of physics-based models.During our experiment the forecast covers Northern California [123.0-121.3°W in longitude 36.4-38.2°N in latitude] in a 2.5 km spatial grid within a 10-day interval following a mainshock, but here we focus on the results related with the post-seismic period of Loma Prieta earthquake. We consider for CRS models a common learning phase (1974-1980) to ensure consistency in our comparison, and we take into consideration stress perturbations imparted by 9 M>5.0 earthquakes between 1980-1989 in Northern California, including the 1988-1989 Lake Ellsman events. ETAS parameters correspond to the maximum likelihood estimations derived after

  3. On the origin of diverse aftershock mechanisms following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Debi; Ellis, M.; Gomberg, J.; Davis, S.

    1997-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the origin of the diverse suite of aftershock mechanisms following the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake is related to the post-main-shock static stress field. We use a 3-D boundary-element algorithm to calculate static stresses, combined with a Coulomb failure criterion to calculate conjugate failure planes at aftershock locations. The post-main-shock static stress field is taken as the sum of a pre-existing stress field and changes in stress due to the heterogeneous slip across the Loma Prieta rupture plane. The background stress field is assumed to be either a simple shear parallel to the regional trend of the San Andreas fault or approximately fault-normal compression. A suite of synthetic aftershock mechanisms from the conjugate failure planes is generated and quantitatively compared (allowing for uncertainties in both mechanism parameters and earthquake locations) to well-constrained mechanisms reported in the US Geological Survey Northern California Seismic Network catalogue. We also compare calculated rakes with those observed by resolving the calculated stress tensor onto observed focal mechanism nodal planes, assuming either plane to be a likely rupture plane. Various permutations of the assumed background stress field, frictional coefficients of aftershock fault planes, methods of comparisons, etc. explain between 52 and 92 per cent of the aftershock mechanisms. We can explain a similar proportion of mechanisms however by comparing a randomly reordered catalogue with the various suites of synthetic aftershocks. The inability to duplicate aftershock mechanisms reliably on a one-to-one basis is probably a function of the combined uncertainties in models of main-shock slip distribution, the background stress field, and aftershock locations. In particular we show theoretically that any specific main-shock slip distribution and a reasonable background stress field are able to generate a highly variable suite of failure

  4. Aseismic slip on the San Andreas Fault south of Loma Prieta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J.; Bilham, R.; Bodin, P.; Burfoid, R. O.; Bürgmann, R.

    Two digital creepmeters installed within the San Andreas fault zone after the 18 Oct 1989 Loma Prieta main shock show less than 1 cm of post seismic right-lateral slip in the four months following the earthquake. At Mt. Madonna road a 23 mm coseismic fracture slipped a further 3 mm after heavy rain, and at Nyland Ranch near San Juan Bautista the fault slipped approximately 9 mm starting 42 days after the main shock. If the current trend at Nyland Ranch persists, more than 2 cm of post seismic slip will develop by 1991. At both sites minor left-lateral displacements occurred which are attributed to near-surface soil effects. The abutments of the railroad bridge across the Pajaro River at Chittenden, which were extended by the 1906 earthquake, were not extended during the Loma Prieta event although they have evidently moved apart by more than 7 cm since bridge reconstruction in 1940. This corresponds to 10 cm of right-lateral slip which could be related to M>5 events in mid-century or could be due to aseismic slip at a mean rate of 2.1 mm/a. The absence of significant surface slip within the fault zone in the decades before and the months following the Loma Prieta event suggests either that near-surface deformation is distributed over a wide zone or that a slip deficit remains. Several authors have proposed this region as a future location for M≈5 events.

  5. Analysis of teleseismic body waves radiated from the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, C. A.; Furlong, K. P.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Clouser, R. H.; Ammon, C. J.

    Broad-band data from IRIS and ORFEUS data centers, the ARCESS array and SCP station are analyzed to infer fault plane geometry and the character of rupture during the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Interference of P and sP seen in the P wave forms is consistent with the 18 km source depth inferred from local observations. A minimum source depth of 14 km is inferred from interpretation of the S wave arrival time, relative to instrument trigger, using horizontal strong motion accelerations observed at Corralitos, California. P, sP, S and sS polarities and relative amplitudes are used in a comprehensive grid search to infer that oblique right-lateral faulting occurred on a steeply dipping (56°-60°) section of the San Andreas fault with an equal amount of thrust component consistent with aftershock locations. A suite of point moment tensor inversions for source depths spanning the observed depth of aftershock hypocenters yields similar mechanisms. The best moment tensor in terms of wave form fit and minimum non-double couple component occurs for a source depth of 8 km, substantially shallower than the locally inferred hypocenter. Seismic moment for this model is 2.3 × 1026 dyn-cm. The slow growth of the P displacement pulse with time and impulsive sP suggests a working model for fault rapture where rupture initiates at 18 km and propagates upwards and outwards along the fault. The P wave forms show the effects of variations in rupture along the plane through observation of a cascade of successively larger subevents.

  6. Source parameters of the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake determined from long-period Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Lay, Thorne

    1990-07-01

    The source parameters of the Loma Prieta earthquake are determined using long-period Rayleigh waves recorded by USGS/ERIS, IDA/IRIS, and GEOSCOPE stations. The source mechanism is well-constrained by the Rayleigh wave radiation pattern, with a dip = 70 (±5)°, strike = 130 (±5)°, rake = 135 (±5)°, and moment = 3.4 (±0.5) × 1019 Nm (Mw = 7.0). This mechanism is generally consistent with independent body wave determinations. The most stable long-period waves, with periods from 200 to 275 s, indicate that the source process has a centroid time of about 10 s, somewhat longer than that indicated by body waves (about 5-6 s). This discrepancy cannot be uniquely attributed to source effects because of uncertainties in the propagation corrections. The importance of using surface waves with short propagation paths for analysis of moderate size earthquakes such as the Loma Prieta event is demonstrated by the unreasonably long source durations inferred from R3 arrivals.

  7. Mechanism diversity of the loma prieta aftershocks and the mechanics of mainshock-aftershock interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beroza, G C; Zoback, M D

    1993-01-01

    The diverse aftershock sequence of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is inconsistent with conventional models of mainshock-aftershock interaction because the aftershocks do not accommodate mainshock-induced stress changes. Instead, the sense of slip of the aftershocks is consistent with failure in response to a nearly uniaxial stress field in which the maximum principal stress acts almost normal to the mainshock fault plane. This orientation implies that (i) stress drop in the mainshock was nearly complete, (ii) mainshock-induced decreases of fault strength helped were important in controlling the occurrence of after-shocks, and (iii) mainshock rupture was limited to those sections of the fault with preexisting shear stress available to drive fault slip.

  8. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.

  9. On the reported magnetic precursor of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.N.; Love, J.J.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Among the most frequently cited reports in the science of earthquake prediction is that by Fraser-Smith et al. (1990) and Bernardi et al. (1991). They found anomalous enhancement of magnetic-field noise levels prior to the 18 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the ultra-low-frequency range (0.0110-10.001 Hz) from a ground-based sensor at Corralitos, CA, just 7 km from the earthquake epicenter. In this analysis, we re-examine all of the available Corralitos data (21 months from January 1989 to October 1990) and the logbook kept during this extended operational period. We also examine 1.0-Hz (1-s) data collected from Japan, 0.0167-Hz (1-min) data collected from the Fresno, CA magnetic observatory, and the global Kp magnetic-activity index. The Japanese data are of particular importance since their acquisition rate is sufficient to allow direct comparison with the lower-frequency bands of the Corralitos data. We identify numerous problems in the Corralitos data, evident from both straightforward examination of the Corralitos data on their own and by comparison with the Japanese and Fresno data sets. The most notable problems are changes in the baseline noise levels occurring during both the reported precursory period and at other times long before and after the earthquake. We conclude that the reported anomalous magnetic noise identified by Fraser-Smith et al. and Bernardi et al. is not related to the Loma Prieta earthquake but is an artifact of sensor-system malfunction. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  10. A comparison of broadband source spectra, seismic energies, and stress drops of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1988 Armenian earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Heidi

    Broadband source spectra of the 1989 Loma Prieta (MW = 6.9) and 1988 Armenian (MW = 6.7) earthquakes are computed at periods from 1 to 50 sec using digitally-recorded teleseismic P body waves. The effects of attenuation, geometrical spreading, and radiation pattern are removed from the spectra of individual stations, which are then averaged. The source spectra of the Loma Prieta and Armenian earthquakes are higher for their seismic moments than the spectra of 11 intraplate earthquakes studied by Zhuo and Kanamori [1987], which in turn are 2 to 4 times larger than average spectra of interplate subduction zone earthquakes.The seismically radiated energy can be computed from the source spectrum using Haskell's [1964] formulation assuming a point source with no directivity. An Orowan stress drop can be obtained from the seismic energy and moment. The Orowan stress drops for the Loma Prieta and Armenian earthquakes are both about 20 bars, significantly higher than Orowan stress drops of recent large interplate earthquakes. There is a positive correlation between the Orowan stress drops and the estimated repeat times, consistent with the notion that mechanical fault strength increases with increasing interseismic period.

  11. Stress transfer by the 1988-1989 M = 5.3 and 5.4 Lake Elsman foreshocks to the Loma Prieta fault: Unclamping at the site of peak mainshock slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfettini, Hugo; Stein, Ross S.; Simpson, Robert; Cocco, Massimo

    1999-09-01

    We study the stress transferred by the June 27, 1988, M = 5.3 and August 8, 1989, M = 5.4 Lake Elsman earthquakes, the largest events to strike within 15 km of the future Loma Prieta rupture zone during 74 years before the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. We find that the first Lake Elsman event brought the rupture plane of the second event 0.3-1.6 bars (0.03-0.16 MPa) closer to Coulomb failure but that the Lake Elsman events did not bring the future Loma Prieta hypocentral zone closer to failure. Instead, the Lake Elsman earthquakes are calculated to have reduced the normal stress on (or "undamped") the Loma Prieta rupture surface by 0.5-1.0 bar (0.05-0.10 MPa) at the site where the greatest slip subsequently occurred in the Loma Prieta earthquake. This association between the sites of peak unclamping and slip suggests that the Lake Elsman events did indeed influence the Loma Prieta rupture process. Unclamping the fault would have locally lowered the resistance to sliding. Such an effect could have been enhanced if the lowered normal stress permitted fluid infusion into the undamped part of the fault. Although less well recorded, the ML = 5.0 1964 and ML = 5.3 1967 Corralitos events struck within 10 km of the southwest end of the future Loma Prieta rupture. No similar relationship between the normal stress change and subsequent Loma Prieta slip is observed, although the high-slip patch southwest of the Loma Prieta epicenter corresponds roughly to the site of calculated Coulomb stress increase for a low coefficient of friction. The Lake Elsman-Loma Prieta result is similar to that for the 1987 M = 6.2 Elmore Ranch and M = 6.7 Superstition Hills earthquakes, suggesting that foreshocks might influence the distribution of mainshock slip rather than the site of mainshock nucleation.

  12. [Comment to “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989”] Montery Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    Observations of liquefaction and slumping in Monterey Bay, Calif., described in “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989,” (Eos, February [6], 1990, p. 250), were based on the ongoing work of a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML), Hopkins Marine Station, and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), who are continuing to investigate the causes and effects of slumping and other processes that occurred in association with the earthquake.

  13. A comparative study of bridge damage due to the Wenchuan,Northridge, Loma Prieta and San Fernando earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiqiang; George C. Lee

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of selected bridge damage due to the Wenchuan, Northridge, Loma Prieta and San Fernando earthquakes is described in this paper. Typical ground motion effects considered include large ground fault displacement, liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking. Issues related to falling spans, inadequate detailing for structural ductility and complex bridge configurations are discussed within the context of the recent seismic design codes of China and the US. A significant lesson learned from the Great Wenchuan earthquake, far beyond the opportunities to improve the seismic design provisions for bridges, is articulated.

  14. A comparative study of bridge damage due to the Wenchuan, Northridge, Loma Prieta and San Fernando earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Lee, George C.

    2009-06-01

    A comparative study of selected bridge damage due to the Wenchuan, Northridge, Loma Prieta and San Fernando earthquakes is described in this paper. Typical ground motion effects considered include large ground fault displacement, liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking. Issues related to falling spans, inadequate detailing for structural ductility and complex bridge configurations are discussed within the context of the recent seismic design codes of China and the US. A significant lesson learned from the Great Wenchuan earthquake, far beyond the opportunities to improve the seismic design provisions for bridges, is articulated.

  15. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake imaged from inversion of geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, Thora; Segall, Paul

    1994-11-01

    We invert geodetic measurements of coseismic deformation from the 1989 M(sub S)7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake to determine the geometry of the fault and the distribution of slip on the fault plane. The data include electronic distance measurements, Global Positioning System and very long baseline interferometry vectors, and elevation changes derived from spirit leveling. The fault is modeled as a rectangular dislocation surface in a homogeneous, elastic half-space. First, we assume that the slip on the fault is uniform and estimate the position, orientation, and size of the fault plane using a nonlinear, quasi-Newton algorithm. The best fitting dislocation strikes N48 deg +/- 4 deg W and dips 76 deg +/- 9 deg SW, consistent with the trend of the aftershock zone and moment tensor solutions. Bootstrap resampling of the data is used to graphically illustrate the uncertainty in the location of the rupture plane. Second, we estimate the slip distribution using the best fitting uniform slip fault orientation but increase the fault length to 40 km and the downdip width to 18 km. The fault is divided into 162 subfaults, 18 along strike and 9 along dip. Each subfault is allowed to have constant right-lateral and reverse components of slip. We then solve for the slip on each subfault that minimizes a linear combination of the norm of the weighted data residual and the roughness of the slip distribution. The smoothing parameter, which determines the relative weight put on fitting the data versus smoothing the slip distribution, is chosen by cross validation. The preferred slip distribution is very heterogeneous, with maximum strike slip and dip slip of about 5 and 8 m, respectively, located roughly 10 km north of the hypocenter. There is insignificant dip slip in the southeastern most part of the fault, causing the rake to vary from nearly pure right-lateral in the southeast to oblique right-reverse in the northwest. The change in rake is consistent with a uniform stress field if

  16. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Burgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1–4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989–1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼6 × 1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 × 1018 and 2 × 1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  17. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Bürgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-02-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1-4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ˜2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ˜ 6 ×1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 ×1018 and 2 ×1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  18. Electrokinetic effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake calculated by an entire-Earth FDTD solution of Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jamesina J.; Taflove, Allen

    2005-05-01

    We report what we believe to be the first three-dimensional computational solution of the full-vector Maxwell's equations for hypothesized pre-seismic electromagnetic phenomena propagated within the entire Earth-ionosphere cavity. Periodic boundary conditions are used in conjunction with a variable-cell finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) space lattice wrapping around the complete Earth-sphere and extending +/-100 km radially from sea level. This technique permits a direct time-domain calculation of round-the-world ULF/ELF propagation accounting for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities/anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. In this study, we model electrokinetic currents at depths of 2.5 km and 17 km near the hypocenter of the Loma Prieta earthquake and compare the FDTD-calculated surface magnetic field to analytical results and measurements previously reported in the literature. We accommodate the complete physics introduced by impulsive electromagnetic wave propagation through the conductive Earth, and hence illustrate the importance of solving the full Maxwell's equations when modeling current sources within the Earth's crust. Our calculated spectra agree qualitatively with those reported by Fraser-Smith et al. (1990).

  19. Effect of the Loma Prieta Earthquake on surface slip along the Calaveras Fault in the Hollister area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehouse, Jon S.

    Over the past ten years we have made over 800 measurements of slip rates at 20 sites on various faults in the San Francisco Bay region. This data set enables us to compare rates and amounts of slip on these various faults before and after the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) on the San Andreas fault. No surface slip rate changes associated with the earthquake occurred at any of our sites on the San Andreas, Hayward, northern Calaveras, Concord-Green Valley, Seal Cove-San Gregorio, Antioch, Rodgers Creek, or West Napa faults. The LPEQ apparently triggered up to 12-14 mm of right slip on the southern Calaveras fault at our two sites in the Hollister area less than 50 km from the epicenter. Most of this slip was probably coseismic or nearly so. About the same amount of slip was triggered at these sites in 1984 by the Morgan Hill earthquake. This slip, in contrast, occurred as afterslip within about a 2.5-month interval. The Calaveras fault in the Hollister area moves episodically, with shorter times of more rapid slip alternating with longer times of slower slip. The alternation occurs whether or not the times of faster slip are triggered by any nearby seismic event(s).

  20. Effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on surface slip along the Calaveras fault in the Hollister area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galehouse, J.S. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Over the past ten years the author has made over 800 measurements of slip rates at 20 sites on various faults in the San Francisco Bay region. This data set enables them to compare rates and amounts of slip on these various faults before and after the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) on the San Andreas fault. No surface slip rate changes associated with the earthquake occurred at any of the sites on the San Andreas, Hayward, northern Calaveras, Concord-Green Valley, Seal Cove-San Gregorio, Antioch, Rodgers Creek, or West Napa faults. The LPEQ apparently triggered up to 12-14 mm of right slip on the southern Calaveras fault at two sites in the Hollister area less than 50 km from the epicenter. Most of this slip was probably coseismic or nearly so. About the same amount of slip was triggered at these sites in 1984 by the Morgan Hill earthquake. This slip, in contrast, occurred as afterslip within about a 2.5-month interval. The Calaveras fault in the Hollister area moves episodically, with shorter times of more rapid slip alternating with longer times of slower slip. The alternation occurs whether or not the times of faster slip are triggered by any nearby seismic event(s).

  1. Re-examination of log-periodicity observed in the seismic precursors of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Y; Sornette, D

    2000-01-01

    Based on several empirical evidence, a series of papers has advocated the concept that seismicity prior to a large earthquake can be understood in terms of the statistical physics of a critical phase transition. In this model, the cumulative Benioff strain (BS) increases as a power-law time-to-failure before the final event. This power law reflects a kind of scale invariance with respect to the distance to the critical point. A few years ago, on the basis of a fit of the cumulative BS released prior to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Sornette and Sammis [1995] proposed that this scale invariance could be partially broken into a discrete scale invariance (DSI). The observable consequence of DSI takes the form of log-periodic oscillations decorating the accelerating power law. They found that the quality of the fit and the predicted time of the event are significantly improved by the introduction of log-periodicity. Here, we present a battery of synthetic tests performed to quantify the statistical significanc...

  2. Analysis of a Spatial Point Pattern: Examining the Damage to Pavement and Pipes in Santa Clara Valley Resulting from the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes some simple spatial statistical methods to explore the relationships of scattered points to geologic or other features, represented by points, lines, or areas. It also describes statistical methods to search for linear trends and clustered patterns within the scattered point data. Scattered points are often contained within irregularly shaped study areas, necessitating the use of methods largely unexplored in the point pattern literature. The methods take advantage of the power of modern GIS toolkits to numerically approximate the null hypothesis of randomly located data within an irregular study area. Observed distributions can then be compared with the null distribution of a set of randomly located points. The methods are non-parametric and are applicable to irregularly shaped study areas. Patterns within the point data are examined by comparing the distribution of the orientation of the set of vectors defined by each pair of points within the data with the equivalent distribution for a random set of points within the study area. A simple model is proposed to describe linear or clustered structure within scattered data. A scattered data set of damage to pavement and pipes, recorded after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, is used as an example to demonstrate the analytical techniques. The damage is found to be preferentially located nearer a set of mapped lineaments than randomly scattered damage, suggesting range-front faulting along the base of the Santa Cruz Mountains is related to both the earthquake damage and the mapped lineaments. The damage also exhibit two non-random patterns: a single cluster of damage centered in the town of Los Gatos, California, and a linear alignment of damage along the range front of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. The linear alignment of damage is strongest between 45? and 50? northwest. This agrees well with the mean trend of the mapped lineaments, measured as 49? northwest.

  3. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  4. The influence of critical Moho Reflections on strong ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Paul; Yoshimura, Joanne

    1990-07-01

    The amplitudes of strong ground motions from the Loma Prieta earthquake recorded in the San Francisco and Oakland areas exceeded the levels predicted by standard empirical attenuation relations. Preliminary analysis of accelerograms having known trigger times strongly suggests that the elevation of ground motion amplitudes in the distance range of approximately 40 to 100 km was due to critical reflections from the base of the crust. These reflections, which are identified on the basis of their arrival times and phase velocity, and by comparison with simulated accelerograms, were large and occurred at relatively close range because of the deep focal depth of the earthquake and the strong velocity gradient at the base of the crust. These motions were further amplified, presumably by impedance contrast effects, at soft soil sites in San Francisco and Oakland. The effect of the critical reflections in amplifying peak accelerations of the Loma Prieta earthquake in the San Francisco and Oakland regions was as large as the effect of soft soil site conditions. Focal depth has an important influence on strong motion attenuation at distances beyond about 40 km, and empirical attenuation relations derived from shallow crustal earthquakes may underpredict the ground motions of deeper crustal events in this distance range. Further analyses using an expanded data base that includes recordings of aftershocks are required to rigorously test the proposed explanation of the ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland, and the conclusions drawn from that explanation.

  5. The Effects of 3-D Velocity Structure on a Finite Fault Inversion of the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Several excellent studies on finite fault source of the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake have been completed using different data sets and approaches (Beroza, 1991; Hartzell et al., 1991; Steidl et al., 1991; Wald, et al., 1991). Most of these studies find low slip in the hypocentral region and a bimodal distribution of slip with respect to the hypocenter. The seismic moment ranges from 2.3x1019 to 3.5x1019 N-m, spanning approximately the same range determined teleseismically at longer periods. In addition to the similarities, the differences in these models were also indicated by Beroza (1995). The location of the high-slip areas and, specially, the rake differs among these models. The lateral variations in velocity structure may be one important effect causing the differences among the source models. To address this problem, we determine a finite fault source model for the Loma Prieta earthquake through the inversion of ground motion using 3D Green's functions. We used the 3D crustal model recently developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Brocher et al., 1997) and a 3D viscoelastic finite-difference method (Liu and Archuleta, 1999) to compute the Green's functions. The data from 16 three-component stations and Green's functions are band-passed between 0.05-1.0 Hz. A global inversion algorithm (Liu and Archuleta, 2001) is employed to solve for the two components of fault slip, rise time, rupture time and the shape of source function for each subfault. In the inversion process we limit the time window to the direct P and S waves to mitigate the influence of the uncertainties in the 3D-velocity structure on later arrivals. We also perform another inversion using 1-D synthetic Green's functions. To insure that the inversion results are comparable, both inversions will use exactly same procedure, data, source parameterization and constraint conditions. By quantitatively comparing spatial distributions of source parameters and the fit between the data and the

  6. Magnetic and electric fields associated with changes in high pore pressure in fault zones: Application to the Loma Prieta ULF emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Mark A.; Johnston, Malcom J. S.; Byerlee, Jim D.

    1995-07-01

    We determined the electric and magnetic fields generated during failure of faults containing sealed compartments with pore pressures ranging from hydrostatic to lithostatic levels. Exhumed fault studies and strain measurement data limit the possible size of these compartments to less than 1 km in extent. Rupture of seals between compartments produces rapid pore pressure changes and fluid flow and may create fractures that propagate away from the high-pressure compartment, along the fault face. Nonuniform fluid flow results from pressure decrease in the fracture from crack-generated dilatancy, partial blockage by silica deposition, and clearing as pressure increases. A direct consequence of this unsteady fluid flow may be associated transient magnetic signals caused by electrokinetic, piezomagnetic, and magnetohydrodynamic effects. Models of these processes for fault geometries with 1-km-high pressure compartments show that electrokinetic effects are several orders of magnitude larger than the other mechanisms. The electrokinetic signals produced by this unsteady flow are comparable in magnitude and frequency to the magnetic signals observed prior to the ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of October 18, 1989, provided fracture lengths are less than 200 m.

  7. Modeling Low-frequency Magnetic-field Precursors to the Loma Prieta Earthquake with a Precursory Increase in Fault-zone Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzer, M.; Klemperer, S. L.

    1997-09-01

    The 1989 Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake was preceded for 12 days by what have been claimed as precursory ultra-low-frequency (ULF) magnetic noise anomalies ten times background, and by a very high peak up to 100 times background just 3 hours before the earthquake. We propose that these anomalous fields could have been due to the formation of a long thin highly-conductive region along the earthquake fault, which magnified the external electromagnetic waves incident on the earth's surface. We use a simplified quantitative model, assuming a highly-conductive elliptic cylinder embedded in a layered resistivity structure, which we base on independent magnetotelluric measurements. The magnetic-field anomaly observed 3 hours before the main shock can be modeled by assuming an elliptic conductor extending from the surface to the hypocenter with a conductivity of 5 S . m-1. Our computed anomaly matches the observed anomaly to within a deviation of 35% over an observed frequency range of over 2 orders of magnitude, over which the measured anomaly varies from only about twice background (at 5 Hz) to about 100 times background (at 0.01 Hz). In addition, other anomalies recorded up to 12 days before the earthquake, can be modeled in detail by varying only the size of the elliptic conductor.We show that such an increase in conductivity could be caused by a precursory reorganization of the geometry of fluid-filled porosity in the fault-zone, which we call a dilatant-conductive effect. The extreme observed magnetic anomalies can be modeled using the high fault-zone porosity (c. 10%) and fluid conductivity (equivalent to 2 M NaCl) implied by other workers' magneto-telluric measurements, but without requiring the large-scale precursory fluid flow characteristic of other published models for the magnetic-field precursors.

  8. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Performance of the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Professional Paper 1552 focuses on the response of buildings, lifelines, highway systems, and earth structures to the earthquake. Losses to these systems totaled approximated $5.9 billion. The earthquake displaced many residents from their homes and severely disrupted transportation systems. Some significant findings were: * Approximately 16,000 housing units were uninhabitable after the earthquake including 13,000 in the San Francisco Bay region. Another 30,000-35,000 units were moderately damaged in the earthquake. Renters and low-income residents were particularly hard hit. * Failure of highway systems was the single largest cause of loss of life during the earthquake. Forty-two of the 63 earthquake fatalities died when the Cypress Viaduct in Oakland collapsed. The cost to repair and replace highways damaged by the earthquake was $2 billion, about half of which was to replace the Cypress Viaduct. * Major bridge failures were the result of antiquated designs and inadequate anticipation of seismic loading. * Twenty one kilometers (13 mi) of gas-distribution lines had to be replaced in several communities and more than 1,200 leaks and breaks in water mains and service connections had to be excavated and repaired. At least 5 electrical substations were badly damaged, overwhelming the designed redundancy of the electrical system. * Instruments in 28 buildings recorded their response to earthquake shaking that provided opportunities to understand how different types of buildings responded, the importance of site amplification, and how buildings interact with their foundation when shaken (soil structure interaction).

  9. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Marina District

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    During the earthquake, a total land area of about 4,300 km2 was shaken with seismic intensities that can cause significant damage to structures. The area of the Marina District of San Francisco is only 4.0 km2--less than 0.1 percent of the area most strongly affected by the earthquake--but its significance with respect to engineering, seismology, and planning far outstrips its proportion of shaken terrain and makes it a centerpiece for lessons learned from the earthquake. The Marina District provides perhaps the most comprehensive case history of seismic effects at a specific site developed for any earthquake. The reports assembled in this chapter, which provide an account of these seismic effects, constitute a unique collection of studies on site, as well as infrastructure and societal, response that cover virtually all aspects of the earthquake, ranging from incoming ground waves to the outgoing airwaves used for emergency communication. The Marina District encompasses the area bounded by San Francisco Bay on the north, the Presidio on the west, and Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue on the south and east, respectively. Nearly all of the earthquake damage in the Marina District, however, occurred within a considerably smaller area of about 0.75 km2, bounded by San Francisco Bay and Baker, Chestnut, and Buchanan Streets. At least five major aspects of earthquake response in the Marina District are covered by the reports in this chapter: (1) dynamic site response, (2) soil liquefaction, (3) lifeline performance, (4) building performance, and (5) emergency services.

  10. Data for monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was...

  11. Observations of High-frequency Internal Wave Energy Offshore of Point Loma, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, K.; Crosby, S. C.; Fiedler, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    As coastally directed internal wave energy shoals in shallow water, the resulting bores can transport cold, dense, nutrient-rich waters shoreward, influencing local fauna and ultimately dissipating tidal energy into heat. Understanding the mechanisms, propagation, and resultant transport is crucial for determining the physical-biological interactions along our coasts. We observed significant internal wave energy offshore of Point Loma, San Diego using a thermistor chain moored in 22m depth. Temperature observations spaced 1.5m apart from 0 to 18m were sampled at 2Hz and recorded for a period of ten days during July 2016. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrient profiles were obtained at 3 stations further offshore during deployment and recovery cruises. At the time of mooring deployment, thermocline depth was 10 to 20m. During recovery we observed a significant decrease of thermocline depth, which was likely caused by surface mixing during a strong wind event. During the 10-day deployment we observed many high frequency (5 to 10 minute periods) internal waves events. In addition, we noticed rapid temperature changes (4oC in less than a minute) suggestive of internal bores; however, other events appeared to be linear, possibly indicating unbroken internal waves. Here, we examine the critical slope for linear mode-1 propagation, the correlation of these events with tidal ebb and flow, and infer how a deeper mixed layer effects internal wave propagation.

  12. Instrumental shaking thresholds for seismically induced landslides and preliminary report on landslides triggered by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of seismically induced landslide depends on the characteristics of shaking as well as mechanical properties of geologic materials. A very important parameter in the study of seismically induced landslide is the intensity based on a strong-motion accelerogram: it is defined as Arias intensity and is proportional to the duration of the shaking record as well as the amplitude. Having a theoretical relationship between Arias intensity, magnitude and distance it is possible to predict how far away from the seismic source landslides are likely to occur for a given magnitude earthquake. Field investigations have established that the threshold level of Arias intensity depends also on site effects, particularly the fracture characteristics of the outcrops present. -from Author

  13. Redundancy: The Lesson from the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Melvin W.

    1992-01-01

    The big news from the Bay Area's 1989 earthquake was that the transportation disruptions were only inconvenient, not dreadful. Structural failures on the Bay Bridge and several elevated concrete freeways cut major metropolitan commuting routes. Nevertheless, the regional transportation system didn't crash at the time. It was resilient because it was redundant - the parallel links took up the burden. Commuters got to work without intolerable hardship. Trucks got their freight delivered, nearly...

  14. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  15. The impact of evolving current rheology on multi-scale heterogeneity in submarine lobe strata: an example from the Upper Cretaceous Point Loma Formation, San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlown, A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Perillo, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing recognition of transitional flow deposits in submarine fans has shown that the evolution of flow rheology in sediment-gravity currents can have a significant impact on the heterogeneity of deepwater sediment accumulations. Sea-cliff exposure of the Cretaceous Point Loma Formation in San Diego, California, provides a unique opportunity to document the internal variability and spatial distribution of thin, fine-grained event beds. Upper portions of beds which commonly appear as featureless mud in exposures of typical quality are revealed as thin, clast-rich debrites in areas where sea cliffs are polished by waves. The ubiquity of these deposits in distal lobe strata suggests complex rheological evolution for nearly all currents that were able to run out to lobe margins. Here we supplement qualitative outcrop characterization with statistical analysis to quantify relationships between deposit thickness, grain size, and the spatial distribution of sedimentary facies. Intervals dominated by transitional flow deposits are shown to occur vertically near the base of coarsening-upward successions and laterally toward lobe margins, reflecting a combination of dynamic processes during individual events and the spatial distribution of consecutive deposits. We show that the ability to distinguish patterns of bed-scale variability reflecting flow evolution from patterns associated with larger-scale processes, such as distributary channel avulsion and compensational stacking, is critical if one is to accurately model heterogeneity within submarine fan systems. Furthermore, the observation that thin, fine-grained debrites can be nearly impossible to distinguish from featureless mud intervals unless exceptionally well-exposed may cast doubt on existing interpretations where outcrop quality is less than remarkable.

  16. What Happens When the Supply Chain Breaks? Implications for the Army Supply Chain Under Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    natural disasters that can have lasting effects . The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, with a magnitude of 7.1, struck 60 miles south of San Francisco. While...earthquakes in California are not particularly uncommon, the Loma Prieta earthquake was particularly destructive because of its proximity to the large...54 Anonymous, The October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (Houston: EQE Engineering, 1989). 32 Natural

  17. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  18. The CD-ROM experience at Loma Linda: the issues of training, logistics, and creative financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, G V; Kittle, P W

    1992-01-01

    Since the end of 1987, the Medical Center and University libraries at Loma Linda have progressed from stand-alone CD-ROM-based workstations for access to MEDLINE to networked CD-ROM access to a variety of databases. T.O.M.M.I. (Total Online Medical Material Integration) is a CD-ROM-based wide area network linking the Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda University, and other entities in Loma Linda, California. T.O.M.M.I., a microcomputer-based system, represents the implementation of IAIMS at Loma Linda. In addition to discussing the issue of "downsizing" campus-wide information networks, this article focuses on the issues of training, handling of logistical problems, and the use of creative financing.

  19. San Andreas fault zone, California: M≥5.5 earthquake history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppozada, Tousson R.; Branum, D.M.; Reichle, M.S.; Hallstrom, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    The San Andreas fault zone has been a very significant source of major California earthquakes. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7 or larger in two pairs on two major portions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the central to southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the northern region, where the 1906 faulting overlapped the 1838 earthquake faulting. Also, earthquakes of M 7 occurred in the San Francisco Bay area on the Hayward fault in 1868 and the Santa Cruz Mountains near Loma Prieta in 1989 and on the Imperial fault near the border with Mexico in 1940.

  20. Estimation of Future Earthquake Losses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowshandel, B.; Wills, C. J.; Cao, T.; Reichle, M.; Branum, D.

    2003-12-01

    Recent developments in earthquake hazards and damage modeling, computing, and data management and processing, have made it possible to develop estimates of the levels of damage from earthquakes that may be expected in the future in California. These developments have been mostly published in the open literature, and provide an opportunity to estimate the levels of earthquake damage Californians can expect to suffer during the next several decades. Within the past 30 years, earthquake losses have increased dramatically, mostly because our exposure to earthquake hazards has increased. All but four of the recent damaging earthquakes have occurred distant from California's major population centers. Two, the Loma Prieta earthquake and the San Fernando earthquake, occurred on the edges of major populated areas. Loma Prieta caused significant damage in the nearby Santa Cruz and in the more distant, heavily populated, San Francisco Bay area. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake had an epicenter in the lightly populated San Gabriel Mountains, but caused slightly over 2 billion dollars in damage in the Los Angeles area. As urban areas continue to expand, the population and infrastructure at risk increases. When earthquakes occur closer to populated areas, damage is more significant. The relatively minor Whittier Narrows earthquake of 1987 caused over 500 million dollars in damage because it occurred in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, not at its fringes. The Northridge earthquake had fault rupture directly beneath the San Fernando Valley, and caused about 46 billion dollars in damage. This vast increase in damage from the San Fernando earthquake reflected both the location of the earthquake directly beneath the populated area and the 23 years of continued development and resulting greater exposure to potential damage. We have calculated losses from potential future earthquake, both as scenarios of potential earthquakes and as annualized losses considering all the potential

  1. Ground Motion Amplification and Seismic Liquefaction: A Study of Treasure Island and the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Engineering and Soil Dynamics, March 1991, St Lousis Missouri. 26 ..J 31. Vucetic M. et al. "Effect of Soil Plasticity on Cyclic Response" Journal of...Figure 47. Effect of soil plasticity . 68 Cyclic Shor Stram, e -perrl 10.2 .0 " S140 %% 5 Ciies. 03 gas % % %%a . For Magnitude 7.5 Earthquake (See

  2. Komercbanku loma ekonomikā

    OpenAIRE

    Kušnere, Inese

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma: “Komercbanku loma ekonomikā”. Tēma ir aktuāla, jo parāda komercbanku nozīmi ekonomikā, kā arī komercbanku pakalpojumu pieprasījumu privātpersonu un juridisku personu ikdienā. Darbā tiek apskatīti un salīdzināti trīs lielāko universālo Latvijas komercbanku (AS “Swedbank”, AS “SEB bankas”, AS “Bankas Citadele”) piedāvātie pakalpojumi, kuru mērķa tirgus ir rezidenti. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir balstoties uz teoriju pamatot komercbanku lomu un tās ietekmi uz Latvijas ekonomik...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. Compressional and shear-wave velocity versus depth relations for common rock types in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents new empirical compressional and shear-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) versus depth relationships for the most common rock types in northern California. Vp versus depth relations were developed from borehole, laboratory, seismic refraction and tomography, and density measurements, and were converted to Vs versus depth relations using new empirical relations between Vp and Vs. The relations proposed here account for increasing overburden pressure but not for variations in other factors that can influence velocity over short distance scales, such as lithology, consolidation, induration, porosity, and stratigraphic age. Standard deviations of the misfits predicted by these relations thus provide a measure of the importance of the variability in Vp and Vs caused by these other factors. Because gabbros, greenstones, basalts, and other mafic rocks have a different Vp and Vs relationship than sedimentary and granitic rocks, the differences in Vs between these rock types at depths below 6 or 7 km are generally small. The new relations were used to derive the 2005 U.S. Geological Survey seismic velocity model for northern California employed in the broadband strong motion simulations of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes; initial tests of the model indicate that the Vp model generally compares favorably to regional seismic tomography models but that the Vp and Vs values proposed for the Franciscan Complex may be about 5% too high.

  6. Injuries as a result of California earthquakes in the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaf, K I; Sareen, H R; Nguyen, L H; Bourque, L B

    1998-09-01

    The devastating effects of earthquakes have been demonstrated repeatedly in the past decade, through moderate and major earthquakes such as the October 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake (5.9 on the Richter scale), the October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (7.1) and the January 1994 Northridge earthquake (6.7). While 'official' tallies of injuries and deaths are reported for each event, the numbers vary from report to report. For Northridge, the number of injuries vary between 8,000 and 12,000; the number of deaths from 33 to 73 (Peek-Asa et al., 1997; Durkin, 1996). While official estimates are commonly reported following disasters, the study of actual numbers, types and causes of casualties has not developed. In this paper, we identify the numbers and risk factors for injuries within community-based samples across three earthquakes in urban California. We first report the numbers and types of injuries in each earthquake and then identify risk factors specifically associated with the Northridge earthquake.

  7. Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Wilderness Stewardship Plan, Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cabeza Prieta NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. Precursory scale increase and long-term seismogenesis in California and Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A sudden increase in the scale of seismicity has occurred as a long-term precursor to twelve major earthquakes in California and Northern Mexico. These include all earthquakes along the San Andreas system during 1960-2000 with magnitude M ?6.4. The full list is as follows: Colorado Delta, 1966, M 6.3; Borrego Mt., 1968, M 6.5; San Fernando, 1971, M 6.6; Brawley, 1979, M 6.4; Mexicali, 1980, M 6.1; Coalinga, 1983, M 6.7; Superstition Hills, 1987, M 6.6; Loma Prieta, 1989, M 7.0; Joshua Tree, 1992, M 6.1; Landers, 1992, M 7.3; Northridge, 1994, M 6.6; Hector Mine, 1999, M 7.1. Such a Precursory Scale Increase ( was inferred from the modelling of long-term seismogenesis as a three-stage faulting process against a background of self-organised criticality. The location, onset-time and level of ? are predictive of the location, time and magnitude of the future earthquake. Precursory swarms, which occur widely in subduction regions, are a special form of ? ; the more general form is here shownto occur frequently in a region of continental transform. Other seismicity precursors, including quiescence and foreshocks, contribute to or modulate the increased seismicity that characterises ? . The area occupied by ? is small compared with those occupied by the seismicity precursors known as AMR, M8 and LURR. Further work is needed to formulate as a testable hypothesis, and to carry out the appropriate forecasting tests.

  10. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  11. Increasing student diversity and cultural competence as part of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's service mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Forde, Ron

    2012-06-01

    For many years, studies have identified a need for greater racial and ethnic diversity among dental professionals. However, the ability of the field to collectively address the problem has been hindered by the low numbers of underrepresented minority students who apply to dental school. Over the past two decades, college attendance rates have increased and U.S. dental school applications have tripled, but the number of underrepresented minority dental applicants has remained about the same. With the increasing diversity of the U.S. population and specifically that of the state of California, the dental workforce would be enhanced by the presence of more underrepresented minority dentists. Additionally, curricular changes should be implemented to better prepare dental students to meet the oral health care needs of diverse populations. There is general agreement that these workforce and curricular changes would enhance access to care for underserved populations. For seven years, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry participated in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program. The first phase of this national program addressed deficiencies in diversity in dentistry and in access to oral health care. In the second phase, Loma Linda University continued to collaborate with other California dental schools on specific state initiatives. This article provides an overview of the school's efforts to enroll a more diverse student body, enhance all its students' cultural competence, and expand care to underserved populations.

  12. San Andreas Fault, California, M 5.5 or greater Earthquakes 1800-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.; Reichle, M.; Hallstrom, C.

    2001-12-01

    1868 earthquake on the Hayward fault is the only major historical event in the East Bay. It was preceded by 12 earthquakes of M 5.5 or greater from 1855 to 1866, within 60 km of the Hayward fault, and was followed by 13 years with no M 5.5 or greater Bay area earthquakes other than aftershocks. The 1906 San Andreas fault event was preceded from 1881 to 1903 by 18 earthquakes of M 5.5 or greater, and was followed by quiescence till 1954 with only 3 earthquakes of M 5.5 or greater. We have observed shorter cycles of seismicity followed by quiescence associated with the other major Bay area earthquakes of 1838, 1868, and 1989. The Bay area has been seismically quiet at the M 5.5 or greater level since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and its 1990 aftershocks. This quiescence contrasts with the ten years before 1989, when five M 5.5 to 6.2 events occurred. The Loma Prieta earthquake is of comparable magnitude to the 1868 Hayward earthquake, and might be expected to be followed by a short quiet period similar to that following 1868.

  13. A portfolio approach to evaluating natural hazard mitigation policies: An Application to lateral-spread ground failure in Coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Dinitz, L.B.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Evans, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, efforts to prevent catastrophic losses from natural hazards have largely been undertaken by individual property owners based on site-specific evaluations of risks to particular buildings. Public efforts to assess community vulnerability and encourage mitigation have focused on either aggregating site-specific estimates or adopting standards based upon broad assumptions about regional risks. This paper develops an alternative, intermediate-scale approach to regional risk assessment and the evaluation of community mitigation policies. Properties are grouped into types with similar land uses and levels of hazard, and hypothetical community mitigation strategies for protecting these properties are modeled like investment portfolios. The portfolios consist of investments in mitigation against the risk to a community posed by a specific natural hazard, and are defined by a community's mitigation budget and the proportion of the budget invested in locations of each type. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through an integrated assessment of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure risk in the Watsonville, California area. Data from the magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 are used to model lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility. Earth science and economic data are combined and analyzed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The portfolio model is then used to evaluate the benefits of mitigating the risk in different locations. Two mitigation policies, one that prioritizes mitigation by land use type and the other by hazard zone, are compared with a status quo policy of doing no further mitigation beyond that which already exists. The portfolio representing the hazard zone rule yields a higher expected return than the land use portfolio does: However, the hazard zone portfolio experiences a higher standard deviation. Therefore, neither portfolio is clearly preferred. The two mitigation policies both reduce expected losses

  14. The local Red Cross in time of disaster: characteristics and conditions of organizational effectiveness during the Loma Prieta earthquake and central Texas floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, D M

    This discussion demonstrates that three interrelated activities should improve volunteer organizations' disaster capabilities. These factors include improved disaster planning, learning from related experiences, and improving interorganizational networks. These three activities can dramatically improve the local chapter's emergency response. Networking ought to be the first priority. Through the development of both formal and informal contacts, planning and experience potential become enhances. Without the support and involvement of volunteer organizations, an effective community-wide disaster response would be difficult, if not impossible.

  15. Next generation seismic fragility curves for California bridges incorporating the evolution in seismic design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik Narayan

    Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the seismic risk to highway bridges is crucial in pre-earthquake planning, and post-earthquake response of transportation systems. Such assessments provide valuable knowledge about a number of principal effects of earthquakes such as traffic disruption of the overall highway system, impact on the regions’ economy and post-earthquake response and recovery, and more recently serve as measures to quantify resilience. Unlike previous work, this study captures unique bridge design attributes specific to California bridge classes along with their evolution over three significant design eras, separated by the historic 1971 San Fernando and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes (these events affected changes in bridge seismic design philosophy). This research developed next-generation fragility curves for four multispan concrete bridge classes by synthesizing new knowledge and emerging modeling capabilities, and by closely coordinating new and ongoing national research initiatives with expertise from bridge designers. A multi-phase framework was developed for generating fragility curves, which provides decision makers with essential tools for emergency response, design, planning, policy support, and maximizing investments in bridge retrofit. This framework encompasses generational changes in bridge design and construction details. Parameterized high-fidelity three-dimensional nonlinear analytical models are developed for the portfolios of bridge classes within different design eras. These models incorporate a wide range of geometric and material uncertainties, and their responses are characterized under seismic loadings. Fragility curves were then developed considering the vulnerability of multiple components and thereby help to quantify the performance of highway bridge networks and to study the impact of seismic design principles on the performance within a bridge class. This not only leads to the development of fragility relations

  16. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1102 Section 165.1102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water adjacent to the Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego...

  17. Resisting State Iconoclasm Among the Loma of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian Kordt

    and the cognitive and relational processes involved in the transmission of religious and ritual tradition. The result of this approach serves as background for a critical engagement with current theories of the successful, enduring distribution of cultural ideas and practices.......' in the face of 'change' is of central analytical concern to Resisting State Iconoclasm. Against presentist accounts of persistent culture, the author argues that an adequate explanation of Loma religious resilience requires a composite approach addressing both the political dynamics of the studied area...

  18. On the nature and dynamics of the seismogenetic systems of North California, USA: An analysis based on Non-Extensive Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-09-01

    We examine the nature of the seismogenetic system in North California, USA, by searching for evidence of complexity and non-extensivity in the earthquake record. We attempt to determine whether earthquakes are generated by a self-excited Poisson process, in which case they obey Boltzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics, or by a Critical process, in which long-range interactions in non-equilibrium states are expected (correlation) and the thermodynamics deviate from the Boltzmann-Gibbs formalism. Emphasis is given to background seismicity since it is generally agreed that aftershock sequences comprise correlated sets. We use the complete and homogeneous earthquake catalogue published by the North California Earthquake Data Centre, in which aftershocks are either included, or have been removed by a stochastic declustering procedure. We examine multivariate cumulative frequency distributions of earthquake magnitudes, interevent time and interevent distance in the context of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics, which is a generalization of extensive Boltzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics to non-equilibrating (non-extensive) systems. Our results indicate that the seismogenetic systems of North California are generally sub-extensive complex and non-Poissonian. The background seismicity exhibits long-range interaction as evidenced by the overall increase of correlation observed by declustering the earthquake catalogues, as well as by the high correlation observed for earthquakes separated by long interevent distances. It is also important to emphasize that two subsystems with rather different properties appear to exist. The correlation observed along the Sierra Nevada Range - Walker Lane is quasi-stationary and indicates a Self-Organized Critical fault system. Conversely, the north segment of the San Andreas Fault exhibits changes in the level of correlation with reference to the large Loma Prieta event of 1989 and thus has attributes of Critical Point behaviour albeit without acceleration of

  19. Evaluation of strength degradation in seismic loading of Holocene bay mud from Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gretchen Anne

    Cyclic simple shear tests performed on Holocene bay mud at the University of California at Berkeley following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, suggested that the response of silty clay to cyclic loading might be more severe than earlier research had indicated. A program of laboratory testing was therefore carried out to investigate the potential strength degradation of Holocene bay mud subjected to a range of conditions representative of those expected in a major earthquake. The results show that the volumetric cyclic threshold shear strain is between 0.02% and 0.04%. The reduction of shear modulus with increasing strain amplitude is generally consistent with data presented in an earlier study on Holocene bay mud from another location. The damping ratios for the first cycle of loading are consistent with the limits suggested for cohesive soils from earlier studies. The shear stress in the first cycle of loading exhibits approximately a 13--16% increase per order of magnitude increase in strain rate, which is on the higher end of the range of values presented in studies on other cohesive soils. The post-cyclic monotonic strengths are within +/-10% of the monotonic strengths of specimens that had not undergone cyclic loading. There were no clear effects of varying the strain amplitude, frequency of loading, or strain rate, but dissipation of pore pressures between the' end of cyclic loading and the beginning of monotonic shear increases the strength by an average of 8%. One-dimensional site response analysis was performed to estimate the amplitude and number of cycles of shear strain in moderate to large earthquakes, and it showed that up to five cycles or more of shear strain amplitudes exceeding I% could be expected. Therefore, the strength degradation that was observed in the cyclic testing is within the range of interest for geotechnical earthquake engineering. A comparison between the cyclic response of the specimens from Hamilton Air Force Base and specimens

  20. Low genetic variation in the salmon and trout parasite Loma salmonae (Microsporidia) supports marine transmission and clarifies species boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda M V; Kent, Michael L; Adamson, Martin L

    2010-07-26

    Loma salmonae is a microsporidian parasite prevalent in wild and farmed salmon species of the genus Oncorhynchus. This study compared ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) gene sequences to look for variation that may provide a basis for distinguishing populations. Specimens were collected from laboratory, captive (sea netpen farm and freshwater hatchery) and wild populations of fish. The host range included rainbow trout O. mykiss, Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Canada, from California, Colorado, Idaho, U.S.A. and from Chile. Both loci suggested that a variant in S. fontinalis (named 'SV') was a separate species. This was supported by the absence of similar variants in the source material (isolated from laboratory-held O. tshawytscha) and high divergence (1.4 to 2.3% in the rDNA and EF-1alpha) from L. salmonae in the type host and locality (0. mykiss in California). L. salmonae from freshwater and anadromous Oncorhynchus spp. were distinguished, providing a basis on which to evaluate possible sources of infection and suggesting geographic boundaries are important. Higher genetic variation occurred among samples of freshwater origin and from a sea netpen farm in Chile, suggesting these environments may present greater population diversity. Invariance in rDNA sequence across 17 samples from anadromous salmon in rivers, lakes, ocean, farms and hatcheries supports the hypothesis that marine transmission occurs and effectively prevents population substructuring caused by freshwater transmission.

  1. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  2. Statement of John F. Turner on H.R. 2571 : Wilderness designations on National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona [Havasu/Imperial/Kofa/Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on congressional bills meant to create a wilderness areas within the Kofa NWR, Imperial NWR, Havasu NWR, and Cabeza Prieta NWR. Given by...

  3. Statement of Michael J. Spear on H.R. 2571 : Wilderness designations on National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona [Kofa/Havasu/Imperial/Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on congressional bills meant to create a wilderness areas within the Kofa NWR, Imperial NWR, Havasu NWR, and Cabeza Prieta NWR. Given by...

  4. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the restricted...

  5. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  6. The Pulse Azimuth effect as seen in induction coil magnetometers located in California and Peru 2007–2010, and its possible association with earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Dunson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The QuakeFinder network of magnetometers has recorded geomagnetic field activity in California since 2000. Established as an effort to follow up observations of ULF activity reported from before and after the M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 by Stanford University, the QuakeFinder network has over 50 sites, fifteen of which are high-resolution QF1005 and QF1007 systems. Pairs of high-resolution sites have also been installed in Peru and Taiwan.

    Increases in pulse activity preceding nearby seismic events are followed by decreases in activity afterwards in the three cases that are discussed here. In addition, longer term data is shown, revealing a rich signal structure not previously known in QuakeFinder data, or by many other authors who have reported on pre-seismic ULF phenomena. These pulses occur as separate ensembles, with demonstrable repeatability and uniqueness across a number of properties such as waveform, angle of arrival, amplitude, and duration. Yet they appear to arrive with exponentially distributed inter-arrival times, which indicates a Poisson process rather than a periodic, i.e., stationary process.

    These pulses were observed using three-axis induction coil magnetometers that are buried 1–2 m under the surface of the Earth. Our sites use a Nyquist frequency of 16 Hertz (25 Hertz for the new QF1007 units, and they record these pulses at amplitudes from 0.1 to 20 nano-Tesla with durations of 0.1 to 12 s. They are predominantly unipolar pulses, which may imply charge migration, and they are stronger in the two horizontal (north-south and east-west channels than they are in the vertical channels. Pulses have been seen to occur in bursts lasting many hours. The pulses have large amplitudes and study of the three-axis data shows that the amplitude ratios of the pulses taken from pairs of orthogonal coils is stable across the bursts, suggesting a similar source.

    This paper presents three

  7. The Pulse Azimuth effect as seen in induction coil magnetometers located in California and Peru 2007-2010, and its possible association with earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, J. C.; Bleier, T. E.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Alvarez, C. H.; Lira, A.

    2011-07-01

    The QuakeFinder network of magnetometers has recorded geomagnetic field activity in California since 2000. Established as an effort to follow up observations of ULF activity reported from before and after the M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 by Stanford University, the QuakeFinder network has over 50 sites, fifteen of which are high-resolution QF1005 and QF1007 systems. Pairs of high-resolution sites have also been installed in Peru and Taiwan. Increases in pulse activity preceding nearby seismic events are followed by decreases in activity afterwards in the three cases that are discussed here. In addition, longer term data is shown, revealing a rich signal structure not previously known in QuakeFinder data, or by many other authors who have reported on pre-seismic ULF phenomena. These pulses occur as separate ensembles, with demonstrable repeatability and uniqueness across a number of properties such as waveform, angle of arrival, amplitude, and duration. Yet they appear to arrive with exponentially distributed inter-arrival times, which indicates a Poisson process rather than a periodic, i.e., stationary process. These pulses were observed using three-axis induction coil magnetometers that are buried 1-2 m under the surface of the Earth. Our sites use a Nyquist frequency of 16 Hertz (25 Hertz for the new QF1007 units), and they record these pulses at amplitudes from 0.1 to 20 nano-Tesla with durations of 0.1 to 12 s. They are predominantly unipolar pulses, which may imply charge migration, and they are stronger in the two horizontal (north-south and east-west) channels than they are in the vertical channels. Pulses have been seen to occur in bursts lasting many hours. The pulses have large amplitudes and study of the three-axis data shows that the amplitude ratios of the pulses taken from pairs of orthogonal coils is stable across the bursts, suggesting a similar source. This paper presents three instances of increases in pulse activity in the 30 days prior

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  9. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  10. Morfologia y biologia de Bostryx conspersus (Sowerby (Mollusca, Bulimulidae en las lomas costeras del Peru Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Ramírez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and biological observations on populations of the land snail Bostryx conspersus, in three "Lomas"of the Central Coast of Peru, were carried out between 1979 and 1982. Three shell color varieties of B. conspersus are reponed herein, as well as its aestivation, activity and reproduction strategies. The possible interactions of B. conspersus with a dipteron (Scaptomyza sp.; Drosophilidae and a nematode species are also discussed.

  11. Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge: A survey of visitor experiences: Report to respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea D.; Burkardt, Nina; Koontz, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2000, researchers from the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Program (PASA) of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) met with the staff of the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge (CPNWR) to discuss the issues related to social, economic, and human dimensions of natural resource management as it related to the Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) planning process. As a result of the meeting a research study was designed to better understand how visitors are affected by environmental management decisions and provide information to assist the refuge managers in making decisions regarding public use and recreational management related to the goals of the proposed CCP. More specifically, information was collected to document the type and frequency of visitor use; assess the importance of recreational activities; and to determine visitor attitudes about recreation management decisions within the refuge. To this end, we designed a study to assess the effects of the no-action and alternative management plans for the Refuge visitors’ perceptions and likely visitation patterns.

  12. Fiscal 1985 research report. Feasibility study on overseas coal mine development (La Loma coal field, Cesar province, Columbia); 1985 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Columbia Censar shu La Loma tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Tomen Corp. was proposed in April 1985 to join in the additional exploration of La Loma mine lot in 1986 through Greenley Co. in America, one of the members of Siminera- Greenley Association which has promoted the survey and exploration of La Loma coal mine lot (20,000ha), Cesar province, Columbia since 1979. In answer to this proposal, Tomen obtained the fiscal 1985 feasibility study subsidy for foreign coal development, and made surveys on the coal seam, coal property, coal deposit, recoverable deposit and profitability of La Loma coal field including La Loma coal mine lot, and further surveys on infrastructure improvement for the future coal development, the policy of Columbian government and various laws concerned. Based on the above survey results, for assessment of this coal field, Tomen Corp. made field survey on the coal field and infrastructures, document collection and hearing from Columbian and U.S. governments and companies, further collection of other documents concerned and information, and analysis of the survey results. As a result, the assessment of La Loma coal field was completed. (NEDO)

  13. Succinea peruviana (Gastropoda en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris (Sauria en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa de la presencia del caracol Succinea peruviana en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris, la misma que habita el mesohábitat de Lomas con árboles en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay. Este es el primer informe del consumo de caracoles por lagartijas del Desierto Costero Peruano

  14. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ˜0.5 m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1 m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ˜17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP. Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy

  15. Turning the Tide on Domestic Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-30

    INTRODUCTION After a decade of some of the worst shaking ( Loma Prieta 1989 and Northridge 1994, both.in California), blowing (Hurricanes Hugo 1989, Andrew...assistance when three conditions are met. First, the disaster must be of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond state and local...with the language of the National Security Strategy. FEMA’s stated priorities are risk reduction and rapid and effective domestic disaster response

  16. Quasi-Resonance Effects Observed in The 1994 Northridge Earthquake, and Others

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Edward G.; Thomas P. Fischer

    1998-01-01

    Sine-beat phenomena have been found in the 1994 Northridge earthquake records, and they are capable of producing time-history responses and damaging quasi-resonance effects in structures. Linear, single DOF (degree of freedom) oscillators, in lieu of nonlinear, multiple DOF systems, have been found adequate to discuss the failures of tall circuit breakers during the 1971 San Fernando and the 1989 Loma Prieta quakes in California. The use of sine-beat excitation for seismic-shaking-table tests...

  17. Loma salmonae (Protozoa: Microspora) infections in seawater reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Groff, J.M.; Hedrick, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Loma salmonae (Putz et al., 1965) infections were observed in five groups of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, reared in seawater net-pens in Washington State, U.S.A. in 1984–1986. Ultrastructural characteristics, size of spores, tissues and host infected, and geographical location identified the microsporidium as Loma salmonae. Preserved spores measured 4.4×2.3 (4–5.6×2–2.4) μm and exhibited 14–17 turns of the polar filament. Infections were evident in the gills of some fish before seawater entry, but few parasites were observed and they caused little tissue damage. Infections observed in fish after transfer to seawater were associated with significant pathological changes in the gills. A mixed inflammatory infiltrate was associated with ruptured microsporidian xenomas within the vessels and interstitium of the primary lamellae. Microsporidian spores were dispersed throughout the lesions and were often seen inside phagocytes. The parasite was also observed in the heart, spleen, kidney and pseudobranchs; however, the inflammatory lesions were common only in the heart.Monthly examination of fish after transfer to seawater showed peak prevalences (33–65%) of gill infections during the summer. Although moribund fish were often infected with other pathogens, the high prevalence of L. salmonae infections and the severity of the lesions it caused, suggested that this parasite significantly contributed to the recurrent summer mortalities observed at this net-pen site.

  18. Integrating Health Promotion, Learning and Sustainability in school foodscapes - the LOMA case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    foodscape udviklingen af metoder, der førte til en kommunal, bæredygtig, indkøbspraksis for Nymarkskolens madordning (SPFS)?" Metoden omfattede et single case studie, primært baseret på kvalitative metoder. Data blev indsamlet gennem interviews, observationer, video-optagelser og interviews med elever......, lærere og andre nøglepersoner. Data er blevet indsamlet i løbet af den forestillede, den undersøgende og den implementerede fase. Kvantitative metoder blev anvendt i forbindelse med et mindre quasi-eksperimentelt interventions studie af et to-ugers undervisningsforløb (LOMA-13) blandt 9. klasses elever...... betragtes som et 'privat' anliggende og hvor offentlige fødevareindkøb som oftest er ’stedløst’ og bliver leveret via større grossister. LOMA på Nymarkskolen i Svendborg er et eksempel på de mange fordele, som en integreret skolemadsordning kan medføre. Den interne validitet er stærk i dette studie, men den...

  19. "LinkedIn" loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas paradumos

    OpenAIRE

    Mickēvičs, Rihards

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „"LinkedIn" loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas paradumos” aplūkots mērķa grupas kopējās interneta un sociālo mediju patēriņa tendences, komunikācijas rīku lietojums, vietnes „LinkedIn” loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas aspektā un sava personīgā sociālā zīmola apzināšanās. Darbs balstīts uz četrām galvenajām daļām – teorētisko, metodoloģisko, empīrisko un rezultātu. Pamatojoties uz pieejamo teorētisko bāzi saistībā ar attiecīgo tēmu, tika veikta fok...

  20. INÓCULO DE HONGOS DE MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR EN PASTURAS DE Brachiaria decumbens (POACEAE EN ZONAS DE LOMA Y VEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL HERNANDO POSADA ALMANZA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que influyen en la distribución del inóculo de hongos micorrícicos ar- busculares (micelio externo y esporas son diversos. Entre ellos pueden mencionarse la especie vegetal predominante, el pH, la humedad del suelo, la conductividad, el contenido de fósforo, nutrientes y de metales pesados. Muchos de los reportes de la literatura son contradictorios y basados en estudios realizados en zonas templadas; en condiciones tropicales es difícil determinar los factores edáficos y ambientales que estimulan la producción de inóculo y la forma en que lo hacen. Brachiaria decumbens, como especie de pasto predominante en paisajes de loma y vega en el piedemonte amazónico colombiano, ha sido poco estudiada en su relación micorrícica. En este estudio se realizó la determinación de la densidad de esporas y micelio externo en 26 zonas cubiertas con B. decumbens, correspondientes a paisajes de loma y vega. Simul- táneamente se valoraron el contenido de fósforo disponible (ppm, pH y humedad re- lativa del suelo (%. Mediante correlaciones de Spearman (rangos y análisis de varian- za (ANDEVA de una vía por Kruscall-Wallis, se encontró que el inóculo se distribuye de forma diferente en loma y vega, siendo mayor la densidad de esporas en loma que en vega y más homogéneo en contenido de micelio externo en vega que en loma. No se encontró efecto del fósforo disponible, el pH y la humedad del suelo sobre la den- sidad de inóculo de HMA.

  1. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  2. Broadband Ground Motion Estimates for Scenario Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Using broadband (0-10 Hz) simulation procedures, we are assessing the ground motions that could be generated by different earthquake scenarios occurring on major strike-slip faults of the San Francisco Bay region. These simulations explicitly account for several important ground motion features, including rupture directivity, 3D basin response, and the depletion of high frequency ground motions that occurs for surface rupturing events. This work compliments ongoing USGS efforts to quantify the ground shaking hazards throughout the San Francisco Bay region. These efforts involve development and testing of a 3D velocity model for northern California (USGS Bay Area Velocity Model, version 05.1.0) using observations from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, characterization of 1906 rupture scenarios and ground motions, and the development and analysis of rupture scenarios on other Bay Area faults. The adequacy of the simulation model has been tested using ground motion data recorded during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and by comparison with the reported intensity data from the 1906 earthquake. Comparisons of the simulated broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions with the recorded motions for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrate that the modeling procedure matches the observations without significant bias over a broad range of frequencies, site types, and propagation distances. The Loma Prieta rupture model is based on a wavenumber-squared refinement of the Wald et al (1991) slip distribution, with the rupture velocity set at 75 percent of the local shear wave velocity and a Kostrov-type slip function having a rise time of about 1.4 sec. Simulations of 1906 scenario ruptures indicate very strong directivity effects to the north and south of the assumed epicenter, adjacent to San Francisco. We are currently analyzing additional earthquake scenarios on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek and San Andreas faults in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for assessing

  3. The Contribution of Police and Fire Consolidation to the Homeland Security Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    integrated communications. He pointed to the department’s response to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a response that he described as seamless because...He discussed the response to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in regards to the command structure used at the time. Because officers, supervisors, and...15 5. Effectiveness

  4. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River, Wyoming; Cubeza Prieta, Arizona, and Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the Powder River Basin, Wyo., narrow geologic units having thermal inertias which contrast with their surroundings can be discriminated in optimal images. A few subtle thermal inertia anomalies coincide with areas of helium leakage believed to be associated with deep oil and gas concentrations. The most important results involved delineation of tectonic framework elements some of which were not previously recognized. Thermal and thermal inertia images also permit mapping of geomorphic textural domains. A thermal lineament appears to reveal a basement discontinuity which involves the Homestake Mine in the Black Hill, a zone of Tertiary igneous activity and facies control in oil producing horizons. Applications of these data to the Cabeza Prieta, Ariz., area illustrate their potential for igneous rock type discrimination. Extension to Yellowstone National Park resulted in the detection of additional structural information but surface hydrothermal features could not be distinguished with any confidence. A thermal inertia mapping algorithm, a fast and accurate image registration technique, and an efficient topographic slope and elevation correction method were developed.

  5. Le recensement des plantes vasculaires et les originalités du peuplement végétal des monts Loma en Sierra Leone (Afrique Occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jaeger

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A FLOR1STIC INVENTORY OF THE LOMA MOUNTAINS IN SIERRA LEONE Our surveys in Sierra Leone of the flora of the Loma Mountains and the foothill country have enabled us to produce an inventory of the I 576 species, subspecies or varieties of Angiosperms belonging to 757 genera and 135 families. Gymnosperms are lacking. As in any other natural region, the Loma flora is the result of a long and complex process which took place in much earlier times. Under the influence of climatic factors, migration, speciation and also anthropological action, floristic elements with very different origins have ultimately arranged themselves into a particularly diversified but unstable mosaic and it is for us to unravel the mechanisms that have brought this about.

  6. Identificación de aspectos ambientales en la comunidad Loma de Cruz, Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ángel Paneque Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la comunidad Loma de la Cruz, ubicada en la vertiente sur del poblado del Cobre, a 14 kilómetros de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba. Se inició el estudio en la vegetación y la fauna en las áreas seleccionadas, utilizando para los muestreos los métodos de transección y se analizaron los parámetros físico- químicos del agua utilizada como fuente de energía en el proceso de generación de electricidad en la minihidroeléctrica, de acuerdo a las instrucciones para el monitoreo de aguas en las instalaciones hidroeléctricas y las especificaciones de la Norma Cubana NC 93:11:86. Los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas permitieron la identificación de 66 especies de la vegetación y 36 especies en la fauna, que proporcionaron valiosas fuentes de informaciones para la ejecución de proyectos de reforesta- ción, la reducción de riesgos ambientales y el aprovechamiento racional de los recursos naturales. Se demostró además que la generación de electricidad no altera los parámetros físico- químicos del agua y permite su regreso al medio ambiente en su condición original, apropiados para el uso y consumo de este preciado recurso en la localidad.

  7. Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzylowska, Eliza M; Jacobson, John D; Bareh, Gihan M; Ko, Edmund Y; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effect the life-long vegetarian diet on male fertility and focused on vegetarians living in the Loma Linda blue zone, a demographic area known for life longevity. The objective was to compare sperm characteristics of vegetarian with non-vegetarian males. The cross-sectional observational study was based on semen analyses of 474 males from 2009 to 2013. Patients categorized themselves as either life-long lacto-ovo vegetarians (N=26; vegetable diet with dairy and egg products), vegans (N=5; strictly vegetables with no animal products) or non-vegetarians (N=443; no diet restrictions). Sperm quality was assessed using a computer-aided sperm analyzer and strict morphology and chromatin integrity were manually evaluated. Lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower sperm concentration (50.7±7.4M/mL versus non-vegetarians 69.6±3.2M/mL, mean±S.E.M.). Total motility was lower in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups (33.2±3.8% and 51.8±13.4% respectively) versus non-vegetarians (58.2±1.0%). Vegans had lowest hyperactive motility (0.8±0.7% versus lacto-ovo 5.2±1.2 and non-vegetarians 4.8±0.3%). Sperm strict morphologies were similar for the 3 groups. There were no differences in rapid progression and chromatin integrity. The study showed that the vegetables-based food intake decreased sperm quality. In particular, a reduction in sperm quality in male factor patients would be clinically significant and would require review. Furthermore, inadequate sperm hyperactivation in vegans suggested compromised membrane calcium selective channels. However, the study results are cautiously interpreted and more corroborative studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Cementation of the Loma Blanca Fault Zone Utilizing Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, H.; Spinelli, G. A.; Mozley, P.; Hinojosa, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Fault-zones are an important control on fluid flow, affecting groundwater supply, hydrocarbon/contaminant migration, and waste/carbon storage. However, current models of fault seal are inadequate, primarily focusing on juxtaposition and entrainment effects, despite the recognition that fault-zone cementation is common and can dramatically reduce permeability. We map cementation patterns of the variably cemented Loma Blanca fault from the land surface to 40 m depth, using electrical resistivity and induced polarization (IP) data from 7 parallel two-dimensional transects running orthogonal to the strike of the fault and 4 three-dimensional grids centered on exposures of the fault at the land surface. Inversions of the 3-D resistivity surveys indicate a low resistivity anomaly in the cemented portions of the fault and within the adjacent footwall; these anomalies are present in the unsaturated zone. This low resistivity signature may be an indication of a higher degree of fluid saturation resulting from greater capillary forces, both in the cemented fault (due to reduced pore sizes within the cemented material) and in the footwall (possibly due to smaller grain size). These mechanisms for generating low resistivity anomalies in both the cemented fault zone and in the footwall, suggest that the low resistivity anomalies likely correspond to regions with low permeability. In areas where no cement is exposed at the surface, we use the low resistivity signature to determine the extent of cementation at depth. The ability to characterize spatial variations in the degree of fault zone cementation with resistivity and IP has exciting implications for improving predictive models of the hydrogeologic impacts of cementation within faults.

  9. Improving tobacco dependence education among the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.

  10. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of inflammatory cells and cell cycle proteins in the gills of Loma salmonae infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, M. D.; Yousaf, M. N.; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidial gill diseases particularly those caused by Loma salmonae incur significant economic losses to the salmonid aquaculture industry. The gill responses to infection include the formation of xenomas and the acute hyperplastic inflammatory responses once the xenomas rupture releasing...... infective spores. The aim of this work was to characterize the inflammatory responses of the gill to both the presence of the xenomas as well as the hyperplasia associated with L salmonae infection in the rainbow trout gill following an experimental infection using immunohistochemistry. Hyperplastic lesions...

  12. Composición florística de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y Lomas de Ilo, Moquegua, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio de la composición y riqueza de la flora vascular en la cuenca del Río Ilo- Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo, a lo largo de una gradiente altitudinal que va desde los 0 hasta 4600 m, basado en colectas intensivas, revisión de ejemplares de herbario y consulta bibliográfica. De acuerdo al presente estudio, la flora vascular de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo está integrada por 63 familias, 233 géneros y 394 especies. Las Magnoliopsida representan el 83% de la...

  13. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California: 1979-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehouse, Jon S.

    2002-01-01

    My purpose is to make our creep data on San Francisco Bay region active faults available to the scientific research community. My student research assistants and I measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults from 1979 until my retirement from the project in 2001. These data are further described in my final technical report as principal investigator, which summarizes results from 22 September 1979 through 28 February 2001 (Galehouse, 2001). We made over 2,600 creep measurements, about one-third in the ten years prior to the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) and two-thirds in the 11.4 years following it. The measurements are continuing to be made by members of the Geosciences Department at San Francisco State University (SFSU) under the direction of Karen Grove and John Caskey. A complete analysis of our results obtained on the Hayward fault is presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse, and Simpson (2001). A formal report based on the entire San Francisco Bay region data set is in preparation. Data sheets for each site along the fault are available for downloading in Excel format to facilitate analysis of the data. They are also available as tab-delimited raw data. The data include all regular measurement sites, SF–1 through SF–34, and the 20 SFSU and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) afterslip sites on the Hayward fault.

  14. A small Bronze Age mining camp: La Loma de la Tejería (Albarracín, Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the research done at Loma de la Tejería (Albarracín, Teruel where a seasonal camp site linked to a mining-metallurgical works has been discovered. Studies on materials show the use of different geological resources: copper minerals, Keuper clays with “Jacintos de Compostela” and volcanic rocks. Pottery residual analysis has documented dairy milky products and alcoholic drinks. Chronologically the site is classified amongst Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, on the presence of Bell Beaker pottery.

    Se presentan los datos de las excavaciones realizadas en la Loma de la Tejería (Albarracín, Teruel en la que se documenta un campamento estacional vinculado a tareas minero-metalúrgicas de pequeña escala. Los estudios realizados sobre el material indican el aprovechamiento de los recursos geológicos locales tanto de mineral de cobre, como de arcillas del Keuper con Jacintos de Compostela y rocas volcánicas. Los análisis de residuos han documentado en la cerámica productos lácteos y bebidas alcohólicas. Cronológicamente el yacimiento se encuadra en el Calcolítico y Bronce Antiguo, con presencia de cerámica campaniforme.

  15. Estado de conservación de Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn 1949 y de los mamíferos pequeños en las Lomas de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la costa y vertiente occidental ocurren los principales endemismos de mamíferos peruanos. Así mismo, a lo largo de la costa central, sobresale el único mamífero endémico del departamento de Lima, el ratón arrozalero de Zúñiga, Melanomys zunigae (Sanborn, 1949, registrado en las lomas de Atocongo y el cerro San Jerónimo por Enrique Zúñiga en 1942. Desde entonces se han realizado esporádicas evaluaciones, no necesariamente dirigidas a su búsqueda, aunque sin ningún registro. Nuestro estudio tuvo como objetivo la búsqueda de evidencias de la presencia de M. zunigae en las lomas de Lima, basados en un trampeo no exhaustivo y posteriormente en un análisis de regurgitos de la lechuza de los arenales (Athene cunicularia. Desafortunadamente no registramos ningún individuo de M. zunigae; sin embargo, encontramos evidencias que el impacto de la expansión urbana estaría afectando los ensamblajes de mamíferos pequeños en las lomas de Lima. Varios factores pudieron haber determinado la desaparición de M. zunigae. Entre estas se incluyen la destrucción del hábitat, invasión de especies exóticas y el aislamiento de las lomas.

  16. Re-evaluating the resource potential of lomas fog oasis environments for Preceramic hunter-gatherers under past ENSO modes on the south coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford-Jones, David; Pullen, Alexander G.; Whaley, Oliver Q.; Moat, Justin; Chauca, George; Cadwallader, Lauren; Arce, Susana; Orellana, Alfonso; Alarcón, Carmela; Gorriti, Manuel; Maita, Patricia K.; Sturt, Fraser; Dupeyron, Agathe; Huaman, Oliver; Lane, Kevin J.; French, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Lomas - ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs - were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity's few independent hearths of agriculture and "pristine" civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been much debated. Here we reassess the resource potential of the poorly studied lomas of the south coast of Peru during the long Middle Pre-ceramic period (c. 8000-4500 BP): a period critical in the transition to agriculture, the onset of modern El Niño Southern Oscillation ('ENSO') conditions, and eustatic sea-level rise and stabilisation and beach progradation. Our method combines vegetation survey and herbarium collection with archaeological survey and excavation to make inferences about both Preceramic hunter-gatherer ecology and the changed palaeoenvironments in which it took place. Our analysis of newly discovered archaeological sites - and their resource context - show how lomas formations defined human ecology until the end of the Middle Preceramic Period, thereby corroborating recent reconstructions of ENSO history based on other data. Together, these suggest that a five millennia period of significantly colder seas on the south coast induced conditions of abundance and seasonal predictability in lomas and maritime ecosystems, that enabled Middle Preceramic hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility by settling in strategic locations at the confluence of multiple eco-zones at the river estuaries. Here the foundations of agriculture lay in a Broad Spectrum Revolution that unfolded, not through population pressure in deteriorating environments, but rather as an outcome of resource abundance.

  17. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  18. Quasi-Resonance Effects Observed in The 1994 Northridge Earthquake, and Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Fischer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sine-beat phenomena have been found in the 1994 Northridge earthquake records, and they are capable of producing time-history responses and damaging quasi-resonance effects in structures. Linear, single DOF (degree of freedom oscillators, in lieu of nonlinear, multiple DOF systems, have been found adequate to discuss the failures of tall circuit breakers during the 1971 San Fernando and the 1989 Loma Prieta quakes in California. The use of sine-beat excitation for seismic-shaking-table tests of equipment continues to be a conservative simulation of earthquakes.

  19. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  20. Zooarqueología de una unidad doméstica Formativa: El caso de Loma Alta (Catamarca, Argentina Zooarchaeology of a Formative domestic unit: The case of Loma Alta (Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Darío Izeta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de aportar datos e interpretaciones de la economía de una unidad doméstica de un sitio del Período Formativo del noroeste argentino (Loma Alta Núcleo E relacionada con el manejo de camélidos. El registro proporcionalmente menor del resto de los animales (aves, armadillos, roedores y ciervos hace casi imposible evaluar su significación económica sino es por comparación con la de los camélidos andinos. Por ello se tratarán en detalle los restos de camélidos con el fin de ofrecer algunas interpretaciones sobre la obtención, uso y manejo de estos animales entre los antiguos habitantes de este núcleo habitacional. Principalmente se estudió el conjunto de camélidos teniendo en cuenta las especies presentes, su proporción, así como las clases de edad representadas en esta muestra. A través del análisis del conjunto se pudo identificar la presencia de actividades pastoriles complementadas con prácticas de caza. En cuanto al uso específico de estos animales e independientemente de la edad se pudo establecer una estrategia general orientada hacia el consumo de unidades anatómicas de mayor valor económico.The aim of this paper is to present data and interpretations of the household economy of a Formative Period archaeological site from northwestern Argentina (Loma Alta Núcleo E based on the analysis of the camelid record. The occurrence of other taxa (birds, armadillos, rodents, and cervids is relatively poor, making their interpretation in economic terms very difficult without a comparison with camelid remains. Subsequently, camelid species presence and age classes (based on bone fusion stages are considered in order to evaluate the acquisition, use and management of those animals by the old inhabitants of this domestic unit. The study of the camelid assemblage allows us to interpret the presence of herding strategies complemented with hunting activities. Lastly, a general tendency towards the

  1. A serological and bacteriological survey of dogs to detect Brucella infection in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province Estudio serológico y bacteriológico de brucelosis en perros de Lomas de Zamora, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of the reproductive tract that may cause miscarriage in females, infection of the sexual organs in males and infertility in both sexes. The prevalence of brucellosis in dogs is unknown and little has been done to control the disease, except in certain breeds and some commercial dog kennels. In the course of a free neuter program in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, prevalence of antibodies to Brucella sp., bacteriological isolation and clinical observations were performed. Of 224 dogs studied, 33 (14.7% were found positive for the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT, 24 (10.7% of which were confirmed by IELISA. Of the 33 RSAT positive, 17 (51.5% blood cultures were done, and B. canis were isolated from 2 cases. Since infected dogs have been shown to remain bacteremic for prolonged periods, our results also suggest a risk of human infections in this area.La brucelosis canina causada por Brucella canis es una infección que afecta el tracto reproductivo de los perros y que puede provocar abortos en las hembras, infección de los órganos sexuales en los machos e infertilidad en ambos sexos. Se desconoce la prevalencia de esta enfermedad y las medidas de control se aplican sólo en algunos criaderos comerciales. Durante un programa de castración gratuita de perros llevado a cabo en el Partido de Lomas de Zamora (Gran Buenos Aires se realizaron estudios clínicos, serológicos y bacteriológicos en 224 animales. En la población estudiada, la prueba de microaglutinación rápida en portaobjetos (RSAT resultó positiva en suero de 33 (14,7% perros y fueron confirmadas por IELISA en 24 (10,7% de ellos. A 17 de los 33 perros positivos mediante RSAT (51,5% se les practicaron hemocultivos y en 2 casos se aisló B. canis. Debido a que los perros infectados permanecen bacteriémicos durante períodos prolongados, constituyen un riesgo para la salud pública.

  2. Māsas profesionālās lomas pacientu baiļu mazināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma: “Māsas profesionālās lomas pacientu baiļu mazināšanā”. Tēmas aktualitāti nosaka fakts, ka mūsdienās sabiedrība ļoti bieži izjūt bailes un stresu, tāpēc ir svarīgi noskaidrot māsu lomas gan māsu, gan pacientu skatījumā, lai turpmāk māsu sniegtā aprūpe tiktu orientēta uz katra konkrēta pacienta vajadzībām un baiļu mazināšanu. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot māsas profesionālās lomas pacientu baiļu mazināšanā māsu un pacientu skatījumā. Pētniecības uzdevumi ir: 1.Analizēt lit...

  3. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo y riesgo cardiovascular global en la población de Tres Lomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Mazzei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:La mortalidad atribuida a las enfermedades cardiovasculares se encuentra en primer lugar y en aumento en los países en vías de desarrollo. En la Argentina, las enfermedades cardiovasculares producen, junto con el cáncer, más del 50% de las muertes anuales. En contraposición a las enfermedades infecciosas, éstas se denominan genéricamente enfermedades no transmisibles y se ha demostrado que son prevenibles en gran medida a través del control y el manejo de los llamados factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Es por ello que la información sobre la prevalencia y la variación en el tiempo de estos factores de riesgo es fundamental para realizar una vigilancia epidemiológica del problema de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la población y, a su vez, para proponer acciones comunitarias preventivas.ObjetivosObtener información sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población de Tres Lomas (Buenos Aires, calcular el riesgo cardiovascular global (RCG y comparar estos resultados con los descriptos para toda la Argentina.Material y métodosSe entrevistaron al azar 522 adultos de Tres Lomas. Se utilizó el cuestionario para vigilancia epidemiológica de la OPS y se realizaron mediciones antropométricas. En 100 individuos se determinaron lípidos y glucemia para estimar el RCG, definido como probabilidad de desarrollar un evento no fatal o muerte coronaria en los próximos 10 años. Por último, estas prevalencias se compararon con las estimadas a nivel nacional.ResultadosHubo menor prevalencia de diabetes (7,7% versus 11,9%; p < 0,0001, tabaquismo (27,7% versus 33,4%; p < 0,0054 y depresión (14,4% versus 22,8%; p < 0,0001, aunque más sobrepeso y obesidad que el promedio país (58,4% versus 49,1%; p < 0,0001. Aunque la medición de la tensión arterial fue más frecuente que el promedio (82,2% versus 68,4%; p < 0,0001, las determinaciones de glucemia (50,2% versus 69,3%; p < 0,0001 y de

  4. LOMA: A fast method to generate efficient tagged-random primers despite amplification bias of random PCR on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Wah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen detection using DNA microarrays has the potential to become a fast and comprehensive diagnostics tool. However, since pathogen detection chips currently utilize random primers rather than specific primers for the RT-PCR step, bias inherent in random PCR amplification becomes a serious problem that causes large inaccuracies in hybridization signals. Results In this paper, we study how the efficiency of random PCR amplification affects hybridization signals. We describe a model that predicts the amplification efficiency of a given random primer on a target viral genome. The prediction allows us to filter false-negative probes of the genome that lie in regions of poor random PCR amplification and improves the accuracy of pathogen detection. Subsequently, we propose LOMA, an algorithm to generate random primers that have good amplification efficiency. Wet-lab validation showed that the generated random primers improve the amplification efficiency significantly. Conclusion The blind use of a random primer with attached universal tag (random-tagged primer in a PCR reaction on a pathogen sample may not lead to a successful amplification. Thus, the design of random-tagged primers is an important consideration when performing PCR.

  5. Stress sensitivity of fault seismicity: A comparison between limited-offset oblique and major strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Stein, Ross S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Reasenberg, Paul A.

    1999-09-01

    We present a new three-dimensional inventory of the southern San Francisco Bay area faults and use it to calculate stress applied principally by the 1989 M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and to compare fault seismicity rates before and after 1989. The major high-angle right-lateral faults exhibit a different response to the stress change than do minor oblique (right-lateral/thrust) faults. Seismicity on oblique-slip faults in the southern Santa Clara Valley thrust belt increased where the faults were undamped. The strong dependence of seismicity change on normal stress change implies a high coefficient of static friction. In contrast, we observe that faults with significant offset (>50-100 km) behave differently; microseismicity on the Hayward fault diminished where right-lateral shear stress was reduced and where it was undamped by the Loma Prieta earthquake. We observe a similar response on the San Andreas fault zone in southern California after the Landers earthquake sequence. Additionally, the offshore San Gregorio fault shows a seismicity rate increase where right-lateral/oblique shear stress was increased by the Loma Prieta earthquake despite also being clamped by it. These responses are consistent with either a low coefficient of static friction or high pore fluid pressures within the fault zones. We can explain the different behavior of the two styles of faults if those with large cumulative offset become impermeable through gouge buildup; coseismically pressurized pore fluids could be trapped and negate imposed normal stress changes, whereas in more limited offset faults, fluids could rapidly escape. The difference in behavior between minor and major faults may explain why frictional failure criteria that apply intermediate coefficients of static friction can be effective in describing the broad distributions of aftershocks that follow large earthquakes, since many of these events occur both inside and outside major fault zones.

  6. FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    Loma Prieta earthquake, Hurricane Andrew, the Midwest floods of 1993, and the Northridge earthquake. However, these were not the only events deemed...Katrina, the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes, the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption, and the September 11 terrorist attacks. In these instances...be based on a finding that the disaster is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the

  7. The Repopulation of New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Stryker, “Economic Impacts of the Loma Prieta Earthquake: A Focus on Small Business,” Berkeley Planning Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1990, pp. 39 58...M. Dahlhamer, “Predicting Long-Term Business Recovery from Disaster: A Comparison of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew,” Newark, Del...analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world. Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore

  8. High Resolution Geological Site Characterization Utilizing Ground Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-26

    of the Loma Prieta earthquake. haracicri/aion demonstrate the need for the separation of stochastic and The results of our small field experiments...Array studies of ground Aki, K.. and P. Richards, Quantitative Seismology. Theory and Methods, motions using aftershocks from the Loma Prieta ...Zone with Complete Seismograms is by Bogaards and Stump. This work documents the separation of stochastic and deterministic wave propagation effects in

  9. Notes on the ecology of a relict population of the Lomas´s Lizard Microlophus tigris (Tropiduridae: Sauria) in Las Leyendas Zoological Park, (Lima, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi

    2012-01-01

    I studied activity patterns, microhabitat use and thermal ecology of a small-wild population of the Loma’s lizard, Microlophus tigris in Parque Las Leyendas Zoo, from April to October of 2006. Microlophus tigris individuals were active in a variety of microhabitats, from bushes and vegetation debris to prehispanic bricks (adobes) and litter, during the hottest hour of the day. Mean body temperature (29,4 ºC) was similar to body temperature observed in a natural population from Lomas de Lachay...

  10. [Prevalence of hip, femur and knee fractures at the High Specialty Medical Unit, Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia "Lomas Verdes", Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato-Salas, F; Luna-Pizarro, D; Oliva-Ramírez, S A; Flores-Lujano, J; Núñez-Enríquez, J C

    2015-01-01

    Lower limb fractures are more frequent among older patients with osteopenia after a low energy fall and/or among young patients who sustain a high energy trauma. The prevalence of hip, femur and knee fractures at the High Specialty Medical Unit, Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia "Lomas Verdes" is unknown. Cross-sectional study, descriptive and retrospective design. Cases with low extremity fractures treated from January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2013 at the Hip, Femur and Knee Service, High Specialty Medical Unit, Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia "Lomas Verdes", were reviewed. Most patients (52.2%) were females; 64.1% of patients were over 60 years of age. Fracture distribution according to the segment involved was as follows: 73.4% (n = 1,327) were femur fractures, 13.5% (n = 244) tibial plateau fractures, and 13.2% (n = 238) patellar fractures. 66.8% (n = 1,209) of patients had a long hospital stay (more than 10 days). According to the anatomical location of fractures, transtrochanteric fractures (49.1%) were the most frequent ones, followed by patellar fractures (13.2%), and femur shaft fractures (12.7%). The prevalence of lower limb fractures at our hospital corresponds to what has been reported internationally.

  11. Age and characteristics of the Loma del Aire unit (SW Iberia): Implications for the regional correlation of the Ossa-Morena Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, T.; Quesada, C.; Bellido, F.; Dunning, G. R.; Pin, Ch.; Moreno-Eiris, E.; Perejón, A.

    2016-06-01

    Finding of ca. 620 Ma old zircons in a volcanic rock of the Loma del Aire unit, one of many structural divisions in the Ossa Morena Zone, some years ago, attracted much attention to this unit, which would contain, if proven, the oldest rocks so far dated not only in Ossa Morena but also in the entire Iberian Massif. In this paper, new field, petrographic, whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data as well as new TIMS U-Pb zircon ages are presented, which collectively allow a much better characterization and dating as Cambrian of the rock sequence in the Loma del Aire unit; the previously found ca. 620 Ma old zircon population is now interpreted as xenocrysts incorporated in the Cambrian magma. Our data together with recently published provenance studies, bear important implications concerning the nature and evolution of the underlying lithospheric basement of the Ossa Morena Zone, which shares many characteristics with the Neoproterozoic peri-West-African craton arc systems currently exposed in the Precambrian inliers of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the North Armorican Zone of Brittany, Normandy and the Channel Islands (Cadomian Arc), and the Saxo-Thuringian and Teplá-Barrandian Zones of the Bohemian Massif. A correlation of the Ossa Morena zone with these arc systems in the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic is thus proposed.

  12. Skolas vadības loma skolas un ģimenes sadarbības veicināšanā.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Zinātniski pētnieciskā darba tēma ir „Skolas vadības loma skolas un ģimenes sadarbības veicināšanā”. Šo jautājumu ir svarīgi pētīt tāpēc, ka atmosfēra skolā zināmā mērā atkarīga no tā , kāda ir skolas un ģimeņu sadarbība, vai vecāki ir demokrātiskās struktūras sastāvdaļa, vai viņiem rūp un, vai viņi jūtas atbildīgi par to, ko viņu bērni gūst, apmeklējot skolu. Pētījuma mērķis ir ,pamatojoties uz teorētiskām atziņām, personīgiem pētījumiem, to analīzi, izpētīt, kāda ir skolas vadības loma skol...

  13. Composición florística de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y Lomas de Ilo, Moquegua, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Arakaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de la composición y riqueza de la flora vascular en la cuenca del Río Ilo- Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo, a lo largo de una gradiente altitudinal que va desde los 0 hasta 4600 m, basado en colectas intensivas, revisión de ejemplares de herbario y consulta bibliográfica. De acuerdo al presente estudio, la flora vascular de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo está integrada por 63 familias, 233 géneros y 394 especies. Las Magnoliopsida representan el 83% de las especies y las Liliopsida el 15%. Las familias con mayor número de géneros y especies son Asteraceae (41 géneros y 60 especies, Poaceae (28 y 44, Solanaceae (11 y 32, Fabaceae (17 y 26, Malvaceae (11 y 21, Brassicaceae (10 y 15, Boraginaceae (9 y 15 y Cactaceae (10 y 14. Las formas biológicas dominantes son las hierbas (72%, seguidas por los arbustos (21%, plantas que pueden ser hierbas o arbustos (5%, árboles (2% y plantas parásitas (menos del 1%. De las 55 especies endémicas del Perú reportadas en el presente estudio, 10 están restringidas al departamento de Moquegua. Se presenta un total de 176 nuevas adiciones a la flora del departamento.

  14. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  15. Interpretación fitosociológica de la vegetación de las lomas del desierto peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Galán de Mera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación de las lomas, causada sobre todo por las precipitaciones debidas a la influencia de la corriente fría de Humboldt, constituye la mayor originalidad del desierto peruano y chileno, con un alto número de endemismos que forman asociaciones geovicarias. En este trabajo, presentamos un estudio fitosociológico sobre la vegetación de los medios arenosos de las lomas del desierto costero peruano. De acuerdo con el método de Braun-Blanquet, hemos levantado 32 inventarios fitosociológicos a los que hemos añadido 138 procedentes de la bibliografía. En cada inventario, hemos analizado la composición florística y distintos parámetros ecológicos, como la altitud, el suelo y la geomorfología. Todos los inventarios fueron sintetizados en una tabla para deducir las asociaciones, las unidades fitosociológicas superiores y el origen de su flora. Como resultado, describimos dos nuevas asociaciones del sur del Perú -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae y Palauetum camanensis- weberbaueri, dos alianzas -Nolanion humifusae, del centro del Perú, y Nolanion spathulatae del sur del Perú-, y un nuevo orden -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis-. También se presenta la vegetación de las quebradas en el contexto de las comunidades de riberas de la costa y su alteración por las dunas. Después de la aplicación del índice de Shannon-Wiener sobre las columnas de la tabla sintética, podemos deducir que el aumento de especies ruderales andinas y europeas en la costa central del Perú se ha visto favorecido por una actividad ganadera intensiva. La trashumancia entre los Andes y la costa, desde tiempos preincaicos hasta la actualidad, ha producido la dispersión zoócora de plantas altoandinas hacia la costa; la presencia de plantas europeas tuvo su origen en la colonización española de la costa del Perú.A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert. The vegetation of the sandy hills (

  16. Ultra-low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with the 1998 Mw 5.1 San Juan Bautista, California earthquake and implications for mechanisms of electromagnetic earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakelian, D.; Klemperer, S. L.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.; Thompson, G. A.

    2002-11-01

    Ultra-low frequency (ULF: 0.01-10 Hz) magnetic field anomalies prior to M≥6.0 earthquakes have been reported in various regions of the world. Here, we test whether smaller magnitude earthquakes have associated ULF anomalies by using continuous measurements made ˜9 km above and ˜2 km NE of the epicenter of the Mw 5.1 8/12/98 San Juan Bautista, CA earthquake. Half-hour spectral averages of the magnetic field data in nine different ULF frequency bands show no long-term (days to weeks) magnetic field anomaly prior to the earthquake. In addition, magnetic and electric field polarization shows no anomalous behavior clearly associated with seismic activity. An ˜0.02 nT increase in activity for 2 h prior to the earthquake is close to the background noise levels precluding identification of a precursor. We present scaling calculations to show if precursory ULF anomalies are related to the size of the earthquake. The observed ˜0.02 nT increase is the approximately expected magnetic anomaly prior to the San Juan Bautista (SBJ) earthquake, based on the anomaly observed prior to the 1989 Loma Prieta (LP) earthquake. Our reexamination of previously proposed dilatant-conductive and piezomagnetic mechanisms for ULF precursors shows that these effects are consistent with the observations prior to the SJB earthquake based on the observations (i.e., lack of a strong precursor). In contrast, previously proposed electrokinetic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mechanisms do not appear to be appropriate for this particular earthquake. This analysis further supports the hypothesis that precursory ULF signals are related to the size of the earthquake.

  17. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a joint project to create Internet-enabled geographic information systems (GIS) that will help cities along the United States-Mexico border deal with issues related to colonias. HUD defines colonias as rural neighborhoods in the United States-Mexico border region that lack adequate infrastructure or housing and other basic services. They typically have high poverty rates that make it difficult for residents to pay for roads, sanitary water and sewer systems, decent housing, street lighting, and other services through assessment. Many Federal agencies recognize colonias designations and provide funding assistance. It is the intention of this project to empower Arizona-Sonora borderland neighborhoods and community members by recognizing them as colonias. This recognition will result in eligibility for available economic subsidies and accessibility to geospatial tools and information for urban planning. The steps to achieve this goal include delineation of colonia-like neighborhoods, identification of their urbanization over time, development of geospatial databases describing their infrastructure, and establishment of a framework for distributing Web-based GIS decision support systems. A combination of imagery and infrastructure information was used to help delineate colonia boundaries. A land-use change analysis, focused on urbanization in the cities over a 30-year timeframe, was implemented. The results of this project are being served over the Internet, providing data to the public as well as to participating agencies. One of the initial study areas for this project was the City of Douglas, Ariz., and its Mexican sister-city Agua Prieta, Sonora, which are described herein. Because of its location on the border, this twin-cities area is especially well suited to international manufacturing and commerce, which has, in turn, led to an uncontrolled spread of

  18. Notes on the ecology of a relict population of the Lomas´s Lizard Microlophus tigris (Tropiduridae: Sauria in Las Leyendas Zoological Park, (Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I studied activity patterns, microhabitat use and thermal ecology of a small-wild population of the Loma’s lizard, Microlophus tigris in Parque Las Leyendas Zoo, from April to October of 2006. Microlophus tigris individuals were active in a variety of microhabitats, from bushes and vegetation debris to prehispanic bricks (adobes and litter, during the hottest hour of the day. Mean body temperature (29,4 ºC was similar to body temperature observed in a natural population from Lomas de Lachay, although in Parque de Las Leyendas, substrate temperature was higher than air temperature, probably related to thermal properties of materials used as microhabitats and to seasonal differences. We encouraged the Zoo to takes conservation measures to protect this endangered wild population of lizard in Lima city.

  19. Condiciones meteorológicas en las lomas de Mejia en "El Niño 1997-98" y su influencia en la vegetación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó los cambios en la vegetación de las lomas de Mejía -Arequipa y se registró automáticamente temperatura, radiación solar global y neta, temperatura y contenido de agua en el suelo, y precipitación en la Estación Meteorológica Campbell, ubicada en las lomas de Mejía, Distrito de Mejía, Provincia de Islay, Departamento de Arequipa, Perú, a 750 msnm, entre 17Q 03' LS y 71 2 50' LW; ubicada ecológicamente en la zona de vida Matorral desértico -Templado cálido. Durante el ENOS 1997-98 (agosto 97 -marzo 98: la temperatura ambiental promedio osciló entre 14,1 Y 19,1ºC, la precipitación tuvo dos máximos que se alcanzaron en los meses de setiembre con 189,4 mm y 173,6 mm en febrero, teniéndose un acumulado de 715,4 mm y la evaporación acumulada fue de 271 ,8 mm. En la evaluación de la vegetación, resultante de estas condiciones climáticas, se tiene que: antes de "El Niño" se registró 89 especies de plantas, y debido al incremento en abundancia de la precipitación y del contenido hídrico en el suelo se tuvo 170 especies, es decir un aumento del 91 %.

  20. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  1. Mafic and ultramafic inclusions along the San Andreas Fault System: their geophysical character and effect on earthquake behavior, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Langenheim, V. E.; Jachens, R. C.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

    2003-04-01

    Mafic and ultramafic rocks along the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) influence earthquake processes where their geologic setting often provides information on the tectonic evolution of these large-scale strike-slip faults. In the northern part of the SAFS, along the Hayward Fault (HF), inversion of gravity and magnetic data indicate that seismicity avoids the interior of a large gabbro body and mechanical models may be able to explain how this massive mafic block influences the distribution of stress. Aftershocks of the M6.7 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are also spatially related to the distribution of a gabbro body, clustering along the SAF and terminating at the NW end of the gabbro body where it abuts the fault surface. Based on geophysical modeling and a three-dimensional view of the subsurface geology and seismicity, aftershocks do not occur in the interior of the buried gabbro body. In the southern part of the SAFS, aftershocks and ruptures of the M7.1 1999 Hector Mine and M7.3 1992 Landers earthquakes avoid the interior of a Jurassic diorite that extends to depths of approximately 15 km and was probably an important influence on the rupture geometry of the these earthquakes. Seismicity prior to the Landers earthquake also tend to avoid the diorite, suggesting that it affects strain distribution. The San Jacinto Fault (SJF), a discontinuity within the Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB), separates mafic, dense, and magnetic rocks of the western PRB from more felsic, less dense, and weakly magnetic rocks of the eastern PRB. The geophysical gradients do not cross the SJF zone, but instead bend to the northwest and coincide with the fault zone. Because emplacement of the PRB presumably welded across this older crustal boundary, the SJF zone probably developed along the favorably oriented margin of the dense, stronger western PRB. Two historical M6.7 earthquakes may have nucleated along the PRB discontinuity suggesting that the PRB may continue to affect how strain

  2. Projektu vadības biroja loma IT uzņēmumu ražošanas procesā

    OpenAIRE

    Siksna, Juris

    2016-01-01

    Projektu vadības birojs ir pārvaldības struktūra, kas standartizē un sekmē ar projektiem saistītos pārvaldības procesus. Darbā aprakstīta projektu vadības biroja loma, funkcijas un modeļi, kā arī pētīta prakse projektu vadības biroja ieviešanā IT uzņēmumos. Šajā darbā tiek izvirzīts mērķis izanalizēt projektu pārvaldības centralizācijas iespējas IT organizācijas projektiem, izmantojot projektu vadības biroju kā pārvaldības formu. Darbā ir aprakstīta autora pieredze projektu pārvaldības briedu...

  3. Holocene Amazon rainforest-savanna dynamics and climatic implications: high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Loma Linda in eastern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-10-01

    We present a high-resolution pollen record of a 695-cm-long sediment core from Laguna Loma Linda, located at an altitude of 310 m in the transitional zone between the savannas of the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonian rainforest, about 100 km from the Eastern Cordillera. Based on eight AMS 14C ages, the record represents the last 8700 14C yr BP. During the period from 8700 to 6000 14C yr BP the vegetation was dominated by grass savanna with only a few woody taxa, such as Curatella and Byrsonima, present in low abundance. Gallery forest along the drainage system apparently was poorly developed. Compared with today, precipitation must have been significantly lower and seasonality stronger. During the period from 6000 to 3600 14C yr BP, rainforest taxa increased markedly, reflecting an increase in precipitation. Rainforest and gallery forest taxa such as Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Alchornea, Cecropia and Acalypha, were abundant, whereas Poaceae were reduced in frequency. From 3600 to 2300 14C yr BP rainforest taxa continued to increase; Moraceae/Urticaceae became very frequent, and Myrtaceae and Myrsine became common. Savanna vegetation decreased continuously. We infer that precipitation was still increasing, and that the length of the annual dry period possibly shortened. From 2300 14C yr BP onwards, grass savanna (mainly represented by Poaceae) expanded and Mauritia palms became frequent. This reflects increased human impact on the vegetation.

  4. Gestión económica y medio ambiente de tiempos precolombinos en Loma de Jagüeyes, Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio arqueozoológico realizado en el sitio arqueológico Loma de Jagüeyes, ubicado en el municipio Rafael Freyre, provincia Holguín, el que fue excavado en Marzo del 2004 por el equipo de investigación del Departamento Centro Oriental de Arqueología. El estudio de los materiales arqueozoológicos extraídos han permitido conocer que los aborígenes que habitaron este lugar, clasificados como Agricultores de la Variante Cultural Baní, presentaban una economía basada en el sistema de apropiación faunística básicamente sustentada en la pesca y la recolección marina, con una escasa dependencia de los animales del bosque así como realizar una reconstrucción aproximada al medio ambiente que existió en esos tiempos. Su comportamiento económico es muy semejante al encontrado en el residuario Cayo Bariay, lo que sirve de punto de partida para futuros estudios.

  5. Mājas lapas loma mārketinga komunikācijā: veikalu tīkla "Biotēka" piemērs

    OpenAIRE

    Drizļionoka, Diāna

    2010-01-01

    Autores Diānas Drizļionokas izstrādātā bakalaura darba temats ir „Mājas lapas loma mārketinga komunikācijā: veikalu tīkla „Biotēka” piemērs” . Darba ietvaros veiktā pētījuma mērķis noteikt mājas lapas lomu mazumtirdzniecības veikalu tīkla „Biotēka” mārketinga komunikācijā. Darbā izstrādē autore balstās uz Filipa Kotlera (Philip Kotler) teorētiskajām nostādnēm par mārketingu, Davīda Čefija (David Chaffey) teorētiskajām nostādnēm par interneta mārketingu un mājas lapu, Tomasa Pauela (Thomas Pow...

  6. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  7. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  8. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical

  9. Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fallas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina.

  10. Nucleation, linkage and active propagation of a segmented Quaternary normal-dextral fault: the Loma del Viento fault (Campo de Dalías, Eastern Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, Antonio; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Stich, Daniel; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Rey-Moral, Carmen; de Lis Mancilla, Flor

    2012-02-01

    Active faults from the Campo de Dalías (SE Betic Cordillera) allow us to constrain the deformation styles involved in the development of segmented oblique-slip faults. This sector constitutes the widest outcrop of Plio-Quaternary sediments in the northern boundary of the Alboran Sea. It has emerged since the Late Pliocene, and therefore provides recent deformation markers that are not disturbed by erosive processes. The faults started to grow during the Pleistocene, reactivating previous hybrid joints, with a normal-dextral slip. We present a detailed map of the largest fault in the area, the Loma del Viento fault, comprising six onshore segments. Based on field work and aerial photography, the distributions of the contiguous joints have been mapped, and the joints reactivated as faults are identified. Some of these fault segments are hard-linked, and fault slip enhances toward the linkage sectors between them with associated sedimentary depocenters. An electrical tomography profile reveals the wedge geometry of a unit of Pleistocene conglomerates and red silts that were coevally deposited during the fault movement. Long-term slip rate in the central part of the fault is estimated at 0.07 ± 0.03 mm/y. In addition, a seismic crisis nucleated close to the Loma del Viento fault during November 2010 was recorded. Moment tensor analysis of the two mainshocks (Mw 3.5 and 4.2) provides a focal solution indicating a N120°E striking right-lateral strike-slip fault. The corrugated morphology of the Loma del Viento fault may have influenced its seismic behavior. Some of the fault segments are oblique to the general motion of the fault. These oblique segments would provide higher resistance against the general fault motion and could lock the fault, leading to accumulate elastic energy.

  11. El cicloturismo y su aporte a la oferta turística de la ruta: valdivia – sinchal – barcelona – loma alta – bambil collao – colonche - barbascal – palmar

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Alcivar, Sonia Mabel; Ayon Jo, Hector

    2009-01-01

    La tesis buscó evidenciar que las características de terreno y recursos que la zona posee son adecuados para proponer la implementación del cicloturismo como una alternativa que aporte a la oferta turística en la ruta: Valdivia – Sinchal – Barcelona – Loma Alta – Bambil Collao – Colonche – Barbascal – Palmar. El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en cada una de las poblaciones que integran la ruta mencionada; pero, el análisis de la demanda potencial de la actividad cicloturíst...

  12. El cicloturismo y su aporte a la oferta turística de la ruta: valdivia – sinchal – barcelona – loma alta – bambil collao – colonche - barbascal – palmar

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Alcivar, Sonia Mabel; Ayon Jo, Hector

    2009-01-01

    La tesis buscó evidenciar que las características de terreno y recursos que la zona posee son adecuados para proponer la implementación del cicloturismo como una alternativa que aporte a la oferta turística en la ruta: Valdivia – Sinchal – Barcelona – Loma Alta – Bambil Collao – Colonche – Barbascal – Palmar. El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en cada una de las poblaciones que integran la ruta mencionada; pero, el análisis de la demanda potencial de la actividad cicloturíst...

  13. The mass media and disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  14. Effects of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake on frequency and content of nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M; Bootzin, R R; Rosenhan, D; Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Jourden, F

    1992-05-01

    In a systematic evaluation of the effects of a natural disaster on nightmares, nightmare frequency was found to be about twice as high among 92 San Francisco Bay area college students as among 97 control subjects in Tucson, Arizona, after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Subjects in California had not only more nightmares in general but substantially more nightmares about earthquakes. Over a 3-week period, about 40% of those in the San Francisco Bay area reported one or more nightmares about an earthquake, as compared with only 5% of those in Arizona. However, nightmares about earthquakes were not more emotionally intense than other nightmares. These findings support the long-held view that the experience of a potentially traumatic event can result in more frequent nightmares, particularly about the event itself, but contradict the common opinion that nightmares about such events are unusually intense.

  15. Análisis tecno-tipológico de los artefactos líticos de la Loma de los Antiguos de Azampay (Departamento de Belén, Catamarca TECHNO-TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF LITHIC ARTIFACTS FROM LOMA DE LOS ANTIGUOS DE AZAMPAY, DEPARTMENT OF BELÉN, CATAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan los artefactos líticos tallados y de molienda pertenecientes a la Loma de los Antiguos (Departamento de Belén, Catamarca. Este sitio arqueológico está conformado por 43 estructuras rodeadas por murallas defensivas y se sitúa sobre una lomada de 200 m de altura. Distintas vías de análisis (la cerámica, la arquitectura y los fechados radiocarbónicos asocian la ocupación del poblado a grupos de la cultura Belén, entre fines del período de Desarrollos Regionales y la conquista inkaica. A partir de un estudio exploratorio de los materiales líticos se busca generar información acerca de las materias primas explotadas y de la producción lítica desarrollada en este sitio. Entre los artefactos líticos tallados observamos tanto el manejo de materias primas de origen volcánico como sedimentario. Entre las rocas volcánicas, la obsidiana se destaca por su mayor porcentaje y distribución dentro del sitio, en comparación con el resto de los materiales líticos (areniscas, basaltos y rocas pelíticas. Esta materia prima se encuentra asociada a puntas de proyectil y parece haber sido explotada exhaustivamente. Entre los artefactos de molienda se recuperaron manos de molino en granito y arenisca, así como un lito modificado por uso.In this paper the chipped stone artifacts and grinding stone tools recovered at Loma de los Antiguos, Belén, Catamarca, are analyzed. This archaeological site consists of 43 structures surrounded by defensive walls and is located on a 200 m high hill. Different types of analysis (pottery, architectural and radiocarbon dating associate the occupation of this town to groups within the Belén culture, between the end of the Regional Developments period and the Inka conquest. An exploratory study of the lithic materials from the site generated information on raw material exploitation and lithic production. Among the chipped stone artifacts the use of different raw materials

  16. Authentic Assessment in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Leadership, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the teacher-developed California Assessment Program (CAP) writing measure, designed to support California's reform curriculum and based on matrix sampling techniques. This program will be supplemented by literature and mathematics assessments. The greatest challenge is designing an assessment to match the state's new history and social…

  17. California's English Learner Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  18. California wood energy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Brittner

    1983-01-01

    Many varieties of eucalyptus adapt well to growing conditions in the coastal and central valley regions of California. The California Department of Forestry is conducting growth research on a variety of sites throughout the state with many species. Eucalyptus is an excellent fuelwood and has potential for other uses, including chemical feedstocks. Plantations...

  19. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments’ Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Lee, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs, what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC. These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs.

  20. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments' Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs.

  1. The U.S. Response to NEOS: Avoiding a Black Swan Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540–01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2–89) Prescribed by ANSI Std . 239–18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii...Prieta Earthquake (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Disaster Research Center, 1993), 18, http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/578. 204 “Cypress...Response: Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Disaster Research Center, 1993. http://udspace.udel.edu/handle

  2. INÓCULO DE HONGOS DE MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR EN PASTURAS DE Brachiaria decumbens (POACEAE EN ZONAS DE LOMA Y VEGA Inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae Pastures in Valley and Hilly Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL HERNANDO POSADA ALMANZA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que influyen en la distribución del inóculo de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (micelio externo y esporas son diversos. Entre ellos pueden mencionarse la especie vegetal predominante, el pH, la humedad del suelo, la conductividad, el contenido de fósforo, nutrientes y de metales pesados. Muchos de los reportes de la literatura son contradictorios y basados en estudios realizados en zonas templadas; en condiciones tropicales es difícil determinar los factores edáficos y ambientales que estimulan la producción de inóculo y la forma en que lo hacen. Brachiaria decumbens, como especie de pasto predominante en paisajes de loma y vega en el piedemonte amazónico colombiano, ha sido poco estudiada en su relación micorrícica. En este estudio se realizó la determinación de la densidad de esporas y micelio externo en 26 zonas cubiertas con B. decumbens, correspondientes a paisajes de loma y vega. Simultáneamente se valoraron el contenido de fósforo disponible (ppm, pH y humedad relativa del suelo (%. Mediante correlaciones de Spearman (rangos y análisis de varianza (ANDEVA de una vía por KruscallWallis, se encontró que el inóculo se distribuye de forma diferente en loma y vega, siendo mayor la densidad de esporas en loma que en vega y más homogéneo en contenido de micelio externo en vega que en loma. No se encontró efecto del fósforo disponible, el pH y la humedad del suelo sobre la densidad de inóculo de HMA.The diversity of factors influencing the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum (spores and hyphae, plant species, pH, soil humidity, conductivity, P availability, nutrients and heavy metals have been reported. Reports are contradictory and mostly supported on data from temperate zones; under tropical conditions it is difficult to determine the edaphycal and environmental factors that stimulate inoculum production, and how it happens. Brachiaria decumbens is the dominant grass species in plain and

  3. Inóculo de hongo de micorriza arbuscular en pasturas de Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae en zonas de loma y vega Inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae Pastures in Valley and Hilly Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Figueroa Adriana Patricia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que influyen en la distribución del inóculo de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (micelio externo y esporas son diversos. Entre ellos pueden mencionarse la especie vegetal predominante, el pH, la humedad del suelo, la conductividad, el contenido de fósforo, nutrientes y de metales pesados. Muchos de los reportes de la literatura son contradictorios y basados en estudios realizados en zonas templadas; en condiciones tropicales es difícil determinar los factores edáficos y ambientales que estimulan la producción de inóculo y la forma en que lo hacen. Brachiaria decumbens, como especie de pasto predominante en paisajes de loma y vega en el piedemonte amazónico colombiano, ha sido poco estudiada en su relación micorrícica. En este estudio se realizó la determinación de la densidad de esporas y micelio externo en 26 zonas cubiertas con B. decumbens, correspondientes a paisajes de loma y vega. Simultáneamente se valoraron el contenido de fósforo disponible (ppm, pH y humedad relativa del suelo (%. Mediante correlaciones de Spearman (rangos y análisis de varianza (ANDEVA de una vía por Kruscall-Wallis, se encontró que el inóculo se distribuye de forma diferente en loma y vega, siendo mayor la densidad de esporas en loma que en vega y más homogéneo en contenido de micelio externo en vega que en loma. No se encontró efecto del fósforo disponible, el pH y la humedad del suelo sobre la densidad de inóculo de HMA.The diversity of factors influencing the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum (spores and hyphae, plant species, pH, soil humidity, conductivity, P availability, nutrients and heavy metals have been reported. Reports are contradictory and mostly supported on data from temperate zones; under tropical conditions it is difficult to determine the edaphycal and environmental factors that stimulate inoculum production, and how it happens. Brachiaria decumbens is the dominant grass species in plain and

  4. Characterizing Slow Slip Events on the Hayward Fault from Two Decades of SBAS-InSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.; Burgmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (2008) puts a 63% probability of a M6.7 or greater in the SFBA before 2038 and a 31% probability for the Hayward fault alone, the highest for any fault in the SFBA. The Hayward fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay is arguably one of the most hazardous faults in the world when one combines the probability of an earthquake with proximity to urban centers. Assessment of earthquake potential along Bay Area faults is complicated by the recognition that the system is not static and, in particular, that creep rates vary through time. Hayward fault monitoring by creepmeter, strainmeter and alinement array has detected a number of variations in creep rate on the Hayward fault. The largest in 1996, when an alinement array survey detected a SSE that produced 18 mm of fault creep within at most 63 days. The SSE also marked a change in longer-term creep rate, from nearly zero post-Loma Prieta to 3.9 mm/yr, still lower than the pre-Loma Prieta rate of ~9 mm/yr. More recent alinement array surveys (since 2006) show an increase in creep rates on the southern Hayward fault by ~2-5 mm/yr over the long-term average. The Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach is a method for extracting time series of range change at certain locations from a large set of InSAR data and is well suited to reveal time varying deformation without a known functional form. This project incorporates time series processing of InSAR data spanning 18 years and three satellites, together with 17 years of GPS acquisitions. In particular, we use these data to investigate slow slip events (SSEs) on the Hayward fault. The spatial density of SBAS-InSAR gives us more information on the spatial extent of the

  5. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  6. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  7. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  8. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  9. California Tribal Gasoline Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing a draft general permit under the Clean Air Act Federal Indian Country Minor NSR program for gasoline dispensing facilities, such as gas stations, located in Indian country within the geographical boundaries of California.

  10. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  11. Kelp distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set delineates kelp beds (Nereocystis leutkeana and Macrocystis spp.) along the Pacific Coast of California. Multiple years of kelp mapping data for the...

  12. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  13. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  14. The M7 October 21, 1868 Hayward Earthquake, Northern California-140 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, T. M.; Boatwright, J.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Garcia, S.

    2007-12-01

    as the 1995 Kobe earthquake are stark reminders of the awesome energy waiting to be released from below the east side of the San Francisco Bay along the Hayward Fault. The population at risk from a Hayward Fault earthquake is now 100 times larger than in 1868. The infrastructure in the San Francisco Bay Area has been tested only by the relatively remote 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To help focus public attention on these hazards, the 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance has been formed, consisting of public and private sector agencies and corporations (see their website www.1868alliance.org). The Alliance is planning a series of activities leading up to the 140th anniversary on October 21, 2008. These include public forums, conferences, commemoration events, publications, websites, videos, and public service announcements.

  15. El tiempo de establecimiento de postura y su relación con la micorriza arbuscular en paisajes de loma y vega Time of Stablishment of Pastures and Their Relationship with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Hilly Terrain and Fertile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada Almanza Raúl Hernando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo fue realizado para evaluar el efecto del tiempo (0-5 años, 5-10 años y más de 10 años de establecimiento de pasturas de Brachiaria sp. sobre las poblaciones de hongos de micorriza arbuscular (HMA, su distribución de esporas, géneros, longitud de micelio extramatrical, colonización radical por HMA y otros hongos, en sistemas donde previamente existían bosques, en paisajes de loma y vega en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Cualquiera que sea la edad de establecimiento de la pastura, predominan los géneros Glomus y Acaulospora; el cambio de la cobertura requiere de un periodo de más de diez años para que diferentes especies de HMA puedan recolonizar, adaptarse y diversificarse. En loma, la relación de Brachiaria sp. con los HMA disminuye con la edad, especialmente después de diez años; en vega se mantiene media y estable (21-50 %, mientras la colonización radical por hongos diferentes a los HMA se incrementa, mostrando posiblemente un mecanismo de competencia por el espacio radical, o una acción conjunta. Finalmente, el micelio extramatrical y las esporas en loma y vega siguen tendencias variables (incremento, descenso o
    estabilidad con la edad.The subject of this research was to evaluate the effect of the time of establishment (0-5 years, 5-10 years, and more than 10 years. of pastures of Brachiaria sp. over theArbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal populations (AMF: genus and spore distribution, length of extramatrical mycelia, root colonizations by AMF and septate fungi; the pastures resulting from fragmentation of the tropical rainforest with valley and hilly landscapes at Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Whichever the age of pasture, the genera Glomus and Acaulospora predominate; the change of coverage require more than ten years for different species of MAF to recolonize, adapt and diversify. In hilly terrain, the Brachiaria sp-MAF relationship decrease with time, specially after ten years of establishment; in

  16. EL TIEMPO DE ESTABLECIMIENTO DE PASTURAS Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR EN PAISAJES DE LOMA Y VEGA Time of Stablishment of Pastures and Their Relationship with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Hilly Terrain and Fertile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL HERNANDO POSADA ALMANZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo fue realizado para evaluar el efecto del tiempo (05 años, 510 años y más de 10 años de establecimiento de pasturas de Brachiaria sp. sobre las poblaciones de hongos de micorriza arbuscular (HMA, su distribución de esporas, géneros, longitud de micelio extramatrical, colonización radical por HMA y otros hongos, en sistemas donde previamente existían bosques, en paisajes de loma y vega en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Cualquiera que sea la edad de establecimiento de la pastura, predominan los géneros Glomus y Acaulospora; el cambio de la cobertura requiere de un periodo de más de diez años para que diferentes especies de HMA puedan recolonizar, adaptarse y diversificarse. En loma, la relación de Brachiaria sp. con los HMA disminuye con la edad, especialmente después de diez años; en vega se mantiene media y estable (2150 %, mientras la colonización radical por hongos diferentes a los HMA se incrementa, mostrando posiblemente un mecanismo de competencia por el espacio radical, o una acción conjunta. Finalmente, el micelio extramatrical y las esporas en loma y vega siguen tendencias variables (incremento, descenso o estabilidad con la edad.The subject of this research was to evaluate the effect of the time of establishment (05 years, 510 years, and more than 10 years. of pastures of Brachiaria sp. over the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal populations (AMF: genus and spore distribution, length of extramatrical mycelia, root colonizations by AMF and septate fungi; the pastures resulting from fragmentation of the tropical rainforest with valley and hilly landscapes at Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Whichever the age of pasture, the genera Glomus and Acaulospora predominate; the change of coverage require more than ten years for different species of MAF to recolonize, adapt and diversify. In hilly terrain, the Brachiaria spMAF relationship decrease with time, specially after ten years of establishment; in valley

  17. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into comfortable use of…

  18. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  19. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  20. Ecoregion sections of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological sections within California deserts. These deserts occupy the southeastern portion of California and include two ecoregional...

  1. Las TIC y su contribución al proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje en carreras de Ingenieria: evaluación de experiencias en la Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Oscar; Campoli, Oscar; Comoglio, Marta; Minnaard, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presenta el programa de investigación desarrollado en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora. Este se origina como una continuidad del proyecto de investigación “Las Tecnologías de la Información y su aplicación a la enseñanza de la ingeniería a través de modelos de enseñanza centrados en el alumno” (periodo 2008-2010). Se articula a través de tres líneas de investigación Integración de TIC en la modalidad Blended Learning ; Tutorí...

  2. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  3. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  4. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  5. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  6. A summary of ground motion effects at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) resulting from the Oct 17th 1989 earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    Ground motions resulting from the October 17th 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake are described and can be correlated with some geologic features of the SLAC site. Recent deformations of the linac are also related to slow motions observed over the past 20 years. Measured characteristics of the earthquake are listed. Some effects on machine components and detectors are noted. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  7. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    criticism after bungled and untimely responses to Hurricane Hugo in 1988 and the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. However, a 1991 GAO study...1 A. EFFECTIVE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS ........................1 B. HISTORY OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS AND...assistance was invaluable. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. EFFECTIVE USE OF

  8. Federal Emergency Management Agency: An Organization Prepared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    Townsend Report. Though written as an analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Hugo, the GAO report “Federal, State and Local Response...men and equipment. In order to ensure the timely and effective employment of these resources, DHS assigns responsibility to the Federal

  9. Essential Civil Support Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    and Loma Prieta Earthquakes, and the Martin Luther King Assassination and Los Angeles Riots make an excellent sample of Army operations to draw......committee members, Dr. Charles Heller, Mr. Larry Noell, and Mr. Bruce Reider. Their personal sacrifice and willingness to educate actually produced a

  10. VENTANA WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R.C.; Fillo, P.V.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Ventana Primitive Area (now the Ventana Wilderness) in California was made. On the basis of known mineral occurrences and geologic and geochemical studies, this part of the Coast Ranges of central California contains little evidence for the existence of mineral resources. Small bodies of good quality marble are scattered through parts of the wilderness. Because of their small size these marble occurrences are not considered as having resource potential. Detailed mapping and sampling of the sulfide-bearing gneiss and schist will be needed to determine the grade and extent of these rocks and the possibility that they, in fact, could represent significant resources. The numerous thermal springs in and near the area suggest a high geothermal gradient and that geothermal-energy resources should be investigated.

  11. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  12. Libraries in California: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in California URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/california.html Libraries in California ... Alameda, CA 94501 510-522-3700 ext. 3331 http://www.alamedahospital.org Anaheim Anaheim Regional Medical Center ...

  13. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  14. ¿La Apoteosis de Heracles o una escena de Apobates? A propósito de una cratera de campana procedente de La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the traditional iconographic identification of the obverse of a 4th century Greek bell crater from the Iberian site of La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia. The scene has been identified as an apotheosis of Heracles. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of its iconography and of a feature neglected in the previous study of the vase by its excavators —the remains of a shield— make it possible to argue in favor of an apobates race instead —the only scene of this type attested in the Iberian Peninsula. I present here an analysis of both iconographic motifs —the apotheosis of Heracles and the apobates race— that will reveal interesting findings on the ways in which images and iconographic types acquire meaning. It also sheds light on the kind of images favored by the receptors of these vases in the Peninsula — the Iberians. An up-to-date catalogue of Attic vases depicting each theme is included.En el presente artículo se revisa la identificación iconográ- fica de la cara A de una cratera griega fragmentaria del siglo IV a.C. procedente del yacimiento ibérico de La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia. La escena se ha identificado tradicionalmente como la apoteosis de Heracles, no obstante, tras un análisis detallado de la misma, en particular del resto de un escudo previamente inadvertido que porta el personaje principal, creemos que la iconografía se corresponde con la del apobates victorioso, un unicum en la Península Ibérica. Presentamos un análisis de ambos motivos iconográficos que revelará interesantes conclusiones sobre el funcionamiento de los tipos iconográficos y mecanismos de creación de significado en la pintura de vasos de la época, así como sobre el tipo de imágenes estimadas por los receptores de esas piezas en la Península Ibérica, los íberos. Se incluye también un catálogo actualizado de los vasos áticos que portan ambos temas.

  15. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  17. California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Passage Assessment Database shapefile contains locations of known and potential barriers to salmonid migration in California streams with additional information...

  18. CHANCHELULLA ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Donald F.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey there seems to be little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Chanchelulla Roadless Area, California, except for a demonstrated resource of about 7200 tons containing 0. 084 oz gold/ton, 0. 84 oz silver/ton, and accessory copper at the Chanchelulla prospect. This prospect is located on a northwest-trending quartz vein. Limestone and small amounts of magnetite occur in the area but on the basis of available data no resources are identified. No potential for energy resources was identified.

  19. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  20. Puentes pretensados California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available En Estados Unidos, el hormigón pretensado va extendiendo poco a poco su campo de aplicación. Como ejemplo de ello, en este artículo presentamos una serie de puentes pretensados construidos por el Estado de California. Hasta la fecha se han construido ya unos 40 puentes de pequeña luz, de variable número de tramos dentro de su jurisdicción territorial, y todos de hormigón pretensado; se hallan en construcción 23, 15 en desarrollo de proyecto y unos 50 en estudio.

  1. Komunikācijas loma sabiedrības iesaistīšanā lēmumu pieņemšanas procesos pašvaldībās

    OpenAIRE

    Skrastiņa, Inese

    2006-01-01

    Komunikācijas loma sabiedrības iesaistīšanā lēmumu pieņemšanas procesos pašvaldībā. Komunikācijas zinātnes bakalaura progr.stud. I.Skrastiņas stud.apl.Nr. komu010107 bakalaura darbs. Zinātniskais vad. Ābrams Kleckins asoc. prof. Uzdevums: Novērtēt, kā pielietotie komunikācijas modeļi ietekmē iedzīvotāju iesaistīšanos lēmumu pieņemšanas procesos pašvaldībā, pielietojamo komunikācijas modeļu efektivitāti, iedzīvotāju vērtējumu. Noteikt labākās informācijas apmaiņas iespējas. Hipotēzes: ...

  2. Inovāciju veidotāju - zinātnes un rūpniecības uzņēmumu sadarbības loma un industriālās politikas kontekstā

    OpenAIRE

    Akmene, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Darbā tiek apskatīta industriālās un inovāciju politikas loma valsts ekonomiskajā politikā,konkurētspēja,Triple Helix modeļa teorētiskais pamatojums kā arī apskatīts labās prakses piemērs - Somija,kas ir uz zināšanām balstītas ekonomikas piemērs pasaulei,teicami parādot valsts lomu pārmaiņu veikšanā un Triple Helix modeļa realizāciju attīstības politikā.Tāpat darbā tiek identificētas līdzšinējās zinātnes un rūpniecības sadarbības problēmas kā arī tiek piedāvāts risinājums Somijas politikas u...

  3. Progress in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gipe, P.

    1990-01-01

    Though the wind energy continues to take it on the chin in the rough and tumble of California's celebrity politics, several indicators are pointing toward a modest revival. First several new reports laud wind energy at good sites as now competitive with conventional sources. Second, utility subsidiaries are signaling their approval by cautiously venturing into the technology. Also, technological refinements and reorganizations continue while a demand for new generating capacity may be developing in the state. Three new reports all paint a picture of wind energy finally coming of age. The California Energy Commission's most recent Energy Technology Status report says that wind-generated electricity is competitive with coal, oil, gas, and most other technologies. Similarly, a staff report found that after tallying the economic, social, and environmental costs, wind was one of the least cost sources of new generation. Most recently the Electric Power Research Institute's Journal reported the wind energy, at about 8 cents/k Wh, is equivalent to generation from conventional sources.

  4. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  5. Dick Crane's California Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2011-03-01

    Horace Richard Crane (1907-2007) was born and educated in California. His childhood was full of activities that helped him become an outstanding experimental physicist. As a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology (1930-1934), he had the good fortune to work with Charles C. Lauritsen (1892-1968) just as he introduced accelerator-based nuclear physics to Caltech. They shared the euphoric excitement of opening up a new field with simple, ingenious apparatus and experiments. This work prepared Crane for his career at the University of Michigan (1935-1973) where in the 1950s, after making the first measurement of the electron's magnetic moment, he devised the g-2 technique and made the first measurement of the anomaly in the electron's magnetic moment. A man of direct, almost laconic style, he made lasting contributions to the exposition of physics to the general public and to its teaching in high schools, community colleges, four-year colleges, and universities. I tell how he became a physicist and describe some of his early achievements.

  6. Fundraising Practices of the University of California, the California State University, and California Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsevar, Kent J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors such as a declining tax revenues and an underperforming economy have been justifying the need for additional external private funding to meet the increasing needs of a growing California higher education system and ethnically diverse student body. The purpose of this study was to examine ways in which California private higher education…

  7. Pollutant transport among California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, Wayne M.; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart; Holloway, John S.; Lerner, Brian M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guha, Abhinav; Andrews, Arlyn; Nowak, John B.; Evan, Stephanie; Fischer, Marc L.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Bon, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Several regions within California have significant air quality issues. Transport of pollutants emitted in one region to another region may add to the impact of local emissions. In this work, Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations show the amounts of tracers that are transported within and among four regions, Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley, and the rest of the state. The simulations cover May and June of 2010, the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change experiment period. Tracers of automobile emissions and one type of agricultural emission are used. Tracer mixing ratios are compared to airborne and ground-based measurements. The age of tracers in each location is also presented. Vertical profiles and diurnal cycles help to clarify the transport process. As is well known, Southern California emissions are transported to the east and affect the desert areas, and Bay Area automobile emissions are an important source of pollutants in the San Joaquin Valley. A novel result is that the Southern California Bight is filled with a mixture of well-aged carbon monoxide tracer from Southern California and the Bay Area. Air over the Bight is also affected by the agricultural emissions represented by the agricultural tracer, dominantly from the Central Valley where its sources are largest. There is no indication of transport from Southern California to the Central Valley. Emissions from the Central Valley do make their way to Southern California, as shown by the agricultural tracer, but automobile emissions from the Valley are insignificant in Southern California.

  8. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  9. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  10. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  11. A Contribution to Mitigating Seismic Risk in the Bay Area: The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) GPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.

  12. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  13. Bathymetry--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in...

  14. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  15. Bathymetry--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in...

  16. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  17. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  18. USGS Northern California Shoreline Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline...

  19. Bathymetry--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in...

  20. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  1. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  2. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  3. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  4. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  6. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  7. Oligocene tectonics and sedimentation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the Oligocene epoch, California was marked by extensive nonmarine sedimentation, in contrast to its pre-Oligocene and post-Oligocene depositional history. The Oligocene continental deposits are especially widespread in southern California and fill a number of small and generally partly restricted basins. Fluvial facies in many basins prograded over previously deposited lower Tertiary turbidites. Volcanism, from widespread centers, was associated with the nonmarine sedimentation. However, some basins remained marine and a few contain Oligocene turbidites and pelagic sediments deposited at bathyal depths. The Oligocene redbeds of California do not form a post-orogenic molasse sequence comparable to the Old Red Sandstone or Alpine molasse. They are synorogenic and record local uplift of basins and surrounding source areas. Late Cretaceous to contemporary orogenesis in California has been generally characterized by the formation of small restricted basins of variable depth adjacent to small upland areas in response to strike-slip faulting. Deposition of Oligocene redbeds was associated with climatic change from warm and humid to cold and semiarid, and a global lowering of sea level. Oligocene tectonism occurred during the transition from subduction of the Farallon Plate to initiation of the modern San Andreas transform system. However, the major influence that caused uplift, formation of fault-bounded basins, and extensive redbed deposition, especially in southern California, was the approach of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge to the western margin of California. ?? 1984.

  8. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  9. en Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmyra Ybañez Zepeda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future, the population of 60 years old or older will increase in absolute and relative numbers at a very rapid pace in Mexico. Using data from Censo general de población y vivienda 2000, Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera norte de México and Consejo Nacional de Población (Conapo, the purpose of this article is twofold: first of all, to analyze the aging process in the municipalities of Tijuana and Mexicali, located in the state of Baja California, which has a very low proportion of the eldest; and second of all, to examine the role of migration in this process. Tijuana has a younger population which is aging slowly due to a very intense immigration of young workers and potential parents. Mexicali, on the other hand, has a high percentage of a native population that is aging unrelentingly, and it also has a lower flow of immigrants who are older, and includes a high concentration of persons who had previously resided in the United States.

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  13. California State Waters Map Series: Drakes Bay and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  14. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  16. 75 FR 30110 - Unblocking of Specially Designated National and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., Mexico; Calle Geiser 101, Colonia Colinas de Agua Caliente, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico; Avenida Hipodromo 19, Colonia Hipodromo, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico; Calle Lomas Altas 1480, Colonia Lomas de Agua Caliente, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico; Calle Coronado 21760, Colonia Mesetas del...

  17. Teale Urband and rural areas of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  18. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996, 3330-3392 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 35 sites along the coast of California. This 29% increase in...

  19. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1994 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1994, a minimum of approximately 2,792 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 36 sites along the coast of California....

  20. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  1. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  2. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1992 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992, approximately 2,106 pairs of the endangered California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 38 sites along the coast of California, from the San...

  3. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  4. The California stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  5. Engineering applications of strong ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Paul

    1993-02-01

    The formulation, validation and application of a procedure for simulating strong ground motions for use in engineering practice are described. The procedure uses empirical source functions (derived from near-source strong motion recordings of small earthquakes) to provide a realistic representation of effects such as source radiation that are difficult to model at high frequencies due to their partly stochastic behavior. Wave propagation effects are modeled using simplified Green's functions that are designed to transfer empirical source functions from their recording sites to those required for use in simulations at a specific site. The procedure has been validated against strong motion recordings of both crustal and subduction earthquakes. For the validation process we choose earthquakes whose source models (including a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the slip of the fault) are independently known and which have abundant strong motion recordings. A quantitative measurement of the fit between the simulated and recorded motion in this validation process is used to estimate the modeling and random uncertainty associated with the simulation procedure. This modeling and random uncertainty is one part of the overall uncertainty in estimates of ground motions of future earthquakes at a specific site derived using the simulation procedure. The other contribution to uncertainty is that due to uncertainty in the source parameters of future earthquakes that affect the site, which is estimated from a suite of simulations generated by varying the source parameters over their ranges of uncertainty. In this paper, we describe the validation of the simulation procedure for crustal earthquakes against strong motion recordings of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, and for subduction earthquakes against the 1985 Michoacán, Mexico, and Valparaiso, Chile, earthquakes. We then show examples of the application of the simulation procedure to the estimatation of the

  6. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  7. USGS California Water Science Center water programs in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulters, Michael V.

    2005-01-01

    California is threatened by many natural hazards—fire, floods, landslides, earthquakes. The State is also threatened by longer-term problems, such as hydrologic effects of climate change, and human-induced problems, such as overuse of ground water and degradation of water quality. The threats and problems are intensified by increases in population, which has risen to nearly 36.8 million. For the USGS California Water Science Center, providing scientific information to help address hazards, threats, and hydrologic issues is a top priority. To meet the demands of a growing California, USGS scientific investigations are helping State and local governments improve emergency management, optimize resources, collect contaminant-source and -mobility information, and improve surface- and ground-water quality. USGS hydrologic studies and data collection throughout the State give water managers quantifiable and detailed scientific information that can be used to plan for development and to protect and more efficiently manage resources. The USGS, in cooperation with state, local, and tribal agencies, operates more than 500 instrument stations, which monitor streamflow, ground-water levels, and surface- and ground-water constituents to help protect water supplies and predict the threats of natural hazards. The following are some of the programs implemented by the USGS, in cooperation with other agencies, to obtain and analyze information needed to preserve California's environment and resources.

  8. Aqui y Alla en California. (Here and There in California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto

    One in the series "Coleccion Mini-Libros" (Mini-Book Collection) written in Spanish as an enrichment tool for the Spanish speaker, the booklet is a compilation of photographs accompanied by brief descriptions of various points of beauty and interest throughout the State of California. Among the points of interest described are La Sierra Nevada,…

  9. Aqui y Alla en California. (Here and There in California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto

    One in the series "Coleccion Mini-Libros" (Mini-Book Collection) written in Spanish as an enrichment tool for the Spanish speaker, the booklet is a compilation of photographs accompanied by brief descriptions of various points of beauty and interest throughout the State of California. Among the points of interest described are La Sierra Nevada,…

  10. Lecturas de Baja California (Readings from Baja California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gabriel Trujillo, Ed.

    This anthology/textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. This document presents a collection of works from important writers directed to the population of Baja California, especially to…

  11. The geometry and lithology of the Cima Sandstone Lentil: a paleoseep-bearing interbed in the Moreno Formation, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, P. V.; Schwartz, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Cima Sandstone Lentil outcrops over a relatively small area on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley in central California. Here this unit can be found in the Panoche Hills in the northern portion of the field area and the Tumey Hills in the southern portion of the field area. The Cima Sandstone resides within the 800m Moreno Formation that spans the Maastrichtian to the Danian. The Moreno Formation comprises four members, which are the Dosados Member, the Tierra Loma Member, the Marca Shale Member, and the Dos Palos Shale Member (of which the Cima Sandstone is an interbed). The Cima Sandstone contains numerous large carbonate mounds, concretions, and pavements, indicating paleoseep activity. The Cima Sandstone has never been studied in detail, but recent interest in sandstone injectites as well as interest in paleoseeps has prompted us to examine this interbed more carefully. The Cima is an immature sandstone composed primarily of quartz along with small amounts of micas and feldspars as well as varying amounts of glauconite. These minerals are generally cemented by carbonate but, occasionally, iron oxide cement is present locally. Much variation exists within the Cima Sandstone Lentil and we seek to characterize and understand this variation. One of the most obvious sources of variability is the thickness of the unit itself. The thickness ranges from near 60m in the northern Panoche Hills to only 9m in the Tumey Hills. Induration also varies noticeably, from well cemented in the north, to unconsolidated in the south. Similarly, the sandstone is grain-supported and houses some depositional structures in the northern outcrops but becomes largely matrix-supported and lacking bedding in the southern outcrops. Preliminary data suggests that proximity to carbonate concretions, fluid conduits, and underlying injectites may have some influence over grain size and sorting.

  12. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  13. Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps response to the south connector ramps to a magnitude 7.25 Hayward Fault earthquake. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D. B.; Gerhard, M. A.; Trummer, D. J.; Murray, R. C.

    1996-11-01

    The 24/580/980 interchange is located near Oakland California on the Eastern perimeter of the San Francisco Bay (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). This interchange is a major artery in the Eastern San Francisco Bay area and provides a critical link between major bay area highways. The main Concord line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART), with ridership of approximately 270,000 per day, runs underneath the interchange. The interchange site is approximately 4 Km from the Hayward fault and 16 Km from the San Andreas fault. The reinforced concrete interchange was designed and constructed in the mid 1960`s and thus the asphalt structure has many of the vulnerabilities associated with typical pre-1970`s concrete structures (Roberts [1], Zefinski [2], Chai et. al. [3], Priestly and Seible [4]). In 1980 some of the seismic vulnerabilities were addressed as the interchange was retrofit with deck hinge restrainers as part of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) state-wide seismic retrofit of bridge expansion joints. The interchange was subjected to earthquake motion during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and sustained minor damage in some of the concrete diaphragms which support the hinge restrainer forces [5]. Caltrans engineers, working together with their external consultants Imbsen and Associates, have recently completed a seismic retrofit design for portions of the interchange. The retrofit is primarily intended to fix inadequacies in many of the 1960`s vintage reinforced concrete elements which constitute the bridge superstructure and foundations.

  14. Cascadia's Staggering Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Vogt, B.

    2001-05-01

    Recent worldwide earthquakes have resulted in staggering losses. The Northridge, California; Kobe, Japan; Loma Prieta, California; Izmit, Turkey; Chi-Chi, Taiwan; and Bhuj, India earthquakes, which range from magnitudes 6.7 to 7.7, have all occurred near populated areas. These earthquakes have resulted in estimated losses between \\3 and \\300 billion, with tens to tens of thousands of fatalities. Subduction zones are capable of producing the largest earthquakes. The 1939 M7.8 Chilean, the 1960 M9.5 Chilean, the 1964 M9.2 Alaskan, the 1970 M7.8 Peruvian, the 1985 M7.9 Mexico City and the 2001 M7.7 Bhuj earthquakes are damaging subduction zone quakes. The Cascadia fault zone poses a tremendous hazard in the Pacific Northwest due to the ground shaking and tsunami inundation hazards combined with the population. To address the Cascadia subduction zone threat, the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries conducted a preliminary statewide loss study. The 1998 Oregon study incorporated a M8.5 quake, the influence of near surface soil effects and default building, social and economic data available in FEMA's HAZUS97 software. Direct financial losses are projected at over \\$12 billion. Casualties are estimated at about 13,000. Over 5,000 of the casualties are estimated to result in fatalities from hazards relating to tsunamis and unreinforced masonry buildings.

  15. Transhumant Ranchers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, A.; Forero, L.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    There is a strong link between some of the richest, most productive lands of the western United States, including California's oak woodlands, and the traditional "transhumance" of ranchers using public ranges. Oak woodland ranchers with government grazing leases report that about half of their income stems from using government -owned montane ranges. For many, loss of these leases reduces their ranch productive capacity to a level insufficient for sustainability, augmenting the sale of ranch lands for development. Many thousands of hectares of oak woodlands are linked to the fate of government leases in this way, and this linkage limits the opportunities for conservation of oak woodlands as "working landscapes" via conservation easements. This type of conservation is the fastest growing type in California today. The first case study shows that over the past 100 years there has been a reduction in access to the natural resources needed for transhumance from three sources: competition from use of the pastures for recreation and nature preservation, management practices that have brought about change in the character of the natural resources themselves, and urban sprawl. Ranchers are leasing other properties, purchasing feed, and transporting animals to other regions to compensate. Most had increased their privately leased land over the previous five years. Though they desire to stay on their ranches, transhumant ranching is becoming increasingly difficult because of land use changes on both public and private lands and a third of ranchers believe that they may need to sell the property for development if they lose their summer permits. There are many "line camps" on Forest Service range—cabins that families or workers would stay in during the summer to tend the cattle. However, the need to support the ranch with work in town limits the ability of the household to participate in transhumance or even travel into the mountains to check on the animals. For ranching to

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  17. [Issues in California Community Colleges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosz, Karen Sue, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among California community college faculty, this journal offers a series of articles addressing instructional and administrative concerns. The volume contains: (1) "Campus Life: A Book Review," by John McFarland; (2) "The Scholar in the Two-Year College: Magritte's Mermaid or Chiron?" by Susan Petit,…

  18. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  19. Special Education Finance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…

  20. California School Energy Concepts, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Ralph J.; And Others

    This publication is one of the major efforts of a project designed to promote energy conservation in California schools. Suggestions are provided that can be adapted at individual school facilities to reduce energy consumption. The guide also focuses on the major concepts of the new state standards for energy conservation for new nonresidential…

  1. The cave fauna of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Elliott; James R. Reddell; D. Craig Rudolph; G.O. Graening; Thomas S. Briggs; Darrell Ubick; Rolf L. Aalbu; Jean Krejca; Steven J. Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Hidden biodiversity is revealed in this study of California's subterranean fauna, which contains distinctive elements that differentiate it from other North American regions. Since 1975, the rate of discovery of new species has accelerated with funded projects in most of the important cave areas of the state, including our own studies. Here we compile all...

  2. Stem cell therapies: California dreamin'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Kris

    2010-01-08

    Ready or not, stem cells are a step closer to the clinic, thanks to approximately $230 million awarded by CIRM to 14 California-based research groups to develop stem cell-based therapies within 4 years. But, as Kris Novak reports, some of these projects are closer to therapeutic reality than others.

  3. The California Integrated Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, M.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Shakal, A.

    2007-05-01

    The mission of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is to operate a reliable, modern system to monitor earthquakes throughout the state; to generate and distribute information in real-time for emergency response, for the benefit of public safety, and for loss mitigation; and to collect and archive data for seismological and earthquake engineering research. To meet these needs, the CISN operates data processing and archiving centers, as well as more than 3000 seismic stations. Furthermore, the CISN is actively developing and enhancing its infrastructure, including its automated processing and archival systems. The CISN integrates seismic and strong motion networks operated by the University of California Berkeley (UCB), the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) offices in Menlo Park and Pasadena, as well as the USGS National Strong Motion Program (NSMP), and the California Geological Survey (CGS). The CISN operates two earthquake management centers (the NCEMC and SCEMC) where statewide, real-time earthquake monitoring takes place, and an engineering data center (EDC) for processing strong motion data and making it available in near real-time to the engineering community. These centers employ redundant hardware to minimize disruptions to the earthquake detection and processing systems. At the same time, dual feeds of data from a subset of broadband and strong motion stations are telemetered in real- time directly to both the NCEMC and the SCEMC to ensure the availability of statewide data in the event of a catastrophic failure at one of these two centers. The CISN uses a backbone T1 ring (with automatic backup over the internet) to interconnect the centers and the California Office of Emergency Services. The T1 ring enables real-time exchange of selected waveforms, derived ground motion data, phase arrivals, earthquake parameters, and ShakeMaps. With the goal of operating similar and redundant

  4. Efectos de la variación temporal y los métodos de captura en la eficiencia de un muestreo de coleópteros en la Reserva Natural Loma del Medio, El Bolsón, Río Negro Effects of temporal variation and trapping methods on the efficiency of Coleoptera sampling in Loma del Medio Nature Reserve, El Bolsón, Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sackmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la eficiencia de un muestreo sistemático para una comunidad de coleópteros de bosque subantártico. En particular se evalúa: 1- la conveniencia de repartir el esfuerzo de muestreo a lo largo del tiempo (dentro de una misma temporada de actividad de insectos y entre años, y 2- la eficiencia del uso de dos tipos de trampas diferentes. Se seleccionaron 10 sitios en un bosque de Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupresaceae y Nothofagus dombeyii (Fagaceae en la Reserva Forestal Loma del Medio, El Bolsón, Río Negro. En cada sitio se colocaron nueve trampas de caída que abarcaban una superficie de 100 m² y una trampa Malaise. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos anuales (enero, febrero, marzo y abril durante tres años (2002-2004, y de una semana de duración cada uno. La abundancia de especies fue mayor en enero-febrero que en marzo-abril, la riqueza fue similar y la composición de la comunidad fue marcadamente distinta entre dichos períodos para los tres años. Por otro lado, la riqueza de especies fue similar al considerar uno, dos o tres años de muestreo, y en general la composición de la comunidad no varió entre años para períodos comparables. Sin embargo, la acumulación de especies raras sólo se estabilizó luego de tres años de muestreo. Aunque las trampas Malaise fueron más eficientes (número de especies observadas / individuos capturados que las trampas de caída, los métodos de captura fueron altamente complementarios (25% de especies en común. Para caracterizar esta comunidad en particular, se recomienda distribuir el esfuerzo de muestreo a lo largo de una misma temporada de actividad y aplicar diferentes métodos de muestreos. Con un año de muestreo, bajo las condiciones propuestas anteriormente, se podrá caracterizar la comunidad de forma general, pero hacen falta al menos tres años de muestreo para alcanzar un alto grado de integridad. Se incluye un apéndice con la lista de especies capturadas (N

  5. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  6. Fumigation success for California facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  7. 76 FR 56694 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; Determinations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Loma (Jurupa High School), and Fontana. However, with respect to these four monitors, the failure to...; Determinations of Failure To Attain the One-Hour Ozone Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA....905(e), and that addresses contingency measures for failure to attain or make reasonable...

  8. Brown v. Plata: prison overcrowding in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Scott, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    California's prisons are currently designed to house approximately 85,000 inmates. At the time of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2011 decision in Brown v. Plata, the California prison system housed nearly twice that many (approximately 156,000 inmates). The Supreme Court held that California's prison system violated inmates' Eighth Amendment rights. The Court upheld a three-judge panel's order to decrease the population of California's prisons by an estimated 46,000 inmates. They determined that overcrowding was the primary cause of the inmates' inadequate medical and mental health care. As a result, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) has been working to redistribute inmates and parolees safely and decrease the overall population to the mandated levels. These large-scale adjustments to California's penal system create potential opportunities to study the long-term effects on affected inmates.

  9. The Role of Oxidative Stress Markers in Developing of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome / Oksidatîvâ Stresa Marķieru Loma Akûta Respiratora Distresa Sindroma Attîstîbâ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ðarkele Marina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akūts rcspirators distresa sindroms (ARDS ir bieži sastopams, multifaktoriāls iekaisīgas dabas plaušu audu bojājums, kas saistās ar izteiktu komorbiditāti un augstu mirstību intensīvās terapijas pacientu vidū. Nesen pētnieki pārskatīja ARDS diagnostiskos kritērijus kopš 1994. gada. Pašlaik ARDS tiek diagnosticēts, izmantojot Berlīnes definīcijas kritērijus. Svarīga loma ARDS attīstībā ir oksidantu un antioksidantu līdzsvara traucējumiem. Patoģenēzē liela nozīme piemīt tā saucamajām reaktīvajām skābekļa daļiņām. Dinamiskā ARDS attīstībai ir vairāku faktoru ietekme, līdz ar to jālieto individuāla pieeja katram pacientam, kas saistās ar apgrūtinātu prognozi un tālākās ārstēšanas taktikas izvēlē. Reaktīvās skābekļa daļiņas uzsāk šūnu bojāeju, izmainot lipīdus, olbaltumvielas un DNS, kas nopietni apdraud šūnu turpmāko dzīvotspēju, kas savukārt sekmē sekundāro reaktīvo daļiņu izdalīšanās un šūnu nāvi apoptozes vai nekrozes dēļ. Pētījumi parāda, ka daudziem pacientiem ar orgānu mazspēju, iestājoties intensīvajā terapijā, raksturīga pazemināta antioksidantu aktivitāte, kas pastiprina lipīdu peroksidācijas izraisītos negatīvos efektus. Minētie fakti pierāda nepieciešamību pēc iespējas sekmīgāk un agrināk prognozēt ARDS attīstību un turpmāko gaitu kritiski slimiem pacientiem.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    Cultural Resources Inventory, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California Hodges et al. (2000) 2000-04 Archaeological Survey of the...Review Laura Ornelaz, Attorney Advisor, 30 SW/JA, VAFB Nick Pelster, Technical Director, California Space Authority Roger Root, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...the terrestrial natural communities of California. Nongame Heritage Program. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento. Hodges , C.M., C.G

  11. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar,...

  12. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  13. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  14. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  15. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  16. Dubious battle in California Dubious battle in California

    OpenAIRE

    John Steinbeck

    2008-01-01

    In sixty years a complete revolution has taken place in California agriculture. Once its principal products were hay and cattle. Today fruits and vegetables are its most profitable crops. With the change in the nature of farming there has come a parallel change in the nature and amount of the labor necessary to carry it on. Truck gardens, while they give a heavy yield per acre, require much more labor and equipment than the raising of hay and livestock. At the same time these crops are s...

  17. Evaluation of Absolute Positioning Using the Defense Mapping Agency’s (GASP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Transit Doppler receiver furnished by the DMA. Because the position for the mark had been established prior to the October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a...broadcast and the precise are examined, and the effects of Selective Availability as- sessed. During the Monterey Bay Precision Positioning...and the precise are examined, and the effects of Selective Avail. ability assessed. During the Monterey Bay Precision Positioning Experimernt (MBPPE

  18. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    events ranging from the contamination of the Love Canal, the Cuban refugee crisis, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Loma ... Prieta Earthquake, and Hurricane Andrew. In 1993, during the Clinton Administration, FEMA initiated reforms that both streamlined disaster and relief...deploy teams and resources to maximize the speed and effectiveness of the anticipated federal response and, when necessary, performs preparedness and

  19. A New Direction Toward a More Secure America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Hurricane Hugo, the Loma Prieta Earthquake, Hurricane Andrew followed by Hurricane Iniki. In each incident, there was a common theme of a poor response by...from attacks.3 To achieve a common understanding of civil defense and ensure the most effective measures were employed the government commissioned...Department of Defense to use its vast resources to build the unity of effort necessary to create an effective approach towards defeating the nation’s

  20. In Support of Civil Authority: Is the Role of Military Support for National Security in Jeopardy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Oakland Hills fire and the Loma Prieta quake (the last large Bay Area earthquake) took place in October. The enormous amount of damage to the... effect through 2003. As a consequence, both the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah federal building in Oklahoma City and the 9/11 attacks were initially...subject matter experts depends upon their individual views, it was felt that any attempt to standardize those views would, in effect , eliminate the value

  1. Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Hugo and the Loma Prieta Earthquake in 1989, a 1991 GAO study found that, media coverage notwithstanding, “FEMA generally fulfilled its statutory...Congress signaled its approval.1 As a result of concerns about the effectiveness of the federal response after Hurricane Katrina, Congress is...management functions is the latest development in a more than 50-year effort to find the most economical, efficient, and effective arrangements for

  2. Analysis of the U.S. Department of Defense’s Contracting and Logistics Support During the First 100 Hours of the 2010 Haitian Disaster Response Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    Three Mile Island nuclear power accident, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the 1992 Hurricane Andrew, the 9/11 terrorists attack, and more recently, the...services to the earthquake victims and the first responders. The objective of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of the contracting and logistics...DoD disaster response operations to help determine the effectiveness of the DoD???s actions in the first 100 hours of the Haitian relief effort. The

  3. High-Resolution Seismic Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China, Using Seismic Catalog and Waveform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-13

    in Lees and Lindley (1994), for Loma Prieta , and Rietbrock (2001), for Kobe. Our approach will follow that of Rietbrock (2001). Briefly, the set of...are also important in discriminating between earthquakes and explosions. For example, the Lg/Pg ratio has been shown to be an effective ...close; however, the measured differential t* values from spectral ratios are free from station effects and are not affected by the source model

  4. A Case Study on the Implementation of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System at Naval Hospital Pensacola

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-16

    Hurricane Floyd (CT, DE, FL, ME, MD, NH, 1999 $1.054 billion ;NJ, NY, NC, PA, SC, VT, VA) Loma Prieta Earthquake 1989 $865.8 million (CA) Red River...provided the impetus to strengthen intra-area cooperation to even more effectively deal with future natural disasters. That cooperative spirit was also NHP...plans were typically not tested, but were used only in times of actual disaster. In order for a facility to truly be operationally effective , all

  5. Rescuing DoD From Too Much of a Good Thing: The Wrong Kind of Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    this still relatively new organization coordinated responses to incidents like the Loma Prieta Earthquake and only became the focus of national...that address the short- term, direct effects of an incident. Response activities include immediate actions to preserve life, property, and the...standard for measuring the effectiveness of the national effort. For example, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center buildings and the

  6. Disaster Response Contracting in a Post-Katrina World: Analyzing Current Disaster Response Strategies and Exploring Alternatives to Improve Processes for Rapid Reaction to Large Scale Disasters within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    of the Love Canal, the Cuban refugee crisis, Three Mile Island’s nuclear power plant incident, Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew over the...with rules and regulations that hinder fast and effective execution even in normal operations. Even with the allowed exceptions to the rules, the...disasters will not only be more effective , but also to ensure FEMA does not face another media disaster as well. The project’s product involves

  7. Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-29

    continuing resolution.” e. P.L. 101-130, enacted after the Loma Prieta earthquake, appropriated $1.1 billion in supplemental funding for FY1990. In...cooperate with and assist DHS in any investigation or reinvestigation. The authorization would cease to be effective once the President has selected...that investigations for DHS security clearances are done in the most timely and efficient manner once the 9/11 Act reforms take effect .” (Congressional

  8. Strong Motion Studies in the Mines of Kolar Gold Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Soil Dyn. And Earthq.Eng. 10: (8), 423–428. Uhrhammer, R.A. and Bolt, B.A. (1991). “ the Seismic magnitude of the 1989 Loma Prieta Main Shock...rockburst is its Richter’s local magnitude. It was not possible from the records of geophone due to saturation effect . A strong-motion accelerograph has...magnitude. However, it has not been possible from the records of conventional seismographs due to saturation effect . The rockbursts had been

  9. Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyid=1093 Stover, C.W. & Coffman, J. L. (1993). Historic earthquakes, Santa Cruz ( Loma Prieta ...INCREASING RESPONDER EFFECTIVENESS by Brian E. Sturdivant December 2009 Thesis Advisor: Nola Joyce Second Reader: Nadav Morag Approved...Responder Effectiveness 6. AUTHOR(S) Brian E. Sturdivant 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  10. Measuring an IP Network In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-06

    outage caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake using pings. IMP’s data captured one aspect of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999. 19 0 10...the Internet is becoming vital to national and world economies. As the Internet grows in importance, the ability to monitor and measure it effectively ...to be robust to network changes, this can occur without action by the central ad- ministrators. The net effect of such a change is that anyone in the

  11. Effects of a major earthquake on calls to regional poison control centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, A. R.; Olson, K.R.; Everson, G. W.; Kearney, T E; Blanc, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on calls to 2 designated regional poison control centers (San Francisco and Santa Clara) in the area. In the immediate 12 hours after the earthquake, there was an initial drop (31%) in call volume, related to telephone system overload and other technical problems. Calls from Bay Area counties outside of San Francisco and Santa Clara decreased more dramatically than those from within the host counties where the poison contro...

  12. Transportations Systems Modeling and Applications in Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    earthquake (Japan) The 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake ( wM 6.8) in the Osaka -Kobe area had an even greater impact on the transportation systems compared...with the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes in the U.S. The span collapses of the elevated Osaka -Kobe expressway (Route 3) caused long- time...nation’s economy and society. The numerical case study focuses on the road network in the Memphis metropolitan area. The road network information

  13. California Red-Legged Frog Range - CWHR [ds587

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  14. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  15. California energy flow in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  16. Dubious battle in California Dubious battle in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Steinbeck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In sixty years a complete revolution has taken place in California agriculture. Once its principal products were hay and cattle. Today fruits and vegetables are its most profitable crops. With the change in the nature of farming there has come a parallel change in the nature and amount of the labor necessary to carry it on. Truck gardens, while they give a heavy yield per acre, require much more labor and equipment than the raising of hay and livestock. At the same time these crops are seasonal, which means that they are largely handled by migratory workers. Along with the intensification of farming made necessary by truck gardening has come another important development. In sixty years a complete revolution has taken place in California agriculture. Once its principal products were hay and cattle. Today fruits and vegetables are its most profitable crops. With the change in the nature of farming there has come a parallel change in the nature and amount of the labor necessary to carry it on. Truck gardens, while they give a heavy yield per acre, require much more labor and equipment than the raising of hay and livestock. At the same time these crops are seasonal, which means that they are largely handled by migratory workers. Along with the intensification of farming made necessary by truck gardening has come another important development.

  17. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  18. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  19. 75 FR 8414 - California Disaster # CA-00150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00150 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  20. 76 FR 7622 - California Disaster #CA-00162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00162 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  1. 76 FR 18614 - California Disaster #CA-00167

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00167 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  2. 76 FR 24555 - California Disaster #CA-00171

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00171 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated...

  3. 77 FR 58901 - California Disaster #CA-00190

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00190 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  4. 75 FR 22872 - California Disaster # CA-00154

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00154 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  5. Does California's Master Plan Still Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, California's higher education system has been shaped by the tripartite division of the vaunted Master Plan. The 1960 document's bold vision of access and quality safeguarded a system of selective research universities (the University of California) and provided baccalaureate education through less-selective campuses (the…

  6. A Brief History of California School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, the governor proposed a new funding model for California school districts called the Local Control Funding Formula. As the Legislature debates the proposed new funding model for schools, which is expected to start in the 2013-14 fiscal year, the author thought it would be a good time for a history lesson in California school…

  7. 76 FR 20433 - California Disaster #CA-00169

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00169 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 04/05/2011. Incident: Center Fire. Incident Period: 03/18/2011 through 03/20/2011. Effective Date:...

  8. 78 FR 55771 - California Disaster #CA-00207

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00207 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated 08/26/2013. Incident: Silver Fire. Incident Period: 08/07/2013 through 08/14/2013. Effective Date:...

  9. 76 FR 62132 - California Disaster #CA-00176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00176 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 09/29/2011. Incident: Canyon Fire. Incident Period: 09/04/2011 through 09/11/2011. Effective Date:...

  10. 78 FR 60366 - California Disaster #CA-00212

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00212 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Clover Fire Incident Period: 09/09/2013 through 09/15/2013. Effective Date:...

  11. 77 FR 1971 - California Disaster #CA-00183

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00183 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 01/05/2012. Incident: 1502 Golden Gate Fire. Incident Period: 12/22/2011. Effective Date:...

  12. 78 FR 39821 - California Disaster #CA-00202

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00202 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 06/25/2013. Incident: Powerhouse Fire. Incident Period: 05/30/2013 through 06/11/2013. Effective Date:...

  13. 78 FR 77195 - California Disaster #CA-00214

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00214 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of California (FEMA- 4158-DR), dated 12/13/2013. Incident: Rim Fire. Incident Period:...

  14. 76 FR 16029 - CALIFORNIA Disaster #CA-00165

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA Disaster CA-00165 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated 03/16/2011. Incident: Garden Breeze Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 02/20/2011. DATES:...

  15. 76 FR 79751 - California Disaster #CA-00181

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00181 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 12/14/2011. Incident: Sequoia Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 11/18/2011. Effective Date:...

  16. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  17. California State Policy on Sustainable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneich, Dian M.

    2011-11-01

    California has set an ambitious goal of pursuing all cost-effective energy efficiency and increasing the percent of electrical power generated by renewable energy sources to 33% by 2020. Through a large mixture of projects, many overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission, the state is aiming to greatly increase its reliance on sustainable energy.

  18. The University of California,Berkeley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    The roots of the University of California go back to the gold rush days of 1849,when the drafters of the State Constitution,a group of vigorous and farsighted people,required the legislature to "encourage by all suitable means the promotion of intellectual,scientific,moral and agricultural improvement"of the people of California.These early

  19. Multicultural Graduation Requirements among California's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    This examination of the current status of multicultural education among California community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of California's leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…

  20. Supporting Continuous Improvement in California's Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Plank, David N.

    2015-01-01

    California's new accountability system originated in the radical decentralization of power and authority from Sacramento to local schools and their communities brought about by the Legislature's adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) in 2013. Under California's previous accountability policies and the federal "No Child Left…

  1. Saving lives through better design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Spudich, Paul A.; Page, Robert A.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, scientists have put together a more complete picture of how the ground shakes during earthquakes. They have learned that shaking near the source of earthquakes is far more severe than once thought and that soft ground shakes more strongly than hard rock.This knowledge has enabled engineers to improve design standards so that structures arebetter able to survive strong earthquakes. When the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck, 42 people tragically lost their lives in the collapse of a half-mile-long section of the Cypress structure, an elevated double-decker freeway in Oakland, California.Yet adjacent parts of this structure withstood the magnitude 6.9 temblor—why? The part that collapsed was built on man-made fill over soft mud, whereas adjacent sections stood on older, firmer sand and gravel deposits. Following the collapse, scientists set out instruments in the area to record the earthquake's many strong aftershocks. These instruments showed that the softer ground shook more forcefully than the firmer material-even twice as violently

  2. Dislocations in inhomogeneous media via a moduli perturbation approach: General formulation and two-dimensional solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijun; Segall, Paul; Gao, Huajian

    1994-07-01

    Quasi-static elastic dislocations in a homogeneous elastic half-space are commonly used to model earthquake faulting processes. Recent studies of the 1989 Kalapana, Hawaii, and Loma Prieta, California, earthquakes suggest that spatial variations in elastic properties are necessary to reconcile geodetic and seismic results. In this paper, we use a moduli perturbation approach to investigate the effect of lateral and vertical variations in elastic properties on the elastic fields produced by dislocations. The method is simple, efficient, and in some cases leads to closed form solutions. The zero-order solution is simply the solution for a homogeneous body. The first-order correction for elastic heterogeneity is given by a volume integral involving the spatial variations in moduli, the displacements due to a dislocation in a homogeneous half-space, and the half-space Green's function. The same representation can be also used to obtain higher-order solutions. If there are only piecewise constant variations in shear modulus, the volume integral can be reduced to a surface integral (or line integral in two-dimensions). Comparisons with the analytical solutions for a screw dislocation in a layered medium suggest that the perturbation solutions are valid for nearly an order of magnitude variation in modulus. It is shown that a simple two-dimensional model with both vertical and lateral variations in the elastic properties may explain a large part of the discrepancy between seismic and geodetically inferred fault depths for the 1989 Kalapana, Hawaii, earthquake.

  3. Heterogeneous slip and rupture models of the San Andreas fault zone based upon three-dimensional earthquake tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Crystal fault zones exhibit spatially heterogeneous slip behavior at all scales, slip being partitioned between stable frictional sliding, or fault creep, and unstable earthquake rupture. An understanding the mechanisms underlying slip segmentation is fundamental to research into fault dynamics and the physics of earthquake generation. This thesis investigates the influence that large-scale along-strike heterogeneity in fault zone lithology has on slip segmentation. Large-scale transitions from the stable block sliding of the Central 4D Creeping Section of the San Andreas, fault to the locked 1906 and 1857 earthquake segments takes place along the Loma Prieta and Parkfield sections of the fault, respectively, the transitions being accomplished in part by the generation of earthquakes in the magnitude range 6 (Parkfield) to 7 (Loma Prieta). Information on sub-surface lithology interpreted from the Loma Prieta and Parkfield three-dimensional crustal velocity models computed by Michelini (1991) is integrated with information on slip behavior provided by the distributions of earthquakes located using, the three-dimensional models and by surface creep data to study the relationships between large-scale lithological heterogeneity and slip segmentation along these two sections of the fault zone.

  4. California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur situada al sur del Estado de Baja California Sur, México, se desarrolló un experimento durante 3 años (2002 – 2004. Evaluándose los datos climáticos en la zona, a partir de la información proporcionada por la Comisión Nacional del Agua. Las variables climáticas evaluadas fueron temperatura (T, humedad relativa (HR, evaporación (E, promediados por décadas para el período correspondiente al desarrollo de la investigación, mientras que las variables biológicas fueron rendimiento, área foliar (AF e índice de área foliar (IAF, tasa relativa de crecimiento (TRC, tasa de asimilación neta (TAN y masa seca. Se aplicó un análisis estadístico descriptivo y multivariado, las medias se compararon por Tukey al 5 % de probabilidad, con análisis factorial, empleando el programa STATISTICA 6.0. Los resultados mostraron la relación de la temperatura y la humedad relativa con el rendimiento, lo que establece que para el máximo rendimiento de albahaca en las condiciones en que se condujo el experimento la temperatura de 32 oC y la humedad relativa de 58 % fueron las mejores

  5. Wildfires Rage in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, are highlighted in this set of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). These images include a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera (left) and an automated stereo height retrieval (right). The tops of the smoke plumes range in altitude from 500 - 3000 meters, and the stereo retrieval clearly differentiates the smoke from patches of high-altitude cirrus. Plumes are apparent from fires burning near the California-Mexico border, San Diego, Camp Pendleton, the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains, and in and around Simi Valley. The majority of the smoke is coming from the fires near San Diego and the San Bernardino Mountains.The Multiangle Imaging Spectro Radiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 20510. The panels cover an area of 329 kilometers x 543 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 62 to 66 within World Reference System-2 path 40.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  7. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  9. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies within the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the Ventura Basin, in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The city of Ventura is the major cultural center in the map area. The Ventura River cuts through Ventura, draining the Santa Ynez Mountains and the coastal hills north of Ventura. Northwest of Ventura, the coastal zone is a narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Island, an island constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. Southeast of Ventura, the coastal zone consists of the mouth and broad, alluvial plains of the Santa Clara River

  10. Higher Education in California: New Goals for the Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, state policymakers and higher education officials adopted California's Master Plan for Higher Education. This plan still largely defines policies concerning the state's public higher education systems: the California community colleges (CCC), the California State University (CSU) system, and the University of California (UC)…

  11. San Antonio Creek Restoration, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    constrictor Racer Potential Masticophis lateralis Chaparral whipsnake Potential Lampropeltis getula California kingsnake Observed Pituophis catenifer...Unpublished master’s thesis, University of California , Santa Barbara. Grant, C. 1978a. Chumash: Introduction . In California , edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp...Final Draft Environmental Assessment San Antonio Creek Restoration Vandenberg Air Force Base California

  12. WEAVER BALLY ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M.C.; Peters, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Weaver Bally Roadless Area includes approximately 22 sq mi in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Trinity County, California. A mineral survey indicates that an area of less than 1 sq mi in the northern part of the Weaver Bally Roadless Area has a substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold and silver; a much larger area has a probable mineral-resource potential for the same elements. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of additional metallic, energy, or nonmetallic resources in the roadless area. Detailed studies, including further geochemical sampling and drilling could be done in the region of the Globe mines. In addition, the outcrops of dacite porphyry dikes and sills and associated hydrothermal alteration should be mapped in detail.

  13. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  14. Escuela elemental, Kester Avenue, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available Neutra ha impuesto un estilo característico de arquitectura escolar y su impronta, fuerte y acusada, se personaliza en cada una de sus obras. Particularmente en California, donde el clima benigno permite una vida de relación exterior interna durante la mayor parte del año, las escuelas proyectadas por Neutra y, concretamente, ésta de Kester Avenue, se abren pródigamente hacia la naturaleza, comunicándose con ella y haciéndole partícipe de la misión docente en una integración espacial que, muchas veces, se materializa en un sencillo cerramiento de baja altura.

  15. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  16. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  17. California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The genesis of this report was a 2016 forum in Sacramento, California, titled 'California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California.' The forum was held at the California Energy Commission's (CEC) headquarters in Sacramento, California with the primary goal being to advance the dialogues for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) and CEC technical research and development (R&D) focuses for future consideration. The forum convened a diverse group of stakeholders from government, industry, and research to lay out pathways for new geothermal development in California while remaining consistent with critical Federal and State conservation planning efforts, particularly at the Salton Sea.

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors

  19. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    Cultural Resources Inventory, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California Hodges et al. (2000) 2000-04 Archaeological Survey of the...VAFB Nick Pelster, Technical Director, California Space Authority Roger Root, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Field Office Chris Ryan...Heritage Program. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento. Hodges , C.M., C.G. Lebow, and R.L. McKim. 2000. Archaeological Survey of the

  1. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Diana; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-01-01

    Abstract California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women’s Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 pr...

  2. Examining Sustainable Development Policy in California Cities: 2011 Energy Sustainable California Communities Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myungjung Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance both marketability and sustainability of the community, California cities seek a sustainable development policy which attempts to integrate sustainability programs into an economic...

  3. Gravity Data for California and Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (88,514 records) were compiled largely from a state-wide regional gravity study program organized by the California Division of Mines and Geology in...

  4. Contours--Offshore Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Coal Oil Point, California (vector data file is included in...

  5. Bathymetry--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  6. Transgressive Contours--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  7. Bathymetry--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  8. Isopachs--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  9. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from March-September 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  11. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  13. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  14. Folds--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Faults--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  17. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  18. Faults--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  1. Folds--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  2. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  3. Faults--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  6. Bathymetry--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of San Francisco, California (raster data file is included in...

  7. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  8. Contours--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Contours--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  11. Habitat--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  12. Habitat--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  13. Habitat--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The vector data...

  14. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  15. Habitat--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. Habitat--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The vector...

  17. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  18. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  1. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  2. Bathymetry--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  3. Habitat--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  4. Global Education in California: The Tasks Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Presents agenda for action determined by a needs assesment conference of California educators. Recommendations are made for improving the conceptualization of global education, developing policy support, retraining teachers, expanding and improving exemplary efforts, and improving access to content resources. (KC)

  5. Habitat--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  6. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  7. Habitat--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  8. Bathymetry--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California (raster data file is included in...

  9. Faults--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  10. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  11. Faults--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The...

  12. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  13. Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California.  Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  14. Contours--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  15. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Habitat--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  17. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. Habitat--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  19. Habitat--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Habitat--Offshore of Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  1. Habitat--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. Habitat--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  3. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  4. Backscatter C [7125]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  5. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  6. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  7. Backscatter D [Snippets]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  8. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  9. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  10. Contours--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is...

  11. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in...

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  13. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  14. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  15. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  16. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  17. Folds--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  18. The Future Arrives First in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the challenges confronted by the University of California in financing higher education and research programs, and equalizing the opportunity for a college education for all students. Predicts that many challenges are on the horizon for all universities. (CCM)

  19. Bathymetry--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  20. Bathymetry--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...

  1. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  2. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...

  3. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  4. Contours--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Bathymetry--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  6. Backscatter [5m]--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  7. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  8. Contours Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file...

  9. Habitat--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  10. Habitat--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  11. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. California Clapper Rail Survey 1978-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) was conducted from December 1978 through July 1979 in the San Francisco, Monterey and Morro...

  13. Folds--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The...

  14. Bathymetry--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...

  15. Contours--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Habitat--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  17. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...

  18. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  19. Paleoshorelines--Offshore Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Offshore Monterey, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Backscatter E [Swath]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  1. Habitat--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  2. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  3. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  4. Faults--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California....

  5. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  6. Contours--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Faults--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  9. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  10. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  11. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California....

  14. Habitat--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The vector data...

  15. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  17. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  18. Isopachs--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  19. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  20. Transgressive Contours--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  1. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  2. Bathymetry--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  3. Backscatter [SWATH]--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  4. Bathymetry--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore Half Moon Bay, California (raster data file is included in...

  5. Backscatter [SWATH]--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  6. Faults--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  7. Gay and Lesbian Partnership: Evidence from California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Carpenter; Gary J. Gates

    2008-01-01

    .... We present the first systematic empirical analysis of partnership and cohabitation among self-identified gay men and lesbians using two independent, large, population-wwbased data sources from California...

  8. Bathymetry--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  9. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California Reconnaissance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    INTERVAL (YEARS) SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN ARIA CALIFORNIA STAGE-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP SACRAMENTO RIVER AT FREMONT WEIR/WEST END SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...Wildlife Biologist/ Environmental Planner Karen Amerman Kuhn Civil Engineer/ Water Resources Plnr Patricia Roberson Environmental Studies

  10. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  11. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Humboldt, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Humboldt, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  14. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  15. Faults--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  16. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  17. Faults--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  18. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  19. Folds--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  20. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  1. Habitat--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  3. Habitat--Offshore of Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  4. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Backscatter [5m]--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  6. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  8. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  9. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  11. Backscatter C [7125]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  12. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  13. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  14. Backscatter D [Snippets]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  15. Folds--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The...

  16. Faults--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The...

  17. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  18. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  19. Effects of Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Trainings Conducted Under the California Mental Health Services Authority: An Evaluation of Disability Rights California and Mental Health America of California Trainings

    OpenAIRE

    Cerully, Jennifer L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Roth, Elizabeth; Marks, Joyce; Yu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Describes the methods and results of a RAND evaluation of stigma and discrimination reduction trainings delivered by two program partners, Disability Rights California and Mental Health America of California.

  20. Análisis arqueofaunísticos de los sitios Loma Ruiz 1 y El Tigre (Partidos de Villarino y Patagones, provincia de Buenos Aires: Aportes para el conocimiento de la subsistencia en el valle inferior del río Colorado durante el Holoceno tardío Archaeofaunistic analysis of Loma Ruiz 1 and El Tigre sites (Villarino and Patagones districts, Buenos Aires province, Argentina: a contribution to knowledge of subsistence in the lower basin of the colorado river during the late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Stoessel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de los análisis llevados a cabo en los conjuntos faunísticos de los sitios Loma Ruiz 1 y El Tigre (Partidos de Villarino y Patagones, provincia de Buenos Aires. El objetivo general es contribuir al conocimiento de la subsistencia de los grupos cazadores-recolectores que habitaron el valle inferior del río Colorado durante el Holoceno tardío. A partir de los estudios arqueofaunísticos realizados en los conjuntos mencionados, sumado a la evidencia faunística proveniente de otros sitios arqueológicos del área y a la información proporcionada por los análisis de isótopos estables y de los materiales de molienda se planteó un patrón preliminar de subsistencia. Dicho patrón sugiere que durante el Holoceno tardío inicial (ca. 3000-1000 años AP la subsistencia estuvo basada en la explotación del guanaco, complementada con el consumo de venado de las pampas y ñandú y con aportes de recursos vegetales. Sin embargo, se plantea que hacia el Holoceno tardío final (ca. 1000-300 años AP habría existido un espectro mayor de especies faunísticas explotadas, con la incorporación a la dieta de taxa de menor tamaño (i.e., peludo, piche, el aporte de recursos fluviales (percas, posiblemente marinos y vegetales.In this paper, the results obtained from an analysis carried out on the faunal assemblages of the Loma Ruiz 1 and El Tigre sites (Villarino and Patagones Districts, Buenos Aires Province are presented. The general objective is to contribute to insights into the subsistence of hunter-gatherer groups who inhabited the lower basin of the Colorado River during the late Holocene. A preliminary subsistence pattern is presented on the basis of the archaeofaunal analysis, faunal evidence originating from other archaeological sites in the area, and the information provided by the analysis of stable isotopes and grinding materials. This pattern suggests a subsistence strategy based