WorldWideScience

Sample records for loire acteurs reseaux

  1. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

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    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  2. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  3. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  4. Natural radioactivity of Loire river sediments: relations with the lithology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patryl, L.

    2000-01-01

    This study has been carried out on request of the Loire-Bretagne water agency by the Laboratory of geology of Tours univ. (EA2100 GeEAC) in collaboration with CEA-Le Ripault. The main objective was the study of the nature and distribution of natural radioactivity in the Loire river alluvial deposits, its origin in the rocks of the surrounding basins and its links with the alluvial petrography. The radioactive flux linked with the sediments of the bottom of the river has been also determined. The Loire river and its main affluents have been the object of radiological and petrographic analyses (grain size, sands and clays mineralogy, organic matter content). The average radioactivities of 40 K, 238 U and 228 Ac in the alluvial deposits are 934.3 ± 164.7 Bq.kg -1 , 50.6 ± 30.8 Bq.kg -1 and 28.8 ± 18.1 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The average radioactivity of 238 U, 228 Ac and their daughter products is statistically higher in Loire superieure (Massif Central mounts) than in Loire moyenne (Paris basin). The activities of 238 U and 228 Ac are mainly influenced by the grain size of the alluvial deposits and by the mineralogical composition of the sand fraction. The alluvial deposits are mainly sandy and the coarse fraction is the most abundant. The primary radioactivity is carried by the few zircons of the sediments. The activity of the uranium and thorium families increase with the feldspars content. The fixation of radioactivity seems to be linked with the presence of clay minerals inside the weathered feldspar grains which are abundant in the sands. The radioactivity of the Loire river alluvial deposits shows no important changes with respect to the substratums because of a smoothing due to the predominance of longitudinal fluxes with respect to the lateral ones. The impact of an old uranium mine on the alluvial deposits of the Besbre river is detectable along about a tenth of km s downstream only. Because of the strong variations of radioactivity with granularity, a

  5. Reseaux de conception innovante et formes de proximites

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    Bénédicte Serrate

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La conception, appelée « design » dans les entreprises industrielles, représente dans le processus d’innovation une étape essentielle pourtant peu étudiée encore par les économistes. Elle mobilise pour aboutir à des innovations de plus en plus jugées essentielles à la compétitivité de l’entreprise, quantité d’acteurs internes et externes selon une logique de réseau sans cesse renouvelée. A partir de l’observation de cas empiriques, nous avons tenté dans cet article de comprendre comment s’organisaient ces réseaux innovants. Aujourd’hui dans la plupart des pays qui pratiquent des politiques de développement économique local, il semble établi qu’il faille construire des proximités géographiques entre acteurs pour que se développent des relations industrielles favorisant la dynamique d’innovation et le transfert des connaissances. L’abondance des « clusters » et des « pôles de compétitivité » partout dans le monde témoigne de ce postulat. En analysant les modes d’organisation des réseaux de conception nous avons donc cherché à vérifier si la proximité géographique constituait encore un ressort essentiel et si la globalisation des entreprises ne laissait pas apparaitre d’autres formes de proximités.

  6. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of

  7. L’étudiant comme acteur de sa formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Richard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette communication présente les résultats d’une expérimentation menée dans le cadre d’un cours de communication à des étudiants de premier cycle en ingénierie. À partir d’une thématique portant sur la communication et l’ingénierie, chaque équipe d’étudiants a réalisé un document audiovisuel sur support cédérom comportant des entrevues avec des ingénieurs. Cette expérimentation constitue une démarche d’appropriation du savoir par les étudiants. Les étudiants devenant acteurs de leur propre formation par une démarche active de recherche et de construction de l’information, ils se sentent davantage impliqués dans ce projet. Ce projet met donc en évidence les notions de stimulation, de construit de motivation et d’intégration des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication à l’enseignement.

  8. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  9. Physics experiments in graphite lattices (1962); Experiences sur les reseaux a graphite (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P; Cogne, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A review is made of the various experimental methods used to determine the physics of graphite, natural uranium lattices: integral lattice experiments; both absolute and differential, effective cross section measurements, both by activation methods and by analysis of irradiated fuels, fine structure measurements. A number of experimental results are also given. (authors) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes experimentales utilisees pour determiner les parametres physiques de reseaux a uranium-graphite. Il s'agit d'experiences globales: mesures absolues et relatives de laplaciens, mesures de sections efficaces effectives par activation et par analyses de combustibles irradies, mesures de structures fines. Un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux sont communiques. (auteurs)

  10. Percolation dans des reseaux realistes de nanostructures de carbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe

    versatility in the choice of network components that can be simulated. The tools we have developed, grouped together in the RPH-HPN software Reseaux percolatifs hybrides - Hybrid Percolation Networks, construct random networks, detect contact between the tubes, translate the systems to equivalent electrical circuits and calculate global properties. An infinity of networks can have the same basic characteristics (size, diameter, etc.) and therefore the properties of a particular random network are not necessarily representative of the average properties of all networks. To obtain those general properties, we simulate a large number of random networks with the same basic characteristics and the average of the quantities is determined. The network constituent elements can be spheres, rods or snakes. The use of such geometries for network elements makes contact detection simple and quick, and more faithfully reproduce the form of carbon nanotubes. We closely monitor the geometrical and electrical properties of these elements through stochastic distributions of our choice. We can choose the length, diameter, orientation, chirality, tortuosity and impenetrable nature of the elements in order to properly reproduce real networks characteristics. We have considered statistical distribution functions that are rectangular, Gaussian, and Lorentzian, but all other distributions that can be expressed mathematically can also be envisioned. During the creation of a particular network, we generate the elements one by one. Each of their properties is sampled from a preselected distribution. Efficient algorithms used in various fields were adapted to our needs to manage the detection of contacts, clusters and percolation. In addition, we model more realistic contact between rigid nanotubes using an original method used to create the network that does not require a relaxation phase. Finally, we use Kirchhoff's laws to solve the equivalent electrical circuit conventionally. First, we evaluated

  11. River Loire levees hazard studies – CARDigues’ model principles and utilization examples on Blois levees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the river Loire, in order to have a homogenous method to do specific risk assessment studies, a new model named CARDigues (for Levee Breach Hazard Calculation was developed in a partnership with DREAL Centre-Val de Loire (owner of levees, Cerema and Irstea. This model enables to approach the probability of failure on every levee sections and to integrate and cross different “stability” parameters such topography and included structures, geology and material geotechnical characteristics, hydraulic loads… and observations of visual inspections or instrumentation results considered as disorders (seepage, burrowing animals, vegetation, pipes, etc.. This model and integrated tool CARDigues enables to check for each levee section, the probability of appearance and rupture of five breaching scenarios initiated by: overflowing, internal erosion, slope instability, external erosion and uplift. It has been recently updated and has been applied on several levee systems by different contractors. The article presents the CARDigues model principles and its recent developments (version V28.00 with examples on river Loire and how it is currently used for a relevant and global levee system diagnosis and assessment. Levee reinforcement or improvement management is also a perspective of applications for this model CARDigues.

  12. Fine structure and spectral index measurements in natural uranium - graphite lattices; Mesures fines dans des reseaux a graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogne, F; Journet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The experiments described in this report have been carried out for the most part in the critical facility MARIUS, and a few during the start up of the EDF-1 power reactor. The first part deals with the fine structure measurements made in various lattices and with their analysis. Integration over the neutron spectrum of the mono-kinetic disadvantage factor derived by the A.B.H method yields results in good agreement with the experiments. The second part deals with spectral indexes measurements (Pu/U, In/Mn) made at room temperature in MARIUS. Comparison are made of experiments with calculations using various thermalization models. Experiments carried out at higher temperatures in EDF-1 are also described. (authors) [French] Les mesures decrites dans ce rapport ont ete faites pour la plupart dans l'empilement critique MARIUS sur des reseaux a graphite-uranium naturel. Une premiere partie traite des mesures de structure fine faites dans differents reseaux et de leur interpretation. On montre en particulier qu'une integration sur le spectre d'un calcul monocinetique type A.B.H. rend bien compte des experiences. Dans une deuxieme partie, on donne les resultats de mesures d'indices de spectre Pu/U et In/Mn faites sur des reseaux froids a MARIUS et leur comparaison avec les differents modeles de calculs de thermalisation. On donne egalement les resultats de quelques mesures en temperature effectuees lors du demarrage du reacteur EDF-1. (auteurs)

  13. L’innovation au pluriel des cré-acteurs alpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations écologique, politique, sociale et culturelle, qui engagent les acteurs du territoire. Ce changement affecte tant l’objet territoire que le sujet acteur du territoire. C’est pourquoi, innover dans les Alpes revient aussi à innover les Alpes et les acteurs alpins(Cosalp, 2008. Sur la base d’une recherche sur la participation des populations locales dans la gestion de forêts communales alpines, l’article relève l’importance des interactions locales impliquant les acteurs d’occupations, genres, âges et origines divers1.The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective - thus organisational - dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to

  14. Study of the radiological and chemical quality of sediments and water of the Loire river at the vicinity of the Belleville-sur-Loire CNPE. Study performed on the request of the Belleville-sur-Loire Local Information Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougier, G.; Josset, M.; Bernollin, A.; Barbey, P.; Boilley, D.; Festoc, S.; Dunand, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports an assessment of the influence of present and previous releases of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear site, as well as of the persistence of other pollutions in the environment. The report first recalls authorised annual levels for liquid and gaseous radioactive releases and for chemical releases. It describes the strategy and method adopted to assess the radiological and chemical influence of the nuclear power plant on the environment: studied area, sampling locations and samples, examined radiological and chemical parameters. It indicates the adopted strategy and comments results obtained for radiological measurements in waters, in sediments, and in aquatic plants. Results are notably discussed in terms of natural and artificial radioactivity. Chemical measurements are then reported in the same way: strategy, measurements and discussion of results obtained in water and in sediments. Additional information on radionuclides and on sampling and analysis methodologies are given in appendix

  15. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Koechlin, J C; Moreau, J; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    all solid bars are considered and n an d the effective integrals are adjusted then a system of transposition of these results to more complex bars is sought. In the second step, one is compelled to improve the system in studying in greater detail each factor of the calculation of the lattice. A satisfactory interpretation of the results leads definitively to methods of calculation applicable to the most varied types of natural uranium-heavy water lattices. Attention has been given to results obtained in other countries, particularly in Canada. (author) [French] Un ensemble de mesures de Laplaciens a ete realise en regime critique dans une pile a eau lourde construite specialement a cette fin, soit sur reseaux complets, soit sur echantillons de reseaux par une methode a deux zones. L'appareillage experimental est brievement decrit: il a ete etudie pour permettre des modifications rapides du chargement. On decrit egalement sommairement les methodes de mesure: on opere soit par cartes de flux, sur des reseaux qui servent ensuite de reference soit par remplacement progressif des barres par couronnes concentriques et mesures de reactivite. Dans ce cas, on cherche a atteindre l'ecart entre le laplacien-matiere du reseau central inconnu et celui du reseau de reference. La methode a fait l'objet d'une mise au point destinee a la rendre precice. On donne les resultats des mesures de laplaciens pour tous ces types de reseaux, ce qui permet de construire un ensemble de courbes en fonction du pas. Divers effets ont ete egalement mesure: equivalent en reactivite du millimetre d'eau - anisotropie - effet de temperature, etc. On a cependant prefere, dans cette premiere campagne de mesures tout au moins, obtenir une grande variete de laplaciens plutot que des mesures fines dans des cas particuliers. C'est dans cet esprit qu'a ete conduite l'interpretation des resultats. Nombre de phenomenes tres complexes echappant encore a nos possibilites de calcul, on estime qu'un certain nombre d

  16. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y.; Koechlin, J.C.; Moreau, J.; Naudet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    all solid bars are considered and n an d the effective integrals are adjusted then a system of transposition of these results to more complex bars is sought. In the second step, one is compelled to improve the system in studying in greater detail each factor of the calculation of the lattice. A satisfactory interpretation of the results leads definitively to methods of calculation applicable to the most varied types of natural uranium-heavy water lattices. Attention has been given to results obtained in other countries, particularly in Canada. (author) [French] Un ensemble de mesures de Laplaciens a ete realise en regime critique dans une pile a eau lourde construite specialement a cette fin, soit sur reseaux complets, soit sur echantillons de reseaux par une methode a deux zones. L'appareillage experimental est brievement decrit: il a ete etudie pour permettre des modifications rapides du chargement. On decrit egalement sommairement les methodes de mesure: on opere soit par cartes de flux, sur des reseaux qui servent ensuite de reference soit par remplacement progressif des barres par couronnes concentriques et mesures de reactivite. Dans ce cas, on cherche a atteindre l'ecart entre le laplacien-matiere du reseau central inconnu et celui du reseau de reference. La methode a fait l'objet d'une mise au point destinee a la rendre precice. On donne les resultats des mesures de laplaciens pour tous ces types de reseaux, ce qui permet de construire un ensemble de courbes en fonction du pas. Divers effets ont ete egalement mesure: equivalent en reactivite du millimetre d'eau - anisotropie - effet de temperature, etc. On a cependant prefere, dans cette premiere campagne de mesures tout au moins, obtenir une grande variete de laplaciens plutot que des mesures fines dans des cas particuliers. C'est dans cet esprit qu'a ete conduite l'interpretation des resultats. Nombre de phenomenes tres complexes echappant encore a nos possibilites de

  17. Metal Chemical and Isotope Characterisation in the Upper Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widory, D.; Nigris, R.; Morard, A.; Gassama, N.; Poirier, A.; Bourrain, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) elaborated by the European Commission regulates water resources in the EC based on five years management plans. A new management plan that started in 2016 imposes strict water quality criteria to its member states, including good status thresholds for metallic contaminants. The Loire River, the most important river in France, flows through areas with lithologies naturally containing high metal concentrations in the upper part of its basin. Understanding these metal fluxes into the river is thus a prerequisite to understand their potential impact on the quality of its water in regards to the criteria defined by the WFD. The Massif Central, a residue of the Hercynian chain, is composed of granitic and volcanic rocks. Both its upstream position in the Loire basin and its numerous metal mineralizations made this region a good candidate for characterizing the natural metal geochemical background of its surface waters. To fulfill this objective we focused on the Pb, Cd and Zn chemical and isotope characteristics of selected non-anthropized small watersheds. The investigated small watersheds were selected for supposedly draining a single lithology and undergoing (as far as possible) negligible to no anthropogenic pressure. Results showed that although the high metal potential of the upper part of the Loire River basin has been highly exploited by humans for centuries, metal concentrations during the hydrological cycle are still under the guidelines defined by the WFD. Isotope compositions/ratios are strongly related to the corresponding lithologies along the rivers and help precisely define the local geochemical background that can then be used to identify and quantify any anthropogenic inputs downstream.

  18. High resolution modelling of the biogeochemical processes in the eutrophic Loire River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Curie, Florence; Gassama, Nathalie; Billen, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    A biogeochemical model was developed, coupling a physically based water temperature model (T-NET) with a semi-mechanistic biogeochemical model (RIVE, used in ProSe and Riverstrahler models) in order to assess at a fine temporal and spatial resolution the biogeochemical processes in the eutrophic Middle Loire hydrosystem (≈10 000 km², 3361 river segments). The code itself allows parallelized computing, which decreased greatly the calculation time (5 hours for simulating 3 years hourly). We conducted a daily survey during the period 2012-2014 at 2 sampling stations located in the Middle Loire of nutrients, chlorophyll pigments, phytoplankton and physic-chemical variables. This database was used as both input data (upstream Loire boundary) and validation data of the model (basin outlet). Diffuse and non-point sources were assessed based on a land cover analysis and WWTP datasets. The results appeared very sensible to the coefficients governing the dynamic of suspended solids and of phosphorus (sorption/desorption processes) within the model and some parameters needed to be estimated numerically. Both the Lagrangian point of view and fluxes budgets at the seasonal and event-based scale evidenced the biogeochemical functioning of the Loire River. Low discharge levels set up favorable physical conditions for phytoplankton growth (long water travel time, limited water depth, suspended particles sedimentation). Conversely, higher discharge levels highly limited the phytoplankton biomass (dilution of the colony, washing-out, limited travel time, remobilization of suspended sediments increasing turbidity), and most biogeochemical species were basically transferred downstream. When hydrological conditions remained favorable for phytoplankton development, P-availability was the critical factor. However, the model evidenced that most of the P in summer was recycled within the water body: on one hand it was assimilated by the algae biomass, and on the other hand it was

  19. Acteurs de la formation de base : une identité professionnelle en question

    OpenAIRE

    Coquoz, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail de recherche vise à comprendre les processus en jeu dans la construction de l’identité professionnelle des actrices et acteurs de la formation de base. Il s’appuie sur l’analyse d’entretiens compréhensifs à caractère biographique, réalisés auprès de formatrices, formateurs, responsables de formation, et bénévoles travaillant dans ce domaine. Cette analyse permet de repérer les différentes étapes de leurs trajectoires biographiques, significatives dans la construction de leur identi...

  20. The radioactivity measurement in the Loire catchment basin. Actors, networks, data inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report on the Loire watershed was to broaden at all the nuclear installations of the watershed the method of synthesis made for Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear power plant, by resting on the whole of actors doing the radioactivity measurements in environment. This report shows that these actors are numerous. The measurement plans implemented have for objective to establish the radiological situation of environment, near or not the nuclear facilities, to detect the abnormal increase of radioactivity, to evaluate the exposure of populations to the ambient radioactivity, or to check the conformity of practices (nuclear activities) and products. This assessment enlightens the lack of a real global strategy in the organisation of the radioactivity measurement at the level of the watershed. The inventory of available data for the Loire watershed allowed to show the diversity of measurements realised. The I.R.S.N. is face to a complex situation of data return in the frame of the implementation of an information system of the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment. (N.C.)

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear power plant (INB no. 127 - Belleville 1 and no. 128 - Belleville 2, Belleville-sur-Loire and Sury-pres-Lere - Cher (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  2. Les nouveaux acteurs de la coopération en Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte de la mondialisation et, aujourd’hui, de la crise financière mondiale, de nouveaux acteurs de la coopération émergent en Afrique. Ces partenaires desserrent la contrainte financière et les conditionnalités, augmentent les marges de manœuvre et dopent le marché des matières premières, mais ils accroissent aussi les risques de réendettement et de faiblesse de la coordination des politiques d’aide. Ces partenariats remettent-ils en question les nouvelles pratiques de la coopération des pays de l’OCDE ? Justifient-ils le retour à une realpolitik ou reproduisent-ils les anciennes erreurs des puissances industrielles ? Ces erreurs peuvent-elles être corrigées ? La question se pose également de savoir si la crise mondiale qui touche profondément l’Afrique conduira à un retrait ou à un relais des nouvelles puissances émergentes. Ce chapitre distingue les nouveaux enjeux géopolitiques de l’Afrique dans un monde multipolaire puis les nouveaux acteurs de la coopération en Afrique, avant d’explorer les perspectives qui s’ouvrent pour la coopération en Afrique, notamment eu égard à la crise mondiale.

  3. Local-regional networks of persons with abilities in radioprotection and other actors in radioprotection. Audit report; Les reseaux loco-regionaux de personnes competentes en radioprotection et autres acteurs de la radioprotection. Rapport d'audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    As the regulation requires the existence of persons with abilities in radioprotection (PCR, personnes competentes en radioprotection) in many industrial, medical or research activities where ionizing radiations are present, in order to improve worker protection, these professionals who are much less acknowledged in these sectors than in the nuclear sector, felt the need to gather in regional and sector-based networks. This report proposes a presentation of three existing networks (the APCRAP, the Grand-Ouest network, and the Aquitaine-Sud-Ouest network). For each of them, the report addresses the following aspects: creation, objectives, statutes, members, activities, human, technical and financial resources, role. Then answers to a survey and to interviews are analyzed with respect to the professional sector and to the region, in terms of expectations towards the networks, and in terms of network operation and services. Interviews of institutional actors and union and management representatives are also analysed

  4. [Fetal and neonatal mortality from 22 weeks of amenorrhea in the Loire area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, B; Beringue, F; Nomballais, M F; Bouderlique, C; Brossier, J P; Savagner, C; Seguin, G; Boog, G; Rozé, J C

    1999-07-01

    The Pays de Loire has a low perinatal mortality indicators among French regions but this could be due to under-notification. To explore this hypothesis we undertook a survey in order to identify all fetal and neonatal deaths occurring at a gestionnal age of 22 weeks or more. We also tried to examine and analyze the causes of death. All maternity (26) and neonatal wards (5) in the region took part in the survey in 1995. Clinicians were asked to fill out a questionnaire for all deaths occurring from gestational age (GA) 22 weeks and/or concerning a birthweight of a least 500 g. Only perinatal deaths related to parents living in the Pays de Loire were included in the study. Two hundred and sixty seven perinatal deaths were identified out of a total 29,440 births (9.1 /1000). Eighty three (2.8 /1000) were termination of pregnancy for medical reasons, of which 82% were motivated by chromosomic illness. Ninety-nine stillbirths fell (3.4 /1000) into two GA periods: 24 to 27 weeks (20%) and 38 to 41 weeks (2%). The cause of stillbirths remained unknown in 50% of cases despite a post-mortem examination rate of 87%. There were 29 deaths (1 /1000) in the immediate per and post-partum, 40% of which occurred at GA 22 to 25 weeks. Another 38% occurred at GA 36 to 40 weeks and these were related to undectected malformations or infections. Neonatal and intensive care units reported 56 neonatal deaths (1.9 /1000). GA was under 33 weeks for 44% of them. Deaths were caused by usual complications of severe prematurity, neurologic diseases and malformations. Thirty-two percent of total deaths were not notified to the French Authority: 25% of deaths for termination of pregnancy for medical reasons and 7% for stillbirths and per and post partum deaths. This survey suggests that the Pays de Loire perinatal mortality indicators remained low compared with other French regions, even after adjustment for this under notification. This casts doubts on the validity of perinatal mortality

  5. acteurs nucléaires expérimentaux

    OpenAIRE

    CHABRE , André; BONIN , Bernard

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Les réacteurs expérimentaux constituent une base nécessaire au développement et à l'évolution de l'énergie nucléaire. Ce sont eux qui ont ouvert la voie à l'utilisation du nucléaire avec la divergence de la première pile atomique CP1, en 1942, à Chicago, puis, dès la libération, celle de la pile atomique française ZOE, en 1948, au fort de Châtillon, démontrant ainsi l'aptitude à produire et à contrôler l'innovation technique majeure que constituait alors la réaction de...

  6. Surveillance of the radioactivity in the environment of the Loire basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The surveillance of the radioactivity in environment in the Loire catchment basin rests on the measurement of radioactivity in atmosphere, in the rain waters and continental waters as well as the follow up of radioactivity in food chain. Concerning the air radiation monitoring, that is the dose rate measurement of ambient gamma radiation, the radon measurement and the measurement of particulates and radioactive aerosols. Concerning the food chain, the follow up is made on drinking water, milk, fishes and the special case of strontium 90. The actors of this campaign are the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.), Electricite de France (E.D.F.) Areva NC, the associations qualified for the surveillance of air quality (A.A.S.Q.A.) and the government services. (N.C.)

  7. methanization development scheme in the Maine-et-Loire district - Synthesis June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    After a presentation of the situation of methanization in France and in the Pays-de-la-Loire region, this report proposes an overview of the situation of methanization in the district and recalls objectives defined in its methanization development scheme. Then, it describes methanization principles (definition, operation and techniques, project typology, project development steps), proposes an overview of conditions for a successful methanization project development (substrate typology, biogas energetic valorisation, digestate valorisation, project financial and economic impact, social acceptability of methanization projects), gives an assessment of methanization development potential in the district through an assessment of methanizable resources and of energy outlets. It presents and comments a map of methanization development opportunities in the district

  8. Energy industries in the Centre-Val de Loire region - June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialot, Marie-Madeleine; Ducroq, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    After an overview of the energy sector in the world (consumption growth, share of the different energies, main consuming countries, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives) and in France (energy consumption, energy production, jobs, trade balance, research policy and organisation), this publication proposes an overview of energy industries in the Centre-Val de Loire region. It provides some data such as regional consumption, share in the national energy production, jobs and employment structure. The next part proposes a sector-based approach by evoking a strong expertise in the oil and gas industry, by describing a rich industrial tissue about electro-nuclear energy (various activities, specialised urban areas, job creations in nuclear plants, education and training, research lead by private consultants), and by outlining that the territory is suitable for the development of renewable energies (solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies, energy storage, R and D, education)

  9. Assessing the contribution of the main aquifer of Loire basin to the river discharge during low flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, C.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the Loire river low flows is a key issue for various uses such as water supply, irrigation or industrial needs. Power production is a major activity in the Loire basin with four nuclear power plants using the river water for the cooling system. To estimate the evolution of long term in-stream low flow distribution, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the contribution of a complex aquifer system to the river discharge. Three main overlaying aquifer units covering an area of 38000 km 2 are considered: Beauce Limestones (Oligocene), Chalks (Seno-Turonian) and Sands (Cenomanian). A distributed hydrogeological model (Eau-Dyssee) is implemented with the coupling of five modules: surface water budget, watershed routing, river routing, unsaturated zone transfer, and groundwater flow. The model is calibrated over a 10-yr period, validated over another 10-yr period, and then a test simulation is run over 35 years. A hybrid fitting methodology, based on an automated inverse method and a trial-error one, has been developed for the fitting of the Beauce aquifer unit. The other units are calibrated by trial and error. The fitted model simulates properly both discharges and piezometric heads over the whole domain, with a global RMSE between simulated and observed piezometric heads of 2.86 m, and all Nash efficiency at the Loire discharge gauging stations over 0.9. The fitted model has then been used to quantify the hydro-system mass balance at different time scales. Mean aquifer contribution to Loire river discharge during low flow between 1975 and 2008 is estimated at 15 m 3 /s. First results of simulations under four different climate change projections indicate an averaged decrease of these contributions reaching 8 to 50% in 2100. (author)

  10. De nouveaux acteurs de la régulation du travail dans la gestion par projets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Legault

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte d’une grande transformation de l’économie mondiale, on constate de plus en plus l’inadéquation des efforts de théorisation des relations de travail qui datent du fordisme, notamment du modèle d’analyse systémique (Dunlop, 1958 comme du modèle stratégique (Kochan, Katz et McKersie, 1986 ; dans ces deux modèles en effet, trois acteurs se partagent exclusivement la scène de l’action : les syndicats, les employeurs et l’État, et leurs interactions se déroulent essentiellement dans le cadre de l’État-nation. Or, on voit émerger de nouveaux modes de régulation qui, à leur tour, illustrent la nécessité d’intégrer de nouveaux acteurs et de nouvelles frontières aux modèles théoriques du système de relations industrielles. Une enquête menée auprès de 88 professionnels de l’informatique des entreprises de services technologiques aux entreprises, dans une population composée à parts égales d’hommes et de femmes, a permis d’y relever des pratiques de régulation qui non seulement remettent en cause les termes traditionnels de la régulation fordiste qui hier encore dominaient les bureaucraties professionnelles où on employait les professionnels de l’informatique, mais encore les frontières traditionnelles du système de relations industrielles selon deux aspects : celui des trois acteurs principaux : les employeurs, les travailleurs et l’État, par l’ajout du client et des équipes de travail ; et celui de la séparation entre les contextes du système de relations industrielles et ce système lui-même.As the global economy undergoes a major transformation, the inadequacy of labour relations theories dating back to Fordism, especially the systemic analysis model (Dunlop, 1958 and the strategic model (Kochan, Katz, & McKersie, 1986, in which only three actors—union, employer and State—share the stage is becoming increasingly obvious. A good example is provided by companies

  11. Experiments on light water lattices with enriched uranium fuel; Analyse des donnees experimentales sur les reseaux a eau legere et uranium enrichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audinet, M [Societe des Forges et Ateliers du Creusot, 75 - Paris (France); Lamare, J de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Panossian, J [Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques (France)

    1958-07-01

    Experiments a light water lattices with slightly enriched uranium fuel, have been performed at Brookhaven and Bettis Plant Laboratories. The results are studied and compared with simple theories on reactor calculations. By taking into account shadow effects and non Maxwellian neutron spectrum, which are important in this kind of reactors, we have been able to explain the observed results fairly well. We can thus give a constituent set of formulas with which to calculate lattices similar to there we studied. (author) [French] Les resultats d'experiences effectuees aux Laboratoires de Brookbaven et de Bettis Plant, sur des reseaux heterogenes a eau legere et uranium metallique legerement enrichi, sont analyses et confrontes avec les theories simples du calcul de pile. En tenant compte des effets d'interaction et d'echauffement du spectre de neutrons qui sont importants dans ce type de reacteurs, on parvient a rendre compte convenablement des resultats observes. On a ainsi mis au point un formulaire permettant le calcul des reseaux quivpeuvent etre consideres comme assez semblables aux reseaux etudies. (auteur)

  12. Méthodologie de l'extrapolation des réacteurs chimiques Methodology for Scaling Up Chemical Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trambouze P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après un exposé général relatif à la méthodologie du développement des procédés, applicable à l'extrapolation des réacteurs, est présenté un rapide examen critique des deux principales techniques mises en oeuvre, à savoir : - la théorie de la similitude ; - l'élaboration de modèles mathématiques. Deux exemples pratiques, relatifs aux réacteurs homogènes et aux réacteurs catalytiques à lit fixe et deux phases fluides, sont ensuite examinés à la lumière des considérations générales précédentes. After giving a general description of process-development methodology applicable to scaling up reactors, this article makes a quick critical examination of the two main techniques involved, i. e. : (a the theory of similarity, and (b the compiling of mathematical models. Two practical examples relating to homogeneous reactors and trickle-bed catalytic reactors are then examined in the light of the preceding general considerations.

  13. Radioactivity monitoring within the environment of the Loire basin. A partnership between the IRSN and the Dampierre-en-Burly and Saint-Laurent CLIs at the service of citizen vigilance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Loire basin and its environment, discusses the physical-chemical quality control of its waters and the main usages of the Loire waters. It also presents the nuclear installations present in the Loire basin (electricity production nuclear power stations and other installations), the actors involved in radioactivity measurement in the Loire basin environment (IRSN, EDF, AREVA, associations for the monitoring of water quality, public services), and the national network for radioactivity measurement in the environment. The second part describes and reports the radioactivity monitoring of the environment in the Loire basin, i.e. in the atmosphere, in rain waters and in continental waters, and in the food chain. Addressing this monitoring activity, a last part discusses the evolution of measurements, the importance of the plurality of actors involved in sampling and measurement (in order to guarantee the monitoring system transparency), the variety of sources, the assessment of health impact

  14. Radioactivity monitoring within the environment of the Loire basin. A partnership between the IRSN and the Dampierre-en-Burly and Saint-Laurent CLIs at the service of citizen vigilance; Surveillance de la radioactivite dans l'environnement du bassin de la Loire. Un partenariat entre l'IRSN et les CLI de Dampierre-en-Burly et de Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux au service de la vigilance citoyenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The first part of this report presents the Loire basin and its environment, discusses the physical-chemical quality control of its waters and the main usages of the Loire waters. It also presents the nuclear installations present in the Loire basin (electricity production nuclear power stations and other installations), the actors involved in radioactivity measurement in the Loire basin environment (IRSN, EDF, AREVA, associations for the monitoring of water quality, public services), and the national network for radioactivity measurement in the environment. The second part describes and reports the radioactivity monitoring of the environment in the Loire basin, i.e. in the atmosphere, in rain waters and in continental waters, and in the food chain. Addressing this monitoring activity, a last part discusses the evolution of measurements, the importance of the plurality of actors involved in sampling and measurement (in order to guarantee the monitoring system transparency), the variety of sources, the assessment of health impact

  15. Ecology of Legionella within water cooling circuits of nuclear power plants along the French Loire River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    The cooling circuits of nuclear power plants, by their mode of operating, can select thermophilic microorganisms including the pathogenic organism Legionella pneumophila. To control the development of this genus, a disinfection treatment of water cooling systems with monochloramine can be used. To participate in the management of health and environmental risks associated with the physico-chemical and microbiological modification of water collected from the river, EDF is committed to a process of increasing knowledge about the ecology of Legionella in cooling circuits and its links with its environment (physical, chemical and microbiological) supporting or not their proliferation. Thus, diversity and dynamics of culturable Legionella pneumophila were determined in the four nuclear power plants along the Loire for a year and their links with physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were studied. This study revealed a high diversity of Legionella pneumophila subpopulations and their dynamic seems to be related to the evolution of a small number of subpopulations. Legionella subpopulations seem to maintain strain-specific relationships with biotic parameters and present different sensitivities to physico-chemical variations. The design of cooling circuits could impact the Legionella community. The use of monochloramine severely disrupts the ecosystem but does not select biocide tolerant subpopulations. (author)

  16. Loire and Gironde turbid plumes: Characterization and influence on thermohaline properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costoya, X.; Fernández-Nóvoa, D.; deCastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge and predictability of turbid river plumes is of great importance because they modulate the properties of the seawater adjacent to river mouths. The Loire and Gironde Rivers form the most important plumes in the Bay of Biscay, as they provide > 75% of total runoff. The development of the turbid plume under the influence of its main drivers was analyzed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data from the period 2003-2015. River discharge was found to be the main driver, followed by wind, which also had an important effect in modulating the turbid plume during periods of high river discharge. Seaward and upwelling favorable winds enhanced the dispersion of plumes on seawater, whereas landward and downwelling favorable winds limited mixing with the adjacent ocean water. The maximum extension of the turbid plume was reached under landward winds. In addition, the spatio-temporal evolution of the East Atlantic pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation was observed to affect the dynamics of plumes: positive values of both indices favored a greater extension of the plume. Thermohaline properties differed inside and outside the area affected by both rivers. In particular, these rivers maintain winter stratification inside the turbid plume, which results in a different warming ratio when compared with the adjacent ocean.

  17. Prévention des TMS dans la durée : des acteurs institutionnels facilitent une démarche d’entreprise Sustainable prevention of musculoskeletal disorders: institutional actors make a company approach easier Prevención de las lesions músculo esqueléticas a largo plazo: los actors institucionales facilitan un proceso en la empresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tayar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un projet départemental de prévention des TMS est né en 2003 à l’initiative du Service Médical Inter-entreprises de l’Anjou et de l’Action Régionale pour l’Amélioration des Conditions de Travail des Pays de Loire pour répondre aux difficultés des entreprises à mettre en place des projets efficaces et pérennes. Il réunit dans un engagement pour 5 ans, 6 entreprises volontaires qui en acceptent les exigences.Les acteurs institutionnels de prévention apportent, dans une approche pluridisciplinaire, une méthodologie de projet et la possibilité d’échanges et de retours d’expérience entre les entreprises. Cet accompagnement est orienté sur la constitution de groupes de travail animés par des consultants privés pour réfléchir sur des situations à risques de TMS et mettre en commun des décisions de changement.Après 3 ans de conduite du projet dans un abattoir de viande bovine, un processus d’appropriation est à l’œuvre. Les évaluations mettent en lumière des changements humains, organisationnels et techniques. Cette expérience interroge le rôle des acteurs institutionnels et l’intérêt de l’articulation entre les acteurs externes et internes à l’entreprise.A departmental musculoskeletal disorder (MSD prevention project was begun in 2003 on the initiative of the Anjou inter-company medical service and the Regional action for the improvement of working conditions in the Pays de Loire to respond to companies’ difficulties in establishing effective and ongoing projects. It brought together 6 volunteer companies in a commitment to a 5-year agreement.The institutional prevention actors provide, in a multi-disciplinary approach, a project methodology and the opportunity for exchanges and feedback between the companies. This accompanying action focused on the creation of working groups led by private consultants to consider situations that could lead to musculoskeletal disorders and to share decisions for

  18. Le Kivu dans la guerre : acteurs et enjeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Pourtier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La guerre en RDC témoigne du réveil d’une guerre qui couvait depuis des années. Au-delà des réactions émotionnelles que suscitent les images, toujours recommencées, des victimes civiles fuyant les zones de combat, les pillages et les viols perpétrés par toutes les forces armées impliquées dans le conflit ou celles du recrutement forcé d’enfants soldats, se posent des questions de fond. Quels sont les acteurs d’un conflit dont la durée et les rebondissements après chaque phase d’accalmie signifient qu’il est l’expression de tensions structurelles ? Enchâssé dans l’entité géopolitique des Grands Lacs, le Kivu est partie prenante, d’un système régional de conflits. La guerre qui s’y déroule constitue une sérieuse entrave à la reconstruction de la RDC, et une menace pour la stabilité de toute la région : aujourd’hui plus que jamais le Kivu est la poudrière de l’Afrique Centrale. Cet article est un état des lieux et des enjeux d’un conflit ancien qui connaît depuis janvier 2009 une certaine accalmie, mais pour combien de temps ? Quels en sont les acteurs internes ? Quelles sont les forces externes qui interfèrent dans un conflit nourri de facteurs aggravants qui participent à la fois de la dialectique ethnique, des intérêts économiques contradictoires et d’une situation démographique caractérisée par des densités élevées.Once again, it’s war time in Kivu. In spite of the United Nation’s mission (MONUC that tries to put an end to the turmoil in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, an other conflict has popped up in the heart of the African continent. In this region thousands of people have been killed and millions of others removed from their birthplace by the permanent troubles that have prevailed since the burst of violence occurred in the Great lakes regions in 1994. In the mean time, the FAR, leaded by Paul Kagame has won the civil war in Rwanda, and the core

  19. Mapping regional soil water erosion risk in the Brittany-Loire basin for water management agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degan, Francesca; Cerdan, Olivier; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Gautier, Jean-Noël

    2014-05-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the main degradation processes that affect soils through the removal of soil particles from the surface. The impacts for environment and agricultural areas are diverse, such as water pollution, crop yield depression, organic matter loss and reduction in water storage capacity. There is therefore a strong need to produce maps at the regional scale to help environmental policy makers and soil and water management bodies to mitigate the effect of water and soil pollution. Our approach aims to model and map soil erosion risk at regional scale (155 000 km²) and high spatial resolution (50 m) in the Brittany - Loire basin. The factors responsible for soil erosion are different according to the spatial and time scales considered. The regional scale entails challenges about homogeneous data sets availability, spatial resolution of results, various erosion processes and agricultural practices. We chose to improve the MESALES model (Le Bissonnais et al., 2002) to map soil erosion risk, because it was developed specifically for water erosion in agricultural fields in temperate areas. The MESALES model consists in a decision tree which gives for each combination of factors the corresponding class of soil erosion risk. Four factors that determine soil erosion risk are considered: soils, land cover, climate and topography. The first main improvement of the model consists in using newly available datasets that are more accurate than the initial ones. The datasets used cover all the study area homogeneously. Soil dataset has a 1/1 000 000 scale and attributes such as texture, soil type, rock fragment and parent material are used. The climate dataset has a spatial resolution of 8 km and a temporal resolution of mm/day for 12 years. Elevation dataset has a spatial resolution of 50 m. Three different land cover datasets are used where the finest spatial resolution is 50 m over three years. Using these datasets, four erosion factors are characterized and

  20. Influence of fluvial environments on sediment archiving processes and temporal pollutant dynamics (Upper Loire River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Rodrigues, S; Desmet, M

    2015-02-01

    Floodplains are often cored to build long-term pollutant trends at the basin scale. To highlight the influences of depositional environments on archiving processes, aggradation rates, archived trace element signals and vertical redistribution processes, two floodplain cores were sampled near in two different environments of the Upper Loire River (France): (i) a river bank ridge and (ii) a paleochannel connected by its downstream end. The base of the river bank core is composed of sandy sediments from the end of the Little Ice Age (late 18th century). This composition corresponds to a proximal floodplain aggradation (sediments that settled in the distal floodplain. In this distal floodplain environment, the aggradation rate depends on the topography and connection degree to the river channel. The temporal dynamics of anthropogenic trace element enrichments recorded in the distal floodplain are initially synchronous and present similar levels. Although the river bank core shows general temporal trends, the paleochannel core has a better resolution for short-time variations of trace element signals. After local water depth regulation began in the early 1930s, differences of connection degree were enhanced between the two cores. Therefore, large trace element signal divergences are recorded across the floodplain. The paleochannel core shows important temporal variations of enrichment levels from the 1930s to the coring date. However, the river bank core has no significant temporal variations of trace element enrichments and lower contamination levels because of a lower deposition of contaminated sediments and a pedogenetic trace elements redistribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  2. Expertise on the file of declaration of modifications related to releases and to water samplings of the Belleville-sur-Loire C.N.P.E. Study performed on the request of the Bellevile-sur-Loire Local Information Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migeon, A.; Barbey, P.; Guillemette, A.; Josset, M.

    2013-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory framework regarding the safety of nuclear installations and transport of radioactive substances, this document reports an expertise study of the content of a file (Declaration of modification related to releases and water samplings of the Nuclear Centre of Electricity Production (CNPE) of Belleville-sur-Loire) which is being examined by concerned authorities. It first proposes some information on sources of hazard (others than radiological) such as pathogen agents (legionella, amoebae), dangerous chemical agents (hydrazine, morpholine, ethanol-amine, nitrites and nitrates, and so on). It more particularly analyses, comments, explains and discusses four issues of the request for change: evolution of the chemical conditioning of the primary circuit, implementation of a processing of condenser cooling circuits by massive chlorination under controlled pH, evolution of water sampling and release authorisations, and modification of regulatory texts. For these four issues, notably the first three ones, the authors provide detailed comments and discussion on technical and chemical issues. The fourth part of the report addresses the regulatory monitoring of the environment of the nuclear power plant: monitoring of chemical releases (in the Loire river, in its sediments, fauna and flora), of biological pathogen agents, of tritium in water and in the atmosphere. For these various issues, the authors propose a presentation of the situation, and give some explanations and comments on the measured and available data

  3. UN OUTIL D’AIDE Á LA GESTION DE L’ANGUILLE : LE TABLEAU DE BORD ANGUILLLE DU BASSIN LOIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAISEZ A.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available L’anguille européenne (Anguilla anguilla, L. est longtemps apparue comme une espèce commune, représentant une composante majeure des milieux littoraux et des eaux continentales. La prise de conscience de la diminution de son abondance est réelle et engendre l’émergence de processus de gestion. Ce constat situe l’enjeu du Tableau de Bord Anguille du Bassin Loire mis en place en avril 2002 sous l’égide du COmité de GEstion des POissons MIgrateurs du Bassin de la Loire, des Côtiers Vendéens et de la Sèvre Niortaise. Son objectif in fine est de contribuer à une gestion et à un développement durable de l’espèce et de ses habitats. Il vise à surveiller les caractéristiques des stocks locaux présents et des habitats disponibles au moyen d’une collecte régulière et objective de données synthétisées sous forme d’indicateurs de population et de milieu. Le concept, le fonctionnement actuel et les applications de ce tableau de bord sont ici présentés.

  4. Landscape trajectories during the Lateglacial and the Holocene in the Loir River Valley (France) : the contribution of Geoarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Juliene

    2015-04-01

    A multidisciplinary research has been initiated in the Loir River valley where investigations revealed high-potential fluvial records and landforms for environmental and socio-environmental reconstructions. Investigations provide the opportunity to reconstruct landscape trajectories between climate, environmental and societal changes during the last 16000 years, using geoarchaeological and archaeogeographical approaches: sedimentology, soil micromorphology, geochemistry, archaeology, geomatics, geochronology (AGES Program: Ancient Geomorphological EvolutionS of Loire Basin hydrosystem). In the sector of Vaas (Sarthe, France) the research on the Lateglacial and the Holocene sedimentary sequences from the alluvial plain leads to a general overview of the valley evolution from the end of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial to the Present. Joined to archaeological (Protohistoric and Antic sites) and historical data (engineering archives, 18th century cadastral registers) this research highlights the importance of anthropogenic and geomorphological heritages in the current fluvial landscape (microtopography, wetlands, archaeological remains, land use). This knowledge constitutes a basis for skills transfer to planners and managers, in sustainable management of hydrological resources (reducing the vulnerability to flooding and low flows), preservation of biodiversity (wetlands protection) and valorization of landscapes (cultural tourism development).

  5. Spatial distribution of trace elements in the surface sediments of a major European estuary (Loire Estuary, France): Source identification and evaluation of anthropogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Gorse, Laureline; Curti, Cécile; Schafer, Jörg; Grosbois, Cécile; Morelli, Guia; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Gérard; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Mojtahid, Meryem

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the extent of metal contamination in estuarine surface sediments is hampered by the high heterogeneity of sediment characteristics, the spatial variability of trace element sources, sedimentary dynamics and geochemical processes in addition to the need of accurate reference values for deciphering natural to anthropogenic contribution. Based on 285 surface sediment samples from the Loire Estuary, the first high-resolution spatial distributions are presented for grain-size, particulate organic carbon (POC) and the eight metals/metalloids identified as priority contaminants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, Hg) plus Ag (an urban tracer). Grain-size and/or POC are major factors controlling the spatial distribution of trace element concentrations. The V-normalized trace metal concentrations divided by the V-normalized concentrations in the basin geochemical background showed the highest Enrichment Factors for Ag and Hg (EF; up to 34 and 140, respectively). These results suggest a severe contamination in the Loire Estuary for both elements. Intra-estuarine Ag and Hg anomalies were identified by comparison between respective normalized concentrations in the Loire Estuary surface sediments and those measured in the surface sediments at the outlet of the Loire River System (watershed-derived). Anthropogenic intra-estuarine Ag and Hg stocks in the uppermost centimetre of the sediment compared with rough annual fluvial flux estimates suggest that the overall strong Enrichment Factors for Ag (EFAg) and and Hg (EFHg) in the Loire Estuary sediments are mainly due to watershed-derived inputs, highlighting the need of high temporal hydro-geochemical monitoring to establish reliable incoming fluxes. Significant correlations obtained between EFCd and EFAg, EFCu and POC and EFHg and POC revealed common behavior and/or sources. Comparison of trace element concentrations with ecotoxicological indices (Sediment Quality Guidelines) provides first standardized information on the

  6. Tensions et coordinations entre les acteurs des sciences de la performance sportive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Delalandre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article part d’une étude qui questionne les conditions de production des savoirs scientifiques sur la performance sportive, en portant le regard sur les modes de coordination entre les chercheurs et les entraîneurs avec qui ils collaborent. L’analyse d’un matériau empirique constitué d’entretiens et d’un corpus écrit nous a conduit à mettre en évidence trois régimes de scientificité, qui constituent à la fois des modes de coordination des chercheurs et des entraîneurs et des formes particulières de production des savoirs. L’article met en lumière des tensions inhérentes à chacun de ces régimes et les solutions adoptées par les acteurs pour coopérer. Nous nous intéressons enfin aux contraintes que les chercheurs rencontrent pour passer d’un régime à l’autre.Tensions and coordinations between the actors of sports performance sciencesThis article is based on a study which examines how knowledge is produced in the field of sports performance, looking at the modes of coordination between researchers and the coaches with whom they collaborate. The analysis of empirical data made of interviews and texts leads us to show three scientific regimes, which are at the same time specific modes of coordination between scientists and coaches and particular forms of knowledge production. The paper sheds light on the tensions inherent in each regime and the solutions which the actors adopt in order to co-operate. Finally, we study the constraints scientists face when they go from one regime to another.Tensiones y coordinaciones entre los integrantes de las ciencias de la performance deportivaEste trabajo estudia las condiciones de producción del conocimiento científico respecto a la performance deportiva, destacando el modo de coordinación y colaboración entre investigadores y entrenadores. El análisis de un material empírico está constituido por entrevistas y por un corpus escrito que nos ha conducido a determinar

  7. Vg mRNA induction in an endangered fish species (Anguilla anguilla) from the Loire estuary (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Letrouvé, Isabelle; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Poirier, Laurence; Baloche, Sylvie; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Dufour, Sylvie; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Estuarine zones are extremely fragile due to increasing stress from anthropogenic activities. Among those, the Loire estuary (France) is potentially exposed to various contaminants including Endocrine Disruptors Compounds (EDCs) able to impact the reproduction physiology of fish. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla), endangered fish species, is apparently not relevant, in its yellow stage, to monitor the effects of endocrine disruption. Despite this weakly responsiveness, this study aimed to investigate whether European eel from the Loire estuary may still be the subject of estrogenic disruption quantifying the hepatic Vg gene expression according to gender and sexual stage. Vitellogenin (Vg) appears as a valuable biomarker of EDCs, as well as for exposure and effects. Quantitative real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (q RT PCR) was used in this study to amplify responses of hepatic Vg transcripts. European eels were sampled in May 2009 (N=57) and November 2010 (during the downstream migration, N=10) in two sites of the Loire estuary with different ecological conditions and contamination pressures (upstream: Varades; downstream: Nantes). Reproductive (gender, sexual maturity stage) and biometric parameters of collected eels were determined. A laboratory exposure of silver male to steroid hormones (Testosterone (T), 11-KetoTestosterone (11-KT), Estradiol (E2)) was conducted in parallel to validate the q RT PCR approach on hepatic Vg mRNA. Results demonstrated the responsiveness of exposed silver male eels, since hepatic mRNA Vg induction was observed in E2 treated males compared to control specimens. In the field, results of female silver eels reflected large inter-individual differences in the activation of hepatic Vg at silvering. However, while only female silver eels should express hepatic Vg mRNA, quantifiable levels were also detected in a proportion of 38% of the other individuals sampled, normally not inclined to express it, those being

  8. Nutrient inputs and hydrology together determine biogeochemical status of the Loire River (France): Current situation and possible future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette; Ramarson, Antsiva; Billen, Gilles; Théry, Sylvain; Thiéry, Dominique; Thieu, Vincent; Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina

    2018-05-10

    The Grafs-Seneque/Riverstrahler model was implemented for the first time on the Loire River for the 2002-2014 period, to explore eutrophication after improvement of wastewater treatments. The model reproduced the interannual levels and seasonal trends of the major water quality variables. Although eutrophication has been impressively reduced in the drainage network, a eutrophication risk still exists at the coast, as shown by the N-ICEP indicator, pointing out an excess of nitrogen over silica and phosphorus. From maximum biomass exceeding 120 μgChla l -1 in the 1980's, we observed decreasing maximum values from 80 to 30 μgChla l -1 during the period studied. Several scenarios were explored. Regarding nutrient point sources, a low wastewater treatment scenario, similar to the situation in the 1980's, was elaborated, representing much greater pollution than the reference period (2002-2014). For diffuse sources, two agricultural scenarios were elaborated for reducing nitrogen, one with a strict application of the agricultural directives and another investigating the impact of radical structural changes in agriculture and the population's diet. Although reduced, a risk of eutrophication would remain, even with the most drastic scenario. In addition, a pristine scenario, with no human activity within the basin, was devised to assess water quality in a natural state. The impact of a change in hydrology on the Loire biogeochemical functioning was also explored according to the effect of climate change by the end of the 21st century. The EROS hydrological model was used to force Riverstrahler, considering the most pessimistic SRES A2 scenario run with the ARPEGE model. Nutrient fluxes all decreased due to a >50% reduction in the average annual discharge, overall reducing the risk of coastal eutrophication, but worsening the water quality status of the river network. The Riverstrahler model could be useful to help water managers contend with future threats in the

  9. Integral measurements of lattice properties in the natural uranium-graphite critical facility Marius; Mesures globales de reseaux a graphite dans l'empilement critique marius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogne, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A systematic study of natural uranium-graphite lattices has been undertaken in the critical facility MARIUS, which was built in 1959 in Marcoule. Integral measurement of lattice properties are carried out by the progressive replacement method. This report describes the experimental methods, the analysis of the experiments and the results obtained for lattices with pitches ranging from 192 to 317 mm and fuel elements with cross sections ranging from 6 to 20 cm{sup 2}. The principles of correlation of the results are also outlined. Additional experimental results are also given, pertaining to the determination of the anisotropy, of both the axial and the radial migration areas, and of the age in graphite. (author) [French] L'empilement critique MARIUS, construit en 1959 a Marcoule, a ete utilise pour l'etude systematique des reseaux a graphite-uranium naturel. Les mesures globales de reseaux sont faites par la methode de remplacement progressif. On decrit ici les methodes experimentales utilisees pour ces mesures globales, les principes du depouillement et les resultats obtenus pour des pas de 192 a 317 mm et des combustibles de 6 a 20 cm{sup 2} d'uranium naturel. On donne d'autre part le principe de correlation des mesures. Un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux complementaires sont donnes, en permettant de determiner l'anisotropie, les aires de migration axiale et radiale, l'age dans le graphite. (auteur)

  10. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P.; Gourdon, Ch.; Martelly, J.; Sagot, M.; Wanner, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V.; Joshi, B.V.; Sahai, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  11. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P; Gourdon, Ch; Martelly, J; Sagot, M; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V; Joshi, B V; Sahai, K [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  12. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  13. Transferts radiatifs dans les récepteurs-réacteurs solaires à haute température

    OpenAIRE

    Caliot , Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Les projets de recherche, sur les nouveaux procédés de conversion de l'énergie solaire concentrée, doivent relever le défi de la simulation des récepteurs solaires. En effet, des mécanismes complexes de couplage écoulement/rayonnement/réaction chimique/croissance de particules doivent être simulés pour développer les connaissances et les applications. Dans ce mémoire, l'influence du rayonnement a été étudiée dans un réacteur solaire de craquage du méthane pour la production d'hydrogène et de ...

  14. Culture des acteurs et modèles d’intervention dans l’innovation technopédagogique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peraya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available L’intégration pédagogique des TIC va bien au-delà de la simple maîtrise de l’outil par l’enseignant. Depuis quelques années, il existe des standards de compétences qui prennent en compte d’autres dimensions, notamment des aspects de planification de l’enseignement, de gestion de classe et de formation continue par les TIC. Mais ces listes souvent interminables en disent plus sur les objets de culture que sur la culture elle-même en tant qu’élément clé d’intervention. Nous présentons et comparons deux modèles de pilotage et de soutien de l’innovation technopédagogique qui permettent de mieux comprendre les facteurs en jeu et d’accompagner les acteurs du dispositif de formation. Nos efforts de modélisation de ces facteurs nous ont permis d’identifier quatre sous-dimensions caractéristiques de la culture des acteurs relative à l’intégration des TIC : les représentations/visions, les habiletés/ressources, les attitudes et les pratiques. L’articulation de ces éléments fournit un ensemble d’indicateurs qui permettent d’identifier des aspects à développer et à soutenir afin d’optimiser les chances de succès de l’intégration des TIC.

  15. Perception de la notion de litige sportif par les acteurs du mouvement sportif camerounais : entre et lueurs et leurres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Dey Yelem Franck

    2016-01-01

    L'intérêt de cette communication sera de donner le contenu des notions de litige sportif et contentieux électoral et les différentes positions en présence et voir comment les acteurs du mouvement sportif en ont fait une appréhension erronée. Il va aussi permettre à travers la jurisprudence qui est source de droit de trancher définitivement cette équivoque.

  16. Radio elements transfer from water to atmosphere through degassing processes in the Loire estuary: the Flore project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontugne, M.; Hatte, C.; Paterne, M.; Maro, D.; Germain, P.; Hebert, D.; Rozet, M.; Voiseux, C.; Solier, L.; Tenailleau, L.; Abril, G.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of the toxic substances in the environment covers various fields of investigations like contamination by the radioelements, heavy metals and organic compounds. The knowledge of the biogeochemical cycles of the radioelements basically their temporal and spatial distributions is essential to a better understanding of their biological effects. Estuarine environments present a major interest since they constitute accumulation areas of wastes and rejections of the majority of the anthropogenic activities. These transition zones between fresh waters and ocean, characterised by the change of the physico- chemical properties (pH, salinity, turbidity) allows a redistribution of the radioelements by their speciation or phase change thus modifying their bio-availability. The Loire River estuary receives the rejections of radioelements being able to come from various sources like the nuclear thermal power stations (fourteen engines with discharges of carbon-14, tritium), the hospital complexes (rejections of iodine 131). The aims of FLORE program is to study the distribution of these radioelements and processes of phase transfer in this estuary especially in the mud plug area where the biochemical activity is intense. If most of the processes of transfer are now well established, fluxes of radioelements between water and the atmosphere are not quantified. Two oceanographic cruises carried out in February and September 2003 on board N/O 'Cotes de La Manche' allow to present distribution Iodine 131 within the estuary and the first estimation of radiocarbon and tritium fluxes from the river water to the atmosphere. (author)

  17. Multiple 3d Approaches for the Architectural Study of the Medieval Abbey of Cormery in the Loire Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper will focus on the technical approaches used for a PhD thesis regarding architecture and spatial organization of benedict abbeys in Touraine in the Middle Ages, in particular the abbey of Cormery in the heart of the Loire Valley. Monastic space is approached in a diachronic way, from the early Middle Ages to the modern times using multi-sources data: architectural study, written sources, ancient maps, various iconographic documents… Many scales are used in the analysis, from the establishment of the abbeys in a territory to the scale of a building like the tower-entrance of the church of Cormery. These methodological axes have been developed in the research unit CITERES for many years and the 3D technology is now used to go further along in that field. The recording in 3D of the buildings of the abbey of Cormery allows us to work at the scale of the monastery and to produce useful data such as sections or orthoimages of the ground and the walls faces which are afterwards drawn and analysed. The study of these documents, crossed with the other historical sources, allowed us to emphasize the presence of walls older than what we thought and to discover construction elements that had not been recognized earlier and which enhance the debate about the construction date St Paul tower and associated the monastic church.

  18. Project of Particular intervention plan of the Belleville-sur-Loire NPP. Special provisions of the ORSEC plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the project of Particular intervention plan for the Belleville-sur-Loire Nuclear Power Plant (Cher, France)

  19. A calculation method of available soil water content : application to viticultural terroirs mapping of the Loire valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Vine water supply is one of the most important elements in the determination of grape composition and wine quality. Water supply conditions are in relation with available soil water content, therefore this one has to be determined when vineyard terroir mapping is undertaken. The available soil water content depends on soil factors like water content at field capacity, water content at the permanent wilting point, apparent density and rooting depth. The aim of this study is to seek the relationship between these factors and a simple soil characteristic such as texture which could be easily measurable in routine cartography. Study area is located in the Loire valley, in two different geological regions. First results indicate that it is possible to determine available soil water content from clay percentage, then from soil texture. These results also show that available soil water content algorithms differ with geological properties. This calculation can be used at each auger boring and results can be spatialised within a Geographical Information System that allows the production of available water content maps.

  20. Gouvernance et acteurs privés : le cas de la lutte contre les discriminations au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Cantrelle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Notre travail consiste à mettre à l’épreuve du terrain le concept de gouvernance, entendu comme une forme d’intervention des entreprises dans l’action publique. A travers la problématique des discriminations (fondées sur l’origine ethnique dans le monde du travail, nous montrerons comment une question sociale a été saisie par des acteurs privés auteurs de différentes initiatives telles que la production de rapports dédiés à ce sujet (Bébéar 2004, Sabeg et Méhaignerie 2004...1 et à travers la récente signature de la « Charte de la diversité» par une quarantaine d’entreprises françaises en octobre 2004. Ces différentes initiatives (production de rapport, d’une charte, etc. révèlent la tentation des acteurs privés à ériger un problème public, à influer sur les relations étatiques, à légitimer et à supporter leurs propres explications du réel, des différentes causalités ainsi que des solutions qui s’y rapportent. L’appropriation de cette question des discriminations par les acteurs privés témoigne de leur participation croissante dans les décisions politiques. Elle illustre donc un mode de gestion qui  se codifie au regard de normes négociées, et caractérise en partie les outils et procédés de la gouvernance. Ainsi, à partir du postulat selon lequel la gouvernance est un mode de gestion qui se codifie au regard de normes négociées, nous avons mené une étude sur la « Charte de la diversité »  dans les entreprises rendue publique en octobre 2004. Ce travail permet également de questionner la participation et le rôle des entreprises dans le développement de politiques qui ont trait à la justice sociale et à l’équité. Plus que de « développement durable », on évoque le terme de « responsabilité sociale des entreprises » pour signifier les devoirs qui « s’imposent » à ces organisations économiques.The objective of our paper consists in testing on the

  1. [Identification of alloantibodies and their associations: balance sheet of a year at the Auvergne-Loire French Blood Establishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboeuf, S; Flourié, F; Courbil, R; Benamara, A; Rigal, E; Cognasse, F; Garraud, O

    2012-12-01

    Some alloantibodies and their combinations can lead to delays or even an impasse in a transfusion, owing to the necessity of finding compatible red blood cell concentrates. The aim of this study was to determine the specificities of the most common alloantibodies, as well as the most common combinations of alloantibodies. A retrospective study analysed erythrocyte alloantibodies identified in 2008 in the immunohematology laboratories at the Auvergne-Loire French Blood Establishment. The following data were studied: frequency, specificities of the alloantibodies, date of discovery, and patient age and sex. One thousand eight hundred and fifteen alloantibodies were identified in 1575 patients (median age: 63.5years, female/male ratio: 3.03). The most common alloantibodies were directed against the following antigens: RH3/E (18.7%), KEL1/K (17.3%), RH1/D (16.4%), MNS1/M (9.4%), FY1/Fya (6.9%), RH2/C (6.1%), KEL3/Kpa (4.7%), JK1/Jka (4.3%) and RH4/c (4.1%). In 13.1% of patients, at least two alloantibodies were identified. The pairs most frequently combined were anti-RH1/RH2, anti-RH3/RH4 and anti-RH3/KEL1. Specific associations of paired alloantibodies were identified. The main combinations provide indications on the choice of red cell concentrates in the inventory for a given patient. The data collected in our study show that when an antibody is identified, it is recommended for subsequent transfusion episodes to respect the phenotype RH 1-5 (D, C, E, c, e) and KEL1 (K) of the patient, and if possible antigens JK1 (Jka) and FY1 (Fya), and to a lesser extent MNS3 (S). Detailed knowledge of the immunological mechanisms leading to the formation of these alloantibodies and their combinations would allow better prevention of erythrocyte alloimmunization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  3. Topographic effect on Radio-Magnetotelluric and Slingram signals: application to a levee along the Loire river, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.

  4. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (FR): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detriche, Sebastien; Rodrigues, Stephane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul [Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CNRS/INSU UMR 6113 ISTO, Universite d' Orleans Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Geologie des Environnements Aquatiques Continentaux, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Bonte, Philippe [UMR CNRS-CEA 1572, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement - LSCE, CNRS, Domaine du CNRS, Bat. 12, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Juge, Philippe [CETU-Elmis ingenieries, Antenne Universitaire en Val de Vienne, 11 quai Danton, 37500 Chinon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (FR) was investigated using the {sup 137}Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some {sup 137}Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about {sup 137}Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited pre-incision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year{sup -1}) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment. (authors)

  5. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (FR): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detriche, Sebastien; Rodrigues, Stephane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul; Bonte, Philippe; Juge, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (FR) was investigated using the 137 Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some 137 Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about 137 Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited pre-incision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year -1 ) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment. (authors)

  6. Les partenariats entre les acteurs de tourisme pour la mise en place de durabilité, le cas de la région Marrakech Tensuft Alhaouz, au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hadach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available L’existence des partenariats entre les acteurs de tourisme est une condition sine qua non de succès des expériences de tourisme durable. D’abord les partenariats entre les acteurs privés et publics permettent la facilité de financement des infrastructures de qualité, nécessaires à la mise en place d’un tourisme qui respecte les exigences environnementales, économiques et socioculturelles, le partage des expériences et le savoir-faire des opérateurs internationaux. Ce travail a tenté de trouvé des raisonnements logiques de l’inadéquation entre l’offre et la demande en ce qui concerne les produits touristiques durables, à travers la mise en place d’une collaboration participative entre les différents acteurs de tourisme de la destination Marrakech au Maroc. En effet nous avons constaté que parmi les facteurs qui peuvent conduire à l’échec de toute forme de tourisme durable, le manque des études au préalable de la demande touristique en adéquation avec ce que les acteurs de tourisme peuvent proposer comme offre durable. Un conflit de temporalité entre la logique des acteurs publiques et celles des organismes privés de tourisme a été soulevé par plusieurs parties prenantes, de plus la nécessité de mettre en place une charte partenariale entre les acteurs de tourisme constitue un pilier pour la mise en place de la durabilité dans ce secteur.

  7. Practical possibility to manage radiation pollution on the examples of the region of Krivoy Rog and Loire river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizonenko, V. [Institute of General Energy of NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    channel of 350 kilometers of the Loire River (France) was made in the framework of the IAEA program EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety). A sharp growth of concentration of tritium is result of interference of the emissions {sup 3}H from different NPP stations. Thus there is principle possibility to decrease of maximal concentrations {sup 3}H by the change of time of the emissions of the separate stations. At the same time the amplitude and duration of separate emissions remains without modifications. The search of favorable combinations of moments of the ejections can be done with the help of modeling. Results are given. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  8. Un établissement du début du premier âge du Fer en Eure-et-Loir : Sours, Les Ouches A settlement from the first Iron Age in Eure-et-Loir: Sours, Les Ouches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dupont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fouille du site des Ouches à Sours (28 a permis la mise au jour d’une importante occupation du Néolithique ancien et la découverte, dans la partie nord de l’emprise, de plusieurs structures datables du début de l’âge du Fer (Hallstatt C. Elles correspondent à des structures domestiques (un bâtiment et des fosses et à une entité “ cultuelle ”: un double enclos en “ U ”.L’habitation et ses annexes sont représentées par un bâtiment de plan quadrangulaire sur poteaux et une grande fosse riche en mobilier (céramiques, ossements et silex taillés. Cette structure peut être associée au fonctionnement d’un four de type “ polynésien ” et avoir servi de fosse de rejet.Le double enclos, ouvert vers le nord, est localisé au nord-est du site.Même si trois céramiques entières ont été trouvées dans son fossé externe, l’essentiel du mobilier céramique (177 individus sur 192 est issu de la grande fosse. Il s’agit principalement de coupes, de jattes parfois incisées, de petits gobelets à panse globulaire typiques du Hallstatt C ou de vases servant au stockage. Ils sont dotés de manière régulière de cordons digités.Ce petit établissement du début de l’âge du Fer a livré un bon échantillon des céramiques en usage en Eure-et-Loir à cette époque ainsi que des vestiges archéozoologiques et lithiques en quantité intéressante. Ces découvertes donnent de nouvelles informations sur les affinités culturelles à la transition entre l’âge du Bronze et l’âge du Fer, période peu documentée dans le Nord de la région Centre.The excavation of the site of Ouches at Sours (28 has enabled the updating of an important settlement from the early Neolithic and the discovery, in the northern part of the site, of several structures datable to the beginning of the Iron Age (Hallstatt C. They correspond to domestic structures (a building and some ditches and a “worship” entity: a double

  9. The regional ground-based wind energy scheme of Pays-de-la-Loire: project, Assessment of the consultation on the regional wind energy project, final version, Prefect decree bearing approval of the regional ground-based wind energy scheme of Pays-de-la-Loire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This document first presents the regional wind energy scheme (SRE) as a framework for ground-based wind energy development, and as the wind energy component of the regional climate air energy scheme (SRCAE), briefly presents the elaboration approach, and indicates the legal scope of this scheme. The next part outlines the high rate development of wind energy in the Pays-de-la-Loire region. The third part reports the identification, analysis and assessment of areas of interest for the development of wind energy. Finally, the objective of this development by 2020 is estimated

  10. Regional strategy of energy transition. The regional strategy for energy transition in Pays-de-la-Loire for 2014-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxiette, Jacques; Clergeau, Christophe; Bouchaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-04-01

    As the Pays-de-la-Loire region has been committed for three years in the preparation for energy transition, this publication first recalls the main objectives to be reached by 2050 regarding energy consumption, electric power consumption, oil consumption by the transport sector, and greenhouse gas emissions. It outlines the need for a national strategy on the long term for energy transition, and presents the adopted approach for the elaboration of such a regional strategy, based on several experiments. The main axes of this strategy are then presented: to better and less consume energy (through thermal renovation, sustainable mobility, energy efficiency, energy saving behaviours), to make energy transition the engine of territory development (through a support to sectors, the development of regional energy production, and optimisation of consumptions and productions), and to elaborate tools for cooperative action

  11. Dynamics of metallic contaminants at a basin scale--Spatial and temporal reconstruction from four sediment cores (Loire fluvial system, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Bourrain, X; Desmet, M

    2016-01-15

    From the 19th century, the Loire basin (France) presents potentially pollutant activities such as mining and heavy industries. This paper shows spatio-temporal distribution of trace elements in sediments at a basin-scale, based on a comparison of archived temporal signals recorded in four sedimentary cores. Anthropogenic sources contributing to sediment contamination are also characterized, using geochemical signatures recorded in river bank sediments of the most industrialized tributaries. This study highlights upstream-downstream differences concerning recorded contamination phases in terms of spatial influence and temporality of archiving processes. Such differences were related to (i) various spatial influences of contamination sources and (ii) polluted sediments dispersion controlled by transport capacity of metal-carrier phases and hydrosedimentary dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Les prairies de l’estuaire de la Loire : étude de la dynamique de la végétation de 1982 à 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Le Dez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse diachronique de cartes de végétation est réalisée pour caractériser les dynamiques de la végétation de l’estuaire de la Loire à différentes échelles spatiales et temporelles. Le modèle des matrices de transition est utilisé pour décrire quantitativement les dynamiques observées. Les analyses révèlent notamment la régression des prairies, le développement des roselières et des boisements ainsi que la progression des végétations halophiles. Ces résultats sont mis en relation avec l’évolution des usages sur ce territoire et les modifications du fonctionnement hydro-sédimentaire de l’estuaire.

  13. Étude des enduits et peintures murales du prieuré Saint-Martin de Mesvres (Saône-et-Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Foullon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available L’ancien prieuré Saint-Martin de Mesvres (Saône-et-Loire occupe une place intéressante dans le réseau religieux bourguignon au Moyen Âge : ses liens avec Autun, Flavigny, mais également Cluny, sont autant d’axes de recherches pour les études historiques et archéologiques en cours . L’étude des enduits et peintures murales du prieuré a débuté en 2009 par une analyse archéologique, menée dans le cadre d’un master 1 de l’université de Paris 4 Panthéon-Sorbonne . À la suite des premières observa...

  14. Scénarios de transition énergétique en ville. Acteurs, régulations, technologies (dir. Gilles Debizet)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrieux, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    L’ouvrage « Scénarios de transition énergétique en ville. Acteurs, régulations, technologies » (dir. Gilles Debizet) cherche à comprendre comment s’opère concrètement la transition énergétique dans les villes, c'est-à-dire le passage d’un usage systématique des énergies carbonisées à l’usage plus fréquent, mais pas exclusif, des énergies renouvelables. Au-delà des grands mots d’ordre sur la baisse de la consommation des énergies fossiles et le développement de solutions à grande échelle, Gill...

  15. Contrôle optimal d'un bioréacteur de dépollution des eaux usées

    OpenAIRE

    GHOUALI, Amel; HARMAND, Jérome; RAPPAPORT, Alain; MOUSSAOUI, Ali

    2012-01-01

    On s'intéresse dans ce travail à un problème de contrôle optimal d'un bioréacteur de dépollution des eaux usées fonctionnant en mode continu, en présence d'une cinétique de croissance non monotone ayant un seul maximum. Le but est de trouver la strategie de commande optimale qui nous permet de maximiser la quantité de biogaz produit sur un horizon de temps donné. Ecole-symposium: Réductions de Systèmes Di érentiels et Applications-RSDA2012 , 18-22 mars 2012, Sidi Bel Abbès....

  16. Étude de l'effet modérateur de sels sur la réaction sodium-eau, pour le "lavage" d'assemblages de combustible irradiés issus de réacteurs à caloporteur sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix , Marie

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of generation IV reactors one of the research tracks is related to the development of fast neutron reactors using fluid sodium heat transfer...; Dans le cadre du développement des réacteurs de génération IV, une des voies de recherche concerne le développement des réacteurs à neutron rapide à caloporteur sodium. Le CEA a pour projet la construction d'un prototype de réacteur de ce type appelé " ASTRID ". En réponse aux besoins de développement de ce pro...

  17. Calculation of the anti-trap factor in heavy water lattices; Calcul du facteur antitrappe dans les reseaux a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, R; Mougey, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The calculation of the anti-trap factor of a lattice is complex when a large fraction of captures occurs in a range of energies where the spectrum in the fuel is considerably different from the simple dE/E law. This is particularly true for heavy water lattices in which the distances. between the bars are generally fairly large with respect to the slowing-down length. In order to take into account this effect it is necessary both to know the constitution of the effective resonance integral as a function of the energy, and to be able to calculate the distribution in the fuel. This report is devoted to these two problems. An improved method of treating the statistical domain makes it possible to plot the curves of the cross-sections per unit lethargy for various shapes of the fuel. Furthermore, the slowing-down of the neutrons is studied using a Monte-Carlo method which makes it possible in particular to take into account the perturbations caused by the non-moderating rods. A study is also made of the problem of shielding effects due to the captures themselves. (authors) [French] Le calcul du facteur antitrappe dans un reseau est complique lorsqu'une fraction importante des captures a lieu dans un domaine d'energie ou le spectre dans le combustible s'ecarte sensiblement de la loi simple en dE/E. Ceci est particulierement vrai pour les reseaux a eau lourde dans lesquels les distances entre barres sont en general assez grandes vis-a-vis de la longueur de ralentissement. Pour tenir compte de cet effet il faut connaitre d'une part la decomposition de l'integrale de resonance effective en fonction de l'energie, d'autre part savoir calculer le spectre dans le combustible. Le rapport est consacre a ces deux problemes. Un traitement ameliore du domaine statistique permet de tracer des courbes de sections de capture par unite de lethargie pour differentes geometries de barreaux. D'autre part le ralentissement des neutrons est etudie par une methode de Monte Carlo, qui permet

  18. Redécouverte d’un milliaire romain. La borne de Chaspuzac (Haute-Loire, cité des Vellaves (province d’Aquitaine The rediscovery of a Roman milestone. The stone of Chaspuzac (Haute-Loire, city of the Vellaves (Aquitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dacko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches initiées dans le cadre d’une thèse en archéologie sur les voies romaines en territoire arverne et vellave ont récemment conduit à la redécouverte d’une borne milliaire, perdue dans la réserve du musée Crozatier au Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire depuis la fin du xixe s. Le réexamen approfondi de l’inscription permet de réviser les précédentes lectures à la lumière de données nouvelles. Complément pour la série des milliaires de l’empereur Maximin, cette borne constitue un témoin des vastes travaux de réfection entrepris sur la voie “ Bolène ” tout au long du iiie siècle.The research started as part of a thesis on Roman roads in the Arverne and Vellave territory has recently led to the rediscovery of a milestone, lost in the storerooms of the Crozatier museum at Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire since the end of the 19th century. A thorough reexamination of the inscription has enabled a revision of previous writings in the light of new information. An addition to the series of milestones of the Emperor Maximinus, this stone is evidence of the great repair works undertaken on the Bolène Way throughout the 3rd century.

  19. [Respiratory allergies among bakers and pastry cooks: epidemiologic survey done in 1991 by the occupational physicians of the Loire-Atlantique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, M; Bataille, A; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) in a population of bakers and pastrycooks. In 1991, 485 bakers and pastry cooks were examined by 27 work-physicians of Loire-Atlantic. The investigation was composed of a standardised questionnaire (signs of respiratory function, atopic history, smoking of tobacco ...), a clinical examination, and tests of respiratory function. An allergy assessment was made of all subjects with symptoms. 14.4% of subjects had rhinitis and 6.4% asthma. Development of these pathologies was clearly job-related for 2/3 of those with rhinitis and more than half of the asthmatics (55%). Occupational rhinitis and asthma were significantly more frequent in bakers than in pastrycooks and were linked to atopic history. Occupational asthma was associated with length of exposure to flour and with occupational rhinitis. In conclusion, these findings are comparable with or a little less than those that have been reported in occupational literature. They under-estimate the importance of the problem because of the occupational selection effect that is associated with these pathologies. Rhinitis and asthma are 1.5 to 3 time more common in bakers than in pastrycooks.

  20. Belleville-sur-Loire plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Belleville-sur-Loire plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  1. La supervision de mémoire en master : l’étudiant comme principal acteur de sa réussite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La supervision de recherche constitue une variable importante de la réussite en deuxième et troisième cycles universitaires. Pour réduire les échecs et les abandons à ces niveaux universitaires, bon nombre de recherches se focalisent sur le lien entre la qualité de la supervision et la réussite de l’étudiant. Or, la relation pédagogique de supervision est une relation duale, le superviseur n’est pas le seul acteur de la réussite de l’étudiant. Peu abordé dans la littérature, nous questionnons dans cet article le rôle de l’étudiant dans sa propre réussite. Des entretiens semi-directifs ont été menés auprès de superviseurs et d’étudiants, dans trois disciplines des sciences humaines et sociales et dans sept universités françaises. Les résultats de cette enquête montrent que l’étudiant est le principal acteur de sa réussite. Quelle que soit la qualité réelle ou perçue de sa supervision, l’étudiant en situation de réussite est celui qui parvient à faire preuve d’autodirection. Nos données montrent que l’autodirection se traduit de deux manières principales avec, d’une part la découverte des implicites et, d’autre part la capacité de compensations des « manques » réels ou perçus.Research supervision is an important factor of success in master and doctoral studies. To reduce failure and attrition at this level, numerous studies have focused on the link between the quality of supervision and student success. Since supervision is a two-way relationship, the supervisor is not the sole actor in determining the student’s success. In this article we investigate the little-researched subject of the role of the student in his or her own success. Semi-directive interviews were conducted with supervisors and students in three disciplines in the social sciences and humanities in seven French universities. The results of this study show the student as the key actor in his or her success

  2. L’aménagement des territoires face au risque d’inondation: regards croisés sur la Loire moyenne et le Val-de-Marne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Beucher

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La volonté de l’État de mieux prévenir les risques, notamment par un meilleur contrôle de l’usage des sols, est souvent perçue localement comme une contrainte. Il est difficile pour les acteurs locaux d’accepter le déclin d’une gestion jusque-là essentiellement techniciste de l’aléa au profit d’une gestion visant à réduire la vulnérabilité. Pourtant, après une phase d’opposition à la politique préventive, certaines communes commencent à intégrer le risque d’inondation dans leurs stratégies de développement territorial. Le risque est conçu non comme une contrainte extérieure, mais comme un élément de l’identité territoriale, et une occasion de mettre en œuvre de nouveaux modes d’aménagement.

  3. Levels and distributions of organic pollutants in subtidal sediments from the Loire estuary: Are there any relationships with TTR-binding activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, M.; Gandolfi, F.; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A.; Beyeler, N.; Malleret, L.; Ambidina, I.; Kamari, A.; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I.; Mouneyrac, C.; Hamers, T.; Poirier, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Loire estuary runs through important urban sites with shipping, industrial and agricultural activities, being the receptacle of diffusive pollutants comprising, a mixture of contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work was set out to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid endocrine disruptors in sediments of this estuary. Sediments were collected in September 2012 and April 2013, in subtidal zones along the estuary. Targeted chemical analyses of five classes of pollutants, i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols (APs), and bisphenol A (BPA) were performed in sediment extracts. Extracts were further tested for their thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting potency to compete with TH for binding to its transporter protein transthyretin (TTR). The Haute-Indre site was characterized by a significant PAH contamination whereas Saint-Nazaire, Bellevue and Rezé would be particularly contaminated by PCBs. These observations could be linked to the different type of anthropogenic activities taking place close to these sites. Donges, Mindin and Paimboeuf were the sampling sites displaying the lowest contamination in PAHs, APs, PCBs and PBDEs. No inter-site difference could be observed for TTR-binding activity, which should be attributed to different compounds than the chemically analyzed compounds, as confirmed by PCA analyses. Furthermore, the TTR-binding potencies of the extracts were relatively low compared to data from literature. More investigations on the quantification of PCB and PBDE hydroxylated metabolites and other known endocrine disruptors such as pesticides or perfluorinated compounds could be considered, as well as bioassays highlighting other endocrine disrupting effects.

  4. Les structures et le mobilier du site d’habitat Hallstatt final-La Tène ancienne d'Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir Buildings and effects from the hallstatt D-Early La Tène site of Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Casadei

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Découverte de structures d’habitat sur poteaux et d’une fosse Hallstatt final-La Tène ancienne dans le cadre d’une opération d’archéologie préventive en 1998, à Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir. Il s’agit de deux bâtiments rectangulaires à six trous de poteau, d’un bâtiment rectangulaire à trois nefs et d’un bâtiment circulaire. Ces deux derniers sont inédits pour cette époque en région Centre. Le bâtiment rectangulaire à trois nefs est composé de deux rangées centrales de trois trous de poteau et de deux rangées latérales de quatre trous de poteau. Les trous de poteau centraux présentent un remplissage stratifié dont la couche supérieure a livré l’essentiel de l’abondant mobilier découvert. On décompte par exemple dans les vestiges en céramique 56 individus-vases différents. Le bâtiment circulaire est composé d’une couronne de neuf trous de poteau présentant également un remplissage stratifié. On a découvert moins de mobilier dans cette structure que dans le bâtiment précédent, mais il se singularise aussi par la présence d’ossements humains.The discovery of settlement structureson posts and of a pit Hallstatt D-early La Tène during a rescue archaeology operation in 1998, in Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir. It concerned two rectangular buildings of six post holes, a rectangular building in three naves and a circular building. The latter two are new for this period in the Centre region.The rectangular building in three naves consisted of two central rows of three post holes and two lateral rows of four post holes. The central holes of post introduce a stratified fill, the upper layer of which produced the majority of the abundant finds. From the ceramic remains it was estimated that there were fifty-six individuals in different vases. The circular building consisted of a ring of nine post holes also producing a stratified fill. Fewer articles were discovered in this structure than

  5. La mise en tourisme de l'Ardenne belge (1850-1914) Genèse et évolution d'un espace touristique. Processus, acteurs et territoires.

    OpenAIRE

    Quériat, Stéphanie

    2010-01-01

    Ce travail sur la mise en tourisme de l’Ardenne se veut une première pierre sur laquelle, nous l’espérons, des recherches ultérieures, relatives à l’Ardenne mais aussi à d’autres espaces, pourront venir s’appuyer mais aussi se confronter. Pour poser les fondements, il fallait tenir compte du système touristique dans son ensemble et l’attaquer sur plusieurs fronts :celui des représentations, de la perception, celui correspondant à la réalité plus physique du territoire, celui de ses acteurs et...

  6. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am levels in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Pagano, V. [SUBATECH/IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France)

    2014-07-01

    Plutonium and americium long-lived alpha emitter isotopes can be found in the environment because of atmospheric global fallout due to thermonuclear tests performed between 1945 and 1980, to the American SNAP 9A satellite explosion in 1964, to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident,... In France, the nuclear safety authority does not allow the release of artificial alpha emitters from nuclear power plants. Thus, monitoring is performed to verify the absence of these alpha emitters in liquid discharges to respect the limits set by the regulations. These thresholds ensure a very low dosimetric impact to the population compared to other radionuclides. With the objective of environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities, activity measurements of long-lived alpha emitters are carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides. Analysis of low activity by alpha spectrometry after chemical steps were performed and used to determine the {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am activities on a large set of environmental solid samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. The samples collected in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France) was investigated for the 2009-2014 period. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 238}Pu: from <0.00031 to 0.0061 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from <0.00086 to 0.011 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples; for the radionuclide {sup 239+240}Pu: from 0.00041 to 0.150 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0023 to 0.240 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples and for the radionuclide {sup 241}Am: from <0.00086 to 0.087 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0022 to 0.120 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples. {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am/{sup 239+240}Pu ratios determined are in accordance with an environmental contamination due to

  7. Combining empirical approaches and error modelling to enhance predictive uncertainty estimation in extrapolation for operational flood forecasting. Tests on flood events on the Loire basin, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Lionel; Marty, Renaud; Bourgin, François; Viatgé, Julie; Piotte, Olivier; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    France (major spring floods in June 2016 on the Loire river tributaries and flash floods in fall 2016) will be shown and discussed. References Bourgin, F. (2014). How to assess the predictive uncertainty in hydrological modelling? An exploratory work on a large sample of watersheds, AgroParisTech Wang, Q. J., Shrestha, D. L., Robertson, D. E. and Pokhrel, P (2012). A log-sinh transformation for data normalization and variance stabilization. Water Resources Research, , W05514, doi:10.1029/2011WR010973

  8. Anticoking Coatings for High Temperature Petrochemical Reactors Revêtements pour réacteurs pétrochimiques à cokage réduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropital F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coke deposition is a major problem for several refinery and petrochemical processes, among which steam cracking for ethylene production. Decreasing coking rates will reduce decoking frequency and will also decrease heat transfer degradation. For these processes, a means of reducing coking phenomena is the application of anticoking coatings on the reactor walls. For this purpose a methodology was developed under a CEC Brite-Euram project with steam cracking as the main application. A first selection of the coatings and their techniques of deposition was performed according to their composition (non catalytic compounds, their resistance to carburization and oxidation and also according to the nature of the substrate. The feasibility of coating deposition was studied for small diameter furnace tubes and the techniques were perfected in particular with respect to the physicochemical characterization of the coatings and their resistance during thermal cycling and coking-decoking cycles. For the thermal cycling and the coking evaluation, industrial conditions were reproduced as closely as possible. For coking tests, a microreactor with complete mixing of the gas phase was developed for temperatures up to 950°C. The coking behavior of the coated samples was compared with conventional refractory alloys: reduction of the coking rate by a factor of 3 was measured with the most promising coating. This work was completed by the kinetic modelling of coking on uncoated materials. La formation de coke est un problème crucial pour de nombreux procédés pétrochimiques. Ralentir le cokage permet de réduire la fréquence des décokages et de limiter la dégradation du transfert thermique. Un des moyens envisageables pour réduire le cokage est le dépôt d'un revêtement à la paroi de ces réacteurs. La mise au point de tels revêtements a fait l'objet d'un projet de recherche européen Brite-Euram, pour lequel le vapocraquage a été la principale

  9. Numerical Simulation of Fixed-Bed Catalytic Reforming Reactors: Hydrodynamics / Chemical Kinetics Coupling Simulation numérique des réacteurs de reformage catalytique en lit fixe : couplage hydrodynamique-cinétique chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferschneider G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Fixed bed reactors with a single fluid phase are widely used in the refining or petrochemical industries for reaction processes catalysed by a solid phase. The design criteria for industrial reactors are relatively well known. However, they rely on a one-dimensional writing and on the separate resolution of the equation of conservation of mass and energy, and of momentum. Thus, with complex geometries, the influence of hydrodynamics on the effectiveness of the catalyst bed cannot be taken into account. The calculation method proposed is based on the multi-dimensional writing and the simultaneous resolution of the local conservation equations. The example discussed concerns fixed-bed catalytic reactors. These reactors are distinguished by their annular geometry and the radial circulation of the feedstock. The flow is assumed to be axisymmetric. The reaction process is reflected by a simplified kinetic mechanism involving ten chemical species. Calculation of the hydrodynamic (mean velocities, pressure, thermal and mass fields (concentration of each species serves to identify the influence of internal components in two industrial reactor geometries. The map of the quantity of coke formed and deposited on the catalyst, calculated by the model, reveals potential areas of poor operation. Les réacteurs à lit fixe avec une seule phase fluide sont largement utilisés dans l'industrie du raffinage et de la pétrochimie, pour mettre en oeuvre un processus réactionnel catalysé par une phase solide. Les règles de conception des réacteurs industriels sont relativement bien connues. Cependant, elles reposent sur l'écriture monodimensionnelle et la résolution séparée, d'une part, des équations de conservation de la masse et de l'énergie et d'autre part, de la quantité de mouvement. Ainsi dans le cas de géométries complexes, l'influence de l'hydrodynamique sur l'efficacité du lit catalytique ne peut être prise en compte. La méthode de calcul

  10. Regional prospective and strategy for energy. A comparison of scenarios for the Pays-de-la-Loire, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and Provence-Cote-d'Azur regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike

    2014-01-01

    A report proposes an overview of prospective studies in France. It discusses the criteria which distinguish various prospective scenarios, comments the emergence of a shared and common vocabulary for prospective studies, proposes a historical overview of prospective studies on energy in France, and a qualitative comparison of ten prospective regional studies in France. In a second part, it reports a data-based and qualitative analysis of scenarios for three regions (Pays de la Loire, Nord Pas de Calais, and Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur): methodology, context of elaboration of prospective studies and comparison of scenarios in the three regions, data for years of reference, used variables, compliance with national commitments, application to different sectors (industry, agriculture, building, transports), analysis of energy supply. A first version of this report is provided

  11. Effets des antibiotiques sur le procédé d'épuration par boues activées. Etude du cas de l'érythromycine, du floc bactérien au réacteur biologique

    OpenAIRE

    Louvet, Jean-Noël

    2010-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est de caractériser l’effet de l’érythromycine sur l’activité bactérienne et l’inhibition de l’épuration dans les réacteurs de traitement des eaux usées urbaines. L’étude a montré l’importance du temps d’exposition à l’érythromycine. L’inhibition de la nitrification et de l’épuration de la DCO a été mesurée sur une période de 4 h pour des concentrations supérieures à 1 mg/L d’érythromycine alors que l’inhibition de l’épuration pour une concentration d’érythromycin...

  12. Une mise en discussion autour du livre Socio-analyse des raisons d’agir. Études sur la liberté du sujet et de l’acteur de Guy Bajoit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brahy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I. Présentation de l’ouvrage et de “l’argument global”L’objectif que se donne la socio-analyse est d’« élucider les raisons pour lesquelles [des personnes] ont pris certaines décisions ou adopté certaines attitudes par lesquelles elles ont cherché à être sujets et acteurs de leur existence et à augmenter leur part de liberté par rapport aux contraintes sociales, culturelles et matérielles » (p. 89. A la suite de nombreux auteurs, Bajoit appuie l’idée que nous serions tous, dans les sociétés ...

  13. Multiphase Reactors: Models and Experimental Verification Les réacteurs polyphasés : modèles et vérification expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudukovic M. P.

    2006-11-01

    implementation of a convection dispersion model. The planned implementation of fan-beam tomography would quantify the two-dimensional holdup distribution and together with CARPT provide all the data necessary for verification of fundamental two phase flow models. Pressure drop, holdup, flow regime transition and phase distribution in trickle-beds has received considerable attention but no generally accepted theory for prediction of these quantities exists. Here we describe a phenomenological model for the low interaction regime which views the bed as an array of slits with liquid film flow. Universal velocity profile is used to describe the flow in both liquid films and the gas core and a large data bank for pressure drop and holdup was used to confirm that in the low interaction regime each of the two phases ignores the presence of the other one. The final model contains only two parameters, which are determined from single phase flow experiments, and contains no constants fitted to two phase flow data. The model predicts pressure drop and holdup in the uniform low interaction regime better than any of the existing models. Furthermore, introducing the Kapitza's criterion for laminar liquid film instability into the model the flow regime transition to pulsing is predicted well for all the data that satisfy the conditions for the theory to apply. Other pore level transition mechanisms are suspected for other data. The above phenomenological model is also used as a basis for predicting liquid distribution in a cell model of a trickle-bed. Experimental confirmation awaits the application of PET technology. L'identification et la quantification des régimes, des distributions des rétentions de phase, des schémas de flux et du mélange en retour sont d'une importance primordiale pour extrapoler à l'échelle et concevoir correctement les réacteurs polyphasés. Les modèles existants sont, malheureusement, bien souvent étayés par des résultats expérimentaux inadéquats. Nous d

  14. Influence de la pression et de la non-idéalité des gaz dans le calcul d'un réacteur d'ammoniac Influence of Gas Pressure and Non-Iddeality on Designing an Ammonia Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheiderman B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mélange gazeux qui parcourt un réacteur de synthèse d'ammoniac présente des écarts notables par rapport aux gaz idéaux. On a établi les équations de calcul d'un réacteur à gradient thermique optimum en tenant compte de l'influence de ces écarts sous trois pressions d'opération (150, 300 et 500 atm.. On a vérifié que les corrections principales à effectuer sont dues à la fugacité; les autres sont d'une importance moindre, et affectent surtout le contrôle du réacteur. En outre, on a mis en évidence l'influence considérable de la pression totale. The gaseous mixture flowing through an ommonia synthesis reactor shows considerable divergences from the behovior of ideal gases. These divergences are examined at three operating pressures (150, 300 and 500 atm, and the corresponding design equations for an optimum temperature progression are determined. The main diver gences are those caused by fugacity. The others are of lesser importance. At the same time, the great influence of total pressure is demonstrated.

  15. Revue des aspects hydrodynamiques des réacteurs catalytiques gaz-liquide-solide à lit fixe arrosé Hydrodynamics of Gas-Liquid-Solid Trickle-Bed Reactors: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attou A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bien que les aspects hydrodynamiques soient d'une importance primordiale lors de la conception et du fonctionnement d'un réacteur gaz-liquide-solide à lit fixe arrosé, les méthodes de calcul prédictif proposées sont restées fort rudimentaires. La plupart des études portant sur ce sujet ont été menées dans des conditions quasi atmosphériques alors que les réacteurs industriels fonctionnent à des pressions élevées. C'est seulement récemment que quelques résultats expérimentaux ont été obtenus à des hautes pressions, et des corrélations ont été proposées dans ces conditions pour prédire la transition entre les régimes ruisselant et pulsé, la perte de pression et le taux de rétention de liquide. L'objectif de cet article est double. D'une part, une synthèse y est présentée ; elle fait état des connaissances acquises sur les divers aspects hydrodynamiques du réacteur triphasique à lit fixe, incluant les récents développements réalisés à hautes pressions. D'autre part, les modèles et les corrélations actuels de transitions de régimes, de la perte de pression et du taux de rétention de liquide sont soumis à une analyse critique en confrontant leurs prédictions à l'ensemble des données expérimentales obtenues pour un large intervalle de la pression de fonctionnement du réacteur. Des conclusions objectives ont pu être tirées concernant les aptitudes des corrélations et des modèles actuels à être utilisées pour les calculs de conception des réacteurs triphasiques à lit fixe industriels. Malheureusement, il apparaît qu'aucun modèle de transitions entre les régimes ruisselant et pulsé n'est satisfaisant. Seule la corrélation empirique de Larachi et al. (1993 s'avère être jusqu'à présent la méthode la plus précise pour prédire la position de la frontière entre les régimes ruisselant et pulsé dans un large domaine de la pression de fonctionnement. Par ailleurs, aucune corr

  16. La nécropole gauloise de “ Vaugrignon ” à Esvres-sur-Indre (Indre-et-Loire The gaulish burial ground of “ Vaugrignon ” at Esvres-sur-Indre (Indre-et-Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Riquier

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Situé à 15 km au sud de Tours, au cœur de l’Indre-et-Loire, le village d’Esvres-sur-Indre est implanté sur le versant nord et le rebord d’un plateau qui domine la vallée de l’Indre. Suite à un projet de lotissement, au lieu-dit “ Vaugrignon ”, un diagnostic archéologique, réalisé en octobre 1998 sous la direction d’O. Ranger, a mis au jour deux inhumations de la fin de l’époque gauloise, dont l’une accompagnée d’une amphore complète (Ranger 1998. La fouille qui a suivi, en été 1999 a confirmé qu’elles étaient intégrées à un ensemble funéraire, composé d’au moins une trentaine de tombes, dont trois avec amphore et arme, datées du milieu du IIe s. av. J.-C. à l’époque augustéenne. Cette nécropole constitue le premier ensemble funéraire connu et étudié à ce jour en territoire turon, situé à la marge occidentale du secteur biturige et de ses tombes aristocratiques (Ferdière, Villard 1993.Utilisée du milieu du IIe s. av. J.-C. à l’époque augustéenne, cette nécropole se compose de 29 tombes, dont une incinération. Elle permet de suivre l’évolution des pratiques funéraires (des tombes les plus modestes à celles pourvues d’amphore et d’arme et d’aborder le statut des enfants. L’analyse des objets met en évidence des dépôts originaux, comme ces trois fibules dans des sacs, les fragments de boucliers dans des tombes de bébés, de menus objets en référence à la métallurgie du fer, des monnaies et des “ services funéraires ” spécifiques à l’âge des défunts. Des épandages de mobilier calciné illustrent des pratiques funéraires post-inhumatoires. La mise en perspective de ces tombes par rapport aux prestigieuses sépultures bituriges (groupe de Fléré-la-Rivière, situées à proximité, est l’occasion d’établir une hiérarchisation sociale à travers les assemblages de mobilier et d’illustrer une partie jusque-là méconnue de la population

  17. Determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities by liquid scintillation counting in the environmental samples close to French nuclear power plants located on Loire and Garonne rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Deniau, I. [SUBATECH, IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environment from a wide range of radioactive contaminants released by nuclear industry requires continuous monitoring of radionuclides released into the environment. Specific measurement methods depending of the radionuclide are used to determinate this contribution. A lot of radionuclide can easily be measured at low level by gamma spectrometry, like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co..., but others like {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni or {sup 55}Fe require prior specific radiochemical separations. Activity of {sup 90}Sr values in environmental samples are available but only few measurements of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities have been carried out in samples collected in the environment close to French nuclear power plants located on the Loire and Garonne rivers despite they represent 12% to 24% for {sup 63}Ni activity and <1% for {sup 55}Fe + other minor radionuclides of total activity of their liquid effluent discharges. {sup 90}Sr is not rejected by the liquid effluent discharges of Nuclear Power Plants and can be found in the environmental samples because of thermonuclear test and subsequently after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Considering the French Nuclear Power Plant located on Loire and Garonne rivers, the determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe levels in the environmental samples around French nuclear power plants is carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides originating from nuclear technology activities. The environment around five French nuclear Power Plants was investigated for 4 years between 2009 and 2014. The radionuclide activities determined by liquid scintillation counting after chemical steps were performed on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 90

  18. Rôle des acteurs dans le processus d’élaboration de projets routiers. Analyse de l’approche opérationnelle et recherche de critères décisionnels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahinaz Sayagh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le stade des études préliminaires jusqu’à la réalisation des travaux, un projet routier fait l’objet de décisions successives (opportunité, budget, tracé…, selon une procédure progressive et réglementée. Cette succession de choix s’insère dans un faisceau de contraintes environnementales, techniques et financières. Ceci rend le processus décisionnel complexe, du fait notamment de la multiplicité des acteurs potentiellement impliqués. Dans ce contexte, la contribution de chercheurs peut consister à fournir des méthodes, permettant d’apporter un éclairage sur les conséquences potentielles en terme de développement durable, des décisions successives prises depuis la conception d’un projet routier jusqu’à sa réalisation. Dans cette perspective, une analyse des critères décisionnels propres à chacun des acteurs au sein du processus décisionnel, est nécessaire. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser sur quels enjeux généraux reposent les critères décisionnels intervenant dans les différents choix successifs d’un projet routier. Il s’agit d’une part d’effectuer l’examen détaillé du processus décisionnel régi par des éléments factuels imposés par la réglementation, et d’autre part de mieux appréhender les critères non réglementaires, propres à chaque acteur sous la forme de témoignages. Sur la base de la synthèse réalisée, une discussion propose ensuite de mettre en perspective l’analyse effectuée au regard des enjeux environnementaux et de concertation. L’analyse montre la difficulté à définir une liste de critères décisionnels relatifs à la prise en compte des enjeux du développement durable. D’autre part, la réflexion menée met en lumière la meilleure prise en compte des enjeux environnementaux lorsqu’une démarche de concertation est menée en amont du projet, ce qui va au-delà du simple cadre réglementaire et reste à l’initiative de la ma

  19. La Turquie face à la globalisation. Convergence d’intérêts entre les acteurs religieux particularistes : le cas du sud-est européen dans les années 1990 Turkey and Globalisation. Convergence of Interests between Particularists Religious Actors. The South-East Europe during the ’90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Raptopoulos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La globalisation, en favorisant l’interaction des idées et des hommes, est de ces facteurs qui sont capables de mettre en cause des systèmes sociopolitiques rigi­des. Cette contribution s’intéresse plus précisément au cas de figure du système kémaliste turc. L’islam turc, composante incontestée de l’identité nationale, est de plus en plus impliqué dans le système sociopolitique contemporain en tant qu’idéologie globalisante promue par certains acteurs. Cette situation, prévisi­ble pour la scène interne, se confirme aussi dans l’action et l’interaction des protagonistes au niveau international. En Turquie, l’islam, religion monothéiste, est devenu un véhicule d’interaction : d’une part entre l’État (laïc et nationa­liste et les acteurs sociaux islamiques ; d’autre part, entre ces mêmes acteurs et les communautés turques et musulmanes des régions de l’aire ottomane, no­tamment du sud-est de l’Europe.By fostering interaction globalization can question socio-political rigidity. This was the case with kemalist Turkey. Part and parcel of national identity, Turkish Islam is increasingly involved in the socio-political set up in the form of a global ideology. Recognizable locally, this process also carries international weight. Monotheistic Islam has acted in Turkey as a go-between : between the nationalistic, lay State and Islamic actors, between these latter and Islamic elements in regions of the former ottoman empire, notably in south-eastern Europe

  20. Scale Effects in Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Reactors for Trickle-Flow Processes Les conséquences de l'extrapolation appliquée aux procédés à écoulement ruisselant réalisés en laboratoire et dans les réacteurs des unités-pilotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sie S. T.

    2006-11-01

    carry out meaningful process research on hydrotreating processes on the scale of micro-reactors. Les études et mises au point effectuées en laboratoire sont nécessairement effectuées à plus petite échelle que les réalisations commerciales. Dans le cas de la mise au point et de la commercialisation de la technologie d'un procédé nouveau, il faudra traduire les résultats obtenus en laboratoire pour la technologie envisagée à l'échelle commerciale; le problème est donc l'extrapolation vers le haut. Cependant, bien souvent, la technologie commerciale, pour ce qui touche au type de réacteur, est plus ou moins bien définie et les études de laboratoire s'attachent à produire des données permettant de prévoir le comportement qu'auront dans ce réacteur des catalyseurs nouveaux, de matières premières de substitution, etc. Dans bien des cas, étant donné la complexité de la composition de la matière première et la cinétique de réaction, il est impossible de mener la prévision en s'appuyant sur les données cinétiques et les modèles informatiques, de sorte qu'il n'y a pas d'autre solution que la simulation du réacteur commercial à l'échelle du laboratoire; le problème est donc l'extrapolation vers le bas. Du point de vue de l'efficacité des études de recherche et développement, pour les expériences en laboratoire, l'échelle devra être aussi petite que possible sans nuire à la signification des résultats. Le présent article examine certains problèmes liés à l'extrapolation vers le bas d'un réacteur à écoulement ruisselant telle qu'elle est appliquée dans les procédés d'hydrotraitement à des réacteurs de laboratoire de tailles différentes cinétiquement équivalents. Deux aspects principaux relatifs à des inégalités de dynamique des fluides résultant de différences d'échelle sont décrits plus en détail, i. e. les écarts par rapport à un écoulement idéal donnant lieu à un effet bouchon et au mouillage ou à l

  1. De la concertation territoriale à l'expérimentation en plein champs, différents leviers pour accompagner les acteurs d'un territoire agricole à façonner des paysages durablement favorables à des productions oléagineuses et des productions de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourrat Marine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Les interactions entre les abeilles et leur milieu sont multiples, complexes, incomprises pour certaines et parfois même controversées. Cette complexité se répercute parfois dans les échanges entre les acteurs liés de près ou de loin à ces insectes pollinisateurs qui évoluent sur un même territoire. Dans ce contexte, l'institut technique et scientifique de l'apiculture et de la pollinisation (ITSAP–Institut de l'abeille, après avoir fait le constat qu'apiculteurs et agriculteurs ne partagent pas toujours la même perception de leur territoire, travaille depuis quelques années à accompagner ces acteurs dans la construction de leviers favorables au maintien durable de ces différentes activités agricoles sur leur territoire. Nous illustrerons cette dynamique à travers différents formats d'actions : l'échange de connaissances dans des ateliers de concertation sous forme de jeu de rôles et l'acquisition et le partage de références dans une expérimentation en plein champs.

  2. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their

  3. DTS : un logiciel d'aide à l'élaboration de modèles d'écoulement dans les réacteurs Dts: a Software Package for Flow Simulation in Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but la présentation d'un logiciel d'aide à la construction de modèles d'écoulement à partir de la méthode des distributions de temps de séjour (DTS. La théorie des distributions de temps de séjour ainsi que des méthodes de traçage couramment utilisées sont rappelées. Une description du logiciel est ensuite effectuée. Le modèle est basé sur l'association de modules élémentaires (réacteur parfaitement agité, réacteur piston. . . , la détermination de la fonction de transfert étant effectuée en résolvant les bilans de matière dans l'espace de Laplace. Le logiciel peut donner la réponse à un signal d'entrée quelconque et plusieurs paramètres du modèle peuvent être optimisés. Différents couples de traceurs et de détecteurs sont donnés et les précautions à prendre lors des traçages sont décrites. Finalement, différentes études effectuées à l'aide du logiciel sont présentées afin de montrer les utilisations possibles. Improving the performance of an existing reactor or studying a new design requires modeling the flow of the different phases. Computational fluid dynamics can give an accurate a priori description of the velocity and concentration fields. However, this approach is too complicated in some cases (complicated geometry, random flow media, etc. , and this results in an abundance of information. A simpler approach relies on the theory of Residence Time Distribution (RTD, which is a theoretical interpretation framework for tracer experiments. This paper describes a software package that simulates hydrodynamic models derived from RTD experiments. The concept of RTD, introduced by Danckwerts in 1953, is briefly reviewed. Then tracer experiments, commonly used tracers and detectors are dealt with. Finally, the care required in tracer experiments is described in detail. Visual inspection of the tracer response makes it is possible to guess the main characteristics of the flow pattern

  4. LE SECTEUR INFORMEL EN ALGERIE : APPROCHES, ACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Résumé. Le secteur informel en Algérie est peu étudié de manière directe et .... très diverses que Bernard (1980,1988) a classées en 3 catégories plus ou moins .... sont amenés en raison de l'ambiguïté de la loi et de sa faible appli- cation à ...

  5. Superconducting superlattices. Les super reseaux de supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triscone, J M; Fischer, O [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1993-03-01

    By piling up ultra-thin layers of discrete materials, physicists now have a choice method for the study of superconductivity at high temperature. These superlattices are prepared by successive layers of YBaCuO and PrBaCuO deposited by cathode sputtering to study the variation of superconductivity with layer thickness. The transition temperature decreases rapidly when the distance between two layers increases. Current vortices are created, without a magnetic field, widening the transition temperature. The variation of resistivity near critical temperature in a magnetic field shows that the energy required to displace vortices is increasing with the thickness of the YBaCuO layer, with thin layers anisotropy is high and energy dissipation is important. (G.R.). refs., figs.

  6. La participation des acteurs locaux à l’élaboration et l’évaluation des politiques publiques de développement durable  en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Bouard

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article est d’explorer les conditions et l’opérationnalité d’une réflexion participative sur le développement durable et ses implications pour élaborer et évaluer des politiques publiques de développement. Après une présentation succincte des controverses dont fait l’objet le concept de développement durable à l’échelle mondiale, nous tenterons de préciser les enjeux de durabilité dans le contexte de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’entrée privilégie les articulations entre les trois dimensions de la durabilité, en s’appuyant sur les formes localement perçues de la performance économique, de l’intégrité de l’environnement et de l’équité sociale. Pour illustrer ces enjeux, nous nous intéressons plus précisément à la gestion sociale des impacts d’un important projet industriel d’extraction et de traitement du nickel dans la province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’article décrit ensuite les principes à respecter pour la mise en place d’un suivi évaluation concerté entre les différents acteurs, susceptible de faciliter la prise en charge de cette transversalité et la gestion sociale des impacts du projet. Nous partons pour cela des acquis d’un programme de recherche portant sur l’élaboration d’une méthode de suivi évaluation participatif des programmes de développement local en province Nord. Enfin, nous insisterons sur les contraintes à l’efficacité et à la pérennité de dispositifs réellement participatifs, mais aussi à l’application des principes du développement durable, notamment dans le contexte du Pacifique insulaire.The aim of this article is to investigate the conditions and the interests of a participatory reflexion on the sustainable development and its consequences to draw up and to assess development policies. After a brief display of the controversies carried out by the use and sense of the “sustainable development”, we explain what is at

  7. Concilier développement agricole et usage pérenne des eaux souterraines : un dialogue multi-acteurs dans la zone d’Ain Timguenay (province de Séfrou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Sellika

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Au Maroc, l’utilisation des eaux souterraines pour l’irrigation a permis un développement agricole rapide dans de nombreuses régions, mais a aussi fait émerger des situations de baisse des niveaux piezométriques des nappes qui menacent la durabilité de cette agriculture irriguée. L’article présente une action de recherche portant sur la conception d’un projet de territoire agricole durable alliant développement agricole et usage pérenne des ressources en eau souterraine. L’étude a eu lieu dans la zone d’Ain Timguenay (province de Séfrou, qui connait un fort développement de la production de pommes et de prunes depuis une quinzaine d’années. Le programme de recherche a impliqué les agriculteurs, la commune rurale d’Ain Timguenay, les institutions du Ministère de l’Agriculture et l’Agence de bassin hydraulique du Sébou. Une analyse des dynamiques agricoles locales et des tendances nationales a servi de support aux discussions. L’étude de l’aquifère et de ses usages a permis d’établir un bilan sommaire et un ordre de grandeur des surfaces qui pourraient encore être plantées sans que les consommations en eau soient supérieures à la recharge de l’aquifère en année pluviométrique moyenne. Une réflexion prospective menée avec les agriculteurs a mis en évidence deux scénarios possibles à l’échelle locale: 1 un scénario où les difficultés économiques que rencontrent actuellement les exploitations de la zone se renforcent, conduisant à un ralentissement des nouvelles plantations, d’où une pression limitée sur la nappe ; 2 un scénario où les exploitations réussissent à faire face aux défis actuels de production et de commercialisation et de ce fait continuent à planter, ce qui conduit à une consommation en eau bien supérieure à la recharge de la nappe. L’ensemble des acteurs impliqués a participé à l’élaboration d’un troisième scénario permettant de concilier d

  8. Recomposition des jeux d’acteurs et concurrence pour l’espace face à la mise en place d’un Centre touristique Intégralement  Planifié (CIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Marie dit Chirot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En développant, à partir de 1984, un Centre touristique Intégralement Planifié dans une localité de la côte Pacifique de l’état d’Oaxaca, l’Etat mexicain entendait impulser un développement économique dans une région périphérique et pauvre du pays. Basé sur l’expropriation d’une portion du territoire communal, le processus engendre un certain nombre de résistances au sein des communautés locales. Le centre touristique est aujourd’hui un espace fragmenté, reflet et conséquence des inégalités sociales et des conflits sociaux. Depuis une perspective de géographie sociale, cet article cherche à mettre en lumière les conflits et compromis sociaux qui traversent la société locale. L’appropriation de l’espace, les luttes de pouvoir et les stratégies développées par les différents acteurs seront les entrées privilégiées pour interroger un modèle de planification, « par le haut », ignorant trop souvent les réalités sociales à l’échelle locale.Since 1984, the Mexican government has tried to stimulate the economy in a poor and peripheral area of the country. They aimed to do so by developing an Integrally Planed Resort (CIP, in Spanish in a community, located in the Oaxaca state on the Pacific coast. Being based on the expropriation of some parts of the communal territory, this process created some remittances among the local communities. Today, this resort is still a fragmented space and reflects social inequalities and social conflicts. From a social geographical perspective, this article aims to show the social conflicts and social compromises among the local society. Space appropriation, power battles and strategies developed by the different actors, will be the main tools to investigate this planning model. In this model, the government too often has ignored social realities on the local scale.Al crear, a partir de 1984, un Centro turístico Integralmente Planeado en un poblado de la costa del

  9. [Lessons and impact of two audits on postpartum hemorrhages in 24 maternity hospitals of the network "Sécurité Naissance - Naître Ensemble" in "Pays-de-la-Loire" area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, B; Gillard, P; Monrigal, C; Thelu, S; Robidas, E; Viot, S; Descamps, P; Philippe, H-J; Sentilhes, L; Winer, N

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the compliance rate of treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) according to guidelines developed by the CNGOF within our network by a first audit, and evaluate the impact of this first audit by conducting a second audit. An initial audit of resources and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) was conducted in 2006-2008 in 24 maternity hospitals of the Pays-de-la-Loire. The audit had identified six areas for improvement. A second audit was implemented in 2009-2010 to evaluate the actions of prevention and measure changes in the management of PPH. Two interns have distributed the 24 maternity homes and moved in each hospital to see 10 cases of vaginal delivery (VD) (section "Prevention"), and the last cases of PPH following a VD. The results are in compliance rate compared to the repository of the HAS in 2004. The first audit was conducted on 101 PPH in total. It has allowed us to propose corrective actions to the 24 maternity hospitals: leaf specific monitoring, reporting amounts of blood loss, transfusion on these clinical criteria without waiting for the blood cell counts, indicating more frequent and rapid sulprostone, set for maternity hospitals without surgical skill an agreement with a visceral surgery department, and avoid maternal transfers for PPH. For the second audit, the compliance rate of the preventive aspect was 73% (95: 71-75%) of 239 cases of BA with variations according to maternity from 48 to 93%. Compliance rates according to the criteria were: 99% obstetric consultations, 98% for anesthesia, 92% for hemoglobin, 77% for the group card available in the record, 89% agglutinins, 35% for the notification of the installation of bag, 36% for the notification of the amount of blood lost, 69% for the supervisor within two hours, and 64% for the directed delivery. For component "Support", the overall compliance rate was 81% (95: 79-83%) of 118 PPH AVB, and 85% in the 71 uterine atonies in 21 pregnancies (3 had no HPP

  10. Lutte contre les cerscosporioses du bananier aux Antilles françaises : Banatrace, un système d'information géographique multi-acteurs pour la gestion et la traçabilité des épandages aériens

    OpenAIRE

    DUMAS, Marine; DUMAS, Marine

    2011-01-01

    Comment un système d’information géographique peut-il aider à améliorer la fiabilité des traitements aériens contre les maladies fongiques du bananier tout en réduisant leur impact environnemental ? Des réponses aux Antilles françaises avec l’outil informatique multi-acteurs Banatrace, conçu pour aider les gestionnaires à répondre aux différents besoins de traçabilité imposée par la réglementation récente sur les épandages aériens.

  11. Uranium deposit of Bauzot (Saone et Loire)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrat, G.H.

    1956-01-01

    The best known of the uranium ore deposits of the Morvan (a province of France) is in the form of a bundle of quartz-fluor lodes with pitchblende and B.P.G.C. ore. The pitchblende seems to have been deposited at different time in respect to the formation of the gangue minerals, but generally it is ore of the first-formed. The main concentrations of ore are always in the vicinity of dykes of basic crystalline rocks. (author) [fr

  12. Toward a Competitive Process Intensification: A New Generation of Heat Exchanger-Reactors Vers une intensification des procédés économiquement viable : une nouvelle génération de réacteur-échangeur de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochon P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Process Intensification (PI in chemical production is a major concern of chemical manufacturers. Among the numerous options to intensify a process, the transposition from a batch reactor to a continuous plug flow reactor is a good alternative when the selectivity and the thermal exchange are an issue. In this context, the RAPIC R&D project aims to develop an innovative low-cost component (in the 10 kg/h range. This project deals with the design from the local to the global scale and with testing, from elementary mock-ups to pilot scale. The present paper gives a detailed description of this research project and presents the main results on specification and definition of the reaction channel and the first simple mock-ups. L’intensification des procédés (IP constitue une des préoccupations majeures de l’industrie chimique. Parmi les nombreuses options possibles pour intensifier un procédé, lorsque le sujet concerne la sélectivité et l’échange thermique, la transposition d’un réacteur discontinu à un réacteur tubulaire continu paraît une bonne alternative. Dans ce contexte, le projet de R&D RAPIC consiste à développer un composant innovant à bas coût (environ 10 kg/heure. Ce projet porte sur la phase de conception, du niveau local au niveau global, et sur la phase de tests, depuis les maquettes élémentaires jusqu’aux essais pilote. Cet article propose une description détaillée de ce projet de recherche et présente les principaux résultats obtenus sur la définition et la spécification du canal de réaction, ainsi que les premières maquettes simples.

  13. Contribution méthodologique pour la connaissance du rôle des acteurs locaux dans la réalisation d’un projet de territoire : le cas du projet de la réserve naturelle de Réghaia dans la zone côtière Est de l’Algérois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Larid

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le domaine de la gestion territoriale, on peut constater le manque et l’insuffisance des outils d’analyse des stratégies des acteurs. Ceci est encore plus ressenti dans les sociétés du monde en développement, où les mécanismes de gestion et d’administration du territoire sont souvent dysfonctionnels. Une meilleure connaissance des relations entre les intervenants dans l’application d’un projet territorial, permet des éclairages sur le contexte de sa réalisation et des orientations suceptibles d’avantager sa réussite. Les repères sur les logiques de comportement aident à cerner les enjeux et à poser les questions clés, pour atteindre les objectifs fixés et conforter l’accomplissement des actions arrêtées. Le présent article rend compte des résultats d’une expérience de terrain, réalisée dans une zone côtière humide de la région algéroise. Il propose une contribution, sur le plan méthodologique, pour la collecte d’informations pertinentes sur le comportement et les possibilités des acteurs dans la réalisation d’un projet local, orienté vers la valorisation et la protection d’un patrimoine naturel important.In the field of territorially management, we can see the insufficiency of analysis tools on the strategies of actors. This is even more crucial in case of the developing world, where the management and territorially administration are often dysfunctional. Better knowledge of the roles of stakeholders in the implementation of a territorial project, provides insights of the context of its implementation and guidance likely to favor its success. The logical behavior help to identify issues and key questions, to achieve the objectives and ensure the completion of actions agreed. This article reports the results of a field experiment conducted in a coastal wetland in the region of Algiers. It offers a contribution, on the methodology for collecting information on the behavior and capabilities of

  14. Design and study of the performance of a Raman lidar model, combining a pulsed laser source and a holographic grating double monochromator; Realisation et etudes des performances d'une maquette de lidar Raman combinant une source laser impulsionnelle et un double monochromateur a reseaux holographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacass, Philippe

    1976-03-16

    Raman sont ensuite decrites. L'originalite de cette derniere reside dans l'utilisation de monochromateurs a reseaux holographiques et dans la simplicite du systeme d'obtention des resultats. Avec ce montage, la mesure in-situ de la retrodiffusion Raman de N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O de l'atmosphere et CO{sub 2} en forte concentration, faite a une distance de 30 a 40 m, permet une estimation raisonnable de la sensibilite et de la portee d'un montage definitif plus performant. (auteur)

  15. Experimental Determination of the Neutron Characteristics of UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O Lattices; Determination Experimentale Des Caracteristiques Neutroniques De Reseaux UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrue, J.; Fabry, A.; Leenders, L.; Motte, F.; Van Den Broeck, H. [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    combustibles mixtes UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} enrichis respectivement a 3% {sup 235}U- 1% Pu fissile et 2% {sup 235}U-2% Pu fissile, et d'un combustible UO{sub 2} enrichi a 4% {sup 235}U; les teneurs isotopiques en {sup 240}Pu des deux combustibles mixtes sont en outre nettement differentes, respectivement 7 et 17%. Dans une premiere partie du programme, on etudie des reseaux reguliers dans des coeurs a deux zones cylindriques coaxiales, une zone UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} et une zone UO{sub 2} ; on s'attache particulierement a explorer, de part et d'autre de la frontiere commune a ces deux zones, la region de transition dans laquelle le spectre neutronique evolue entre les distributions energetiques caracteristiques de chacun des deux reseaux. Les resultats experimentaux sont destines a l'etalonnage des methodes de calcul. Dans une seconde partie du programme, on simulera des portions du coeur du reacteur de la centrale SENA afin d'etudier les problemes particuliers au rechargement d'un tiers de ce coeur par du combustible mixte UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}. Parmi les techniques experimentales mises en oeuvre a l'occasion de ces differentes experiences, on met en evidence celles qui sont les plus specifiques de la presence du plutonium: mesure de la densite de fission par comptage direct des produits de fission formes par irradiation dans le combustible mixte, mesure d'indices de spectre au moyen de detecteurs fissiles et de detecteurs presentant des resonances voisines de celles des isotopes du plutonium. Les conditions optimales d'application de ces techniques sont presentees; l'incidence des incertitudes affectant les resultats experimentaux des indices de spectre (rapports de sections efficaces) sur le cycle du combustible est discutee. Enfin, on presente brievement un programme d'essais sous-critiques conduit jusqu'a present sur deux lots de crayons combustibles UO{sub 2} enrichi a 5 et 1% {sup 235}U, dans le but d'etudier les possibilites des methodes consistant a exciter un reseau sous

  16. The Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Cocurrent Downflow and Cocurrent Upflow Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalytic Fixed Bed Reactors: the Effect of Pressure Les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs gaz-liquide-solide à lit de catalyseur fixe à écoulement cocourant montant et descendant : l'influence de la pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available While most catalytic fixed bed gas-liquid reactors of the petrol industry work at quite high pressures, the academic scientific work in this field concerned itself almost exclusively with the domain of approximatively atmospheric pressures. The authors present the results of some years of experimental investigations on the hydrodynamic characteristics of trickle bed reactors and lately of cocurrent upflow reactors. During the last years, results were also obtained under pressures up to 8 MPa. The measurements were made in a small scale cold flow equipment (diameter 23 mm. Different aqueous and organic more or less viscous, eventually coalescence inhibiting liquids, four gases and a number of non porous more or less wettable particles were used. The liquid holdup was determined in all cases by measuring liquid phase residence time distribution by different tracers. The following conclusions may be drawn:(a In the high interaction regime, it is the inertia of the gas and the liquid phases which is the main cause of the dissipation of mechanical energy. In this regime, results obtained in cocurrent upflow and downflow are approximately equal. (b Most correlations of literature are unable to predict the effect of pressure on the pressure drop or the liquid holdup. (c The gas viscosity has no influence on the hydrodynamics. It is therefore possible to simulate for example hydrogen under high pressure conditions by another gas of the same density (at a much lower pressures. A critical evaluation of the correlations and/or models of literature is presented, concerning their ability to represent the different characteristics as a function of pressure. Tandis que la plupart des réacteurs industriels gaz-liquide à lit de catalyseur fixe fonctionnent à assez hautes pressions, les travaux scientifiques académiques sont, dans ce domaine, presque exclusivement consacrés aux pressions avoisinant la pression atmosphérique. Les auteurs présentent les r

  17. The main players; Les acteurs d'influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    About 30 French main players in the field of energy (political parties, administrations, companies, non-governmental organizations and think-tanks) have been reported and dispatched on a chart according to their opinions following 2 axis: pro- versus anti-nuclear energy and pro- versus anti-wind power. The energy sector in France is dominated by 4 companies: EDF, GDF-Suez, Areva and Total, all are strongly pro-nuclear. All the political parties except EELV (Europe-Ecology-Les-Verts) are favourable to nuclear energy. Most non-governmental organizations are favourable to renewable energies, but the FED (Federation Environnement Durable) gathers local associations fighting the installations of wind turbines. (A.C)

  18. Renforcement du dialogue entre acteurs de la recherche agricole et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis, ce séminaire permanent de recherche agraire contribue au renforcement ... L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite ... conclu un accord de coopération scientifique et technologique en appui aux projets ...

  19. Planification optimisee des reseaux electriques par la methode des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the insertion of renewable power sources (wind, solar photovoltaic, hydroelectric) in an existing electrical system was planned by the method of genetic algorithms in real coding. The main objective of this planning is the optimization of production costs of these renewable energy sources and electric power ...

  20. Fabrication et applications des reseaux de Bragg ultra-longs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Mathieu

    This thesis presents the principal accomplishments realized during the PhD project. The thesis is presented by publication format and is a collection of four published articles having fiber Bragg gratings as a central theme. First achieved in 1978, UV writing of fiber Bragg gratings is nowadays a common and mature technology being present in both industry and academia. The property of reflecting light guided by optical fibers lead to diverse applications in telecommunication, lasers as well as several types of sensors. The conventional fabrication technique is generally based on the use of generally expensive phase masks which determine the obtained characteristics of the fiber Bragg grating. The fiber being photosensitive at those wavelengths, a periodic pattern can be written into it. The maximal length, the period, the chirp, the index contrast and the apodisation are all characteristics that depend on the phase mask. The first objective of the research project is to be able to go beyond this strong dependance on the phase mask without deteriorating grating quality. This is what really sets apart the technique presented in this thesis from other long fiber Bragg grating fabrication techniques available in the literature. The fundamental approach to obtain ultra long fiber Bragg gratings of arbitrary profile is to replace the scheme of scanning a UV beam across a phase mask to expose a fixed fiber by a scheme where the UV beam and phase mask are fixed and where the fiber is moving instead. To obtain a periodic index variation, the interference pattern itself must be synchronized with the moving fiber. Two variations of this scheme were implanted: the first one using electro-optical phase modulator placed in each arm of a Talbot interferometer and the second one using a phase mask mounted on a piezo electric actuator. A new scheme that imparts fine movements of the interferometer is also implemented for the first time and showed to be essential to achieve high quality ultra long fiber Bragg gratings. High quality theory matching ultra long fiber Bragg gratings up to 1 meter long are obtained for the first time. The possibility of fabricating high quality ultra long fiber Bragg grating of more than 10 cm (approximately the maximal phase mask length) opens a variety of new applications otherwise impossible with short fiber Bragg grating technology. Ultra long fiber Bragg gratings have unique characteristics such as high reflectivity, high dispersion and ultra narrow bandwidth. Those characteristics can be used to do advanced signal processing, non linear propagation experiments, distributed feedback fiber lasers and dispersion compensator for telecommunication or optical tomography. The second objective of this project is to use these ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings as an optical cavity for fiber lasers. Alot of research in the past years have been concentrated on those lasers, particularly on distributed feedback fiber lasers where the gratings spans all the gain media. A new random fiber laser configuration is presented. It is based on passive or active insertion of phase shifts along the Bragg grating to obtained a phenomenon called light localization which is the optical equivalent of Anderson localization. This complex wave phenomenon has the unique property to mimic the reflection of a uniform photonic crystal with the random diffusion of light among the elements of a random media. Being commonly obtained in fine powders which must respect a certain set of rules, the realization of 1D structures is vastly simplified in optical fibers. Two random fiber laser schemes based on light localization, one using erbium dopant and the other one Raman scattering, are demonstrated for the first time and compared to traditional distributed feedback fiber lasers.

  1. Comportement en vapocraquage de molécules modèles et de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. Première partie : potentialité de craquage, réacteur à profil de température rectangulaire et à court temps de séjour Steam-Cracking Behavior of Model Molecules and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthelin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la valorisation des coupes lourdes par vapocraquage, des distillats sous vide plus ou moins hydrotraités et des molécules modèles ont été pyrolysés. Cette étude a été réalisée sur un micropilote dont la partie réactionnelle est chauffée entre 680 et 860°C, par induction électromagnétique haute fréquence; le débit total peut varier de 60 à 800 g/h avec une perte de charge inférieure à 0,3 bar. Deux réacteurs tubulaires spiralés de rapport surface/volume allant jusqu'à 2000 m-1 permettent d'atteindre des temps de séjour de 10 à 400 millisecondes. Un indice quantifiant l'aptitude de chaque molécule à produire de l'éthylène, du propylène et des composés lourds, a permis l'établissement d'une échelle de potentialité de craquage, permettant d'orienter les performances d'un catalyseur de prétraitement : optimisation de la consommation d'hydrogène, meilleure valorisation des charges lourdes lors du vapocraquage. Grâce au profil de température rectangulaire du micropilote, des gains très importants de rendements d'éthylène et une production très faible d'asphaltènes ont été mis en évidence par pyrolyse de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. L'importance primordiale de la température dans le couple température-temps de séjour a été confirmée. Within the framework of the upgrading of heavy cuts for steam cracking, more or less hydrotreated vacuum distillates and model molecules were pyrolyzed. This research was done in a micropilot plant in which the reaction section was heated to between 680 and 860°C by high-frequency electromagnetic induction. The total flow rate can vary from 60 to 800 g/h with a pressure drop of less than 0. 3 bar. Two spiral tubular reactors with a high surface/volume ratio of up to 2000 m-1 enable residence times of 10 to 400 milliseconds to be obtained. An index quantifying the capacity of each molecule to produce ethylene, propylene and heavy compounds was used

  2. Les institutions et les acteurs en santé au travail au Québec et en France : regard croisé Occupational health institutions and actors in Québec and in France: new comparative perspective Las instituciones y los actores en salud laboral en Quebec y en Francia : una mirada cruzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Ferré

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Au Québec comme en France, l’environnement institutionnel dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité au travail présente une grande densité. La loi québécoise du 21 décembre 1979, orchestrant l’ensemble du dispositif, a placé en son cœur la Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. Elle cumule toutes les fonctions constitutionnelles en matière de prévention et de réparation. Elle est assistée par un corps d’inspection et s’appuie sur le réseau public de santé. En France, le paysage est plus éclaté. Il n’existe pas d’organisme équivalent. L’inspection du travail intervient pour s’assurer du respect des normes. Les organismes de sécurité sociale, qui prennent en charge les lésions professionnelles, incitent les employeurs à faire de la prévention. Les médecins du travail sont des travailleurs subordonnés, liés aux entreprises dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Dans les établissements, plusieurs acteurs héritent de missions diverses. L’étendue de la responsabilité de l’employeur est plus importante en France.In Québec, as in France, the institutional environment in the occupational health and safety field is extremely important. The Québec law of December 21, 1979, orchestrating its entire organization, placed the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (workers’ compensation board at its centre. It encompasses all the constitutional prevention and repair functions. It is assisted by an inspection body and is supported by the public health network. In France, the landscape is more dispersed. There is no equivalent organization. Work inspection comes into play to ensure compliance with standards. Social security organizations, which take charge of occupational injuries, encourage employers to do prevention. Occupational health physicians are subordinate workers, linked to the companies in which they work. In establishments, several actors inherit various missions

  3. Pulsed Neutron Studies of BeO-Natural Uranium Lattices; Etudes de Reseaux Uranium Naturel-Glucine, par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Issledovanie reshetok BeO-prirodnyj uran s pomoshch'yu impul'snykh nejtronov; Estudio de Reticulados de Beo-Uranio Natural con Ayuda de Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1965-10-15

    The use of the pulsed neutron method for determination of the diffusion parameters and multiplication constants of lattices is described. The diffusion parameters and multiplication constants of BeO-natural uranium lattices are obtained by this method. The uranium rods used were 2.92 cm diameter clad in aluminium 0.072 cm thick and were arranged vertically in channels of square cross-section 5 cm x 5 cm, in a square lattice of pitch 15 cm. The neutron bursts were produced from a cascade accelerator by pulsing the ion source and using the Be(d,n) reaction. The detectors were enriched boron trifluorfde proportional counters. The space and time harmonics were eliminated as described by the authors in another paper at this Symposium. The decay constant of the fundamental mode was determined for several bucklings, far from criticality. In these calculations the effect of diffusion cooling and anisotropy was taken into account. All the diffusion and multiplication constants were determined by the method of least squares fit by three different approaches. The prompt critical buckling was determined by solving the decay constant equation for {lambda} = 0. The final results are: Diffusion length L = 15.2 cm Absorption constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 762.5 s{sup -1}. Diffusion coefficient D = 1.761 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s Diffusion cooling constant C = -8.766 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s Age {tau} = 150.7 cm{sup -2} Infinite multiplication factor k{sub {infinity}} = 1.126 Prompt critical buckling B{sup 2} = 3.00 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup -2}. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent l'utilisation de la methode des neutrons puises pour la determination des parametres de diffusion et des constantes de multiplication des reseaux. Cette methode permet d'obtenir les parametres de diffusion et les constantes de multiplication du reseau uranium naturel-glucine. Les barres d'uranium utilisees avaient un diametre de 2,92 cm et un gainage'd'aluminium d'une epaisseur de 0,072 cm elles etaient disposees

  4. [Teenagers' representations of food in the Pays de la Loire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliez, Eric; Beauvineau, Gwenael; Baratin, Clément; Le Daheron, Betty; Poiron, Audrey; Coutan, Régis; Penchaud, Anne-Laurence; Huez, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The National Nutrition Health Study showed that the objectives of the National Nutrition Health Programme, launched in 2001 to promote the health of all French people, had not been achieved, especially in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to identify teenagers' representations regarding food. It was carried out in order to more effectively tailor prevention messages to this particular population, which is particularly concerned by the "nutritional risk". Qualitative investigations by semi-directive interviews with 46 teenage volunteers,from 5 high schools in 2 departments in the west of France. A content analysis was conducted inductively after full transcript of the interviews. The study showed that nutrition was a means of autonomy and emancipation from the parental influence. Teenagers were suspicious and anxious about the health risks associated with processed food. Fast food restaurants were a "place for teenagers" synonymous with pleasure and freedom. They valued "organic" and "homemade" foods. The sexual representations of food consisted of a "slim" image for girls and a "virile" image for boys. A close relationship between food and living beings was responsible for refusal of certain types of food. Although prevention messages were integrated in various ways, they were effectively recalled by teenagers. The nutritional representations of teenagers are poorly known and sometimes contrary to commonly health beliefs and must be taken into account when preparing nutrition prevention programmes.

  5. Uranium deposit of Bauzot (Saone et Loire); Le gisement d'uranium de Bauzot (Saone et Loire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrat, G H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saone et Loire (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The best known of the uranium ore deposits of the Morvan (a province of France) is in the form of a bundle of quartz-fluor lodes with pitchblende and B.P.G.C. ore. The pitchblende seems to have been deposited at different time in respect to the formation of the gangue minerals, but generally it is ore of the first-formed. The main concentrations of ore are always in the vicinity of dykes of basic crystalline rocks. (author) [French] Bauzot, le plus connu des gisements d'uranium du Morvan est constitue d'un faisceau de filons quartzofluores, mineralise en pechblende et sulfures B.P.G.S. La pechblende semble s'etre mide en place a des periodes variables par rapport a la gangue mais en general elle constitue un des premiers mineraux deposes. Les principaux amas se situent toujours a proximite de filons de roches lamprophyriques. (auteur)

  6. El acoso escolar. De las causas, origen y manifestaciones a la pregunta por el sentido que le otorgan los actores (Bullying. from its Causes, Origins and Manifestation to the Meaning Given to it by the Actors Involved (L'harcèlement scolaire. Les causes, l′origine et les manifestations du sens de la question selon les propres acteurs(O acosso escolar. Das causas, origem e manifestações, à pergunta pelo sentido que lhe outorgam os atores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Evelio Castillo-Pulido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo desarrolla cuatro aspectos relacionados con el acoso escolar. En primer lugar, se presentan algunas conceptualizaciones sobre la violen- cia que evidencian la dificultad para definirla. En un segundo momento, se habla de los desarrollos y construcciones en torno al acoso escolar, se da a conocer su definición, la manera como este surge y se hace manifiesto, y los actores que en él intervienen, lo que muestra cómo se ha venido estudiando el fenómeno en el ámbito internacional y de manera particu- lar en Colombia. Finalmente, se argumenta la importancia que tienen los estudios sobre el acoso escolar, a partir de la pregunta por el sentido que los actores le otorgan.Abstractthis paper describes four aspects of bullying. First, some concepts on violence are introduced, demonstrating the difficulties found when trying to define the phe- nomenon. Second, the discourse on “bullying” is described, from its definition, its appearance and manifestations, to the actors and the ways it has been studied as a phenomenon internationally and in Colombia. Finally, it is argued that studies on bullying are especially important as they address the meaning the different actors give to the phenomenon.RésuméCet article développe quatre aspects liés à l′harcèlement scolaire. En premier lieu on présente quelques conceptualisations sur la violence montrant la difficulté pour trouver une définition. Dans un deuxième moment on expose les développements et les constructions en ce qui concerne l′harcèlement scolaire donc on fait connaître sa définition, la façon dont elle se produit et ses manifestations ainsi que les acteurs qui y interviennent. De cette façon on expose comment ce phénomène a été étudié au niveau international et de manière particulière en Colombie. Enfin, on argumente l′importance des études par rapport à l′harcèlement scolaire selon le sens que les acteurs l′attribuent.ResumoEste artigo

  7. The Role of Diffusion Measurements in the Study of Crystal Lattice Defects; Role des Mesures de la Diffusion dans l'Etude des Defauts des Reseaux Cristallins; Rol' diffuzionnykh izmerenij v izuchenii defektov kristallicheskikh reshetok.rol' diffuzionnykh izmerenij v izuchenii defektov kristallicheskikh reshetok; Las Mediciones de la Difusion en el Estudio de Defectos de los Reticulados Cristalinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidson, G. V. [Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, ON (Canada)

    1966-02-15

    transport atomique dans les solides presentent souvent un interet direct pour les ingenieurs specialises dans l'etude, la mise au point et l'utilisation de materiaux. Actuellement on s'efforce de plus en plus d'aboutir a la comprehension de ces proprietes en fonction de l'apparition et la nature de defauts ponctuels et lineaires dans les cristaux. Le memoire fait le point de certaines etudes de diffusion effectuees recemment a Chalk River; ces travaux non seulement fournissent des resultats importants pour la technologie nucleaire, mais permettent egalement de mieux comprendre la nature des defauts de reseaux que l'on rencontre dans les materiaux. Les questions etudiees sont: a) l'autodiffusion dans la phase de zirconium pur a haute temperature; b) la diffusion d'un solute dans le plomb; c) l'interdiffusion de l'aluminium et du zirconium. L'auteur discute brievement les resultats assez surprenants et encore imparfaitement compris qui sont decrits sous a). Certaines indications donnent a penser que la diffusion se produit soit par un reseau serre de dislocation resultant d'une transformation de la phase martensitique, soit par un excedent de lacunes provoquees dans le cristal par des impuretes. Sous b), l'auteur discute la diffusion extraordinairement rapide des solutes de metaux nobles dans des monocristaux de plomb de grande purete selon l'etat de solution des atomes du solute. Il montre que Ton peut comprendre leur comportement de diffusion si l'on admet qu'une fraction f Inverted-Question-Mark des atomes dissous du solute occupe des sites interstitiels. Le coefficient de diffusion mesure D{sub m} et le coefficient de diffusion interstitielle sont lies par la relation D{sub m} = f{sub i}D{sub i}. Sous c), l'auteur decrit la formation et la croissance rapide d'un compose intermetallique unique ZrAl{sub 3} dans la zone de diffusion formee entre le zirconium et l'aluminium purs et il interprete le mecanisme de diffusion en fonction de la structure du reseau compose. Il

  8. Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels Développement d’un outil d’aide à la formulation des carburants alternatifs utilisant des méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship: application aux carburéacteurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldana D.A.

    2013-06-01

    from the literature, from experimental measurements and from molecular simulations for complex molecules. The interest of such models in the selection of molecules can be shown for example by the trade-off between cold flow properties and density of paraffinic compounds. If the carbon chain length is too high, the cold flow properties are compromised. One solution can be to increase branching or incorporate fuel base with good cold flow properties such as naphthenic or aromatic compounds. However, this leads to a decrease in density below the jet fuel specification. Again, using naphthenic of alkyl-aromatic compounds produced from biomass can help. Le développement des carburants alternatifs est en plein essor, notamment dans le domaine aéronautique. Cela se concrétise par la possibilité d’incorporer jusqu’à 50 % de carburants de synthèse de type Fischer- Tropsch (FT ou hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA dans du carburéacteur. De même, ces carburants paraffiniques se développent pour le transport terrestre en parallèle des biocarburants à base d’esters ou d’alcool actuellement disponibles. La formulation de ces carburants alternatifs est actuellement basée sur une sélection des produits via des critères physiques. L’atteinte de ces critères se fait souvent par des formulations empiriques et ce type de fonctionnement ne s’avère pas très efficace et montre ses limites. En effet, les carburants alternatifs présentent des propriétés chimiques qui peuvent être différentes en fonction du procédé (répartition n-paraffines/iso-paraffines, longueur de chaîne, ramification, etc. et donc modulable. Ainsi, une nouvelle voie pourrait être envisagée visant à déterminer par le calcul, la molécule (ou le mélange de molécules la plus à même de répondre au cahier des charges du carburant, puis à étudier ou à optimiser les voies de synthèse permettant d’accéder à ces produits. Le travail présenté a pour objectif le d

  9. Thermal Neutron Spectral and Spatial Distributions in Light-Water-Moderated Uranium Lattices; Distributions Spectrale et Spatiale des Neutrons Thermiques dans des Reseaux a Uranium et a Eau Leger; Spektral'noe i prostranstvennoe raspredelenie teplovykh nejtronov v uranovykh reshetkakh s vodnym zamedlitelem; Distribuciones Espectral y Espacial de los Neutrones Termicos en los Reticulados de Uranio Moderados por Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.; Volpe, J. J.; Klein, D.; Schmidt, E.; Gelbard, E. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-02-15

    distorted by cadmium poison. Calculations with each kernel were done, for this experiment, in a 12-energy group, P{sub 3} approximation. The slowing-down source shape was obtained by means of an eigenvalue calculation of the spatial modal shapes, decaying exponentially in lethargy, which are sustained by the system, supplemented by measured epicadmium activation shapes. Between the poisoned and unpoisoned cases, calculated relative activation rates predicted by the two kernels differed by as much as 10%. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using the Radkowsky kernel and the Nelkin kernel were made. Results strongly favour the harder spectrum predicted by the Nelkin kernel. (author) [French] Les auteurs passent en revue certaines experiences sur le comportement des neutrons thermiques dans les reseaux a uranium et a eau legere. Les experiences sont de deux types principaux: mesures de l'utilisation thermique et mesures par activation de la distribution spatiale des neutrons thermiques dans un milieu aqueux uniformement empoisonne. Ces experiences ont ete concues pour verifier la validite des modeles theoriques actuels en separant les effets spectraux des effets spatiaux a l'interieur d'un reacteur. On a procede a des comparaisons avec des modeles theoriques impliquant differentes approximations touchant la theorie du transport et le noyau de diffusion des neutrons thermiques. La premiere serie d'experiences a consiste en mesures par activation des facteurs de desavantage pour le flux thermique dans differentes cellules du reseau de l'assemblage TRX, qui est un reacteur a uranium faiblement enrichi et a eau legere et dont les barreaux de combustible cylindriques sont disposes en un faisceau hexagonal. Les auteurs ont compare les mesures de l'utilisation thermique avec les resultats de calculs faits par une methode de Monte-Carlo. Ils ont fait usage du noyau de Radkowsky et du noyau de Nelkin. Le noyau de Radkowsky est une approximation de premier ordre

  10. Du poids des contraintes au partage concerté des ressources : quelques témoignages des acteurs centraux de la conciliation travail-famille From the burden of constraints to the sharing of resources: Some statements by the central actors in work-family balance Del peso de las exigencias a compartir recursos de manera concertada : Algunos testimonios de los actores centrales de la conciliación trabajo-familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Chrétien

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Partant du constat que les parents-travailleurs d’aujourd’hui ont de plus en plus de difficulté à assumer les responsabilités professionnelles et familiales qui leur incombent, le présent article aborde, par le biais d’une recherche qualitative menée auprès de 30 parents-travailleurs : 1 les situations-problèmes vécues par les parents-travailleurs en matière de conciliation travail-famille, 2 les effets ressentis par les parents-travailleurs face à ces situations-problèmes, 3 les attentes des parents-travailleurs en regard des acteurs des sphères familiale, professionnelle, collective et gouvernementale pour en arriver à surmonter ces situations-problèmes. Les témoignages des participant(es y sont analysés à partir d’une approche holistique de la conciliation travail-famille, de type systémique, qui met en jeu la dialectique contraintes-ressources.Starting with the observation that today’s working parents are having increasing difficulty assuming their work and family responsibilities, this paper addresses, through the results of a qualitative study on 30 working parents: 1 the problem situations experienced by working parents regarding the work-family balance, 2 the effects experienced by working parents in dealing with these situations, 3 the expectations of working parents regarding other actors from family, work, community and governmental spheres in overcoming these problem situations. The participants’ statements are analyzed within a holistic work-family balance approach, based on a systemic model that involves a constraint-resource dialectic.Esta reflexión colectiva sobre la primera investigación « de terreno » (hace 40 años ! de los ergónomos del Conservatoire Constatando que los padres y madres que trabajan hoy en día tienen cada vez más dificultad a asumir las responsabilidades profesionales y familiares que les incumben, este estudio aborda a través de una investigación cualitativa llevada

  11. Pays-de-la-Loire regional climate air energy scheme - The commitment for energy transition and climate in Pays-de-la-Loire. Environmental assessment report - Pays-de-la-Loire regional climate air energy scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galliard de Lavernee, Christian; Auxiette, Jacques; Potier, Valerie; Viroulaud, Lionel; Ganne, Maryse; Guevel, Vanina; Pineau, Christophe; Bretaud, Jean-Francois; Bertaud, Geraldine; Garnier, Patrick; Durr, Fabien; Bertron, Julien

    2013-01-01

    After a discussion of the strategic dimension of the regional climate air energy scheme (SRCAE), a first document proposes a synthetic presentation of the regional diagnosis in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and renewable energy production. It discusses how to contribute to national objectives related to these issues, and gives a synthetic table of orientations. It indicates and comments areas of action for energy sobriety and efficiency and for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the different sectors (agriculture, building, industry, transport and land development), for the development of renewable energies (wood-energy, methanization, wind energy, geothermal and aero-thermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar thermal and solar photovoltaic energy), for a good air quality, and for a compliance with a strategy of adaptation to climate change. A leaflet proposes a synthetic presentation of these issues (strategic orientations, regional diagnosis, and scenario by 2020). A document contains the opinion of the Environmental Authority on this scheme project. An environmental assessment report proposes a non-technical summary, a discussion of motivation for the acceptance of the SRCAE regarding objectives related to the protection of the environment, a discussion of the initial situation and perspectives of evolution of the environment, an analysis of possible noticeable effects of the SRCAE implementation, an assessment of impacts of Natura 2000, a brief discussion of measures envisaged to avoid, reduce or compensate harmful consequences of the SRCAE, and a presentation of the environmental assessment method

  12. Nature et acteurs de la violence urbaine en République ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... de la violence, les formes et modes d'action par lesquels les villes congolaises, ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill ... des données probantes sur l'autonomisation des femmes sur le marché du travail. ... Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique ...

  13. The actors of the photovoltaic sector in France; Les acteurs du photovoltaique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houot, G.

    2010-04-15

    The author reviews the 192 actors in the French photovoltaic sector, they are classified into 9 categories: 1) the solar plant owner, 2) the developer: he sets projects and his role stops when the project is ready to be sold to an investor, 3) the design office: it leads technical studies and manages the construction works), 4) the installer: he fits the solar panels, 5) the operator of the solar plant, 6) the wholesaler of equipment, 7) the manufacturer of solar panels and photovoltaic systems, 8) the provider or manufacturer of components and materials for the photovoltaic industry, and 9) the provider of specialized services such as insurance, staff training, the follow-up of legal issues... For each company, a brief historical account, the range of activities, the strength of manpower and the turnover are reported. (A.C.)

  14. The players in the French photovoltaic sector; Les acteurs du photovoltaique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houot, G.

    2011-04-15

    This article reviews all the players of the photovoltaic industry in France (silicon producers, electrical component manufacturers, solar system manufacturers, design offices, solar system wholesalers, installers, and solar farm operators). For each company the following is reported: name, activity sector, historical background, staff, turnover, achievement and projects. (A.C.)

  15. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France; Les acteurs de l'hydrogene en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  16. Acteur, agent, actant: personnages en quête d’un scénario introuvable

    OpenAIRE

    Passeron, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Existe-t-il, dans les sciences sociales, un langage théorique qui permette de parler plus scientifiquement que d’autres des actions qui s’enchaînent et se répondent dans une société? Quand il s’agit de préciser le rôle que peut jouer Homo sociologicus sur la scène des théories scientifiques, les scénarios qu’en ont proposés les chercheurs ne manquent certes pas; ni les costumes variés des protagonistes possibles, ni les métaphores filées qui ont fait le succès des tirades classiques, ni les d...

  17. Agriculture dans la ville, agriculture pour la ville : acteurs, pratiques et enjeux

    OpenAIRE

    Poulot, Monique

    2018-01-01

    En Décembre 1992, une séance de l’Association de Géographes Français interrogeait le « devenir des agricultures périurbaines » [Brunet & Charvet 1994]. Jean-Paul Charvet soulignait qu’il semblait désormais « possible de concilier développement urbain et maintien d’espaces agricoles et ruraux vivants du moment où une convergence de volontés s’exprimait en ce sens » [Charvet 1994, p. 120] si bien que ces espaces d’agriculture périurbaine apparaissaient comme « des espaces agricoles complexes où...

  18. Impact des NTIC sur les acteurs de la Supply Chain | Derrouiche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous proposons dans cet article d'évaluer l'apport de ces technologies ainsi que leurs freins et limites dans le cadre d'une problématique d'entreprises en réseau, en nous intéressant particulièrement à leur utilisation dans les chaînes logistiques (Supply Chain). Keywords: NTIC, Supply Chain Management (SCM), Réseau ...

  19. Acteurs, gouvernance et dynamiques de projet dans la concurrence des territoires en tourisme

    OpenAIRE

    Suchet, André

    2016-01-01

    Cette thèse propose une géographie des dynamiques du sport et du tourisme en Pyrénées, au regard de la situation dans les Alpes. À la suite notamment du volume fondateur de Chadefaud (1988), il s’agit de traiter comment les dynamiques du tourisme en Pyrénées imitent, concurrencent, ou se détachent du modèle alpin. Une fois débarrassé de toute idée de déterminisme physique au profit d’un postulat constructiviste, il devient possible d’interroger la fabrication d’un rapport de domination entre ...

  20. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  1. Modélisation du bruit à large bande de soufflantes de turboréacteurs.

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul , Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This report presents several methodologies aiming to predict broadband noise generatedby the interaction between the rotor and the stator of a turbofan. The main objective is toobtain a complete prediction procedure from the acoustic sources generation to the far fieldnoise radiation. As a first step, the rotor-stator mechanism is studied as the interaction betweena homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) and an isolated airfoil. Then, the ductedrotor/stator interaction case is treated. Fi...

  2. L'agglomeration oranaise jeux d'acteurs et dynamique urbaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'agglomération oranaise connaît actuellement une croissance urbaine importante entraînant des évolutions économiques et socioculturelles considérables. Partant de là, une question nous interpelle: Quels sont les mécanismes à la base de la dynamique d'urbanisation, les processus de restructuration et de ...

  3. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  4. A Framework for Network Visualisation (Un Cadre Pour la Visualisation des Reseaux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Consider, for example, the passenger transportation network. Two hundred years ago it had no railways and what little intercity travel there was went by...road; one hundred years ago most intercity travel was by a vast rail network, and there was no air traffic; starting perhaps fifty years ago, rail...archaeological interest, and so forth. Exactly where between towns a road is laid may make no difference to a traveller , but it does make a difference to the

  5. Distributed Generation Management in Distribution Networks; Gestion de la production decentralisee dans les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caire, R.

    2004-04-15

    Deregulations of the energy market, followed by many privatizations, and vertical disintegrations brought a complete reorganization of the electric sector. The opening of the energy markets as well as the technological developments of the means of production of small and average power strongly encourage this evolution. A systematic methodology to study the transmission of impacts between the Low and Medium Voltage is initially proposed, after a quick state of the art of the various possible impacts. The voltage deviation is then identified as the most critical impact. This criticality is supported by quantitative studies on French typical networks, and is confirmed by the related literature. In order to solve this impact, a research of the means of action within tension of the distribution network and their modeling is carried out. As the manipulated variables of the means of adjustment available are discrete or continuous, specific tools are then developed to coordinate them. This coordination is pressed on optimization algorithms developed by holding account of inherent specificity with the manipulated variables. A methodology for the choice or optimal location of the adjustment means associated with a management of the voltage deviation is presented. Lastly, 'decentralized' strategies of coordination for the means of adjustment and a proposal for an experimental validation are presented, thanks to a real time simulator, making it possible to test the strategies of coordination and the necessary means of communication. (author)

  6. Ion conducting interpenetrated lattices for lithium generators; Reseaux interpenetres conducteurs ioniques pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosz, M.; Boileau, S. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Guegan, P.; Cheradame, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Thiais (France). LPCB; Deshayes, A. [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1996-12-31

    Interpenetrated lattices (IPL) are combinations of reticulated polymers linked together by permanent crisscross. This structure is well-adapted to combined highly incompatible pairs of polymers. The in-situ sequential method has been applied successfully to the synthesis of ethylene poly-oxides / poly-siloxanes IPLs. The results concerning the preparation of such lattices and their behaviour as solid polymer electrolytes are presented in this paper. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  7. Interactive Visualization of Network Dynamics (Visualisation interactive de la dynamique des reseaux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    colour coding. The group factor f determines the structure of the hypernode and must be set with careful consideration in respect to the...reference. In experimental psychology it is a well accepted procedure to divide the frames of references into two categories: An egocentric reference...there is almost no colour contrast. For this reason the curvature and feature edges of a surface are harder to recognize and a matching between the

  8. Distributed Generation Management in Distribution Networks; Gestion de la production decentralisee dans les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caire, R

    2004-04-15

    Deregulations of the energy market, followed by many privatizations, and vertical disintegrations brought a complete reorganization of the electric sector. The opening of the energy markets as well as the technological developments of the means of production of small and average power strongly encourage this evolution. A systematic methodology to study the transmission of impacts between the Low and Medium Voltage is initially proposed, after a quick state of the art of the various possible impacts. The voltage deviation is then identified as the most critical impact. This criticality is supported by quantitative studies on French typical networks, and is confirmed by the related literature. In order to solve this impact, a research of the means of action within tension of the distribution network and their modeling is carried out. As the manipulated variables of the means of adjustment available are discrete or continuous, specific tools are then developed to coordinate them. This coordination is pressed on optimization algorithms developed by holding account of inherent specificity with the manipulated variables. A methodology for the choice or optimal location of the adjustment means associated with a management of the voltage deviation is presented. Lastly, 'decentralized' strategies of coordination for the means of adjustment and a proposal for an experimental validation are presented, thanks to a real time simulator, making it possible to test the strategies of coordination and the necessary means of communication. (author)

  9. Architecture, design and protection of power distribution networks; Architecture, conception et protection des reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrel, J.P. [Schneider Electric SA, 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2000-10-01

    The design of all-electric ships calls for high power levels in the propulsion systems. Merchant ships and especially naval vessels demand rugged, reliable propulsion systems with high availability, low maintenance and ease of operation. These constraints imply the choice of an optimized single winding system. The design of the network topology and protection system, and the choice of operating voltage and HT neutral configuration are the main steps in the design. (author)

  10. Photovoltaic production and distribution network; La production photovoltaique et les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, J.L. [ERDF, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    The rapid development of photovoltaics boosted by attractive feed-in tariffs caused a sharp increase in requests for connection to public distribution grids, which were originally designed to serve consumers. ERDF, main distribution network operator in France, is facing a challenge in terms of capacity for handling requests for connection and in terms of public distribution network operation and management. (author)

  11. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1998-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  12. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  13. Ion conducting interpenetrated lattices for lithium generators; Reseaux interpenetres conducteurs ioniques pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosz, M; Boileau, S [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Guegan, P; Cheradame, H [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Thiais (France). LPCB; Deshayes, A [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-12-31

    Interpenetrated lattices (IPL) are combinations of reticulated polymers linked together by permanent crisscross. This structure is well-adapted to combined highly incompatible pairs of polymers. The in-situ sequential method has been applied successfully to the synthesis of ethylene poly-oxides / poly-siloxanes IPLs. The results concerning the preparation of such lattices and their behaviour as solid polymer electrolytes are presented in this paper. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  14. Neural networks applied to inverters control; Les reseaux de neurones appliques a la commande des convertisseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, B; Marpinard, J C

    1996-12-31

    Neural networks are scarcely applied to power electronics. This attempt includes two different topics: optimal control and computerized simulation. The learning has been performed through output error feedback. For implementation, a buck converter has been used as a voltage pulse generator. (D.L.) 7 refs.

  15. Telecommunications networks, home integrated systems and remote control applications; Reseaux de telecommunications, domotique et teleaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregut, F.; Treheux, M.

    1996-12-31

    Energy savings in residential sector can be performed by home integrated control systems. Remote controlled interfaces allow electric appliances consumption matching effective needs. Nevertheless, the uses of those techniques are stagnating since several years. The first reason is an awkward human factors engineering, that is now improving. The second reason is an lack of definition of the needs, that lead to commercialization problems. (D.L.)

  16. Interconnection and power transportation networks: operation; Reseaux d'interconnexion et de transport: fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornard, P. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite (RTE), Div. Systeme Electrique, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Pavard, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Testud, G. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite (RTE), Dept. Exploitation du Systeme Electrique, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    2005-10-01

    For economical or technical reasons, the power generation units are in general grouped together in the same geographical areas, while the consumption points are much more dispersed. The power transportation and interconnection networks ensure the link between the big generation areas and the big consumption areas, and also with other foreign networks. The network manager must keep the balance between the available offer and the potential demand and ensures the transit of energy between the production units and the end-users with respecting the contractual voltage and frequency ranges. Incidents must be mastered to limit the inconvenience to users and to avoid the complete collapse of the power transportation system. This article describes the operation of such systems: 1 - problems linked with networks operation; 2 - transits distribution: general problem, transmissible power in a power line, voltage drop, calculations of power distributions; 3 - voltage and frequency adjustments; 4 - operation in disturbed regime: mastery of common incidents, mechanisms of major incidents (operation of a power system in strongly disturbed regime), protection of the power system, recovery; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  17. A study of uranium-thorium mixed lattices; Etude de reseaux mixtes uranium - thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P; Eckert, R; Mazancourt, R de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Some subcritical experiments have been carried out during the charging of the pile G1 by introducing thorium bars in a regular lattice into the pile. The spreading out of these experiments over a period of three months has permitted: a) work on a pile gradually increasing in size and b) measurements on comparable charges in so far that they have either the same number of bars of thorium, or the same concentration of thorium. From the measurements at constant charge and at constant concentration, it is possible by extrapolation to determine the critical charges and concentrations. The values obtained have showed that the material Laplacian of the lattice depends linearly on the thorium concentration and must cancel out for a concentration T = 8.8 {+-} 0.3 per cent by volume. These results have been found, to a very good approximation, by a simple calculation. (author) [French] Des experiences sous-critiques ont ete effectuees au cours du chargement de la pile G1 en introduisant des barres de thorium reparties suivant un reseau regulier dans la pile. L'etalement de ces experiences sur trois mois a permis d'operer sur une pile de plus en plus grosse et de faire un grand nombre de mesures sur des chargements comparables par le fait qu'ils avaient soit le meme nombre de barres de thorium, soit la meme concentration en thorium. A partir des mesures a chargement constant et a concentration constante, il a ete possible de determiner par extrapolation les chargements et concentrations critiques. Les valeurs obtenues ont montre que le laplacien matiere moyen du reseau dependait lineairement de la concentration en thorium, et devrait s'annuler pour une concentration T = 8,8 {+-} 0,3% en volume. Ces resultats ont ete retrouves avec une tres bonne approximation par un calcul elementaire. (auteur)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Belleville-Sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  1. Affiches d’Angers ou moniteur du département de Maine-et-Loire

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    numéro 28 Du quartidi ventôse de l’an II de la République française, une et indivisible, et de l’ère vulgaire, le samedi 22 février 1794. (page 1)Profession de foi du citoyen Obrumier, membre du comité de surveillance & révolutionnaire. « J’ai 51 ans depuis plus de 30 ans je gémis de porter les noms de deux imbécilles que la sotte superstition de nos peres regardoit comme des êtres dont l’apothéose étoit bien méritée. Je renonce au premier, Louis, non seulement parce qu’il ne fut qu’un ben...

  2. La Grande Guerre des préfets de Maine-et-Loire

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobzone, Alain

    2015-01-01

    La première guerre mondiale est un conflit de type nouveau qui implique la mise en œuvre totale et permanente pendant plus de quatre années de toutes les énergies nationales. Dans cette mobilisation tous azimuts les préfets sont naturellement appelés à jouer un rôle essentiel qui les entraîne, avec une bonne part d’improvisation tant la situation présente des caractères inédits, à intervenir dans tous les domaines de la vie politique, économique et sociale, plus systématiquement et surtout pl...

  3. Autun et Perrecy-les-Forges (Saône-et-Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Balcon-Berry

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available AutunÀ Autun, deux opérations ont été menées en parallèle. Il s’agit tout d’abord de l’étude archéologique de l’ancienne "salle capitulaire" du cloître canonial de Saint-Nazaire, puis des relevés du porche de la cathédrale Saint-Lazare.Étude archéologique de Saint-NazaireEn 2002, s’est poursuivie l’analyse de l’enfoui et des élévations de l’ancienne "salle capitulaire" située à l’est de la galerie orientale. Il a notamment été possible de dégager plus amplement les parties inférieures du mur...

  4. Le baptistère du Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sapin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionnellement désigné comme baptistère depuis le XIIIe siècle, cet édifice conservé au nord-est de la cathédrale du Puy est daté par la plupart des études antérieures du Xe siècle. En 2006, à partir du plan et des premiers travaux au sol, nous avions suggéré que les vestiges d’un massif quadrangulaire au niveau du sol, contre le mur nord, appartiennent à un rythme originel de piliers et grandes arcades murales, dont pouvaient subsister – selon les premières mesures d’espacement – des élé...

  5. La collégiale de Saint-Bonnet-le-Château (Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ducouret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La collégiale de Saint-Bonnet-le-Château est principalement connue pour les peintures murales du XVe siècle qui décorent sa chapelle basse, dont une partie est reproduite au musée des Monuments français, et, à un moindre degré, pour sa bibliothèque qui conserve de nombreux incunables. Son architecture, plus ignorée, n'en est pas moins digne d'intérêt. Nous ne présenterons pas ici l'ensemble de l'édifice, négligeant des éléments remarquables comme le porche sud (cf. plan, au-dessous de la sacr...

  6. Concurrence verticale industriels-distributeurs : stratégie des acteurs et évolution du droit

    OpenAIRE

    Chanut , Odile

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Price war on the shelves for national and international brands, pursuit of food retail groups concentration or supermarket procurement centres concentration, cartels in the industrial sector to cope with retailers purchasing power, French Competition Authority’s recent reports, ALUR Law (2014) and Macron Law (2015) including some policy on retail ... news shows that vertical competition between the food industry and the large retailers is exacerbated in a context of we...

  7. Recherche et ingénierie au service des acteurs de l'assainissement - Avant-propos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEDUIT, Alain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L'épuration des eaux usées domestiques est un point clé de la protection des milieux aquatiques. L’Union européenne, à travers la directive relative au traitement des eaux résiduaires urbaines (DERU, 1991 et la directive cadre sur l’eau (DCE, 2000, a imposé aux États membres des obligations en termes de traitement des eaux usées et de qualité des milieux aquatiques. Ces exigences ont nécessité des efforts financiers considérables dans le domaine de l’assainissement. Lire la suite

  8. L' approche des options stratégiques des acteurs dans i' etude des relations tu travail

    OpenAIRE

    López Pino, Carmen Marina

    2011-01-01

    Faire une analyse de la proposition analytique développée par le MIT (Masachussetts Institute of Tecnology) inspirée du concept des options stratégiques pour I' objet de cet article. En premier lieu, les sujets traités seront la problematique des relations du travail et les découvertes fondamentales des différentes recherches de I' equipe du MIT. Après, I' étude fait une courte présentatión sur I' approche des systémes de Dunlop dont I' èquipe cherche améliorer. Ensuite, sont présentés...

  9. Le syndicalisme, acteur de la démocratisation de l'Union Européenne?

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Les syndicats pourraient être des agents de la démocratisation de l'Union européenne pour deux raisons : primo, le syndicalisme a souvent joué un rôle substantiel dans les processus de démocratisation nationale. Secundo, les syndicats ont été parmi les premières organisations citoyennes à être impliquées dans le processus d'intégration européenne. Cependant, ces considérations ne signifient pas nécessairement qu'ils joueront un rôle important dans la démocratisation de l'UE....

  10. Le systeme d’information des reseaux de sante: la reorganisation de la medecine en e-sante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Margueritte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Les réseaux de santé ont développé depuis plusieurs années des dispositifs permettant une prise en charge coordonnée des patients en France, tant sur les plans médical que médico-psycho-social et humain. Certains ont développé des dossiers de santé partagés informatisés permettant la mise en commun d’informations utiles à la coordination et à la continuité des soins. Depuis 2009 avec la réforme de l’hôpital on veut installer des modes de fonctionnement coopératifs entre les professionnels et avec les usagers du système de santé. La mise en œuvre d’un système d’information de santé pour assurer d’une part, la transversalité du processus métier avec le patient et d’autre part pouvoir mesurer les résultats médicaux et économiques de cette évolution d’un système complexe d’information. Dans ce contexte, les possibilités offertes par les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC permettent la mise en place d’applications favorisant une augmentation de la participation « on line » des citoyens. Le « virage ambulatoire » exporte la santé hors des murs. C’est une médecine innovante qui permet au patient de rester dans son « chez soi ». En France, ce re-engeneering repose sur quatre domaines : un dossier médical informatisé, une prise en charge collective par les professions médicales et paramédicales, une autonomisation et une mise en réseau du secteur de santé.

  11. Detecteur multibandes libs a base de reseaux holographiques epais: Conception optomecanique et gestion de l'innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel

    Detection of sulfur by optical emission spectroscopy generally presents difficulties because the strongest lines are in the vacuum ultraviolet and therefore are readily absorbed by oxygen molecules in air. A novel concept for a low cost and efficient system to detect sulfur using near infrared lines by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy is proposed in this thesis. The concept proposes to use customized thick holographic gratings, also referred as Volume Bragg Grating, for spectral filtering of the plasma light, and built-in custom electronics that amplify and integrate photodiodes output signals. In this work, the optomechanical design, manufacturing and trials of a multiband sensor's prototype is reviewed. Preliminary results has been presented at NASLIBS 2011 and showed a limit of detection comparable to that of a conventional high-end system. An article describing the concept and results has been published in a special issue of the Applied Optics journal. To turn this newly patented concept into commercial success, the management of the innovation has been performed by proposing strategic and tactic alliances for commercialisation purposes applied to strategic business positioning structured along the 3 axis Technology -- Product -- Market. Open innovation is here acting as the paradigm to efficiently reach the market. Discussion relative to strategic and tactic alliance is actually taking place for deployment of the LIBS multiband sensor in the mining industry.

  12. Solution des systemes de controle de grandes dimensions basee sur les boucles de retroaction dans la simulation des reseaux electriques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugombozi, Chuma Francis

    The generation of electrical energy, as well as its transportation and consumption, requires complex control systems for the regulation of power and frequency. These control systems must take into account, among others, new energy sources such as wind energy and new technologies for interconnection by high voltage DC link. These control systems must be able to monitor and achieve such regulation in accordance with the dynamics of the energy source, faults and other events which may induce transients phenomena into the power network. Such transients conditions have to be analyzed using the most accurate and detailed hence, complex models of control system. In addition, in the feasibility study phase, the calibration or the setup of equipment as well as in the operation of the power network, one may require decision aid tools for engineers. This includes, for instance, knowledge of energy dissipated into the arresters in transient analysis. These tools use simulation programs data as inputs and may require that complex functions be solved with numerical methods. These functions are part of control system in computer simulator. Moreover, the simulation evolves in a broader context of the development of digital controller, distributed and parallel high performance computing and rapid evolutions in computer (multiprocessor) technology. In such context, a continuing improvement of the control equations solver is welcomed. Control systems are modelled using ax=b simultaneous system of equations. These equations are sometimes non-linear with feedback loops and thus require iterative Newton methods, including the formation of a Jacobian matrix and ordering as well as processing by graph theory tools. The proposed approach is based on the formulation of a reduced rank Jacobian matrix. The dimension is reduced up to the count of feedback loops. With this new approach, gains in computation speed are expected without compromising its accuracy when compared to classical full rank Jacobian matrix representation. A directed graph representation is adopted and a proper approach for detecting and removing cycles within the graph is introduced. A condition of all zero eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of the graph is adopted. The transformation of the graph of controls with no cycle permits a formulation of control equations for only feedback points. This yields a general feedback interconnection (GFBI) representation of control, which is the main contribution of this thesis. Methods for solving (non-linear) equations of control systems were deployed into the new GFBI approach. Five variants of the new approach were illustrated including firstly, a basic Newton method (1), a more robust one, the Dogleg method (2) and a fixed-point iterations method (3). I. The presented approach is implemented in Electromagnetic Transient program EMTP-RV and tested on practical systems of various types and levels of complexity: the PLL, an asynchronous machine with 87 blocks reduced to 23 feedback equations by GFBI, and 12 wind power plants integrated to the IEEE-39 buses system. Further analysis, which opens up avenues for future research includes comparison of the proposed approach against existing ones. With respect to the sole representation, it is shown that the proposed approach is equivalent to full classic representation of system of equations through a proper substitution process which complies with topological sequence and by skipping feedback variable identified by GFBI. Moreover, a second comparison with state space based approach, such as that in MATLAB/Simulink, shows that output evaluation step in state-space approach with algebraic constraints is similar to the GFBI. The algebraic constraints are similar to feedback variables. A difference may arise, however, when the number of algebraic constraints is not the optimal number of cuts for the GFBI method: for the PLL, for example, MATLAB/Simulink generated 3 constraints while the GFBI generated only 2. The GFBI method may offer some advantages in this case. A last analysis axis prompted further work in initialization. It is shown that GFBI method may modifies the convergence properties of iterations of the Newton method. The Newton- Kantorovich theorem, using bounds on the norms of the Jacobian, has been applied to the proposed GFBI and classic full representation of control equations. The expressions of the Jacobian norms have been established for generic cases using Coates graph. It appears from the analysis of a simple case, for the same initial conditions, the behaviour of the Newton- Kantorovich theorem differs in both cases. These differences may also be more pronounced in the non-linear case. Further work would be useful to investigate this aspect and, eventually, pave the way to new initialization approaches. Despite these limitations, not to mention areas for improvement in further work, one notes the contribution of this thesis to improve the gain of time on simulation for the solution of control systems. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Interconnection and transportation networks: adjustments and stability; Reseaux d'interconnexion et de transport: reglages et stabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornard, P. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite (RTE), Div. Systeme Electrique, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Pavard, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Testud, G. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite (RTE), Dept. Exploitation du Systeme Electrique, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    2005-10-01

    Keeping the mastery of the safety of a power transportation system and respecting the contractual commitments with respect to the network users implies the implementation of efficient frequency and voltage adjustment systems. This article presents a synthetic overview of the methods and means implemented to ensure the adjustment of the voltage and frequency and the stability of very-high voltage power transportation networks: 1 - recalls of the general problem; 2 - frequency and active power adjustment: adapting generation to consumption, adapting consumption to generation; 3 - voltage and reactive power adjustment: duality of the voltage-reactive compensation adjustment, compensation of the reactive power, voltage adjustment chain, voltage adjustment of very high voltage networks, collapse of the voltage plan; 4 - alternators stability: static stability, transient stability, numerical simulation methods, stability improvement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Luminescence dating of architectural ceramics from an early medieval abbey: The St Philbert Intercomparison (Loire Atlantique, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, P. [CNRS-Universite Bordeaux, UMR 5060, IRAMAT-CRP2A, Maison de l' Archeologie, F-33607 Pessac (France)], E-mail: guibert@u-bordeaux3.fr; Bailiff, I.K. [University of Durham, Department of Archaeology, Luminescence Laboratory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, S. [CNRS-Universite Bordeaux, UMR 5060, IRAMAT-CRP2A, Maison de l' Archeologie, F-33607 Pessac (France); University of Durham, Department of Archaeology, Luminescence Laboratory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gueli, A.M. [LDL and BBCC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e di Struttura della Materia, Universita di Catania and INFN Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Martini, M.; Sibilia, E. [INFN, CNR-INFN and CUDAM, Univ. Milano Bicocca, U5, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Stella, G.; Troja, S.O. [LDL and BBCC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e di Struttura della Materia, Universita di Catania and INFN Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    An experimental intercomparison was performed with brick samples from an early medieval building in the west of France, the St-Philbert-de-Grandlieu abbey. A potentially complex set of microdosimetric problems emerged from characterisation measurements, providing a robust test of the routine procedures used by each laboratory. The dating results obtained using quartz coarse grains and fine grain samples span over a large period of time, exhibiting overdispersion, and where systematic deviations appear between quartz and fine grain chronologies. Factors causing such scatter are analysed in detail, including internal radioactivity of quartz grains, millimetre-scale heterogeneity in the fabric, and the observation and modelling of fading behaviour of fine grain minerals.

  15. Luminescence dating of architectural ceramics from an early medieval abbey: The St Philbert Intercomparison (Loire Atlantique, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibert, P.; Bailiff, I.K.; Blain, S.; Gueli, A.M.; Martini, M.; Sibilia, E.; Stella, G.; Troja, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental intercomparison was performed with brick samples from an early medieval building in the west of France, the St-Philbert-de-Grandlieu abbey. A potentially complex set of microdosimetric problems emerged from characterisation measurements, providing a robust test of the routine procedures used by each laboratory. The dating results obtained using quartz coarse grains and fine grain samples span over a large period of time, exhibiting overdispersion, and where systematic deviations appear between quartz and fine grain chronologies. Factors causing such scatter are analysed in detail, including internal radioactivity of quartz grains, millimetre-scale heterogeneity in the fabric, and the observation and modelling of fading behaviour of fine grain minerals.

  16. Les enjeux d’une approche chronologique de la maison paysanne dans les Pays de la Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Le Bœuf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mon propos part d’un constat, celui de la généralisation de l’usage de la maçonnerie dans la mise en œuvre de la maison paysanne, qui entraîne les questions suivantes : à quel type d’habitat « primitif » ces nouvelles constructions ont-elles succédé ? Quels indices chronologiques permettent de situer dans le temps, variable suivant les régions considérées, cette substitution (archives ; inscriptions ; critères techniques : charpente, mise en œuvre de la maçonnerie ; stylistiques : encadrement des baies, cheminées ? Cette approche particulière, dont les conclusions tendent à l’élaboration d’une chronologie de l’habitat paysan, implique la prise en compte des modalités de cette substitution. Son intérêt est d’autant plus grand que celle-ci invite à s’interroger sur les usages et donc sur le « programme » de la maison paysanne.This article is based on the observation of how masonry came to be used in the construction of peasant dwellings. This observation in the field raises the following questions. What was the ‘primitive’ nature of these constructions? What are the chronological indicators, different from one region to another, that permit precise dating for this appearance of masonry: archival sources, inscriptions, technical criteria, structural forms, nature of the masonry, stylistic considerations, surrounds of windows and doors, chimneys? This approach to the question can lead to a certain degree of precision in the dating of peasant dwellings, and implies a new appraisal of the ways this substitution took place. It is all the more interesting in so far as it raises interrogations about the uses of the peasant house, its architectural ‘brief’.

  17. Le logement social urbain et la dynamique spatiale. Stratégie des acteurs décideurs à Oran (1990-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Aïmène

    2013-01-01

    Le constat établi depuis plus d’une décennie, sur la ville d’Oran, fait état d’un mouvement de développement urbain assez intense. Cette dynamique urbaine bien que périphérique se caractérise par une production massive de logements. Avec ses diverses configurations immobilières, le logement social tient une place centrale dans cette production, pour devenir et de loin, le premier consommateur foncier. Notre article tente de suivre l’apport des filières de logement social dans le tracé urbain....

  18. Craquage thermique des vapeurs de pyrolyse-gazéification de la biomasse en réacteur parfaitement auto-agité par jets gazeux

    OpenAIRE

    Baumlin , Sébastien

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification processes give rise to gases containing by-products such as condensable vapors (tars), aerosols, dust, sulfur compounds and inorganics which may considerably lower the efficiency of catalysts (if chemical synthesis is foreseen) or cause severe damages to motors and turbines (in case of electricity production). Hence, efficient gas treatments are needed. The experiments reported in the present work are related to thermal cracking of condensable vapors. These vapors a...

  19. Proposals of French representatives to the world summit on sustainable development; Les propositions des acteurs francais pour le sommet mondial du developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the Rennes colloquium was to present and discuss the proposals made by the French representatives (citizens, associations, companies, local authorities, universities, research institutes etc..) and which were presented at the world summit on sustainable development (Johannesburg, August 26 - September 4, 2002). This document presents, first, a summary of the work carried out by the 'energy' group on: the north-south problem and the need for the development of education plans on sustainable development, the climate change and the shared but differentiated liability, the mastery of consumptions and the development of renewable energy sources. A table summarizes the initiatives proposed by the group: decentralized energy production for the development of rural areas, institutional and financial mechanisms for the sustainable development of the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources, and the energy efficiency and the renewable energies for a sustainable development of urban areas. The second part of this document is the report made by the 'energy' group to the French committee for the summit: energy for the sustainable development and the fight against paucity, biomass as first stake of sustainable energy development for education plans, rural energy for the development, mastery of energy consumptions in urban areas, energy production and transport on networks. A report made by the non-governmental ecological organizations completes the document and presents the possible contribution of the French energy policy to the sustainable development of France. (J.S.)

  20. Homocystéine, lipoprotéine (a): acteurs de risque de l'athérosclérose coronarienne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laraqui, A.; Bennouar, N.; Meggouh, F.; Allami, A.; El Kadiri, N.; Benkouka, F.; Azeddoug, H.; El Haitem, N.; Benomar, A.; Fellat, S.; Benomar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Our data suggest that the hyperhomocysteinemia and/or increased plasma level of lipoprotein Lp(a) are risk factors for coronary heart disease. We investigated 178 patients who underwent complete cardiac examination comprising coronary angiography and biological analysis (CT, HDL-c, LDL-c, TG, and

  1. Modélisation de réacteurs et procédés de polymérisation de propylène industriels

    OpenAIRE

    Feng , Lian-Fang

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, rigorous steady and dynamic models have been developed for an industrial propylene polymerization process. They have then been used to develop new processes based on the existing one. For that purpose, this thesis has: ? reviewed the state of the art of the olefin Ziegler-Natta catalysts; ? analyzed classical propylene polymerization processes and their characteristics; ? analyzed the characteristics of industrial slurry and gas phase propylene polymerization reactors using re...

  2. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-03-01

    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  3. Le pouvoir de consommer:le spectateur comme enjeu et acteur de l’économie du théâtre musical

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Laura Emily

    2015-01-01

    While the purchase of a ticket marks the theatregoer’s commitment to consuming the Broadway musical, the experience of the live performance is not the end of his consumption of the given musical, or of the Broadway brand. Post-performance, the spectator will communicate his memories of and emotional responses to the musical, along with the ideas it promoted, advertising the musical’s brand for the producers, free of charge. This article traces the developments in musical theatre marketing fro...

  4. Modélisation de l'oxydation catalytique du glucose dans un réacteur à lit fluidisé triphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Abdesselam A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of glucose oxidation in a Verlifluid type reactor with a three phase fluidized bed. The catalytic oxidation of glucose gives rise to gluconic acid as well as other acids. This oxidation is assayed in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed. The alumina solid particles serving as support to the platinum catalyst are fluidized by an aqueous solution of glucose and by a co-current air flow. By modelling the reaction in the device it was found that the reactor performances are limited by the internal diffusional resistance.

  5. Le community manager ou animateur de communauté Web : quel nouvel acteur de la formation à distance ?

    OpenAIRE

    Savarieau, Béatrice; Guégan, Julie

    2017-01-01

    La recherche présentée s’est déroulée au sein de la Commission européenne (organe exécutif de l’Union européenne employant 33 000 agents) au cours de l’année 2016. Elle questionne le rôle du community manager, ou animateur de communautés, dans la médiation des savoirs. L’objectif est de définir les contours de ses interventions et de ses apports dans la formation (dispositifs pédagogiques qui visent notamment à renforcer l’efficacité de l’apprentissage et son lien avec le poste de travail), p...

  6. Nouveaux modes de coordination des acteurs dans le développement local: cas des zones rurales au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Hounmenou

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Les politiques de développement en cours dans plusieurs pays du sud, notamment dans ceux de l’Afrique sub-saharienne ont amorcé un nouveau tournant à partir de la fin des années 1980. A la faveur de l’instauration du climat de démocratie dans plusieurs de ces pays à partir de cette période, nombre d’entre eux ont procédé à de profondes réformes, donnant à la société civile et aux populations à la base, un droit de regard plus important dans la conduite des affaires les concernant. L’une des manifestations les plus importantes de ces réformes se traduit par la mise en œuvre de la décentralisation. Ce processus vise entre autres, la prise en compte des réalités locales et la responsabilisation des communautés à la base dans la gestion de leur développement. Il s’agit en d’autres termes, de favoriser le renforcement des capacités des populations locales, en vue de leur permettre de prendre en charge de façon durable, la gestion de leurs propres affaires dans le cadre de la gouvernance participative. Amorcé en janvier 1993, avec les états généraux de l’administration territoriale, le processus de la décentralisation au Bénin n’a connu sa phase de concrétisation qu’avec les élections et l’installation des élus locaux en début 2003. En prélude à l’avènement de la décentralisation, plusieurs localités béninoises font l’objet, depuis le milieu des années 1990, d’expériences d’appui au développement des communautés locales. C’est le cas notamment, des villages des départements de l’Atlantique et des Collines. A travers ces expériences, se mettent en place, divers dispositifs de gouvernance locale au sein des systèmes locaux d’action publique relatifs aux localités rurales. Il s’agit notamment, des comités villageois de suivi ou de gestion, des dispositifs de comités villageois de développement dans le département de l’Atlantique, et du dispositif des projets de territoire dans les Collines. En leur permettant de révéler leurs préférences collectives de développement, la concertation et la mobilisation des populations locales au sein de ces dispositifs favorisent leur proximité des niveaux de prise de décisions les concernant.The currency development policies in many southern countries, especially in those of sub-Saharan Africa have started a new turn, by the end of the years 1980. With the favor of the democracy climate in many of those countries from that period, number of them have proceeded to the deep reforms, giving to the civil society and the basic populations, an important right of glance in the management of the matters which concern them. One of the important manifestations of those reforms, is expressed by the implementation of the decentralization process. Otherwise, it is also to favor the local populations capacities reinforcement, in order to make them able to well support their own matters management, in the frame of the participative governance, through the decentralization process. Begun in January 1993 with the general statement of territorial administration, the decentralization process in Benin, has known its operational step with the election and the installation of the new local elected, about the beginning of the year 2003. Early, since the middle of the years 1990, in many Benin localities, local communities development experiences have been taking place, in order to prepare populations to the decentralization advent. It’s especially the case of some villages in Atlantic department and all of those in Collines. Through those experiences, various systems of local governance are taking place in rural areas. It’s the case of “village committees of monitoring or management’’, “village committee of development” system in Atlantic region, and the “territory project” system in Collines region. By allowing them to reveal their common preferences of development, the consulting and the mobilization of the local populations inside those systems favor their proximity to the level at which the decisions concerning them are taken.

  7. Quality of the environment follow up: what approach to build with local actors?; Qualite du suivi de l'environnement: quelle demarche construire avec les acteurs locaux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The present report gives the principal conclusions of the inquiry about the environmental surveillance and the follow up of nuclear power plants whom objective was to define the commune actions propositions between the C.L.I., A.N.C.L.I. and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  8. 17. Espace méditerranéen et acteurs économiques : la solitude du privé ou les débris du futur

    OpenAIRE

    Akalay, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Qu’est-ce qu’un entrepreneur privé dans un pays en développement ? C’est un homme pauvre en capitaux, pauvre en savoir-faire et qui se lance à la conquête du monde parce qu’on ne peut pas gagner sa vie autrement. A court ou à long terme, l’entrepreneur privé n’a qu’un objectif : la rentabilité. Elle est la condition de sa survie. Dans cette tendance lourde, le privé n’a pas de stratégie. Il exploite des opportunités. Je vais en donner des exemples. J’ai recueilli des faits comme on ramasse de...

  9. La confrontation entre les ressources en eau et les besoins en eau en moyenne montagne cristalline. Quelles contraintes, quels acteurs et quelles politiques de gestion ?

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek , Yohann

    2009-01-01

    Terrain d'étude : Parc Naturel Régional du Pilat, Syndicat du Pays du Gier, SICALA Antenne de Tence.; The objective of this Doctorate was to put in adequacy water resources and water requirements on average crystalline mountain through the example of the Country of Gier, the Regional Natural reserve of Pilat and S.I.C.A.L.A. "Antenna of Tence ". This work was realized in a space of low mountain range. It corresponds so in the middle geographical in the strict sense as in a space lived by a so...

  10. A Framework of Factors Influencing ANSA Decision Making (Structure des Facteurs Agissant sur le Processus Decisionel des Acteurs Armes non Etatiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Contractor was tasked to systematically identify and critically assess scientific literature of relevance to elaborating a theory of ANSA strategic decision...processus décisionnel des AANE et permettra de déterminer quand et comment intervenir afin d’arriver à des résultats plus positifs. Les auteurs ont fait...Jackson 2009) .................................... 13 List of tables Table 1 Theories of decision making

  11. À la recherche de la francophonie perdue. Mémoire d’un acteur engagé, déçu et perplexe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abbou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A chaque époque sa préoccupation de politique francophone en relation avec les besoins du moment et le possible. En 1950, le souci d’assurer un idiome commun aux pays rattachés à la France, a suscité les initiatives qui ont abouti à la création du CREDIF. Puis, segment après segment, les organes de diffusion du Français dans le monde sont apparus. Ainsi s’est mise en place une politique francophone qui s’est affirmée au cours des septennats de Ch. de Gaulle et de F. Mitterrand. Puis les contextes ont changé et nous constatons des évolutions radicales aujourd’hui.

  12. Electrodeposition of ZnO nano-wires lattices with a controlled morphology; Electrodepot de reseaux de nanofils de ZnO a morphologie controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, J.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Katty, A.; Levy-Clement, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209, 94 - Thiais (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the electrodeposition is a changeable low cost method which allows, according to the synthesis conditions, to obtain not only plane thin layers of ZnO but different nano-structures too. In a first part, are presented the formation conditions of a compact thin layer of nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposited on a conducing glass substrate. This layer plays a buffer layer role for the deposition of a lattice of ZnO nano-wires. The step of nano-wires nucleation is not only determined by the electrochemical parameters but by the properties of the buffer layer too as the grain sizes and its thickness. In this context, the use of an electrodeposition method in two steps allows to control the nano-wires length and diameter and their density. The morphology and the structural and optical properties of these nano-structures have been analyzed by different techniques as the scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction and the optical spectroscopy. These studies show that ZnO nano-structures are formed of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires, presenting a great developed surface and a great optical transparency in the visible. These properties make ZnO a good material for the development of nano-structured photovoltaic cells as the extremely thin absorber cells (PV ETA) or those with dye (DSSC) which are generally prepared with porous polycrystalline TiO{sub 2}. Its replacement by a lattice of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires allows to reduce considerably the number of grain boundaries and in consequence to improve the transport of the electrons. The results are then promising for the PV ETA cells with ZnO nano-wires. (O.M.)

  13. On the integration of wind generators on weak grids and island grids; Sur l'integration des generateurs eoliens dans les reseaux faibles ou insulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverdure, N

    2005-12-15

    Wind energy is now an energy that can not be ignored. Because of intrinsic characteristics (scattered primary energy, generators with different technologies, use of power electronics interface), wind energy system integration in distribution grids leads to real problems in terms of impacts. With recent standard changes, it is necessary to study the possibilities of each technology of wind turbines to answer or not to these new constraints. This PhD thesis focuses on a comparison of the main present wind turbines concerning three points of discussion: energy quality, fault ride through, ancillary services (voltage and frequency). It insists on the possibilities in terms of control laws for variable speed wind turbines. (author)

  14. Multi-criteria optimization of dryers: use of neural networks and genetical algorithms; Optimisation multi-criteres de sechoirs: utilisation des reseaux de neurones et algorithmes genetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugget, A.; Nadeau, J.P.; Sabastian, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers, 33 - Talence (France)

    1997-12-31

    Drying remains a complex process to model and thus to optimize. In this paper a new approach is proposed which allows to perform a compression in the drying model in order to integrate it using neural networks. The simulation times become very small and allow to test a great number of configurations. This decisive advantage allows to perform a multi-criteria optimization using hybrid genetical algorithms based on technical-economical criteria like drying cost, production or final product quality. (J.S.) 10 refs.

  15. On the integration of wind generators on weak grids and island grids; Sur l'integration des generateurs eoliens dans les reseaux faibles ou insulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverdure, N

    2005-12-15

    Wind energy is now an energy that can not be ignored. Because of intrinsic characteristics (scattered primary energy, generators with different technologies, use of power electronics interface), wind energy system integration in distribution grids leads to real problems in terms of impacts. With recent standard changes, it is necessary to study the possibilities of each technology of wind turbines to answer or not to these new constraints. This PhD thesis focuses on a comparison of the main present wind turbines concerning three points of discussion: energy quality, fault ride through, ancillary services (voltage and frequency). It insists on the possibilities in terms of control laws for variable speed wind turbines. (author)

  16. Anisotropic Migration in Slab Lattices; Migration Anisotrope dans les Reseaux a Plaques; Anizotropicheskaya migratsiya v reshetkakh iz plastin; Migracion Anisotropica en Reticulados de Placas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeck, H. C.; Quiquemelle, B. C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-08-15

    One of the newest applications of pulsed neutron experiments is the measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion coefficient in different directions in a heterogeneous medium. This paper describes a theoretical method developed to predict these diffusion coefficients and presents some results for experiments in progress at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The interpretation of these experiments is considerably simplified if the experimental assembly is large. Diffusion cooling can then be ignored, the spectra taken to be Maxwellian, and a single energy group considered. With this simplification, it is possible to solve the transport equation numerically for the case of slab geometry. We insert a solution of the form Empty-Set (x, y, z, {Omega}, t) = exp (iB{sub 1}X + iB{sub 2}y - {lambda}t) Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) into the transport equation and solve for Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) by a combination of DSN and integral transport theory methods. The principal advantages of this method over existing methods is that absorption and anisotropic scattering are easily included, and the cell may be composed of many sub-regions. While we might attempt to find the eigenvalue {lambda}, given B{sub 1} and B{sub 2}, it is more convenient to replace iB{sub 1} by K{sub 1}, iB{sub 2} by K{sub 2}, and determine K{sub 1}, given K{sub 2} and {lambda}. The {lambda} can then be expressed as a power series in K{sup 2}{sub 1} and K{sup 2}{sub 2} (or equivalently B{sup 2}{sub 1} and B{sup 2}{sub 2}). The diffusion coefficients are then given by D{sub n} = -d{lambda}/K{sup 2}{sub n} Experiments are in progress at Brookhaven National Laboratory on alternating slabs of aluminium and polyethylene. We have selected the following one-group cross-sections: aluminium, {Sigma}{sub a} = 0.01228 cm{sup -1}, {Sigma}{sub S} = 0.08428 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0; polyethylene, {Sigma}{sub a} = 0.01947 cm{sup -1}, {Sigma}{sub S} = 2.593 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0.25. (author) [French] Une des dernieres applications des experiences au moyen des neutrons puises est la mesure des coefficients de diffusion anisotrope des neutrons thermiques dans un milieu heterogene. Les auteurs exposent une methode theorique elaboree pour prevoir ces coefficients de diffusion et ils indiquent quelques resultats obtenus au cours des experiences qui sont actuellement faites au Laboratoire national de Brookhaven. L'interpretation de ces experiences se trouve grandement simplifiee si l'assemblage experimental est de grande dimension. On peut alors negliger le refroidissement par diffusion, admettre que les spectres sont maxwelliens et ne considerer qu'un seul groupe d'energies. Grace a cette simplification, il est possible de resoudre numeriquement l'equation de transport pour le cas d'une geometrie a plaques. Dans l'equation de transport, les auteurs introduisent une solution ayant la forme Empty-Set (x, y, z, {Omega}, t) = exp (iB{sub 1}X + iB{sub 2}y - {lambda}t) Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) et ils la resolvent par rapport a Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) a) en combinant la methode DSN et des methodes fondees sur la theorie du transport. Les principaux avantages de ce procede par rapport aux methodes existantes sont les suivants: il permet d'inclure facilement l'absorption et la diffusion anisotrope et la cellule peut etre composee de nombreuses subdivisions. Les auteurs auraient pu essayer de determiner la valeur propre{lambda}pour Bx et B2 donnes, mais il est plus commode de remplacer iB{sub 1} par et iB{sub 2} par K{sub 2}, puis de determiner pour et {lambda} donnes. La valeur de {lambda} peut alors etre exprimee sous la forme d'une serie de puissances en K{sup 2}{sub 1} et K{sup 2}{sub 2} (ou de maniere equivalente en B{sup 2}{sub 1} et B{sup 2}{sub 2}). Dans ce cas les coefficients de diffusion sont donnes par la formule D{sub n} = -d{lambda}/K{sup 2}{sub n}. Au Laboratoire national de Brookhaven des experiences sont actuellement en cours sut des plaques alternees d'aluminium et de polyethylene. Les auteurs ont choisi les sections efficaces 3 un groupe ci-apres: aluminium, {Sigma}{sub a} = 0.01228 cm{sup -1}, {Sigma}{sub S} = 0.08428 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0; polyethylene, {Sigma}{sub a} = 0.01947 cm{sup -1}, {Sigma}{sub S} = 2.593 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0.25. (author) [Spanish] Una de las aplicaciones mas modernas de los experimentos con neutrones pulsados es la medicion en diferentes direcciones de los coeficientes de difusion anisotropica de neutrones termicos en un medio heterogeneo. La memoria describe un metodo teorico que se ha establecido para predecir estos coeficientes de difusion, y presenta algunos de los resultados obtenidos en los experimentos que se realizan en el Brookhaven National Laboratory. La interpretacion de los resultados se simplifica considerablemente si el conjunto experimental es de grandes dimensiones. En este caso cabe prescindir del enfriamiento por difusion, suponeT que los espectros son maxwellianos y considerar un solo grupo energetico. Gracias a esta simplficacion se consigue resolver numericamente la ecuacion de transporte cuando se trata de una geometria de placas. Los autores introducen en esta ecuacion una solucion de la forma Empty-Set (x, y, z, {Omega}, t) = exp (iB{sub 1}X + iB{sub 2}y - {lambda}t) Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) y despejan Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) por una combinacion de metodos DSN y de teorfa integral del transporte. Las principales ventajas de este procedimiento son que permite facilmente incluir la absorcion y la dispersion anisotropica, y que la celda se puede componer de muchas subregiones. Es posible tratar de encontrar el valor propio {lambda} cuando se conocen B{sub 1} y B{sub 2}, pero conviene mas sustituir iB{sub 1} por K{sub 1}, iB{sub 2} por K{sub 2}, y determinar K{sub 1}, una vez conocidos K{sub 2} y {lambda}. En este caso, {lambda} se puede expresar como serie exponencial de K{sup 2}{sub 1} y K{sup 2}{sub 2} (o lo que es equivalente, de B{sup 2}{sub 1} y de B{sup 2}{sub 2}). Entonces, la ecuacion D{sub n} = -d{lambda}/K{sup 2}{sub n} dara los coeficientes de difusion. En el Brookhaven National Laboratory se estan haciendo experimentos con placas alternadas de aluminio y polietileno. Los autores han seleccionado las siguientes secciones eficaces en un solo grupo: aluminio, {Sigma}a = 0, 01228 cm{sup -1}, {Sigma}s = 0, 08428 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0; polietileno, {Sigma}a - 0, 01947 cm-1, {Sigma}s = 2,593 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0,25. (author) [Russian] Odnoj iz samyh novyh oblastej primenenija jeksperimentov s impul'snymi nejtronami javljaetsja izmerenie kojefficienta diffuzii teplovyh nejtronov v razlichnyh napravlenijah v geterogennoj srede. Opisyvaetsja teoreticheskij metod, razrabotannyj s celyo predskazanija takih kojefficientov diffuzii, i predstavljajutsja nekotorye rezul'taty jeksperimentov, provodimyh v nastojashhee vremja v Brukhejvene. Interpretacija jetih jeksperimentov v znachitel'noj stepeni uproshhaetsja, esli jeksperimental'naja sborka javljaetsja bol'shoj. V jetom sluchae mozhno prenebregat' diffuzionnym ohlazhdeniem, spektry schitat' maksvellovskimi i rassmatrivat' edinstvennuju gruppu energii. Pri takom uproshhenii mozhno chislenno reshit' uravnenie perekosa dlja sluchaja plastinchatoj geometrii. My podstavljaem reshenie modeli Empty-Set (x, y, z, {Omega}, t) = exp (iB{sub 1}X + iB{sub 2}y - {lambda}t) Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) v uravnenie perenosa i reshaem Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) putem sochetanija metodov fil'trov dlja vyravnivanija dannyh i integral'noj teorii perenosa. Osnovnye preimushhestva jetogo metoda po sravneniju s sushhestvujushhimi sostojat v tom, chto legko vkljuchajutsja pogloshhenie i anijeotropiches- koe rassejanie i jachejka mozhet sostojat' iz mnogih podoblastej. Hotja sdelana popytka najti B{sub 1} i B{sub 2} s dannym sobstvennym znacheniem {lambda}, udobnee vmesto iB{sub l} postavit' kj i vmesto i V{sub 2} - k{sub 2} i opredelit' k{sub 2} s dannym k{sub 1} i {lambda} takom sluchae {lambda} mozhno vyrazit' v vide stelennogo rjada K{sup 2}{sub 1} i K{sup 2}{sub 2} (ili sootvetstvenno a B{sup 2}{sub 1} i B{sup 2}{sub 2}). Kojefficienty diffuzii zatem vyvodjatsja iz uravnenija D{sub n} = -d{lambda}/K{sup 2}{sub n}. V nastojashhee vremja v BNL provodjatsja jeksperimenty s peremennymi plastinami iz aljuminija i polijetilena. Otobrany sledujushhie poperechnye sechenija odnoj gruppy: aljuminij {Sigma}a - 0,01228sm{sup -1}, {Sigma}s = 0,08428 sm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0; polijetilen {Sigma}a = 0,01947 sm{sup -1}, {Sigma}s = 2,593 sm{sup -1} , {mu} = 0,25. (author)

  17. SOA Challenges for Real-Time and Disadvantaged Grids (Defis de la SOA pour les reseaux defavorises et en temps reel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    l’utilisation de normes ouvertes, la facilité de gestion et de configuration et la transparence pour l’utilisateur. L’infrastructure de messagerie doit...et w or k A cc es s Netw ork Configurat ion Applicat ions Transport API Control API Cr os s- La ye r Co or di na ti on Netw ork Information...di na ti on Transport Requirements Netw ork Environment Applicat ion Direct ives Applicat ion Information Figure C-2: Sub Interfaces of the

  18. CARACTERISATION DE RESEAUX DE POLYMERES RETICULES ACRYLIQUES ETUDE DE L’INFLUENCE DES PARAMETRES DE PH DES SOLVANTS ET DE TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    HAMRI, Salah

    2009-01-01

    La préparation des solutions de PH différents, ainsi que la synthèse des réseaux de poly(acrylate de nbutyle)( PABu) et de poly(acrylate de 2-éthylhexyl)(PEHA), par photo polymérisation, constitue la première étape de notre travail, Le comportement de gonflement de réseaux réticulés acryliques l’ABu et l’EHA a été étudié en fonction de trois paramètres : le PH du milieu, le taux de réticulation et la température, Suivant les courbes que nous ayons obtenues, l’influence du PH reste...

  19. Parallelization of applications for networks with homogeneous and heterogeneous processors; Parallelisation d`applications pour des reseaux de processeurs homogenes ou heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombet, L

    1994-10-07

    The aim of this thesis is to study and develop efficient methods for parallelization of scientific applications on parallel computers with distributed memory. The first part presents two libraries of PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and MPI (Message Passing Interface) communication tools. They allow implementation of programs on most parallel machines, but also on heterogeneous computer networks. This chapter illustrates the problems faced when trying to evaluate performances of networks with heterogeneous processors. To evaluate such performances, the concepts of speed-up and efficiency have been modified and adapted to account for heterogeneity. The second part deals with a study of parallel application libraries such as ScaLAPACK and with the development of communication masking techniques. The general concept is based on communication anticipation, in particular by pipelining message sending operations. Experimental results on Cray T3D and IBM SP1 machines validates the theoretical studies performed on basic algorithms of the libraries discussed above. Two examples of scientific applications are given: the first is a model of young stars for astrophysics and the other is a model of photon trajectories in the Compton effect. (J.S.). 83 refs., 65 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Solution of the transfer functions and the linear networks by an analog computer; Resolution des fonctions de transfert et des reseaux lineaires sur calculateur analogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, D

    1967-09-27

    This study presents five methods used to realize a transfer function on analog computer - method of operational amplifiers - method of successive integrations - method of the auxiliary variable - method of the Horner decomposition - method of the direct analog transposition. The method that seems to us the most interesting, this one of Horner, is exposed with some complements. The last method presents the study of a linear network (mechanical, electronic) by direct analog transposition, without having to calculate its transfer function. Several aspects are studied the economy or the material type, the simpleness of implementing the adaptation of coefficients to the computer, the introduction of initial conditions of input and output functions. Every method presented is discussed in function of these problems. The precision of the result is not studied here, but we can indicate that the methods treated here, do not include approximations other than these ones of the computer elements. [French] Cette etude presente cinq methodes utilisees pour realiser une fonction de transfert quelconque sur calculateur analogique - methode des Amplificateurs operationnels - methode des integrations successives - methode de la variable auxiliaire - methode de la decomposition de Horner - methode de la transposition analogique directe. La methode qui nous semble la plus interessante, celle de Horner, est exposee avec quelques complements. La derniere methode presente l'etude d'un reseau lineaire (mecanique, electronique...) par transposition analogique directe, sans avoir a calculer sa fonction de transfert. Plusieurs aspects sont etudies l'economie ou le type de materiel, la simplicite de mise en oeuvre l'adaptation des coefficients au calculateur, l'introduction des conditions initiales des fonctions d'entree et de sortie. Chaque methode presentee est discutee en fonction de ces problemes. La precision du resultat n'est pas etudiee ici, mais on peut indiquer toutefois que les methodes traitees ne comportent pas d'approximations autres que celles des elements du calculateur. (auteur)

  1. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy; Les reseaux electriques intelligents dans la strategie energetique du Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloaguen, Olivier [Ambassade de France au Royaume-Uni, Service de presse, 58 Knightsbridge, London SW1X 7JT (United Kingdom); Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine [Ecole des Mines de Paris - MINES Paris Tech, 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel 75272 Paris cedex 06 (France)

    2011-09-15

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  2. Fuzzy logic and modeling of ventilation networks in the nuclear industry; Logique floue et modelisation des reseaux de ventilation dans l'industrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floquet, P.; Lhoste, J.C.; Domenech, S.; Pibouleau, L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Chimiques et Technologiques, Lab. de Genie Chimique, LGC, UMR CNRS/INP/UPS 5503, 31 - Toulouse (France); Laborde, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Institut de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article presents the implementation of fuzzy logic in the modeling of ducts, filters and pressures of the ventilation networks of the nuclear industry, taking into account the uncertainties of the aeraulic parameters. (J.S.)

  3. Agreement ''power networks and environment'' 2001-2003; Accord ''reseaux electriques et environnement'' 2001-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This agreement, discussed between the French government and Electricite de France (EdF) group, proposes some engagements for the 2001-2003 era for a better environmental integration of power transmission and distribution networks. The agreement is made of two parts: 1 - public distribution networks: realization of new workmanship (medium and low voltage power lines, new lines in dense urban areas), actions on existing workmanship (consequences of December 1999 storms, aesthetical aspects, burial of the main overhead lines in wooded areas, reinforcement of EdF's environmental commitment, remedial actions for environmental 'black points'), general measures of implementation (increasing network safety, protection of birds fauna, coordination of works); 2 - public transportation network (RTE): development and safety improvement of the public transportation network (reinforced arrangement for the establishment of regional development schemes, development of international interconnections, safety improvement of the public transportation network, RTE's environmental plan); line projects (arrangements during projects elaboration, accompanying program); long lived RTE's commitment (environmental management and ISO-14001 certification, vigilance with respect to electromagnetic fields, R and D). (J.S.)

  4. History matching of large scale fractures to production data; Calage de la geometrie des reseaux de fractures aux donnees hydrodynamiques de production d'un champ petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Object based models are very helpful to represent complex geological media such as fractured reservoirs. For building realistic fracture networks, these models have to be constrained to both static (seismic, geomechanics, geology) and dynamic data (well tests and production history). In this report we present a procedure for the calibration of large-scale fracture networks to production history. The history matching procedure includes a realistic geological modeling, a parameterization method coherent with the geological model and allowing an efficient optimization. Fluid flow modeling is based on a double medium approach. The calibration procedure was applied to a semi-synthetic case based on a real fractured reservoir. The calibration to water-cut data was performed. (author)

  5. Parallelization of learning problems by artificial neural networks. Application in external radiotherapy; Parallelisation de problemes d'apprentissage par des reseaux neuronaux artificiels. Application en radiotherapie externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauget, M

    2007-12-15

    This research is about the application of neural networks used in the external radiotherapy domain. The goal is to elaborate a new evaluating system for the radiation dose distributions in heterogeneous environments. The al objective of this work is to build a complete tool kit to evaluate the optimal treatment planning. My st research point is about the conception of an incremental learning algorithm. The interest of my work is to combine different optimizations specialized in the function interpolation and to propose a new algorithm allowing to change the neural network architecture during the learning phase. This algorithm allows to minimise the al size of the neural network while keeping a good accuracy. The second part of my research is to parallelize the previous incremental learning algorithm. The goal of that work is to increase the speed of the learning step as well as the size of the learned dataset needed in a clinical case. For that, our incremental learning algorithm presents an original data decomposition with overlapping, together with a fault tolerance mechanism. My last research point is about a fast and accurate algorithm computing the radiation dose deposit in any heterogeneous environment. At the present time, the existing solutions used are not optimal. The fast solution are not accurate and do not give an optimal treatment planning. On the other hand, the accurate solutions are far too slow to be used in a clinical context. Our algorithm answers to this problem by bringing rapidity and accuracy. The concept is to use a neural network adequately learned together with a mechanism taking into account the environment changes. The advantages of this algorithm is to avoid the use of a complex physical code while keeping a good accuracy and reasonable computation times. (author)

  6. Retention of aqueous {sup 226}Ra fluxes from a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal at the Bois Noirs site (Loire, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Matray, Jean-Michel [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LETIS, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Bassot, Sylvain [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LAME, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Mangeret, Arnaud [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SEDRAN/BRN, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal site located in France (Bois Noirs) where 1.3 million tons of uranium mill sludge (fine tailings fraction < 50 μm) have been disposed since the 60's in a man-made pond below 4 meters of water maintained artificially by a rock-fill dam. A significant attenuation of aqueous {sup 226}Ra activity is observed in ground waters. This paper presents the preliminary modeling work performed for evaluating the role of water-rock interactions on aqueous {sup 226}Ra attenuation through the dam. This modeling attempt, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, aims at checking the hydrochemical conceptual model developed in a previous study, in which Ra retention through the dam was assumed to most likely result from sorption onto metallic oxide-hydroxides. A 2D coupled reactive transport model was conceived to test this hypothesis over time and identify the measurements required to verify its consistency over the long term. (authors)

  7. Autun (Saône-et-Loire. Étude archéologique du cloître canonial de Saint-Nazaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Berry

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L’année 2003, qui marquait à la fois les 20 ans de recherches entreprises à l’initiative de Christian Sapin et la fin des investigations de terrain, fut très fructueuse. En effet, outre une étude complémentaire de la zone occidentale du cloître, riche en découvertes, la galerie orientale qui a particulièrement retenu notre attention, recelait des informations capitales pour comprendre de façon plus précise l’histoire du site. À l’est, justement, d’autres parties d’une vaste habitation de l’An...

  8. Risk factors for stroke and thromboembolism in relation to age among patients with atrial fibrillation: the loire valley atrial fibrillation project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Fauchier, Laurent; Lane, Deirdre A

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest European guidelines on the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), all patients aged ≥ 65 years should be treated with oral anticoagulation (if not contraindicated). Therefore, stroke risk factors should be investigated exclusively in patients with NVAF aged...

  9. Becoming Roman in southern Burgundy: A field survey between Autun and Bibracte in the Arroux Valley (Saône-et-Loire, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Creighton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a pilot programme of fieldwork carried out between 2000-3 in the Arroux Valley in southern Burgundy close to Autun and Mont Beuvray. In the late Iron Age, this region was inhabited by the Aedui, an early ally of Rome, who had their principal stronghold at Mont Beuvray (Bibracte, high up in the Morvan. The 19th century excavations established this oppidum as a type-site for the European Iron Age, and since 1984 it has been the focus of an international research programme, which has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the site. In the Augustan period, Mont Beuvray was however replaced by Autun (Augustodunum on the banks of the Arroux as the new civitas capital. It rapidly developed into one of the major cities of Roman Gaul and like Mont Beuvray has been the subject of extensive excavations. Composite image of the survey There has been far less research on rural settlement in the region. This lack of investigation has much to do with present-day land use. The Morvan used to be extensively cultivated, but nowadays is mainly pasture or woodland, severely limiting the possibilities for either aerial reconnaissance or conventional fieldwalking. Next to nothing is known about the Iron Age settlement pattern around Mont Beuvray and Gallo-Roman settlement around Autun is only slightly better attested. It would be surprising however if the hinterland of both sites was not densely settled through this period, particularly the lower-lying ground of the Arroux valley itself. The fieldwork programme reported here was designed to test the possibility of using a combination of extensive geophysical survey and linewalking the few arable fields that exist to characterise rural settlement in the environs of these two major centres. Three micro-areas in the Arroux valley between Autun and Etang, and that of its tributary, the Celle, were selected for more detailed investigation, two of them in the commune of Monthelon, the third in Laizy. In all, a total area of 132 ha was prospected between 2000-2003 in the three micro-zones, representing just under 10% of their total areas, but nearer 15% of the area available for survey. About 80 ha (60% was examined by fieldwalking, 62 ha (47% by gradiometry and 11 ha (8% by resistivity, together leading to the discovery of numerous hitherto unknown sites and scatters spanning the period from the Neolithic to the early Middle Ages, as well as enabling the better characterisation of other sites known from earlier chance discoveries. The results are presented in detail followed by an overview of the Iron Age and Gallo-Roman pottery collected at the different locations, for which a type series has been built up and linked where possible to the local reference collections from Mont Beuvray and Autun. In the concluding section, the extent to which the results have been able to throw new light on the principal research questions posed at the outset of the project are assessed. These were as follows: (1 what was the nature of Iron Age settlement in the area prior to the foundation of Mont Beuvray? (2 is there any evidence of a reduction in the number of later Iron Age rural sites at the period when the oppidum was occupied, as happens in regions such as the Auvergne and Picardy? (3 how does Gallo-Roman settlement vary through time or with distance from Autun? (4 do rural site numbers and/or visibility in the early and later Empire follow similar trends to other parts of the Roman west? (5 is there any evidence for precocious Roman cultural expression at rural sites in the region similar to that seen on Mont Beuvray itself? As a result of this work, a series of preliminary suggestions can now be offered, although to answer all the questions in full would require a far more extensive programme of survey.

  10. Electrical assessment and perspectives 2015 - Ile-de-France, Centre-Val de Loire, Pays de la Loire, Burgundy Franche-Comte, Brittany, Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur, Normandy, Grand East, Languedoc-Roussillon, Auvergne Rhone-Alps, Aquitaine Limousin Poitou-Charentes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinon, Anne-Sophie; Lemaitre, Nathalie; Nedelec, Agathe; Brigant, Caroline; Morassi, Sandrine; Joumier, Frederique; PHAM, Mai-Phuong; Lemoine, Henry; Audibert, Solange; Stoll, Elsa; Felix, Jean-Hubert; Zanotelli, Frederique; List, Herve; Larchier, Christelle; Beaulieu, Marc; Vial, Marie-Charlotte; Cherblanc, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This large publication, illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, proposes overviews of electricity consumption (final consumption, distribution among sectors) and production (by the different energy sources), of RTE's projects and investments (related to electricity distribution, to grid connections, or to electricity production), and economic benefits for different French regions

  11. Electrical assessment and perspectives 2016 - Hauts-de-France, Brittany, Normandy, New-Aquitaine, Grand East, Burgundy Franche-Comte, Auvergne Rhone-Alps, Occitany, Centre-Val de Loire, Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur, Pays de la Loire, Ile-de-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, Nathalie; Petit, Melanie; Nedelec, Agathe; Pinon, Anne-Sophie; Veyssiere, Raphaelle; Morassi, Sandrine; Joumier, Frederique; Audibert, Solange; Felix, Jean-Hubert; Larchier, Christelle; Beaulieu, Marc; Segala, Marie; Dohet, Frederic; Pham, Mai-Phuong; List, Herve; Zanotelli, Frederique; Carpentier, Aurelie; Thierry, Olivier; Duhamel, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This large publication, illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, proposes overviews of electric power consumption (final consumption, distribution among sectors) and production (by the different energy sources), of RTE's projects and investments (related to power distribution, to grid connections, or to power production), and of economic benefits for the different French regions

  12. Étude des antineutrinos de réacteurs : mesure de l'angle de mélange leptonique θ₁₃ et recherche d'éventuels neutrinos stériles

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims to measure the θ₁₃ mixing angle through the disappearance—induced by the oscillation phenomenon—of anti-neutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear reactors. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties, the experiment relies on the relative comparison of detected signals in two identical liquid scintillator detectors. The near one, giving the normalization of the emitted flux, is currently being built and will be delivered in spring 2014. The far detector, sensiti...

  13. Cycle thorium et réacteurs à sel fondu. Exploration du champ des paramètres et des contraintes définissant le "Thorium Molten Salt Reactor"

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu , Ludovic

    2005-01-01

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce the anthropic CO2 emission requires major technological advances. Nuclear plants of IVth generation have to respond to several constraints, as safety improvements, fuel breeding and radioactive waste minimization. For this purpose, it seems promising to use Thorium Cycle in Molten Salt Reactors. Studies on this domain have already been carried out. However, the final concept suffered from serious issues and was discontinued. A new reflection on this...

  14. Optimisation et intégration de catalyseurs structurés en réacteurs structurés pour la conversion de CO₂ en méthane

    OpenAIRE

    Danaci , Simge

    2017-01-01

    In this doctoral study, the three dimensional fibre deposition (3DFD) technique has been applied to develop and manufacture advanced multi-channelled catalytic support structures. By using this technique, the material, the porosity, the shape and size of the channels and the thickness of the fibres can be controlled. The aim of this research is to investigate the possible benefits of 3D-designed structured supports for CO2 methanation in terms of activity, selectivity and stability and the im...

  15. Valorisation de substrats organiques divers dans l'agriculture péri-urbaine de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso pour l'amendement et la fertilisation des sols : acteurs et pratiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaboré, WTT.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic substrates recycling in the sub-urban agriculture of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso for soils fertilization: description of the different actors and their practices. This study aimed to establish an overview of the main actors of the sub-urban agriculture of Ouagadougou, their practices and expectations, and to characterize the used organic substrates (OS. For that, a farm survey was carried out on the most representative sites with 64 persons (cereal farmers, truckers and nurserymen randomly chosen. OS were sampled with each actor, when available. Thus, 27 samples were taken and characterized through chemical analyses and laboratory incubations to follow organic carbon mineralization. The results highlighted that 35% of cereal farmers, 69% of truckers and 95% of nurserymen were 20 to 40 years old, that a large proportion of cereal farmers and truckers were not sent to school while 70% of nurserymen had at least primary education. Sub-urban agriculture was the only activity for 43% of farmers, 83% of truckers and 91% of nurserymen. Moreover, 71% of cereal farmers and 73% of nurserymen used municipal wastes as source of organic matter against only 17% of truckers, the majority of them using animal manures. The main criterion of choice of OS was their availability without any other consideration. Even if a large majority of the actors think that composts of OS were better than brut OS, a minority of them used currently composts. The best ways for an adoption and utilization of OS composts were to facilitate their accessibility and to promote these composts, composting techniques and their interests through advertising in mass media. Chemical analyses and laboratory incubations showed a great variability of the SUW, both in the same group and actors' groups. However, in case of total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorous contents, the following tendencies were observed: Contenttruckers > Contentfarmers > Contentnurserymen. For the sum of major elements Ca, K, Mg, Na (SME, it was observed that SMEtruckers ≈ SMEfarmers > SMEnurserymen. In addition, except a few atypical substrates, OS used by nurserymen were largely stabilized compared to those of cereal farmers and truckers.

  16. Nouveaux Acteurs Sociaux, Permanence et Renouvellement du Clientélisme Politique en Afrique Sub-saharienne New social actors, continuity and renewal of political clientelism in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Médard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objecto de análise deste artigo são as dinâmicas e reconfigurações do clientelismo político, um dos traços centrais do funcionamento dos sistemas políticos africanos. As recomposições e adaptações dos sistemas políticos africanos na fase das «transições» para as democracias multipartidárias, em África, face às crises políticas, sociais e económicas e o surgimento subsequente de novos actores sociais nas estruturas de poder (político africanas são o centro de análise deste texto. O artigo sustenta que a «democracia» e o multipartidarismo não contribuíram para a erradicação ou mitigação das práticas clien­telares. O máximo que se conseguiu, até ao momento, foi a criação de condições para a renegociação destas mesmas relações clientelares.The object of this article is to examine the dynamics and reconfigurations of political clientelism, one of the major characteristics of African political systems. The analysis focuses on the restructuring and adapting of African political systems during the «tran­sitional phase» to multi-party democracies in reaction to the political, social and economic crises and the subsequent emergence of new social actors in the African (political power structures. The article argues that «democracy» and multipartyism have not contributed to eradicate or mitigate clientelist practices and that most achieved, until now, has been the creation of conditions that favor the renegotiation of clientelist relationships.

  17. Single Pellet String Reactor for Intensification of Catalyst Testing in Gas/Liquid/Solid Configuration Réacteur catalytique de type “filaire” pour l’intensification de tests catalytiques en configuration gaz/liquide/solide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipolito A.I.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Catalyst improvement is a key route toward process improvement in terms of yield, energy efficiency and selectivity optimization. The catalyst development strategy includes catalyst testing on a model or real feedstock. This key step has been the focus of many studies during the last decades concerning reactor design, analytical tool development and operating procedures. Most studies aim to determine catalytic grain activity in isothermal conditions so as to be able to understand and predict the kinetics. With catalyst improvement, in the lab-scale reactors available, the mass transfer rate can become the limiting step compared with the reaction rate, especially for fast exothermic reactions. A new reactor geometry is proposed to intensify the mass transfer and to accelerate the fluid superficial velocities: the single pellet string reactor. To characterize this new geometry, a hydrodynamic study was carried out in a horizontal single pellet string reactor with a 4.0 × 4.0 mm2 square section, filled with spherical particles of diameter varying between 2.0 and 4.0 mm. In this hydrodynamic study, visual observations of the flow patterns were performed, as well as pressure drop measurements and residence time distribution analysis in single liquid phase flow and two-phase flows. In every configuration tested, two main regimes were identified: the “isolated bubbles” regime and the “stratified” regime. Peclet number and liquid hold-up were deduced from the residence time distribution analysis. The measured liquid hold-ups are always higher than 0.6, which indicates, in addition to the visual observations and colorimetric tests, that the catalyst is always fully wetted by the liquid film. The axial dispersion measurements showed that the single liquid phase flow cannot be interpreted by a classical axial dispersion model. However, when a gas phase is added, the flow becomes closer to plug flow, with Peclet numbers always higher than 40. It has been shown that the pressure drop is controlled by the liquid/solid friction surface and that the pressure drop is not a limiting parameter in the reactor’s operation (values always lower than 0.1 bar. So, from a hydrodynamic point of view, this new reactor exhibits characteristics suitable for its use in catalytic tests. Finally, this reactor was implemented under reaction conditions to study hydrogenation reactions with a real industrial catalyst. The selective hydrogenation of allene was studied. The string reactor was shown to run isothermal kinetic tests with a very small amount of industrial-sized catalyst particles (less than 2 cc and to explore kinetics of fast reaction at high space velocities impossible to achieve in standard fixed bed units with appropriate hydrodynamic conditions. For constant residence time, the allene conversion does not vary with pressure and feed flow rate, which confirms that the string reactor allows one to perform catalytic tests with such a fast reaction without external mass transfer resistance. L’optimisation du catalyseur est une etape cle pour l’optimisation d’un procede catalytique du point de vue des rendements, de l’efficacite energetique et de la selectivite des reactions. La strategie de developpement d’un catalyseur comprend des tests effectues sur des reacteurs pilotes avec des charges reelles ou modeles. Cette etape a fait l’objet de nombreuses etudes ces dernieres decennies portant sur le dimensionnement des reacteurs, l’amelioration des outils d’analyses et les procedures operatoires. La plupart des etudes ont pour but de determiner l’activite catalytique de catalyseur sous forme de grain dans des conditions isothermes de facon a pouvoir determiner les parametres cinetiques de la reaction. Avec l’optimisation des catalyseurs, les flux de transfert de matieres externes aux grains peuvent devenir l’etape limitante, dans les reacteurs de laboratoire standard, par rapport aux flux de reaction. Ce probleme est particulierement critique pour les reactions rapides et tres exothermiques. Une nouvelle geometrie de reacteur est proposee pour intensifier les transferts de matieres autour des grains de catalyseur et accelerer les vitesses superficielles des fluides : le “reacteur filaire”. Pour caracteriser cette nouvelle geometrie de reacteur, une etude hydrodynamique a ete menee avec un reacteur filaire horizontal de section carree de 4,0 × 4,0 mm2 rempli de particules spheriques de diametre compris entre 2 et 4 mm et simulant des grains de catalyseur. Les regimes d’ecoulement ontete etudies a partir d’analyses d’images, des mesures de perte de pression et de distribution de temps de sejour qui ont ete effectuees en ecoulement monophasique liquide et diphasique gaz/liquide. Deux principaux regimes d’ecoulements ont ete observes: un regime de “bulles isolees” et un regime de type “stratifie”. Les retentions liquides sont toujours superieures a 60 %, ce qui indique en complement d’observations visuelles que le catalyseur est toujours correctement irrigue par l’ecoulement liquide. En ecoulement diphasique gaz/liquide, l’ecoulement est de type piston puisque les nombres de Peclet sont toujours superieurs a 40. La perte de pression est principalement controlee par les forces de frottement liquide/solide et les valeurs de perte de pression restent tres faibles en conditions de tests catalytiques (< 0,1 bar. Les caracteristiques hydrodynamiques indiquent donc que ce reacteur est approprie pour des tests catalytiques. Enfin, ce type de reacteur a ete mis en oeuvre en conditions de reactions catalytiques pour effectuer des tests d’un catalyseur commercial pour une reaction d’hydrogenation de l’allene. Le reacteur a permis d’effectuer des tests en conditions isothermes avec une tres faible quantite de catalyseur (inferieure a 2 cc et d’acceder aux performances catalytiques pour des temps de contact tres courts impossible a atteindre avec des reacteurs a lits fixes conventionnels dans de bonnes conditions hydrodynamiques. Pour un meme temps de sejour, la conversion en allene ne varie pas, ni avec la pression operatoire, ni avec le debit de charge, ce qui confirme que ce type de reacteur permet d’effectuer des tests catalytiques avec des reactions rapides sans limitation aux transferts de matieres externes aux grains.

  18. La réforme foncière au Vietnam : Analyse des jeux d'acteurs et du processus de transformation des institutions aux échelons central et provincial

    OpenAIRE

    Mellac , Marie; Fortunel , Frederic; Dan Tran , Dac

    2010-01-01

    rapport scientifique; Une des particularités du foncier vietnamien réside dans l'existence d'un « état zéro » des institutions foncières, que l'on peut dater approximativement au début des années 1980, à partir duquel l'ensemble des institutions a été mis en place. Cet « état zéro » des institutions ne signifie bien entendu pas l'absence d'héritages : les institutions qui émergent aujourd'hui portent la trace de chacune des périodes passées. C'est le cas par exemple de la multiplicité des ins...

  19. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors; La gestion des dechets nucleaires a haute activite et a vie longue en France: enquete aupres des acteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dars, A

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  20. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France; Les collectivites locales et l'electricite. Territoires, acteurs et enjeux autour du service public local de l'electricite en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, G

    2005-06-15

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  1. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.

    1998-03-01

    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  2. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France; Les collectivites locales et l'electricite. Territoires, acteurs et enjeux autour du service public local de l'electricite en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, G

    2005-06-15

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  3. Les mutations du secteur agricole bamiléké (Cameroun) étudiées à travers ses acteurs : Une analyse à partir des localités de Fokoué et de Galim

    OpenAIRE

    Fongang Fouepe , Guillaume Hensel

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Bamiléké agricultural sector (West Cameroon) have been very important since the mid 80s, marked by a fall in the prices of coffee, by then the main production of the Bamiléké region, and next by the economic crises in Cameroon. In this thesis, the concept of dispositive (Foucault, Moisdon, Maugeri, RIDT-INRA) is the main tool for the analysis of this agricultural sector. A dispositive is a heterogeneous whole that is made up of human, material, non human and immaterial componen...

  4. Mesures de bruit neutronique auprès des réacteurs Caliban, Godiva IV, Planet et Flattop, Détermination des paramètres cinétiques et des incertitudes associées

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle , Amaury

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the neutron power is characterized by several key parameters for safety: the effective multiplication factor from a neutron generation to another, the mean lifetime of neutrons, the delayed neutrons fraction, and the total and leakage multiplications. Neutron noise measurements allow the deduction of the kinetic parameters. They are divided into frequency methods (not described in the PhD work), assessments of probability counts or variance-to-mean measurements. They complete...

  5. Utilisation sociale de Borassus aethiopum Mart et de ses habitats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trois grandes catégories d'acteurs ont été identifiées : les acteurs ayant des actions destructives à court terme, les acteurs ayant .... Figure 1: Situation du secteur d'étude au Bénin. .... coupe car selon la loi 93-009 du 02/07/93 portant régime ...

  6. Report of study group 5.4 remote operation of distribution networks; Rapport du comite de travail 5.4 distribution du gaz: exploitation a distance des reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohn, D.; Osiadacz, A.

    2000-07-01

    This study by the IGU WOC 5.4 reviews, at a management level, the application of remote monitoring and control systems for distribution networks. Gas distribution companies have to carefully balance the safety, quality, economic and financial aspects of managing geographically distributed assets to meet customer needs. Remote systems are a key tool in meeting these objectives. A questionnaire was developed to identify the key drives for the selection of remote monitoring and control systems, high level company parameters and current technologies in use. The field in questionnaires received by the WOC 5.4 show that monitoring equipment and remote control systems for gas distribution in various configurations are commonly utilized by the firms operating in this field. The reason why the firms themselves did adopt a remote control system mainly depends on safety as well as on a reduction of operating costs due to reduction in the personnel and related overheads associated with the management of the system. (authors)

  7. Conference Proceedings of International High Speed Networks for Scientific and Technical Information, Held at Ottawa, Canada on 6-7 October 1993 (Les Reseaux Internationaux Rapides D’Echange D’Information Scientifique et Technique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    reseau systtme pour que toutes les commandes soient girkes local Ethernet. dlectroniquement. Trois micro -ordinateurs permettent Ia transmission des...May 1993, ISBN 0.88736-936-7. Networking and the future of the Libraries, April 2-5, 1992. Paper 17. [71 Goodman, D., "El servicio de Directorio de

  8. Modeling by artificial neural networks. Application to the management of fuel in a nuclear power plant; Modelisation par reseaux de neurones. Application a la gestion du combustible dans un reacteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudier, F

    1999-07-01

    The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes, such as the power peaking factor for thousands of candidate loading patterns. Despite the rapid advances in computer architecture, the direct calculation of these attributes by a neutronic code needs a lot of of time and memory. With the goal of reducing the calculation time and optimizing the loading pattern, we propose in this thesis a method based on ideas of neural and statistical learning to provide a feed forward neural network capable of calculating the power peaking corresponding to an eighth core PWR. We use statistical methods to deduct judicious inputs (reduction of the input space dimension) and neural methods to train the model (learning capabilities). Indeed, on one hand, a principal component analysis allows us to characterize more efficiently the fuel assemblies (neural model inputs) and the other hand, the introduction of the a priori knowledge allows us to reducing the number of freedom parameters in the neural network. The model was built using a multi layered perceptron trained with the standard back propagation algorithm. We introduced our neural network in the automatic optimization code FORMOSA, and on EDF real problems we showed an important saving in time. Finally, we propose an hybrid method which combining the best characteristics of the linear local approximator GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) and the artificial neural network. (author)

  9. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Information manual for the experimentation of the deployment of optical fibers on public power distribution networks; Notice d'information pour l'experimentation du deploiement de fibres optiques sur les reseaux publics d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During the French inter-ministry committee for the national development (CIADT) of July 9, 2001, the government decided to launch a feasibility study about the deployment of telecommunication optical fibers over the whole territory using the electricity transportation grid. The aim is to give access to high-speed Internet to everyone and at a reasonable cost. This manual summarizes the technical, legal and economical results of the study carried out by the working group: 1 - the actors in concern (managers of power transportation and distribution networks, country authorities, managers and users of telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory agencies, financial organizations); 2 - the telecommunication networks on power lines; 3 - the feasibility of the experimentation (relations between the different partners, conditions); 4 - the implementation of the experimentation (useful contacts, contracts); 5 - the experimentation areas. Appendixes. (J.S.)

  11. On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-17

    This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection with the tariffs of domestic contracts; - Proposals for tariffing the international transports. The sixth section presents the efficiency of the short and medium term access. The following issues are tackled: - Regulation of access and transmission; - Short term treating of the bottlenecks; - De-congestion investments; - Tariffs for lead-in and reinforcement operations; - the case of proximity production, direct lines and self-production. Finally, the last section titled 'Inciting the GRT internal efficiency and tariffing evolution, displays the subject matters: - The GRT behaviour guide; - Evolution of tariffing; - Benchmarking possibilities. In the concluding section the basic ideas of the report i.e., improving the market functioning, developing the network management and inciting the grow in the internal efficiency of GRT are elaborated and entailing recommendations are set down.

  12. Application of neural networks to measurement methods based on radiation interactions with matter; Application des reseaux de neurones aux methodes de mesure basees sur l'interaction rayonnement matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilato, V

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of improving by neuronal techniques the preparation and interpretation of nuclear measurements was investigated. A general methodology was developed and applied to various problems in this field. Whatever the problem to be treated, to solve it comes to determine the relation which binds the inputs to the outputs. Neural networks based on supervised training, like the multilayer Perceptron, have the capability to calculate any relation between a set of input and output data. On the other hand, the training phase is often a long and delicate operation whose difficulties grow with the size of the network:it is thus interesting to reduce it by introducing knowledge a priori and/or by reducing the number of inputs in order to extract the relevant information. If the correlations between the inputs are linear, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and its neuronal equivalents make it possible to obtain by orthogonal projection a reduced number of input components while preserving the maximum of initial information. If the correlations are nonlinear, the Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) allows, by a unsupervised training, to carry out a nonlinear projection of the inputs in a space of reduced size. Besides, it is noticed that when the dimension of the input space is equal to the intrinsic dimension of the problem, this last is practically solved by CCA. We propose a general method which consists in characterizing as well as possible the problem by its inputs and then to extract and classify the information contained in those by projection in a space of reduced size. Association between the projected data and the problem outputs is then carried out by a supervised training network. Certain results having to be provided with their associated uncertainty, a statistical method based on the bootstrap algorithm is proposed. Potential applications other that those treated are considered. (author)

  13. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Report of the experts group on the taxation of the access to gas transport and distribution network; Rapport du groupe d'experts sur la tarification de l'acces aux reseaux de transport et de distribution de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of a new french gas industry organization (directive of the 22 june 1998), a concerting mission has been realized on prices taxation for the transport and distribution facilities. The following topics have been debated: the integration and competition of the european gas market, the gas market liberalization consistency and the taxation of transport and distribution network access. (A.L.B.)

  15. Policies and means to assess and improve service quality in public electricity supply systems; Methodes et moyens pour evaluer et ameliorer la qualite du service des reseaux publics de distribution d`electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Noferi, P.L.; Sani, G. [ENEL, (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    Quality in service from electric utilities does not only imply voltage characteristics and points of delivery. Continuity of supply is also an important factor which needs to be assessed in relation to the disturbances and outages. Short interruptions, voltage dips, transient overvoltages, harmonics and flicker are the main occurrences taken into consideration. Measures which may lead to an improvement in the quality of service were identified. The potential advantages of adopting automatic devices and optimizing maintenance work on distribution networks was discussed. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Policies and means to assess and improve service quality in electricity supply systems; Methods et moyens pour ameliorer la qualite` du service des reseaux publics de distribution d`electricite`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Noferi, P.L.; Sani, G.

    1992-03-01

    Quality of electricity supply to users consists of a series of characteristics of the voltage at the points of delivery. This report shows how service quality, in the past basically related to the tolerance of voltage and frequency with respect to the nominal value, as well as, to the continuity of supply, is nowadays assessed also in relation to other aspects, generally referred to as disturbances. Short interruptions, voltage dips, transient overvoltages, harmonics and flicker are mainly taken into consideration. A description is given of the approach adopted by ENEL (the Italian Electricity Board) in order to evaluate and, if required, improve the quality of service, based upon the acquisition of data related to faults, interruptions and disturbances. These data are processed in order to obtain significant indices on the state of the network and on the effectiveness of the actions which can be implemented. Finally, the measures which may lead to an improvement in the quality of service are identified, and potential advantages, in terms of the reduction of non-supplied energy and number of faults, of adopting appropriate automatic devices and optimizing maintenance work on some distribution networks are illustrated.

  17. SEE electric systems. The electricity market opens up. New challenges in metering; SEE reseaux electriques. L'ouverture du marche de l'electricite. Un nouveau defi pour le comptage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergerot, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Doulet, A.; Delorme, G. [EDF-GDF Services, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Groupe d' appui et d' assistance gaz] [and others

    2001-07-01

    The application of the European Directive on the opening up of the energy market redefines the role of companies involved in the production, transmission and distribution of electricity so that eligible customers can henceforth take advantage of the opportunities presented by a genuine market. During this conference managers of transmission and distribution networks will explain the actions they intend to put into place to fulfill their mission. Eligible customers will express their expectations in terms of the market transparency, real prices and contract periods as well as explaining their requirements relating to the quality of electricity and service. Electricity suppliers will indicate the fields in which they aim to differentiate their offer, starting with a product which until now seemed banal. A foreign network manager will share his recent experiences, as regards all of these points. Finally, the constructors will show how traditional metering will evolve to become the management tool to monitor the complex relationships between all the players in the electricity market. (authors)

  18. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption in heterogeneous lattices. I- Apollo 2 self-shielding formalism; Absorption resonnante des noyaux lourds dans les reseaux heterogenes. I -Formalisme du module d`autoprotection d`Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, M.

    1994-01-01

    This note gives in detailed way the self-shielding formalism which is used in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. The self-shielded cross-sections are performed with the same scheme as in APOLLO1. We use two equivalencies, first an heterogeneous/homogeneous equivalence which gives the reaction rates and then a multigroup equivalence in order to obtain the cross-sections which preserve these reaction rates. However, numerous improvements were implemented, specially in the homogenization step. Homogenization can be performed group per group with different modelizations of the heavy slowing-down operator (statistical, intermediary and ``wide resonance`` models), which allows us to fit correctly the resonance shapes. Moreover, we can take exactly into account the spatial interferences between resonant isotopes with the background matrix model. Consequently, we are now able to perform, for instance, the radial distribution of the resonant absorption inside a fuel pin. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifler, R

    2002-06-15

    Pollution of ecosystems by metallic trace elements (MTEs) and organic compounds may lead to pollutant transfer in food webs. The aim of this work was to improve the assessment of bioavailability, transfer and effects of various MTEs (mainly cadmium (Cd) but also copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and an organic pollutant, the herbicide Isoproturon. The food webs studied in this work were made up of 2 or 3 compartments among the following: soil - primary producer (lettuce Lactuca sativa, colza Brassica napus and maize Zea mays) - primary consumer (snail Helix aspersa) - secondary consumer (carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens). Three complementary approaches using food webs of increasing complexity were exploited. The first approach allowed studying pollutant bioavailability and transfers between 2 links of a food chain under controlled conditions. The isotopic dilution technique, until now only used to characterise the phyto-availability of major elements and MTEs in soils, was adjusted for the first time to an animal organism, the snail H. aspersa (assessment of zoo-availability) This work showed that snails, contrarily to plants, accessed the non-isotopically exchangeable Cd pool in soils, considered as non-bio-available by current risk assessment procedures. The study of Cd transfer from plants (B. napus contaminated by surface deposition) to the snail H. aspersa showed a high bioaccumulation of Cd in snail tissues and effects on snail growth and consumption at high concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF, herein defined as the ratio of the concentration of a pollutant in the tissues of an organism divided by the concentration of this pollutant in its food) was higher than 2. These results suggest that snails inhabiting polluted environments could represent a risk for their predators. To test this hypothesis, the transfer of Cd from contaminated snails to one of their predators, the carabid beetle C. splendens, was studied. Exposure of beetles to the most highly contaminated preys led to a significant increase in mortality (during metamorphosis). Cd concentrations in beetles were very low and much lower than those measured in snail tissues. These results confirmed previous studies, which showed that bio-magnification (increase of a pollutant concentration from one level in a food chain to the upper link) is not a general rule for pollutant transfers in contaminated ecosystems. In a second approach, microcosms were developed to study the transfers in at least three links of a food web. In a first experiment, the transfer of 5 ETMs was studied in the system 'soil (2 agricultural soils: one contaminated and one non-polluted) - plant (lettuce L. sativa) - invertebrate (snail H. aspersa)'. After 4 weeks of exposure, Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations were much higher in the tissues of snails exposed to the polluted soil. Cu concentrations were not different between snails exposed to the polluted soil and those exposed to the non-contaminated one, suggesting MTE regulation by snails. Ni concentrations were higher in snails exposed to the non-polluted soil. The transfer kinetic, which was studied for 2 months in the snails exposed to the polluted soil, showed a regular increase of Cd and Zn concentrations, a rapid increase then a stabilization of Pb concentrations and a regulation of Cu and Ni concentrations. In a second experiment, microcosms were used to study the transfers 'soil - snails', 'maize (Z. mays) - snails' and 'soil - maize - snails' of a {sup 14}C-labelled herbicide, the Isoproturon. The transfer 'soil - snails' was much higher than the transfer 'maize - snails'. Metabolites of Isoproturon were determined in snail tissues. Very small quantities of native Isoproturon were found in snail tissues and the metabolites were mainly unknown residues (i.e. different from those obtained during Isoproturon degradation in soils, plants and microorganisms). The herbicide did not exert toxic effects on snail growth. Finally, a third approach using the microcosms (previously described), allowed the in situ study of the transfer of 5 ETMs from soils amended by sewage sludge to the snail H. aspersa. Amendments did not exert either lethal or sublethal effects on snails. In contrast, a rapid (5 and 7 weeks of exposure) and significant increase of Zn concentrations in snail tissues was showed. In conclusion, the successful adaptation of the isotopic dilution technique to H. aspersa snails should improve the assessment of ETM bioavailability to soil invertebrates (zoo-availability). The transfer experiments made in this work contribute to a better knowledge of pollutant transfer routes in a 'soil - plant - primary consumer - predator' food web. In addition, the microcosms developed in this work constitute a new tool for evaluating the risk of pollutant transfer in food webs. (author)

  20. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  1. Information manual for the experimentation of the deployment of optical fibers on public power distribution networks; Notice d'information pour l'experimentation du deploiement de fibres optiques sur les reseaux publics d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During the French inter-ministry committee for the national development (CIADT) of July 9, 2001, the government decided to launch a feasibility study about the deployment of telecommunication optical fibers over the whole territory using the electricity transportation grid. The aim is to give access to high-speed Internet to everyone and at a reasonable cost. This manual summarizes the technical, legal and economical results of the study carried out by the working group: 1 - the actors in concern (managers of power transportation and distribution networks, country authorities, managers and users of telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory agencies, financial organizations); 2 - the telecommunication networks on power lines; 3 - the feasibility of the experimentation (relations between the different partners, conditions); 4 - the implementation of the experimentation (useful contacts, contracts); 5 - the experimentation areas. Appendixes. (J.S.)

  2. Numerical modeling of the thermomechanical behavior of networks of underground galleries for the storage of the radioactive waste: approach by homogenization; Modelisation numerique du comportement thermomecanique de reseaux de galeries souterraines pour le stockage des dechets radioactifs: Approche par homogeneisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zokimila, P

    2005-10-15

    Deep geological disposal is one of the privileged options for the storage of High Level radioactive waste. A good knowledge of the behavior and properties of the potential geological formations as well as theirs evolution in time under the effect of the stress change induced by a possible installation of storage is required. The geological formation host will be subjected to mechanical and thermal solicitations due respectively to the excavation of the disposal tunnels and the release of heat of the canisters of radioactive waste. These thermomechanical solicitations will generate a stress relief in the host layer and disposal tunnels deformations as well as the extension of the damaged zones (EDZ) could cause local and global instabilities. This work aims to develop calculation methods to optimize numerical modeling of the thermoelastic behavior of the disposal at a large scale and to evaluate thermomechanical disturbance induced by storage on the geological formation host. Accordingly, after a presentation of the state of knowledge on the thermomechanical aspects of the rocks related to deep storage, of numerical modeling 2D and 3D of the thermoelastic behavior of individual disposal tunnel and a network of tunnels were carried out by a discrete approach. However, this classical approach is penalizing to study the global behavior of disposal storage. To mitigate that, an approach of numerical modeling, based on homogenization of periodic structures, was proposed. Formulations as numerical procedures were worked out to calculate the effective thermoelastic behavior of an equivalent heterogeneous structure. The model, obtained by this method, was validated with existing methods of homogenization such as the self-consistent model, as well as the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The comparison between the effective thermoelastic behavior and current thermoelastic behavior of reference showed a good coherence of the results. For an application to deep geological storage, the effective thermoelastic properties of a network of circular tunnels could be given in 2D for various dimensions of the distance between galleries. (author)

  3. Numerical simulations of flows through fixed networks of monodispersed and bi-dispersed spheres, for moderate Reynolds numbers; Simulations numeriques d'ecoulements a travers des reseaux fixes de spheres monodisperses et bidisperses, pour des nombres de Reynolds moderes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, A.

    2004-02-15

    The application of statistically averaged two-fluid models for the simulation of complex indus- trial two-phase flows requires the development of adequate models for the drag force exerted on the inclusions and the interfacial heat exchange. This task becomes problematic at high volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The quality of the simulation strongly depends upon the inter- facial exchange terms, starting with the steady drag force. For example, an accurate modelling of the drag force is therefore a crucial point to simulate the expansion of dense fluidized beds. Most models used to study the exchange terms between particles and fluids are based on the interaction between an isolated particle and a surrounding gas. Those models are clearly not adequate in cases where the volume fraction of particles increases and particle-particle interactions become important. Studying such cases is a complex task because of the multiple possible configurations. While the interaction between an isolated sphere and a gas depends only on the particle size and the slip velocity between gas and particles, the interaction between a cloud of particles and a gas depends on many more parameters: size and velocity distribution of particles, relative position of particles. Even if the particles keep relative fixed positions, there is an infinite number of combinations to construct such an array. The objective of the present work is to perform steady and unsteady simulations of the flow in regular arrays of fixed particles in order to analyze the influence of the size and distributions of spheres on drag force and heat transfer (the array of spheres can be either monodispersed, either bi-dispersed). Several authors have studied the drag exerted on the spheres, but only for low Reynolds numbers and/or solid volume fractions close to the packed limit. Moreover some discrepancies are observed between the different studies. On top of that, all existing studies are limited to steady flows, and do not deal with heat transfer and poly-dispersion. First of all, the steady viscous drag exerted on the spheres of face-centered cubic, simple cubic and tetragonal arrays is evaluated. This allows to analyze the influence of the spheres distribution and solid volume fraction on drag coefficient. Next, the influence of Reynolds number and solid volume fraction on heat transfer from spheres to the surrounding fluid in face-centered cubic arrays is studied. Finally, the history effects on the total force exerted on the inclusions and on the heat transfer between the inclusions and the surrounding fluid are studied. (author)

  4. Annual public information report about the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  5. Note sur la présence de lames aménagées par technique de Kostienki dans les couches gravettiennes du Blot (Cerzat,Haute-Loire).

    OpenAIRE

    Klaric , Laurent

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The unprecedented presence of Kostienki-technique prepared blades (also called Kostienki knives) in the Gravettian layers at Le Blot leads to a new analysis of these artefacts. Thorough technological study has pointed to the possible role of these items as cores, in association with or complementary to burin-forms, in particular context of backed-bladelet production. Le Blot is the second French site yielding such artefacts, the other being Corbiac (Dordogne). The aim ...

  6. Review of "Handbook of Human Factors in Medical Device Design", edited by Matthew B. Weinger, Michael E. Wiklund and Daryle J. Gardner-Bonneau, Assistant Editor Loir M. Kelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaev Jonathan A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human factors is the study of the relationship between people and devices or systems. The goal of considering human factors in the design of medical devices is to create devices that take into consideration the way people use technology and process information to create a man-machine interface that leads to the best possible performance. This text describes the significant aspects of human factors issues related to medical device design. It is well written and is useful for medical device designers and for others who use or evaluate medical equipment.

  7. Un établissement rural gallo-romain à Gellainville " Le Radray " (Eure-et-Loir (fin du Ier s. av. J.-C.-fin du IVe s. ap. J.-C. The development of a Gallo-Roman rural settlement over four centuries at Gellainville "Le Radray" (Eure et Loir, France (end of the 1st century BC - end of the 4th century AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Delhoofs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le site du " Radray " sur la commune de Gellainville (28 a été fouillé en 2007. L’article présente les principaux résultats de la partie gallo-romaine du site. L’occupation se met en place à partir de la première moitié du Ier s. de notre ère. Dès les dernières décennies avant notre ère s’organise un réseau parcellaire et s’établissent les premiers bâtiments. À partir du milieu du Ier s., l’exploitation agricole se répartit selon deux ensembles : à l’est, la partie résidentielle et les dépendances, à l’ouest, la partie agricole et les bâtiments d’exploitation. L’établissement est abandonné au cours du IIIe s. Les structures du Bas-Empire ne tiennent plus compte des limites précédentes. L’occupation est matérialisée par quelques bâtiments et mares disposés à l’intérieur et en bordure d’un enclos trapézoïdal. Un petit groupe de greniers aériens est installé à l’écart, au sud-ouest. L’abandon systématique des structures d’habitation à partir de 375 ap. J.-C. montre une transformation globale de l’espace.Abstract: The site of "Radray" in the municipality of Gellainville (28 has been excavated in 2007. The article presents the main results of the Gallo-Roman part of the site. The occupation begins from the first half of the first century A.D. During the augustean period, a "parcellaire" system gets organized and the first buildings are established. Since the middle of the first century, the space is organized for the setting up of a rural settlement. On both sides of a rural path, the farming is distribued in two groups: eastwards the residential part and the outbuildings, westwards the agricultural part and the farming buildings. The settlement is abandoned during the third century. The structures of the late antiquity do not follow the former limits. The occupation is materialized by four pouds and some buildings disposed inside und south of a trapezoïdal enclosure. Besides a little group of aerial storehouses is settled apart, towards the south west. The systematic surrender of the habitation structures from 375 A.D. Shows a global transformation of the area.

  8. Risk analysis related to dangerous materials transport and storage in urban areas; L'integration du risque lie au transport et au stockage des produits chimiques dans la planification urbaine: l'apport des outils d'analyse decisionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, J; Hubert, P; Pages, P

    1989-12-01

    Risk management in an urban areas not always an easy task and the selection of appropriate prevention measure is often difficult. Consequences of an accident can be multiple (mortality, destruction, pollution, interruption of supplies, economic losses, traffic difficulties), and preventive measures are difficult to compare. The objective of this report is to present different methods applicable for decision making emphasising the criteria for their intercomparison and their limitations. In any case a more sophisticated analysis is needed for risk management in urban areas. Principals of methods needed for decision making are presented. These methods are based on a single criteria (regular constraint), on a few criteria that can be measured (cost-benefit), or a number of criteria at choice. These rather general methods should be adaptable to be applied for specific domain. For risk management the following adaptation are presented: identifying the limit of maximum individual risk (generalisation of regular constraint); adoption of different values of human life as a function of nature of consequences (generalisation of cost-benefit method), application of risk avoidance factors. These different developments predict versions of tools for decision making which can be applicable to risk management in urban areas. [French] La gestion des risques en milieu urbain n'est pas toujours une tache aisee et la selection du moyen de prevention approprie sera souvent difficile. En effet, les consequences d'un accident peuvent etre multiples (mortalite, morbidite, destruction, pollution, interruption de reseaux, pertes economiques, difficultes de circulation...) et les moyens de prevention envisageables pour limiter l'occurrence d'un accident et/ou les consequences associees seront alors difficiles a comparer. Le recours a une methode d'evaluation permettant de quantifier puis de comparer les merites respectifs de ces differents moyens devient aujourd'hui necessaire afin de

  9. ballistic performance of a quenched and tempered steel against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    was investigated. Low alloy steel ... obliquity obliquity with a projectile velocity with a projectile velocity with a projectile .... quenching on low carbon and alloyed steel [5, 15]. Several studies .... Mars 190, Mars 240, Mars 270, Creusot-Loire,.

  10. Louvre'i täiendus kunstiajaloole / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    Pariisis Louvre'is XVII saj. Bologna maalikunstniku Francesco Albani loomingu ülevaatenäitus. Väljas on ka F. Albani portree Joseph Chinard'ilt. Näituse koostas Pierre Rosenberg, kataloogi Stéphane Loire

  11. Eestis loodi CIGRE rahvuslik komitee / Raine Pajo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajo, Raine, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline Suurte Elektrisüsteemide Nõukogu (Conseil International des Grandes Reseaux Electriques) võttis 2005. a. septembris oma 54. liikmeks CIGRE Eesti Rahvusliku Komitee, mis koosneb kümnest kõrgepingealaga seotud asutusest ja ettevõttest. CIGRE eesmärk on arendada ning levitada elektrotehnilist kõrgepingealast oskusteavet

  12. L'interdisciplinarite en sciences sociales pour l'etude du contact des langues (Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences of the Study of the Relationships of Languages). Proceedings of a Colloquium of the International Center for Research on Bilingualism and the Institute for Interethnic and Intercultural Studies and Research (2nd, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, October 1-5, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prujiner, Alain, Ed.

    Papers given at an international conference applying the social sciences to the study of the relationships of languages include the following: "Reseaux sociaux et comportements langagiers en milieu de contact des langues" ("Social Networks and Language Behaviors in a Language Contact Setting") by M. Blanc and J. Hamers, with…

  13. La genèse de la première organisation prochinoise au Pérou (1963-1964. Idéologie et acteurs de la IVème conférence nationale du Parti Communiste péruvien (janvier 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La création de la première organisation prochinoise au Pérou à l’issue de la IVème conférence nationale du Parti Communiste Péruvien marque-t-elle la victoire de la majorité des militants attachés à la pureté du marxisme-léninisme sur le “révisionnisme” des partisans de Moscou comme l’affirment les historiographes maoïstes ? L’analyse de l’articulation de la polémique idéologique sino-soviétique sur la lutte interne du P.C.P. démontre que l’idéologie est davantage un moyen pour justifier l’expulsion d’un ennemi commun - la “vieille garde” qui accapare la direction du Parti - qu’un trait d’union entre partisans de la IVème conférence nationale. GENESIS DE LA PRIMERA ORGANIZACIÓN PROCHINA EN EL PERÚ (1963-1964. IDEOLOGÍA Y ACTORES DE LA IVA CONFERENCIA NACIONAL DEL PARTIDO COMUNISTA PERUANO (ENERO DE 1964. La primera organización pro-china que nace en el Perú con la IVa conferencia nacional del Partido Comunista Peruano sería, como lo afirman los historiógrafos maoístas, el desenlace victorioso de la lucha que la mayoría de los militantes peruanos han desarrollado contra el “revisionismo” de los partidarios de Moscú en su afán de preservar la pureza del marxismo-leninismo. La manera cómo la polémica china-soviética se incorpora a la lucha interna que divide al P.C.P. nos demuestra que la ideología sirve más para justificar la expulsión de la “vieja guardia” de la dirección del Partido que para unificar a los partidarios de la IVa conferencia nacional mismos. THE GENESIS OF THE FIRST PRO-CHINESE ORGANIZATION IN PERU (1963-1964. IDEOLOGY AND ACTORS OF THE IVTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE PERUVIAN COMMUNIST PARTY (JANUARY 1964. Does the birth of the first pro-Chinese organization at the Peruvian Communist Party’s IVth conference mark, as Maoists historiographers assert the victory of the majority of the Peruvian communists over the “revisionists” pledged to Moscow in order to preserve the purity of Marxism-Leninism? The Sino-Soviet polemic on the P.C.P.’s internal dispute reveals that ideology is more a means to end with the leadership of the “old guard” than a link between the IVth national conference supporters themselves.

  14. Contribution à l'amélioration des méthodes d'évaluation de l'échauffement nucléaire dans les réacteurs nucléaires à l'aide du code Monte-Carlo TRIPOLI-4®

    OpenAIRE

    Peron , Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Technological irradiation programs carried out in experimental reactors are crucial for the support of the current nuclear fleet in terms of study and anticipation of the behavior under irradiation of fuels and structural materials. These programs make it possible to improve the safety of the current reactors and also to study materials for the new concepts of reactors.Irradiation conditions of materials in experimental reactors must be representative of those of nuclear power plants (NPPs). ...

  15. Développement territorial périurbain, réseau d’acteurs et innovation sociale : le cas d’une coopérative internet dans la région de Montréal

    OpenAIRE

    Doyon, Mélanie; Deroo, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Cet article présente les résultats préliminaires d’une recherche empirique concernant la création d’une coopérative de service internet haute vitesse dans une municipalité périurbaine de Montréal. Il porte également sur un projet de redynamisation associé au programme de laboratoire rural. Bien que ces deux projets procèdent l’un de l’autre et participant à un même processus de développement territorial, ceux-ci sont marqués par des dynamiques actorielles antagoniques. L’objectif de la recher...

  16. The future of the ''intelligent Energy for Europe'' programme stakeholders consultation on the framework programme for competitiveness and innovation (CIP) Energie-Cites Opinion; L'Avenir du Programme ''Energie Intelligente Europe'' consultation des acteurs sur le programme pour la competitivite et l nnovation Avis d nergie-Cites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    The European Commission has launched a Consultation relative to the integration of support programmes to energy efficiency (EIE Programme) in the Competitiveness and Innovative Programme (CIP), this one being integrated in the Lisbon process. This consultation offers the opportunity to Energie-Cites to define its opinion on the relationships between Sustainable energy, Competitiveness and Innovation. - If Europe is to become the most competitive and innovative region in the world, it must consider this objective from the angle of sustainable growth, that is, by promoting the efficient use of fossil resources and by controlling the effluents and waste that are generated by the transformation of energy. What is at stake for Europe is its capacity to propose an energy model (consumption and production) that can be reproducible in the rest of the world. In other hands, the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy support programmes into a broader scheme (CIP) covering very different areas, with no links between them and with no clear information regarding both the financial amounts and sources involved, entails a major risk, that of reducing, or even suppressing support at a time when we need it most. From the current understanding of the situation, Energie-Cites is not favourable to such integration. (A.L.B.)

  17. The cold monsters facing the climatic change. Trans-national states and actors in the political process bond to the climatic changes; Les monstres froids a l'epreuve du rechauffement de la planete. Etats et acteurs transnationaux dans le processus politique lie aux changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, B. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The author discusses the evolution of the importance and the strategies of the different actors during the different phases of the political process and the learning of the state part in the international relations. (A.L.B.)

  18. Manager l'interface. Approche par la complexité du processus collaboratif de conception, d'intégration et de réalisation : modèle transactionnel de l'acteur d'interface et dynamique des espaces d'échanges

    CERN Document Server

    Nicquevert, Bertrand

    In large projects such as particle accelerators or detectors, interfaces and boundaries reveal themselves to be both critical and underestimated. The technical manager, an actor among others, finds himself placed at network nodes where he must set up exchanges spaces in order to generate collaborative behaviours. Starting with case studies from the field of CERN, the thesis follows three principles based on the dialogical, the hologramic and the self-eco-organization principles, as expanded in the writings on complexity. It puts forward an original methodological matrix construction leading to a transactional model of the interface actor. The collaborative exchanges spaces builds itself as a place for the dynamic transformation of the interface actor into a boundary actor. Intermediate objects, created during the design / integration process, are simultaneously transformed into boundary objects. They are instrumental in the realization of the product: this takes place in the framework of the project which has...

  19. Combinaison d'un entraînement au jeu de l'acteur et d'un programme d'assertivité pour diminuer les difficultés d'affirmation de soi : Une étude préliminaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, Aurélie; Delvaux, Muriel; Sarto, Danielle; Roodthooft, Dominique; Blairy, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Difficulties in assertiveness are often reported by individuals suffering from various psychological problems involving anxiety, depression. Cognitive and behavioral therapeutic procedures have already proven their effectiveness in helping these patients. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of new therapeutic procedure, inspired by the third wave of behavioral and cognitive psychotherapies. METHOD. Our study used an actor’s play training combined with an assertivenes...

  20. Approche info-communicationnelle des opérations de réhabilitation de l'habitat : de la compréhension des interactions acteurs/habitat à l'amélioration des stratégies d'intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin , Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable development and the energetic transition as well are main concerns in Europe. The construction sector is a fundamental driver of the reduction of the carbon footprint. Furthermore, most of the current practices does not take enough into account neither the occupants’ needs nor their behavior regarding the energetic performance. Grounded on the information-communication framework, this research focuses on the definition of the interactions between the actor and its habitat to l...

  1. Violence interpersonnelle au travail : typologie des acteurs, agresseurs et cibles Interpersonal Violence in the Workplace: Typology of the Actors - Aggressors and Targets Violencia interpersonal en el trabajo : tipología de los actores, agresores y víctimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vézina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le phénomène de violence interpersonnelle au travail a été largement étudié au cours des dix dernières années, mais rares sont les auteurs qui l’ont abordé dans une optique compréhensive, en prenant appui sur le témoignage des travailleurs. Le sens que revêt la violence pour les travailleurs demeure, lui, très peu exploré. Les auteurs présentent les résultats d’une étude compréhensive qui a permis de dégager une typologie des agresseurs et des cibles de la violence interpersonnelle et d’ouvrir la voie au développement d’un modèle compréhensif plus large ainsi qu’à une réflexion sur les interventions à développer pour agir sur ce phénomène.Interpersonal violence in the workplace is a phenomenon that has been widely studied over the last ten years. However, very few authors have examined it from a comprehensive perspective (based on the accounts of workers. Violence in terms of what it means for workers has hardly been explored. The authors present the results of a comprehensive study that has identified a typology of both the aggressors and the targets of interpersonal violence, and that has led to the development of a broader comprehensive model and the consideration of interventions that could be developed to deal with this phenomenon.El fenómeno de violencia interpersonal en el trabajo fue ampliamente estudiado en el curso de los últimos diez años, pero son raros los autores que lo abordaron dentro de una óptica comprensiva, apoyándose en el testimonio de los trabajadores. El sentido que reviste esta violencia para los trabajadores queda muy poco explorado. Los autores presentan los resultados de un estudio comprensivo que ha permitido extraer una tipología de los agresores y de las víctimas de la violencia interpersonal y abrir la vía al desarrollo de un modelo comprensivo más amplio, así como una reflexión sobre las intervenciones a desarrollar para actuar sobre este fenómeno.

  2. ‘Towards a Latin Europe’: Vers une Europe Latine: Acteurs et enjeux des échanges culturels entre la France et l’Italie fasciste, Catherine Fraixe, Lucia Piccioni and Christophe Poupault, eds., Brussels: P.I.E. Lang, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Golan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years between the wars, Republican France and Fascist Italy vied for international regard as the foremost “Latin” nation. The fourteen essays in this book examine a network of people whose activities were characterized by the various declensions of a few key terms: Latinité/Latinità, Romanité/Romanità, and Méditerranéanisme/Mediterraneità —concepts that combined a European transnationalism with enhanced nationalism. As different as their political regimes might have been, France and Italy were nations were culture was first and foremost an affair of State. For those French diplomats and cultural officials on the Right who mistrusted the messiness of the democratic parliamentary system and were haunted by a fear of their nation’s cultural decadence and its alleged subjugation to the North, “Latin” fascism became a beacon. Roughly half of the essays in the book retrace however the fortunes of individual Francophile Italians living in Paris whose activities contributed to promoting and thus legitimizing the art and literature produced under the Fascist regime. Vers une Europe Latine offer a model of interdisciplinary research in rewriting the historiography of a particularly troubled period.

  3. La production des oléfines. Etat de la technique et développement dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques et des procédés Olefin Production. State of Technology and Developement in the Field of Chemical Reactors and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouyal R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La production des oléfines légères : éthylène, propylène et butadiène est actuellement entièrement basée sur le vapocraquage d'hydrocarbures dans des fours tubulaires. L'industrie doit faire face à un problème de coûts de production croissants, en grande partie dû au renchérissement des hydrocarbures et de l'énergie. D'autres procédés que le vapocraquage ont été proposés pour favoriser la diversification sur le plan des matières premières ; certains ont même été exploités industriellement. Le présent article fait le point sur l'état des développements en cours concernant plus particulièrement les procédés suivants : - craquage autothermique ; - craquage par caloporteur solide ; - craquage cyclique ; - craquage catalytique ; - prétraitement de charges lourdes ; - oléfines à partir de gaz de synthèse ; - oléfines à partir de biomasse. The production of light olefins (ethylene, propylene and butadien is now based entirely on hydrocarbon steam cracking in pipe stills. The industry must face the problem of increasing production costs, largely due to the higher costs of hydrocarbons and energy. Processes other than steam cracking have been proposed to promote diversification with regard to raw materials, and some such processes have even operated industrially. This article sums up the state of ongoing developments concerning in particular the following processes: a autothermal cracking; b cracking by a solid heat carrier; c cyclic cracking; d catalytic cracking ; e preprocessing of heavy feeds; f olefins from synthetic gas; g olefins from biomass.

  4. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  5. Report of the experts group on the taxation of the access to gas transport and distribution network; Rapport du groupe d'experts sur la tarification de l'acces aux reseaux de transport et de distribution de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of a new french gas industry organization (directive of the 22 june 1998), a concerting mission has been realized on prices taxation for the transport and distribution facilities. The following topics have been debated: the integration and competition of the european gas market, the gas market liberalization consistency and the taxation of transport and distribution network access. (A.L.B.)

  6. Concept for urban heating systems using co-generation; Conception de systemes de chauffage urbain pour la cogeneration. Phase I: application au quartier des Morasses (Martigny) de la methode de conception des reseaux de chauffage urbain developpe au LENI. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherix, G. [Centre de competence en urbistique CREM, Martigny (Switzerland); Weber, C. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' energetique industrielle (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the work done in the first phase of a project concerning the concept for a district heating system in Martigny, Switzerland. This work was carried out by the Centre for Municipal and Energy Research CREM in Martigny, Switzerland, and the Laboratory for Industrial Energy LENI at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. Software developed at the LENI is introduced and its use for the determination of the necessary configuration and modes of operation of a district heating system in Martigny is discussed. The situation in the Morasses district of Martigny and the promising results obtained are looked at. These can lead to the optimisation of heating supply in other such areas.

  7. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifler, R.

    2002-06-15

    Pollution of ecosystems by metallic trace elements (MTEs) and organic compounds may lead to pollutant transfer in food webs. The aim of this work was to improve the assessment of bioavailability, transfer and effects of various MTEs (mainly cadmium (Cd) but also copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and an organic pollutant, the herbicide Isoproturon. The food webs studied in this work were made up of 2 or 3 compartments among the following: soil - primary producer (lettuce Lactuca sativa, colza Brassica napus and maize Zea mays) - primary consumer (snail Helix aspersa) - secondary consumer (carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens). Three complementary approaches using food webs of increasing complexity were exploited. The first approach allowed studying pollutant bioavailability and transfers between 2 links of a food chain under controlled conditions. The isotopic dilution technique, until now only used to characterise the phyto-availability of major elements and MTEs in soils, was adjusted for the first time to an animal organism, the snail H. aspersa (assessment of zoo-availability) This work showed that snails, contrarily to plants, accessed the non-isotopically exchangeable Cd pool in soils, considered as non-bio-available by current risk assessment procedures. The study of Cd transfer from plants (B. napus contaminated by surface deposition) to the snail H. aspersa showed a high bioaccumulation of Cd in snail tissues and effects on snail growth and consumption at high concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF, herein defined as the ratio of the concentration of a pollutant in the tissues of an organism divided by the concentration of this pollutant in its food) was higher than 2. These results suggest that snails inhabiting polluted environments could represent a risk for their predators. To test this hypothesis, the transfer of Cd from contaminated snails to one of their predators, the carabid beetle C. splendens, was studied. Exposure of beetles to the most highly contaminated preys led to a significant increase in mortality (during metamorphosis). Cd concentrations in beetles were very low and much lower than those measured in snail tissues. These results confirmed previous studies, which showed that bio-magnification (increase of a pollutant concentration from one level in a food chain to the upper link) is not a general rule for pollutant transfers in contaminated ecosystems. In a second approach, microcosms were developed to study the transfers in at least three links of a food web. In a first experiment, the transfer of 5 ETMs was studied in the system 'soil (2 agricultural soils: one contaminated and one non-polluted) - plant (lettuce L. sativa) - invertebrate (snail H. aspersa)'. After 4 weeks of exposure, Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations were much higher in the tissues of snails exposed to the polluted soil. Cu concentrations were not different between snails exposed to the polluted soil and those exposed to the non-contaminated one, suggesting MTE regulation by snails. Ni concentrations were higher in snails exposed to the non-polluted soil. The transfer kinetic, which was studied for 2 months in the snails exposed to the polluted soil, showed a regular increase of Cd and Zn concentrations, a rapid increase then a stabilization of Pb concentrations and a regulation of Cu and Ni concentrations. In a second experiment, microcosms were used to study the transfers 'soil - snails', 'maize (Z. mays) - snails' and 'soil - maize - snails' of a {sup 14}C-labelled herbicide, the Isoproturon. The transfer 'soil - snails' was much higher than the transfer 'maize - snails'. Metabolites of Isoproturon were determined in snail tissues. Very small quantities of native Isoproturon were found in snail tissues and the metabolites were mainly unknown residues (i.e. different from those obtained during Isoproturon degradation in soils, plants and microorganisms). The herbicide did not exert toxic effects on snail growth. Finally, a third approach using the microcosms (previously described), allowed the in situ study of the transfer of 5 ETMs from soils amended by sewage sludge to the snail H. aspersa. Amendments did not exert either lethal or sublethal effects on snails. In contrast, a rapid (5 and 7 weeks of exposure) and significant increase of Zn concentrations in snail tissues was showed. In conclusion, the successful adaptation of the isotopic dilution technique to H. aspersa snails should improve the assessment of ETM bioavailability to soil invertebrates (zoo-availability). The transfer experiments made in this work contribute to a better knowledge of pollutant transfer routes in a 'soil - plant - primary consumer - predator' food web. In addition, the microcosms developed in this work constitute a new tool for evaluating the risk of pollutant transfer in food webs. (author)

  8. On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-17

    This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection with the tariffs of domestic contracts; - Proposals for tariffing the international transports. The sixth section presents the efficiency of the short and medium term access. The following issues are tackled: - Regulation of access and transmission; - Short term treating of the bottlenecks; - De-congestion investments; - Tariffs for lead-in and reinforcement operations; - the case of proximity production, direct lines and self-production. Finally, the last section titled 'Inciting the GRT internal efficiency and tariffing evolution, displays the subject matters: - The GRT behaviour guide; - Evolution of tariffing; - Benchmarking possibilities. In the concluding section the basic ideas of the report i.e., improving the market functioning, developing the network management and inciting the grow in the internal efficiency of GRT are elaborated and entailing recommendations are set down.

  9. Progress report on the k{sub infinity} measurements of HTGR type lattices with the oscillation technique at zero reactivity; Rapport d'advancement sur les mesures de K {sub infinite} des reseaux du type HTGR avec la technique de l'oscillateur a'reactivite' nulle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-01-15

    The principles of measuring k {sub infinity} for a HTGR lattice using the oscillation technique with zero reactivity were already presented at the ''9th reactor physics meeting of countries participating in the Dragon project''. A brief summary of the essential characteristics of the experiment is followed by a status report on present work.

  10. Improvement of the detection response time of gas sensors using the association of artificial neural networks with pattern recognition technique; Amelioration de la reponse temporelle de capteurs de gaz par reconnaissance de forme a l'aide de reseaux de neurones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordieu, Ch.; Rebiere, D. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL, UMR CNRS 5818, 33 (France); Pistre, J.; Planata, R. [Centre d' Etudes du Bouchet, 91 - Vert-le-Petit (France)

    1999-07-01

    The association of artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptrons) with a real time pattern recognition technique (shifting windows) allowed the development of systems for the detection and the quantification of gases. Shifting window technique is presented and offers an interesting way to improve the detection response time. The partial detector characterization with regard to its parameters was realized. Applications dealing with the detection of gas compounds using surface acoustic sensors permit to show the shifting window technique feasibility. (author)

  11. Photoemission and photo-field-emission from photocathodes with arrays of silicon tips under continuous and pulsed lasers action; Photoemission et photoemission de champ a partir de photocathodes a reseaux de pointes de silicium sous l`action de lasers continus et pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna, M.

    1995-11-01

    The electron machines`s development and improvement go through the discovery of new electron sources of high brightness. After reminding the interests in studying silicon cathodes with array of tips as electron sources, I describe, in the three steps model, the main phenomenological features related to photoemission and photoemission and photo-field-emission from a semi-conductor. the experimental set-ups used for the measurements reported in chapter four, five and six are described in chapter three. In chapter three. In chapter four several aspects of photo-field-emission in continuous and nanosecond regimes, studied on the Clermont-Ferrand`s test bench are tackled. We have measured quantum efficacies of 0.4 percent in the red (1.96 eV). Temporal responses in the nanoseconds range (10 ns) were observed with the Nd: YLF laser. With the laser impinging at an oblique angle we obtained ratios of photocurrent to dark current of the order of twenty. The issue of the high energy extracted photocurrent saturation is addressed and I give a preliminary explanation. In collaboration with the L.A.L. (Laboratoire de l`Accelerateur Lineaire) some tests with shortened pulsed laser beam (Nd: YAG laser 35 ps) were performed. Satisfactory response times have been obtained within the limitation of the scope (400 ps). (authors). 101 refs. 93 figs., 27 tabs., 3 photos., 1 append.

  12. Optical Disk Technology and the Library. Part 1: The Technology and Its Applications. Part 2: The National Library Videodisc Demonstration Project. Canadian Network Papers Number 9 = Technologie du Videodisque et la Bibliotheque. Premiere partie: La Technologie et ses Applications. Deuxieme partie: Projet de Demonstration du Videodisque a la Bibliotheque Nationale. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Roddy; Sonnemann, Sabine S.

    This report is intended to assist Canadian libraries in assessing potential library applications of optical disk technology. Part 1 provides a general outline of the technology and describes a number of library applications and projects. Descriptions are purposely general and illustrative in nature since the technology and its applications are…

  13. Intelligent networks: evolution or revolution? Source of energy efficiency or economical optimisation? For who's benefit?; Reseaux intelligents: evolution ou revolution? Source d'efficacite energetique et/ou d'optimisation economique? Au benefice de qui?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Christian

    2010-09-15

    The electricity sector has experienced a slow evolution. Renewable production developments and telecommunications and computers usage will bring major changes with hard to predict effects. Computerized management of production and local storage combined to a certain mastering of the allowed consumption by home automation could improve reliability and the final price for consumers. This change offers great opportunities but also risks of failures, both financial and technical. The regulators have a major role to play in order to understand the concrete gains of the technological propositions and to regulate the investment costs involved. [French] Le secteur de l'electricite a connu une evolution lente. Le developpements des productions renouvelables, l'utilisation des telecommunications et de l'informatique provoquera un bouleversement majeur dont il est difficile de prevoir l'ampleur. La gestion automatisee des productions et stockages locaux combinee a une certaine maitrise de la consommation permise par la domotique pourrait ameliorer la fiabilite et le prix final pour les consommateurs. Ce changement presente de grandes opportunites mais aussi des risques d'echecs, tant financiers que techniques. Les regulateurs ont un role majeur a jouer pour comprendre les gains concrets des propositions technologiques et reguler les couts d'investissement qu'elles impliquent.

  14. (Networking + Integrating) * (Systems + Society). Proceedings of the Annual Canadian Conference of Information Science (12th, Toronto, Ontario, May 14-16, 1984) = (Reseaux + Integration) * (Systemes + Societe). Comptes rendus de la conference annuelle Canadienne des sciences de l'information (12th, Toronto, Ontario, 14-16 mai, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association for Information Science, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Seventeen papers from the 1984 annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) are presented in four broad topic areas. The first group, which focuses on changing roles in information access, includes the keynote address by Charles Meadow, "Integrating Access to Information Utilities: Promises, Problems, and…

  15. Study, design and realization of a fault-tolerant and predictable synchronous communication protocol on off-the-shelf components; Etude, conception et mise en oeuvre d'un protocole de communication synchrone tolerant aux fautes et predictible sur des composants reseaux standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, D

    2006-06-15

    This PhD thesis contributes to the design and realization of safety-critical real-time systems on multiprocessor architectures with distributed memory. They are essential to compute systems that have to ensure complex and critical functions. This PhD thesis deals with communication media management. The communication management conditions strongly the capability of the system to fulfill the timeliness property and the dependability requirements. Our contribution includes: - The design of predictable and fault-tolerant synchronous communication protocol; - The study and the definition of the execution model to have a efficient and safe communications management; - The proposal of a method to generate automatically the communications scheduling. Our approach is based on a communication model that allows the analysis of the feasibility, before execution, of a distributed safe-critical real-time system with timeliness and safety requirements. This leads to the definition of an execution model based on a time-triggered and parallel communication management. A set of linear constraints system is generated automatically to compute the network scheduling and the network load with timeliness fulfillment. Then, the proposed communication interface is based on an advanced version of TDMA protocol which allows to use proprietary components (TTP, FlexRay) as well as standard components (Ethernet). The concepts presented in this thesis lead to the realisation and evaluation of a prototype within the framework of the OASIS project done at the CEA/List. (author)

  16. Notice no.02-A-05 of the 18 april 2002 relative to the tariffs of the electric power transport and distribution public networks utilization; Avis no.02-A-05 du 18 avril 2002 relatif aux tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux publics de transport et de distribution d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This notice gives the juridical framework of the future decree concerning the access to the public network of electric power transport and distribution, the principles of the regulation and the project description. It gives also opinions on the competition analysis and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  17. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks; La restructuration des industries gazieres americaine et britannique: la reglementation de la charge d'acces aux reseaux de gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  18. Contribution to the asymptotic estimation of the global error of single step numerical integration methods. Application to the simulation of electric power networks; Contribution a l'estimation asymptotique de l'erreur globale des methodes d'integration numerique a un pas. Application a la simulation des reseaux electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aid, R.

    1998-01-07

    This work comes from an industrial problem of validating numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations modeling power systems. This problem is solved using asymptotic estimators of the global error. Four techniques are studied: Richardson estimator (RS), Zadunaisky's techniques (ZD), integration of the variational equation (EV), and Solving for the correction (SC). We give some precisions on the relative order of SC w.r.t. the order of the numerical method. A new variant of ZD is proposed that uses the Modified Equation. In the case of variable step-size, it is shown that under suitable restriction, on the hypothesis of the step-size selection, ZD and SC are still valid. Moreover, some Runge-Kutta methods are shown to need less hypothesis on the step-sizes to exhibit a valid order of convergence for ZD and SC. Numerical tests conclude this analysis. Industrial cases are given. Finally, an algorithm to avoid the a priori specification of the integration path for complex time differential equations is proposed. (author)

  19. Cold distribution networks. Cold distribution by two-phase refrigerant fluid. Case of ice slurries; Reseaux de distribution de froid. Distribution de froid par fluide frigoporteur diphasique. Cas du coulis de glace stabilisee (2002 - 2004). Rapport final (1er juillet 2004). Programme energie. PRI 9.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL), UMR 5008, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Mercier, P. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques (GRETH), 38 (France); Royon, L. [Paris-1 Univ., Lab. de Biorheologie et d' Hydrodynamique Physico-Chimique, 75 (France); Dumas, J.P. [L' Ecole Nationale Superieure en Genie des Technologies Industrielles, Lab. de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, 64 - Pau (France); Guilpart, J. [URGPAN/CEMAGRE, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI aims to participate to the development of alternate solutions for refrigerant fluids, for the cold transport and more specially a two phase refrigerant fluid: the stabilized ice slurry. The research program presented three main axis: design, realization and characterization of stabilized ice slurry, experimental studies of transport and transfer properties, study of online measurement process of the solid content. A simulation has been realized to evaluate the energy efficiency of this refrigerant use. (A.L.B.)

  20. CEIBA: a fast track plan with multiphase pumping by 750 m of water; CEIBA: un projet fast track avec pompage multiphasique par 750 m d'eau. Canyon Express: le plus profond des reseaux de production. Le Saibos FDS: un navire polyvalent adapte au defit des developements en grande profondeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaporte, M. [Paragon Litwin, 92 - Nanterre (France); Obsen, M. [Framo Engineering, Bergen (Norway); Bang, P.; RIjkens, F. [Total, La Defense 6, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Poirson, L. [Saibos sas, 78 - Guyancourt (France)

    2003-08-01

    The development of the field of CEIBA, located at 22 miles off the equatorial Guinea coast, has been the aim of a presentation AFTP/SPE on May 21 at Clamart. M. Delaporte, director of offshore study and development of projects at Paragon Litwin has presented at first an overview of the plan and then M. Olsen, commercial responsible of Framo Engineering has given precision on the polyphasic pumping equipments which particularize this development. (O.M.)

  1. Initiation and growth of thermal fatigue crack networks in an AISI 304 L type austenitic stainless steel (X2 CrNi18-09); Amorcage et propagation de reseaux de fissures de fatigue thermique dans un acier inoxydable austenitique de type X2 CrNi18-09 (AISI 304 L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillot, V

    2004-07-01

    We studied the behaviour of a 304 L type austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermal fatigue. Using the SPLASH equipment of CEA/SRMA we tested parallelepipedal specimens on two sides: the specimens are continuously heated by Joule effect, while two opposites faces are cyclically. cooled by a mixed spray of distilled water and compressed air. This device allows the reproduction and the study of crack networks similar to those observed in nuclear power plants, on the inner side of circuits fatigued by mixed pressurized water flows at different temperatures. The crack initiation and the network constitution at the surface were observed under different thermal conditions (Tmax = 320 deg C, {delta}T between 125 and 200 deg C). The experiment produced a stress gradient in the specimen, and due to this gradient, the in-depth growth of the cracks finally stopped. The obtained crack networks were studied quantitatively by image analysis, and different parameters were studied: at the surface during the cycling, and post mortem by step-by-step layer removal by grinding. The maximal depth obtained experimentally, 2.5 mm, is relatively coherent with the finite element modelling of the SPLASH test, in which compressive stresses appear at a depth of 2 mm. Some of the crack networks obtained by thermal fatigue were also tested in isothermal fatigue crack growth under 4-point bending, at imposed load. The mechanisms of the crack selection, and the appearance of the dominating crack are described. Compared to the propagation of a single crack, the crack networks delay the propagation, depending on the severity of the crack competition for domination. The dominating crack can be at the network periphery, in that case it is not as shielded by its neighbours as a crack located in the center of the network. It can also be a straight crack surrounded by more sinuous neighbours. Indeed, on sinuous cracks, the loading is not the same all along the crack path, leading to some morphological effect instead of shielding effect. A 2-D finite element modelling of multiple crack propagation has been performed: when the morphological effects are not dominant, there is a good agreement between modelling and experimental results. (author)

  2. Conflictos geopolíticos por el agua en las cuencas mineras del Departamento de Oruro, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Víctor Hugo Perales

    2010-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous analyserons les conflits géopolitiques entre les acteurs reliés à la pollution minière des sous-bassins du lac Poopo dans le département de Oruro dans le sud-ouest de la Bolivie. À cette occasion, nous procéderons à la caractérisation sociale et hydrologique des bassins et de ses acteurs et de l’interaction entre les acteurs sur une analyse de la territorialisation des espaces des sous-bassins. In this paper, it is analyzed geopolitical water conflicts between involv...

  3. Perspectives | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des experts du CRDI examinent les questions et les approches sur lesquelles se penchent les acteurs du développement international, ainsi que le rôle de la recherche dans la mise au point de solutions.

  4. Networks Within Cities and Among Cities: A Paradigm for Urban Development and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Pompili, Tomaso

    2006-01-01

    Networks and networking have become fashionable concepts and terms in regional science, and in particular in regional and urban geography in the last decade: we speak about network firms, network society, network economy but also network cities, city-networks, reti urbane, reseaux de villes. Only catch-words for somebody; a true new scientific paradigm according to others. Our opinion is that in fact we are confronted with a new paradigm in spatial sciences, under some precise conditions: - t...

  5. Phase and group refractive index curves for electromagnet waves moving in an ionised medium (1962); Courbes des indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques se propageant dans un milieu ionise (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The family of curves presented in this table give the phase and group refractive indexes of plane electromagnetic waves propagating along and across a static magnetic field in a plasma. (author) [French] Les courbes presentees sous formes de reseaux donnent les indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques planes se propageant longitudinalement ou transversalement dans un plasma en presence d'un champ magnetique statique. (auteur)

  6. 2635 IJBCS-Article-Dr JosephineYameogo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    La dégradation du lac Bam au Burkina Faso préoccupe les acteurs nationaux et internationaux. Le présent travail vise principalement à contribuer à la connaissance des facteurs de dégradation et des stratégies de gestion durable. Spécifiquement, il voudrait identifier les acteurs impliqués dans la gestion des berges ;.

  7. Accroissement de la compétitivité du Kenya dans l'économie du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Pour répondre à la demande d'une participation plus active au développement, les universités doivent entretenir des relations plus étroites avec l'industrie et un vaste éventail d'acteurs sociaux. Vision 2030, le plan directeur du Kenya en matière de développement, fait des universités des acteurs de premier plan dans le ...

  8. Natural uranium-graphite system. Critial experiments on the G1 reactor; Systeme uranium naturel-graphite. Experiences critiques sur le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of experiments have been performed during the start up period of the G1 (1956) and G2 (1958) reactors in Marcoule, both on their lattices and on different lattices (hollow rods, clusters, under moderated lattices). The first chapter gives a thorough description of the two reactors. The second chapter deals with buckling measurements, both absolute (flux plots) and relative by the method of progressive substitution. The experimental results are summarised in Table VI. The third chapter contains a number of other measurements performed on G1. (author)Fren. [French] Le demarrage des reacteurs G1 (1956) et G2 (1958) de Marcoule nous a permis d'effectuer une serie d'experiences tant sur les reseaux de ces piles que sur des reseaux differents (elements tubulaires ou divises, reseaux sous-moderes, etc...). Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons une description detaillee des deux reacteurs. Dans la deuxieme partie, relative aux mesures de laplaciens, nous decrivons d'abord les mesures absolues de laplaciens (cartes de flux), puis les mesures relatives effectuees par la methode originale de remplacement progressif. Les resultats experimentaux sont rassembles dans le tableau VI. Dans la troisieme partie, nous rappelons un certain nombre d'autres mesures effectuees sur G1. (auteur)

  9. A top-down / bottom-up approach for multi-actors and multi-criteria assessment of mining projects for sustainable development. Application on Arlit Uranium mines (Niger); Une demarche Top-Down / Bottom-Up pour l'evaluation en termes multicriteres et multi-acteurs des projets miniers dans l'optique du developpement durable. Application sur les mines d'Uranium d'Arlit (Niger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamaret, A

    2007-06-15

    This thesis aims to appraise the relevance of using an hybrid top-down / bottom-up approach to evaluate mining projects in the perspective of sustainable development. With the advent of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development concepts, new social expectations have appeared towards companies that go beyond a sole requirement of profit earning capacity. If companies do not answer to these expectations, they risk to lose their social legitimacy. Traditionally associated with social, environmental, economical and political impacts and risks, mining activity is particularly concerned by these new issues. Whereas mineral resources needs have never been so high, mining companies are now expected to limit their negative effects and to take into account their different audiences' expectations in order to define, together, the terms of their social license to operate. Considering the diversity of issues, scales, actors and contexts, the challenge is real and necessitates tools to better understand issues and to structure dialogues. Based on the Uranium mines of Arlit (Niger) case study, this work shows that associating participatory approaches to structuration tools and literature propositions, appears as an efficient formula to better organize issues diversity and to build a structured dialogue between mining companies and their stakeholders. First Part aims to present the theoretical, institutional and sectorial contexts of the thesis. Second Part exposes work and results of the evaluation carried out in Niger. And, Third Part, shows the conclusions that can be derived from this work and presents a proposal for an evaluation framework, potentially applicable to other mining sites. (author)

  10. A top-down / bottom-up approach for multi-actors and multi-criteria assessment of mining projects for sustainable development. Application on Arlit Uranium mines (Niger); Une demarche Top-Down / Bottom-Up pour l'evaluation en termes multicriteres et multi-acteurs des projets miniers dans l'optique du developpement durable. Application sur les mines d'Uranium d'Arlit (Niger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamaret, A

    2007-06-15

    This thesis aims to appraise the relevance of using an hybrid top-down / bottom-up approach to evaluate mining projects in the perspective of sustainable development. With the advent of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development concepts, new social expectations have appeared towards companies that go beyond a sole requirement of profit earning capacity. If companies do not answer to these expectations, they risk to lose their social legitimacy. Traditionally associated with social, environmental, economical and political impacts and risks, mining activity is particularly concerned by these new issues. Whereas mineral resources needs have never been so high, mining companies are now expected to limit their negative effects and to take into account their different audiences' expectations in order to define, together, the terms of their social license to operate. Considering the diversity of issues, scales, actors and contexts, the challenge is real and necessitates tools to better understand issues and to structure dialogues. Based on the Uranium mines of Arlit (Niger) case study, this work shows that associating participatory approaches to structuration tools and literature propositions, appears as an efficient formula to better organize issues diversity and to build a structured dialogue between mining companies and their stakeholders. First Part aims to present the theoretical, institutional and sectorial contexts of the thesis. Second Part exposes work and results of the evaluation carried out in Niger. And, Third Part, shows the conclusions that can be derived from this work and presents a proposal for an evaluation framework, potentially applicable to other mining sites. (author)

  11. Optimization through neuron network of the potentiality of Higgs discovery in the CMS detector via H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}}, and study of the triggering primitives of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Optimisation par reseaux de neurones du potentiel de decouverte du boson de Higgs dans le canal H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}} sur le detecteur CMS, et etude des primitives de declenchement du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, St

    2006-10-15

    The first chapter presents the theoretical background on which the Higgs mechanism is based within the framework of the standard model. The second chapter reviews the past and present attempts aiming at the discovery of the Higgs boson. The specific features of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and of one of its detector: the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector are given in the third chapter. The author details the track detector and the ECAL electronic calorimeter that are key components of CMS in the detection of the Higgs boson via the following decay channel: H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 2e{sup +}2e{sup -} (where Z and Z{sup *} represents the Z{sup O} boson in a real state and in a virtual state respectively). The chapters 4 and 5 are dedicated to the calibration of the ECAL calorimeter via the use of an electron beam and to the triggering system. The data analysis that will lead to the reconstruction of the events detected by CMS is presented in the chapter 6. The last chapter is devoted to the optimization of the extraction of the Higgs boson signal from an abundant background noise. (A.C.)

  12. Les cooperatives et l'electrification rurale du Quebec, 1945--1964

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorion, Marie-Josee

    Cette these est consacree a l'histoire de l'electrification rurale du Quebec, et, plus particulierement, a l'histoire des cooperatives d'electricite. Fondees par vagues successives a partir de 1945, les cooperatives rurales d'electricite ont ete actives dans plusieurs regions du Quebec et elles ont electrifie une partie significative des zones rurales. Afin de comprendre le contexte de la creation des cooperatives d'electricite, notre these debute (premiere partie) par une analyse du climat sociopolitique des annees precedant la naissance du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Nous y voyons de quelle facon l'electrification rurale devient progressivement, a partir de la fin des annees 1920, une question d'actualite a laquelle les divers gouvernements qui se succedent tentent de trouver une solution, sans engager---ou si peu---les fonds de l'Etat. En ce sens, la premiere etatisation et la mise sur pied d'Hydro-Quebec, en 1944, marquent une rupture quant au mode d'action privilegie jusque-la. La nouvelle societe d'Etat se voit cependant retirer son mandat d'electrifier le monde rural un an apres sa fondation, car le gouvernement Duplessis, de retour au pouvoir, prefere mettre en place son propre modele d'electrification rurale. Ce systeme repose sur des cooperatives d'electricite, soutenues par un organisme public, l'Office de l'electrification rurale (OER). L'OER suscite de grandes attentes de la part des ruraux et c'est par centaines qu'ils se manifestent. Cet engouement pour les cooperatives complique la tache de l'OER, qui doit superviser de nouvelles societes tout en assurant sa propre organisation. Malgre des hesitations et quelques delais introduits par un manque de connaissances techniques et de personnel qualifie, les commissaires de l'OER se revelent perspicaces et parviennent a mettre sur pied un systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale qui produit des resultats rapides. Il leur faudra cependant compter sur l'aide des autres acteurs engages

  13. Study of heterogeneous multiplying and non-multiplying media by the neutron pulsed source technique; Etude des milieux heterogenes multiplicateurs et non-multiplicateurs par la technique de la source pulsee de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniz, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The pulsed neutron technique consists essentially in sending in the medium to be studied a short neutron pulse and in determining the asymptotic decay constant of the generated population. The variation of the decay constant as a function of the size of the medium allows the medium characteristics to be defined. This technique has been largely developed these last years and has been applied as well to moderator as to multiplying media, in most cases homogeneous ones. We considered of interest of apply this technique to lattices, to see if useful informations could be collected for lattice calculations. We present here a general theoretical study of the problem, and results and interpretation of a series of experiments made on graphite lattices. There is a good agreement for non-multiplying media. In the case of multiplying media, it is shown that the age value used until now in graphite lattices calculations is over-estimated by about 10 per cent. [French] La technique de la pulsation neutronique consiste essentiellement a envoyer dans le milieu a etudier une courte bouffee de neutrons et a determiner la constante de decroissance asymptotique de la population engendree. La variation de cette constante de decroissance en fonction des dimensions du milieu permet de determiner ses caracteristiques. Cette technique a connu ces dernieres annees un grand essor et a ete appliquee a des moderateurs et des milieux multiplicateurs. Il s'agissait dans la plupart des cas de milieux homogenes. Il nous a semble interessant de l'utiliser dans le cas des reseaux, afin de voir si ces experiences peuvent fournir des renseignements utiles aux calculs. Nous presentons ici une etude theorique generale du probleme, ainsi que les resultats et l'interpretation d'une serie d'experiences faites sur des reseaux a graphite. L'accord est bon dans le cas des reseaux non-multiplicateurs. Dans le cas des reseaux multiplicateurs, on montre que la valeur de l'age utilisee jusqu'ici dans les calculs

  14. Heavy water reactors physics; Physique des reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    An important research programme on heavy water reactor physics has been carried out in France for quite a few years. The decision to build the EL 4 prototype and so to choose the heavy water gas cooled type has renewed the interest in this programme and at the same time given to it a more specific orientation A summary of the results gained in this field is presented in this paper. In the first part are described the experimental investigations, most of them were carried out in the criticality facility AQUILON II. The experiments are grouped in four parts - Systematic studies of lattices Buckling measurements. - Specific studies of gas-cooled lattices. - Fine structure, spectral indices measurements etc... - Measurements on lattices or samples containing Uranium of various enrichment or Plutonium. The second part is devoted to a summary of the theoretical studies. The whole results have allowed an improvement of the calculation methods, have led to a better understanding of the neutron balance in lattices, and have permitted the establishment of a set of formula to predict not only the clean fuel conditions but also the evolution of the nuclear properties with irradiation. Some specific studies on power reactor are quoted. (authors) [French] Un important programme d'etudes sur la physique des reacteurs a eau lourde est mene en France depuis assez longtemps. La decision de construire le prototype EL 4 et de s'engager ainsi dans la filiere des reacteurs a eau lourde refroidis par gaz a redonne un nouvel interet a ce programme et l'a en meme temps oriente dans une direction plus particuliere. La presente communication, rassemble les resultats des etudes faites dans ce domaine depuis la derniere conference de Geneve. Dans la premiere partie on decrit les etudes experimentales dont la plupart ont ete effectuees dans la pile d'experiences critiques Aquilon II. Les experiences sont groupees en quatre ensembles: etude systematique de reseaux (mesures de laplaciens) etudes

  15. Regional scheme for the connection to the grid of renewable energies: for the Hauts-de-France region, for the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, for the Picardy region, the Alsace region, the Aquitaine region, the Auvergne region, the Lower-Normandy region, the Burgundy region, the Brittany region, the Centre-Val-de-Loire region, the Champagne-Ardennes region, the Franche-Comte region, the Upper Normandy region, the Ile-de-France region, the Languedoc-Roussillon region, the Lorraine region, the Midi-Pyrenees region, the Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur region, the Pays-de-la-Loire region, the Poitou-Charentes region, the Rhone-Alps region. Technical and financial status of the scheme implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers reports related to all French regions. Each one addresses the elaboration of the concerned regional scheme of connection of renewable energies to the distribution network (French acronym: S3REnR) which aims at anticipating and planning evolutions of electrical networks which are necessary for the integration of renewable energies. Illustrated by maps, tables and graphs, these reports propose indications of energy production locations, an identification of planned works, a presentation of the concerned region, of its existing grid and projects, an overview of the scheme content (initial status, results of consultations, adopted strategies, planned works), and an overview of the scheme implementation status

  16. Decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Commented tables in appendix present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  17. Order of the 17. of June 2010 approving the decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, 74 and 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Tables present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  18. Decision no 2010-DC-0183 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from some specific base nuclear installations. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control, and the information of authorities and of population

  19. QUAL-NET, a high temporal-resolution eutrophication model for large hydrographic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Minaudo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To allow climate change impact assessment of water quality in river systems, the scientific community lacks efficient deterministic models able to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in drainage networks at the regional scale, with high temporal resolution and water temperature explicitly determined. The model QUALity-NETwork (QUAL-NET was developed and tested on the Middle Loire River Corridor, a sub-catchment of the Loire River in France, prone to eutrophication. Hourly variations computed efficiently by the model helped disentangle the complex interactions existing between hydrological and biological processes across different timescales. Phosphorus (P availability was the most constraining factor for phytoplankton development in the Loire River, but simulating bacterial dynamics in QUAL-NET surprisingly evidenced large amounts of organic matter recycled within the water column through the microbial loop, which delivered significant fluxes of available P and enhanced phytoplankton growth. This explained why severe blooms still occur in the Loire River despite large P input reductions since 1990. QUAL-NET could be used to study past evolutions or predict future trajectories under climate change and land use scenarios.

  20. QUAL-NET, a high temporal-resolution eutrophication model for large hydrographic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Curie, Florence; Jullian, Yann; Gassama, Nathalie; Moatar, Florentina

    2018-04-01

    To allow climate change impact assessment of water quality in river systems, the scientific community lacks efficient deterministic models able to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in drainage networks at the regional scale, with high temporal resolution and water temperature explicitly determined. The model QUALity-NETwork (QUAL-NET) was developed and tested on the Middle Loire River Corridor, a sub-catchment of the Loire River in France, prone to eutrophication. Hourly variations computed efficiently by the model helped disentangle the complex interactions existing between hydrological and biological processes across different timescales. Phosphorus (P) availability was the most constraining factor for phytoplankton development in the Loire River, but simulating bacterial dynamics in QUAL-NET surprisingly evidenced large amounts of organic matter recycled within the water column through the microbial loop, which delivered significant fluxes of available P and enhanced phytoplankton growth. This explained why severe blooms still occur in the Loire River despite large P input reductions since 1990. QUAL-NET could be used to study past evolutions or predict future trajectories under climate change and land use scenarios.

  1. Construction of an expression vector for Lactococcus lactis based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Tamez-Guerra RS, Oliveira SC, Saucedo-Cardenas O, de Oca-Luna. RM, Le Loir Y (2003). Intranasal immunization with recombinant. Lactococcus lactis secreting murine interleukin-12 enhances antigen- specific Th1 cytokine production. Infection Immunity, 71: 1887-1896. De Vos WM, Simons G (1994).

  2. Bridge Busters: The 397th Bombardment Group (Medium) and the B-26 Marauder in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    wooded area of Foret de Blois , the group delivered relatively accurate attacks but noted no secondary explosions. Poor weather stopped them from bombing...Loire 88 7-Aug-44 Ammunition Dump Foret De Blois 89 8-Aug-44 Railroad Bridge/ Embankment Mantes Gassicourt 90 8-Aug-44 Coastal Defense

  3. [Examples of the keeping of drugs during the XVIth, XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries: silenes and drawers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, B

    1998-01-01

    Silenes are wooden boxes with colourful paintings for the keeping of drugs and can be found nowadays in three collections in France: Hotel-Dieu in Troyes (Aube), a pharmacy in Bauge (Maine-et-Loire) and St-Roch museum in Issoudun (Indre). Drawers can be related to silenes but they are more ordinary and less attractive.

  4. Kiima kroonikad / Ainiki Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljataga, Ainiki

    1997-01-01

    Arvustus: Mirtem, Valev [Luhaäär, Ingvar]. Valge õis sinisel. S.l., 1996; Mirtem, Valev [Luhaäär, Ingvar]. Loire. Tallinn, 1996; Mirtem, Valev [Luhaäär, Ingvar]. Klaasist lepatriinu. Tallinn, 1996; Mirtem, Valev [Luhaäär, Ingvar]. Toomingais ja sireleis. Tallinn, 1996

  5. Process intensification in artificial gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu, Mugurel-Catalin

    2008-01-01

    L'amélioration des propriétés hydrodynamiques des réacteurs chimiques est toujours un grand défi pour les ingénieurs en génie des procèdes. La réalisation d'expériences sur des réacteurs chimiques situés dans un champ magnétique inhomogène peut donner des informations importantes concernant les mécanismes des réactions chimiques ou les propriétés hydrodynamiques du système. Un champ magnétique inhomogène sera généré par un aimant solénoïdal à supraconductivité NbTi et appliqué à un réacteur c...

  6. Nouvelles géographies des activités extractives 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraud Magrin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Après un premier dossier consacré aux mines d’Afrique de l’Ouest, EchoGéo prolonge ici l’exploration de la géographie contemporaine des activités extractives en s’intéressant à de nouveaux espaces (Burkina Faso, Guyane, Gabon, Golfe de Guinée ; Asie du Sud et Afrique orientale et à des ressources variées (or, fer, pétrole, gemmes. Les cinq textes qui composent le présent dossier invitent à l’exploration de lieux, de stratégies d’acteurs, de relations entre acteurs et entre acteurs et milieu...

  7. Technology, environmental protection and economic efficiency. Cables at the Cigre 2010 in Paris; Technik, Umwelt und Wirtschaftlichkeit. Kabeltechnik auf der Cigre 2010 in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiznerowicz, Fred [Fachhochschule Hannover (Germany)

    2010-12-13

    Cigre (Conseil International des Grands Reseaux Electriques), founded in 1921, today has about 6,000 members in 90 countries. Their work is reflected in international standards. In consequence, the work of the Cigre is very important for the electric power industry and the public utilities. The 43th Cigre was held in Paris in late August 2010, with an attendance of more than 3,000. The German delegation consisted of more than 220 experts. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange knowledge between the various sectors of power transmission, e.g. cables, overhead transmission lines, switching stations, and environmental aspects. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-57 nuclei in local fields in yttrium and iron garnets; Resonance magnetique nucleaire des noyaux du fer 57 dans les champs locaux du grenat d'yttrium et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have demonstrated the nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in the local field of each of the two magnetic sub-lattices of yttrium and iron garnets. The resonance frequencies and the relaxation times have been measured as a function of the temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence la resonance nucleaire des noyaux de {sup 57}Fe dans le champ local de chacun des deux sous-reseaux magnetiques du grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les frequences de resonances et les temps de relaxation ont ete mesures en fonction de la temperature. (auteur)

  9. Controle optique de qubits lies a des centres isoelectroniques d'azote dans le GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier-Majcher, Gabriel

    Le traitement de l'information quantique est un domaine de recherche actuellement en pleine effervescence car il laisse entrevoir une revolution dans notre facon de traiter et d'echanger de l'information. D'une part, l'ordinateur quantique promet de resoudre des problemes comme la factorisation d'un polynome de facon beaucoup plus efficace qu'un ordinateur classique. D'autre part, les communications quantiques promettent l'echange d'information de facon fondamentalement inviolable. Afin de tirer pleinement profit de ces nouvelles technologies, il sera avantageux de construire des reseaux quantiques. Dans un tel reseau, des processeurs quantiques, les noeuds, seront connectes par des photons voyageant dans des fibres optiques. Les reseaux quantiques permettront de deployer les communications quantiques a grande echelle et de creer des super-ordinateurs quantiques. La realisation de reseaux quantiques necessitera des interfaces optiques pouvant echanger l'information de facon coherente entre un qubit (bit d'information quantique) et un photon. L'implementation de telles interfaces dans un systeme physique s'avere un important defi scientifique et technologique. Or, les systemes actuellement envisages a cette fin souffrent d'un faible couplage avec la lumiere ou encore de grandes inhomogeneites, constituant des obstacles a la realisation de reseaux a grande echelle. Dans cette these, le potentiel des centres isoelectroniques pour realiser des interfaces optiques est evalue. Deux types de qubits lies a des paires d'azote dans le GaAs sont consideres : les qubits excitoniques et les qubits de spin electronique, controlables par l'intermediaire d'excitons charges. Le controle optique complet des qubits excitoniques est demontre, ce qui constitue la premiere realisation du genre dans les centres isoelectroniques. L'observation d'excitons charges dans ce systeme, liant a la fois des trous lourds et des trous legers, laisse entrevoir de nouvelles possibilites afin de

  10. Le projet de développement au service de la sécurité alimentaire des consommateurs : pour une approche territoriale

    OpenAIRE

    Brégeot, Ghislain; Chéneau-Loquay, Annie

    2013-01-01

    6 pages; International audience; Aujourd'hui, une grande partie des interventions réalisées par les acteurs étrangers (ONG et autres acteurs associatifs, Organisations internationales, Coopérations bilatérales, collectivités territoriales) dans les pays en développement est réalisée sous forme d'aide à projet. Or, la mise en place de ces projets ne prend pas toujours en compte les objectifs "annexes" de lutte contre la pauvreté ou la sécurité alimentaire.

  11. L'urbain trans-formé par Internet et les TIC

    OpenAIRE

    Carmes, Maryse; Noyer, Jean-Max; Rigal, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    On découvre en pensant leurs pratiques dans l'espace urbain que les Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication sont probablement mal nommées. Il n'y aurait pas de mise en forme unilatérale et fixe, d'information, mais bien des trans-formations des acteurs et des pratiques des outils entre eux, en particulier par la communication. De la prise en compte de ces pratiques variées, des mélanges de codages spatiaux et digitaux qui s'inter-relient en certains acteurs, en certains lieux et ...

  12. Interagency Contact and Training for a Comprehensive Approach to Operations: Assessment of the Formation Operations Center of Excellence ’Civil-Military Seminar’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    formation interorganismes rassemblant des acteurs civils et militaires a été présentée comme un instrument de premier plan qui permet d’atténuer...soutient qu’une telle formation intégrée est un outil déterminant qui permet d’établir une connaissance partagée de la situation et une...interorganismes rassemblant des acteurs civils et militaires a été présentée comme un instrument de premier plan qui permet d’atténuer certains des

  13. Community of communes of the Haut-Forez mountains - Request for the creation of a wind energy development area. Wind energy project of the Haut-Forez mountains, Communes of La Chamba, La Cote-en-Couzan, Saint-Jean-la-Vetre, Loire district (42): Part 1: Exploitation authorisation request, Descriptive note; Part 2: Environmental impact study, Non technical summary. Opinion of the environmental authority on the exploitation authorisation request file for an installation classified in terms of environment and land cleaning authorisation. Public inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyet, Bertrand; Cabrol, Eric; Delpuech, Michel; Zoboli, Michel

    2012-04-01

    A first document presents the concerned area and the proposed wind energy development project. It details motivations for this proposal, and proposes a general presentation of the area (administrative and geographic description, climate context, soil use, hydrography, road network, social-economic structure). It reports a characterisation of the potential wind power production of the studied area, describes connection possibilities and perspectives. It reports an analysis of landscape and heritage issues and sensitivities, of issues related to natural heritage, to health and safety. A final synthesis discusses the compatibility of the project with its environment. The second report is the exploitation authorisation request by the developer. Its first part presents the operator, the installation, the operator's financial and technical capacities, and expenses related to the environment. The second part is a non technical summary of the environmental impact study performed for the project and its variants. The last documents contain the finally unfavourable opinion of the environmental authority on this project as a conclusion of the public inquiry

  14. Results and interpretation of spectral indices measurements made with AQUILON; Resultats et interpretation de mesures d'indices de spectre dans aquilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frichet, J P; Mougey, J N; Naudet, R; Taste, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This report deals with a set of spectral indices measurements made in the heavy water reactor Aquilon on lattices constituted by massive fuel elements of dia. 29,2 mm. The fuel elements were made either of natural uranium or of slightly depleted or slightly enriched uranium, or of an uranium-plutonium alloy. The measurements were carried out for various lattice pitches (square pitch from 110 to 210 mm) and in certain cases for various temperatures (from 20 to 80 deg. C). The results are compared to calculated values obtained by using the latest advances of the thermalization theory developed at Saclay applied to the moderation by heavy water. (authors) [French] Ce rapport est consacre a un ensemble de mesures d'indices de spectre realisees dans la pile a eau lourde Aquilon sur des reseaux d'elements combustibles pleins, de 29,2 mm de diametre. Ces combustibles se composaient ou bien d'uranium naturel, ou bien d'uranium tres legerement appauvri ou enrichi, ou bien d'un alliage uranium plutonium. Les mesures ont ete effectuees pour toute une serie de pas de reseaux (pas carre 110 a 210 mm), certaines d'entre elles a plusieurs temperatures (20 a 80 deg. C). Les resultats des mesures sont compares a des valeurs calculees obtenues en utilisant les plus recents developpements de la theorie de la thermalisation mise au point a Saclay, appliques au cas de la moderation par l'eau lourde. (auteurs)

  15. The influence of the form of the cells on the buckling and fine structure of the thermal flux in a heterogeneous pile; Influence de la forme des cellules sur le laplacien et structure fine du flux thermique dans une pile heterogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly du Bois, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The elementary diffusion equation and the age equation have been solved for lattices assumed, to be infinite and periodic. In this way the influence of the form of the cells on thermal captures and resonance captures is determined. The solutions obtained are expressed by means of tabulated functions which can be used in the analysis of the f factor measurements. The case of mixed lattices in which different types of rods are regularly arranged is also foreseen. (author) [French] L'equation elementaire de la diffusion et l'equation de l'age ont ete resolues pour des reseaux supposes infinis et periodiques. On determine ainsi quelle est l'influence de la forme des cellules sur les captures thermiques et les captures de resonances. Les solutions obtenues s'expriment au moyen de fonctions tabulees qui peuvent etre utilisees dans le depouillement des mesures du facteur f. Le cas des reseaux mixtes dans lequels des barreaux de types differents sont disposes regulierement est egalement envisage. (auteur)

  16. Partenariat pour l'adaptation des populations vulnérables à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Projet Partenariat Multi-acteurs pour l'Adaptation des Populations Vulnérables à la Salinisation des sols induite par les Changements Climatiques au Sénégal : rapport final (18 mars 2009 - 31 mars 2012). Download PDF ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all. A new website and ...

  17. Eric Clapton et Pete Postlethwaite sur la liste des honneurs de fin d'annee

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Le guitariste Eric Clapton, l'acteur Pete Postlethwaite et l'un des peres de l'internet Tim Berners-Lee figurent, aux cotes du XV d'Angleterre, sur la liste de fin d'annee des principales personnalites distinguees par la reine Elizabeth II" (1/2 page).

  18. introduction à l'ingénierie documentaire et aux sciences de l'information

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    polycopié introductif pour la formation chef de projet en ingénierie documentaire, Cnam; introductory course on documentary engineering: definition, applications, objects, process, actors of the market, historical elements; cours introductif à l'ingénierie documentaire : positionnement, objets, processus, acteurs du marché, repères historiques

  19. Résultats de recherche | Page 79 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vers une politique nationale en matière de sciences et de technologies au Nicaragua. Le Consejo Nicaragüense de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICYT) a pour mandat de coordonner les différents acteurs du système d'innovation national du Nicaragua. Projet.

  20. L'émergence de l' « artiste » au Burkina Faso | Rousseau | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'art contemporain ne trouve d'acteurs au Burkina Faso que depuis une vingtaine d'années. Le gouvernement révolutionnaire de Thomas Sankara est le premier à offrir aux artistes un cadre de promotion et de perfectionnement technique. Dans les années 1980, les SNC (Semaines Nationales de la Culture), le FESPACO ...

  1. (Re)produire, marquer et (s')approprier des « lieux (publics) de ville ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    autre, lié à l'action de l'Etat ou de la politique linguistique, voire ... acteurs de la vie sociale. .... formation » « Multiservices », avec plus ou moins la mention .... Le relevé systématique des enseignes publiques le long de ce bout.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 115 (2016), L'agglomeration oranaise jeux d'acteurs et dynamique urbaine, Abstract. Mohamed Madani. Vol 94 (2010), L'agrobusiness en Méditerranée: tendances actuelles et perspectives, Abstract. Foued Cheriet, Selma Tozanli. Vol 100 (2012), L'algerie, du transfert de technologie a l'economie du savoir et de ...

  3. Le déficit de filles — Le déséquilibre du ratio hommes-femmes en Inde

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs acteurs, dont le journal national indien The Hindu, ont qualifié ce brusque ... Voilà pourquoi le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ... De nouvelles tendances, comme la limite de deux enfants par famille, .... les professionnels de la santé et d'abolir les initiatives favorisant la stérilisation.

  4. L’intelligence artificielle et la tragique persistance de l’imaginaire de la Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Delvenne, Pierre; Macq, Hadrien

    2017-01-01

    Dans cette carte blanche publiée, nous essayons de prendre du recul sur la fascination exercée par l'intelligence artificielle, et sur le pourquoi il nous semble important de développer une pensée critique quand beaucoup d'acteurs rêvent d'une Silicon Valley en Belgique ou en Wallonie.

  5. Lorsque la recherche locale est source de changements véritables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 févr. 2011 ... Les think tanks africains se penchent sur certaines des difficultés les plus ... Lorsque la recherche locale est source de changements véritables en Afrique ... De quel type d'information les acteurs de la sphère politique ont-ils ...

  6. : tous les projets | Page 410 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Consejo Nicaragüense de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICYT) a pour mandat de coordonner les différents acteurs du système d'innovation national du Nicaragua. Date de début : 21 novembre 2008. End Date: 21 novembre 2010. Sujet: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION, RESEARCH ...

  7. Résultats de recherche | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vers une politique nationale en matière de sciences et de technologies au Nicaragua. Le Consejo Nicaragüense de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICYT) a pour mandat de coordonner les différents acteurs du système d'innovation national du Nicaragua. Projet.

  8. : tous les projets | Page 412 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Consejo Nicaragüense de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICYT) a pour mandat de coordonner les différents acteurs du système d'innovation national du Nicaragua. Date de début : 21 novembre 2008. End Date: 21 novembre 2010. Sujet: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION, RESEARCH ...

  9. Vers une politique nationale en matière de sciences et de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Consejo Nicaragüense de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICYT) a pour mandat de coordonner les différents acteurs du système d'innovation national du Nicaragua. Cette subvention permettra au CONICYT de concevoir une stratégie nationale en matière de sciences, de technologies et d'innovation (STI). Les extrants ...

  10. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Governador Valdares, Brésil : Le jardinage s ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... À Governador Valadares, au Brésil, un programme municipal d'agriculture urbaine contribue à garnir la table des citadins des quartiers à faible revenu. Les protagonistes vont et viennent, mais les jardiniers tiennent bon, grâce à l'appui bien coordonné de nombreux acteurs locaux.

  11. Problématique de la valorisation agricole des biodéchets dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2014 ... Conclusion et application de la recherche : La gestion des déchets ... la ville de Lubumbashi, les outils de diagnostic des ... développement participatif des technologies .... sites I, II, IV, V, VI et VII caractérisés par les acteurs.

  12. (DEEE) au Sénégal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilisateurs professionnels ont moins de 40 ans; 65,9% des réparateurs sont âgés au plus de 36 ans. Les acteurs de sexe ..... conséquences négatives des DEEE sur la santé ..... Chine où un réseau de coopération entre les institutions ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acteurs et dynamique urbaine. Abstract. ISSN: 1012-0009. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  14. Exploration des scenarios d'adaptation : leishmaniose cutanée et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des écosystèmes naturels contrastés, semi-aride et sub-humide respectivement. Les chercheurs se proposent de renforcer les capacités des acteurs (chercheurs, professionnels et citoyens) de réduire la vulnérabilité des populations aux conditions environnementales, conduisant à une meilleure gestion du risque.

  15. financement des activites agricoles et reduction de la pauvrete

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SANDRA KENDO

    INTRODUCTION. RELATION ENTRE ACTEURS FINANCIERS ET SECTEUR. AGRICOLE. ○ Evolution de la situation économique (Répression financière – Situation de crise – Libéralisation financière). ○ Exclusion du secteur bancaire. ○ Financement restreint à une petite poignée de filière agricole (Cacao, Café et coton).

  16. Innovation en matière de biocarburants sous le signe de l'inclusion ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet favorisera une innovation en matière de biocarburants qui prend en compte tous les acteurs pertinents, dont les femmes vivant en milieu rural. Les chercheurs ... Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme.

  17. 2535-IJBCS-Article-Soro Soronikpoho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    temps les trois principales villes de la Côté d'Ivoire ont été .... Figure 1 : Fréquences d'isolement des différents microorganismes dans les moutardes. ..... Mon lait est pur et ne peut pas rendre malade» : motivations des acteurs du secteur.

  18. Normalisation et certification dans le photovoltaïque: perspectives juridiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Boy , Laurence

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Legal approach of standardization in photovoltaic industry in France. Legal sources. Stakeholder"s liabillities. Competition aspects.; Approche juridique de la normalisation et de la certification dans le domaine du photovoltaïque en France. Sources du droit. Responsabilités des acteurs.Aspects concurrentiels.

  19. Gestion decentralisee de l'ecole Au benin. Quand de nouveaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quand de nouveaux acteurs interviennent sur la scene educative. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... autres instruments organisant la gouvernance éducative décentralisée en république du Bénin, des observations et des ...

  20. Food and beverage in 'Le chevalier délibéré'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas Jongenelen

    2007-01-01

    Le chevalier delibere (1483) by Olivier de la Marche has an extensive hermit scene: the hermit receives the author, Acteur, gives him food and drink and instructs him in the important issues of life. Le chevalier delibere thus stands in two main Western European literary traditions: stories about

  1. Effective Wall Friction in Wall-Bounded 3D Dense Granular Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    to be published in Physical Review LettersThe numerical simulations were carried out at theCCIPL (Centre de Calcul Intensif des Pays de la Loire)under the project MTEEGD; We report numerical simulations on granular shear flows confined between two flat but frictional sidewalls. Novel regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the flow. The effective friction at si...

  2. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  3. The Creys Malville FBR Super Phenix steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, P.; Zuber, T.; Saur, J.M.; Cambillard, E.

    1980-08-01

    After briefly recalling the French experience on sodium steam generators, the authors describe the design concepts of the Superphenix units and give their main characteristics. A short summary of the realized R and D program precedes the description of the four 750-MWt steam generators, the fabrication of which is in progress by Creusot-Loire at Chalon sur Saone (France). The studies started for the next French fast breeder reactors and their steam generators are mentioned

  4. Koostöös Eesti Instituudiga korraldas...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Katariina Gild korraldas Prantsusmaal kaks näitust: 4.-16. XI Tours'i eeslinnas Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire'i Charles X paviljonis ning 19.-30. XI Loches'i linnas. Näituse kujundasid Kaire Tali ja Krista Laos, eksponeeritud olid Kai Koppeli, Viivi-Ann Keerdo, Ülle Rajasalu, Virve Kermi, Kaire Tali, Pille Kivihalli, Jane Rannametsa, Anni Kreemi, Ene Parsi, Liivia Leshkini, Ülle Kõutsi ja Krista Laose tööd.

  5. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor steam generator survey of the consequences of large scale sodium water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vambenepe, G.

    1978-01-01

    The ''Retona'' three-dimensional hydrodynamic computing code is being developed by Electricity de France to survey the consequences, on the very plant, of a large scale sodium water reaction in liquid metal steam generators. In this communication, the heat-exchanger geometry is schematized and the problem solving process briefly described under assumed simplifying hypotheses. The application of the results to the Creusot-Loire steam generator selected for Super-Phenix are given as an example. (author)

  6. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  7. Environmental, social, and corporate report 2012 - Cezus Paimboeuf (Areva)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    CEZUS, a subsidiary of AREVA, is the global leader in the market for zirconium, the metal used, among other things, for fuel cladding in the heart of nuclear reactors. CEZUS's operations are distributed over six sites. The site in Paimboeuf, in the Loire-Atlantique department, fabricates zirconium-alloy cladding tubes and guide tubes. This document shows details of the CEZUS Paimboeuf facility and its 2012 initiatives on: consumption and waste management, risk management, environmental and safety management, social and corporate responsibilities

  8. Trees - a tool for landfill managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josseaume, Marine

    2009-01-01

    When landfills are closed, they must be rehabilitated in accordance with the site redevelopment plan. Studies have been conducted for the purpose of planting various tree and shrub species on closed compartments. The purpose of growing this biomass is to produce energy. At Machecoul (Loire-Atlantique), a project was implemented in cooperation with many players, including the Horticultural Training College, Veolia Proprete and the intercommunal supervisory board of the Six-Pieces landfill. (authors)

  9. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method for measuring the composition of aquatic humic substances

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi; Gutié rrez, Leonardo A.; Ng, Siuchoon; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method was developed to measure the composition of humic substances from river, reservoir, and treated wastewater based on their physicochemical properties. The current method fractionates the humic substances into four well-defined groups based on parallel analyses with a neutral and a cationic HILIC column, using mobile phases of varied compositions and pH. The results indicate that: (i) the proportion of carboxylic acids in the humic substances from terrestrial origins is less than half of that from treated wastewater (Jeddah, KSA), (ii) a higher content of basic compounds was observed in the humic substances from treated wastewater and Ribou Reservoir (Cholet, France) than in the sample from Loire River (France), (iii) a higher percentage of hydrophobic macromolecules were found in the humic substances from Loire River than in the other samples, and (iv) humic substances of treated wastewater contained less ionic neutral compounds (i.e., pKa 5-9) than the waters from terrestrial origins. The physicochemical property disparity amongst the compounds in each humic substances sample was also evaluated. The humic substances from the lightly humic Loire river displayed the highest disparity, whereas the highly humic Suwannee river (Georgia, USA) showed the most homogeneous humic substances.

  10. Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Négrel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents strontium isotope and major ion data of shallow groundwater and river water from the Ile du Chambon catchment, located on the Allier river in the Massif Central (France. There are large variations in the major-element contents in the surface- and groundwater. Plotting of Na vs. Cl contents and Ca, Mg, NO3, K, SO4, HCO3, Sr concentrations reflect water–rock interaction (carbonate dissolution for Ca, Mg, HCO3 and Sr because the bedrock contains marly limestones, agricultural input (farming and fertilising and sewage effluents (for NO3, K, SO4, although some water samples are unpolluted. Sr contents and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70892 to 0.71180 along the hydrological cycle in the groundwater agree with previous work on groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Loire catchment. The data plot along three directions in a 87Sr/86Sr v. 1/Sr diagram as a result of mixing, involving at least three geochemical signatures–Allier river water, and two distinct signatures that might be related to different water-rock interactions in the catchment. Mixing proportions are calculated and discussed. The alluvial aquifer of the Ile du Chambon catchment is considered, within the Sr isotope systematic, in a larger scheme that includes several alluvial aquifers of the Loire Allier catchment. Keywords: : Loire river, major and trace elements, Sr isotopic ratio, alluvial aquifer, hydrology

  11. Natural and EDTA-complexed lanthanides used as a geochemical probe for aquifers: a case study of Orleans valley's alluvial and karstic aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgne, F.; Treuil, M.; Joron, J.L.; Lepiller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transit of chemical elements within the different parts of Orleans valley's aquifer is studied by two complementary methods. Those methods rely on the fractionation of lanthanides (Ln) during their migration in natural waters. The first method consists in studying natural lanthanides patterns within the watershed, at its entries and exits. second one lies on multi-tracer experiments with Ln-EDTA complexes. This work is completed through an observation network consisting of 52 piezometers set on a sand and gravel quarry, and the natural entries and exits of the aquifer. Orleans valley's aquifer, which is made of an alluvial watershed lying on a karstic aquifer, is mainly fed by Loire river via a large karstic network. At the entries of the aquifer (Loire river at Jargeau), the Ln concentrations in the dissolved fraction ( heavy Ln. On the other hand, the filtration of alluvial groundwater with high colloids content induces no significant Ln fractionation when the solution contains no strong chelating agent. Hence, the transit of natural and artificial Ln in Orleans valley aquifer can be explained by two complementary processes. (I) Decanting/filtering or, on the opposite, stirring of colloids. Those processes induce no important Ln fractionation. (2) Exchanges of Ln between solute complexes, colloids and sediments due to the presence of strong chelating agents. Those exchanges fractionate the Ln in the order of their stability constants. Considering the natural Ln fractionation that occurs in the Loire river and in the studied aquifer, the carbonates, the stability constants of which follow the order light Ln < heavy Ln, are the best candidates as natural strong chelating agents. From the hydrodynamic point of view, both tracer experiments and natural Ln concentrations show that the transfer of elements within the alluvial watershed is pulsed by the Loire river movements. During an ascent phase, the elements migrate away from and perpendicularly to the karstic

  12. Analysis of resonances due to 'S' neutrons in experiments on transmission by time-of-flight. 1. without the interference term; Analyse des resonances dues aux neutrons 'S' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol. 1. sans terme d'interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corge, C R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Various methods of transmission resonance analysis for 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments are described in this report. Only the case when the interference term can be neglected is treated in this first part. Results are given relative to a more complete partial area method and also to a new method so-called the width at half depth method. (author) [French] Le present rapport est consacre a l'expose de differentes methodes d'analyse des resonances dues aux neutrons d'ondes 's' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, cette premiere partie traitant uniquement le cas ou l'on peut negliger le terme d'interference. Y figurent en particulier sous forme de reseaux de courbes, les resultats relatifs a une methode des aires partielles amelioree et ceux relatifs a une nouvelle methode dite de la largeur a mi-profondeur. (auteur)

  13. Structure of simple liquids; Structure des liquides simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, J F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [French] On presente d'une part les resultats obtenus par application a l'argon et au sodium des deux principales methodes d'etude de la structure des liquides: la diffusion des rayons X et la diffusion des neutrons; d'autre part, les principaux modeles employes pour reconstituer la structure des liquides simples sont exposes: modeles mathematiques, modeles des reseaux et modeles derives, modeles experimentaux. (auteur)

  14. Une financiarisation si discrète ? La circulation des standards de la filière d’investissement en immobilier tertiaire dans les politiques de développement urbain du Grand Lyon

    OpenAIRE

    Guironnet, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Les études urbaines françaises demeurent relativement discrètes sur le processus de financiarisation de la production des espaces urbains. Cette situation est paradoxale au regard de l’arrivée d’acteurs et la diffusion d’outils de la finance de marché dans plusieurs segments urbains (infrastructures, immobilier non résidentiel) dans les années 1990, et du poids de ces secteurs dans l’aménagement. L’objectif de l’article est de démontrer l’intérêt de prendre en compte les acteurs de la filière...

  15. Petites considérations polémiques et néanmoins objectives sur la recherche (en littérature) et sa diffusion (électronique)

    OpenAIRE

    Dozo, Björn-Olav; Provenzano, François

    2012-01-01

    Le présent article fait écho à certains débats qui traversent les milieux de la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales. Les acteurs de la diffusion de la recherche se réunissent (compte rendu de la rencontre qui s’est tenue au 16e salon de la revue, ayant pour thème : « revues de sciences humaines au temps d'Internet : quelles promesses ? Quelles menaces ? »), une liste de diffusion/ discussion concernant les revues en Sciences Humaines et Sociales a été créée, différents acteurs (http://...

  16. Current distribution analysis of electroplating reactors and mathematical modeling of the electroplated zinc-nickel alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Teeratananon, Manida

    2004-01-01

    Ce travail est consacré à une étude multi-échelle des réacteurs électrochimiques rencontrés dans les procédés de dépôts électrolytiques. La première partie s'intéresse à la modélisation macroscopique d'un réacteur batch lors de la dépollution d'un bain de dépôt de cuivre. La seconde partie concerne l'étude expérimentale des distributions des lignes de courant dans une cellule de Hull rotative ainsi que dans une cellule de Mohler modifiée. La troisième partie traite de la mise au point d'un mé...

  17. Implication des partenaires dans la campagne québécoise de promotion de la santé « Défi Santé 5/30 »

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Guillaume; Renaud, Lise; Caron-Bouchard, Monique; Gagnon, Louis; Pelletier, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude porte sur la gestion des partenariats en promotion de la santé et s’inscrit dans une étude de cas du « Défi Santé 5/30 ». Cette campagne québécoise multimédia promouvant de saines habitudes d’alimentation, d’activité physique et de maintien/modification du poids, de douze semaines, s’est déroulée en 2005. Le but de notre article est de : 1) décrire les acteurs de la campagne et leur implication  ; 2) relever l’interaction entre ces acteurs pendant le déroulement du « Défi Santé 5/...

  18. Edito #1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Walczak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ne cherchez pas en vous, en vous il n’y a rien ; cherchez dans l’autre qui est en face de vous -avait coutume de dire à ses acteurs, sans crainte de déplaire, le célèbre réformateur russe du théâtre Konstantin Stanislavskij (1863-1938. En plaçant l’acteur face au miroir, face au personnage qu’il devait incarner et face au public, dans un répertoire d’auteurs si différents que Čekhov, Shakespeare ou Molière, ce dramaturge exceptionnel multipliait savamment les divers côtés de cet « autre » qu...

  19. Spotify quel avenir pour le géant de la musique en streaming ?

    CERN Document Server

    Bouillot, Charlotte; Cadiat, Anne-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Un guide pratique et accessible pour tout savoir sur Spotify et ses créateurs passionnés Avec plus de 60 millions d'utilisateurs actifs à travers le monde en fin d'année 2014, Spotify est de loin l'acteur incontournable de l'écoute de musique en streaming. Mais que sait-on réellement de l'entreprise et des moyens qu'elle met en œuvre pour proposer à l'auditeur ses morceaux préférés ? Quelles sont les clés de la réussite de cet acteur qui a révolutionné la manière de consommer la musique ? D'ailleurs, l'entreprise est-elle véritablement rentable ?  Ce livre vous aidera à :        Comprendre la

  20. La catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl entre erreurs humaines et défauts techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Perrineau, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur la catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl en moins d'une heure ! Le 26 avril 1986 à 1 h 23, une catastrophe d'un nouveau genre ébranle le monde : un réacteur de la centrale nucléaire de Tchernobyl explose. Alors que les autorités soviétiques camouflent l'accident, puis en minimisent l'importance, un nuage radioactif se forme et se propage sur toute l'Europe…Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : Le contexte de l'époque Les acteurs majeurs qui ont participé à l'événement La catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl Les répercussions du drameLe mot

  1. Etude de la cristallisation du bicarbonate de sodium raffiné:contribution au modèle des colonnes à bulles

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    La société Solvay est le plus grand producteur de bicarbonate de sodium raffiné au monde. Le NaHCO3 est un des produits parmi les plus connus et utilisés. Sa production a lieu dans des colonnes à bulles de volumes très importants. La production du bicarbonate de sodium raffiné dans ces réacteurs peut se résumer par la réaction entre une solution saturée de carbonate de sodium (Na2CO3) et le CO2(gaz) Cette production implique la connaissance et le contrôle des réacteurs de type triphasique. E...

  2. Les i-jumelages au service de la solidarité internationale et du développement local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Durand-Tornare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available L’association « Villes internet » propose depuis plusieurs années aux collectivités françaises de mettre en action des i-jumelages. L’idée est simple : utiliser Internet comme vecteur pour la construction de ces nouvelles solidarités internationales entre acteurs locaux, collectivités locales et acteurs du tiers secteur non marchand. Il s’agit de mettre très concrètement en place via Internet de nouveaux modes de co-développement, basés sur des logiques de réciprocité, d’échanges de savoir et...

  3. Le développement du travail en réseau comme stratégie de changement dans les politiques publiques

    OpenAIRE

    Vedelago , François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Le terme de réseau, aujourd'hui extrêmement répandu, provoque à sa seule évocation tout à la fois un " effet de modernisme " et, pour les acteurs, il s'impose comme une démarche obligée de résolution de problème. Au sein du système de santé, soumis à des réformes constantes qui recomposent ses différents éléments en permanence depuis une vingtaine d'années, les formes de coordinations entre les acteurs requièrent de leur part des adaptations continues. Les réseaux de s...

  4. Marche du foncier urbain et promotion du logement au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le marché du foncier urbain au Bénin est un secteur qui met en jeu l'intervention de plusieurs acteurs publics et privés mais également de l'informel. La notion de « foncier urbain » utilisée dans cet article englobe les acceptions et les utilisations faites en architecture, en urbanisme, en aménagement et en gestion urbaine.

  5. Innovation et recherche en odontologie

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnaure-Mallet , Martine

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Dans les chapitres précédents ont été traitées les innovations en odontologie qui sont dans les cabinets de chirurgie dentaire ou en passe d'y être. Ces innovations en implantologie, en endodontie, en chirurgie et en imagerie sont toutes le fait de l'interdisciplinarité. Elles sont nées de partenariats entre plusieurs acteurs dont des chercheurs, notamment des chercheurs chirurgiens-dentistes.

  6. La formation d'un espace public camerounais à l'épreuve de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2 août 2011 ... contradictoires, tenus par les différents acteurs politiques, sociaux, religieux, culturels ... d'une science politique jalouse de son pré carré : processus électoral, ethnicité, .... espace public favorise la co-présence des différentes communautés sur le ..... transformations des formes de l'action publique.

  7. CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement international |

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lire leurs observations. Nos experts font part de leurs réflexions sur les questions et les approches sur lesquelles se penchent les acteurs du développement international aujourd'hui, ainsi que sur le rôle de la recherche dans la mise au point de solutions. Image. Homme travaillant à l'intérieur d'un grand tube d'acier ...

  8. Ressources | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à la bibliothèque de ressources du CRDI, nous partageons nos résultats, fournissons un soutien aux chercheurs et offrons des outils aux acteurs du développement. Le CRDI soutient la recherche qui examine d'importants problèmes en matière de développement, trouve des solutions durables et enrichit les ...

  9. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  10. Le socle d'une œuvre, invisible mais essentiel

    OpenAIRE

    Huguenin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site internet du blog des Musées d'art et d'histoire (http://blog.mahgeneve.ch): "Le support se faisant aujourd'hui le plus discret possible, voire invisible. Sa réalisation nécessite une étroite collaboration entre les différents acteurs d'une exposition car le socleur doit allier les besoins de la conservation et de la muséographie.".

  11. Gestion des déchets d'équipements électriques et électroniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La gestion des Déchets d'Equipements Electriques et Electroniques (DEEE) est un défi pour le Sénégal. Leur quantité augmente rapidement et leur gestion informelle expose l'environnement et les acteurs aux risques liés aux substances toxiques qu'ils contiennent. L'étude vise à déterminer les caractéristiques des ...

  12. Santé des adolescents et des jeunes au Burkina Faso : état des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'est agi d'une étude évaluative ayant utilisé une revue documentaire associée à une interview des acteurs clés et un atelier de validation et d'identification des interventions pertinentes pour un plan stratégique national. La situation de la santé des adolescents et des jeunes est caractérisée par des grossesses précoces ...

  13. EXPOSÉ DE POLITIQUE DU PROGRAMME ACCA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    afin qu'elle soit plus accessible aux utilisateurs que les prévisions saisonnières nationales brutes. Ces plateformes ont resserré la communication entre des acteurs de la chaîne de l'information qui n'ont pas l'habitude de travailler ensemble. Ce processus collaboratif sur l'information climatique saisonnière a eu pour effet ...

  14. ImpersoNations: cinéma national, imaginaires historiques et nouveau cinéma européen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2013-01-01

    La question du capital culturel propre à la diversité linguistique de l’Europe reste entière. Quels sont les avantages et les inconvénients de cet éventail de langues dans le cinéma? Les films, quand ils franchissent les frontières, sont souvent doublés. Or, comme un bon jeu d’acteur représente une

  15. 6th AfSBT CONGRESS ABSTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 déc. 2013 ... stratégie BECS en interne, mais cette stratégie ne convint pas à cause du manque .... Gestion des donneurs réguliers - recrutement et rétention. • Gestion ...... Polifique: développement d'une politique du sang qui implique tous les acteurs ...... système d'entreprise. en 2008, La décision fut prise d'élaborer.

  16. « Flamber moins et investir utile » : la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 juin 2015 ... d'entrepreneur et les stratégies et les secteurs d'activités. Ensuite, nous ... des politiques mises en place, notamment par les acteurs étatiques, pour ... (à travers l'appui à la création d'entreprises ou la mise en place de lignes ..... comptait recruter au moins dix personnes au départ ont ainsi servi à financer.

  17. Les approches multisectorielles pour prévenir les grossesses ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à générer, à travers une recherche opérationnelle, des connaissances sur le phénomène des grossesses précoces et de développer des stratégies multisectorielles, centrées sur les adolescents et prenant en compte les acteurs du système de l'éducation, de la santé, du milieu judiciaire et des communautés.

  18. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT - Centre for Poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il vise à améliorer leur capacité à produire des recherches rigoureuses, susceptibles à la fois d'éclairer et d'influencer les politiques. Durant la deuxième phase de l'ITT (2014-2019), on subventionnera 43 institutions en vue de les aider à consolider leur rôle d'acteurs du développement crédibles dans leur pays et, dans ...

  19. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il s'efforce d'améliorer la capacité des organismes financés à produire des recherches rigoureuses, susceptibles à la fois d'éclairer et d'influencer les politiques. La deuxième phase de l'ITT (2014-2019) permettra de financer 43 institutions. Cela les aidera à consolider leur rôle d'acteurs du développement crédibles dans ...

  20. Des experts discutent des conflits non conventionnels dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juil. 2015 ... Le rapport souligne les principaux défis à relever lorsqu'il est question de conflits non conventionnels et de violence dans les Amériques. ... Bien que de nombreux États aient recours à la médiation avec des acteurs du crime organisé en vue de réduire le nombre de leurs actes de violence ou d'y mettre fin, ...

  1. Enfants travailleurs domestiques a cotonou : Entre contraintes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le décalage de perception sur le travail des enfants résulte d'abord de la définition du concept d'enfant perçu différemment selon qu'il s'agit des normes juridiques ou des codes sociaux ou communautaires. ... Par conséquent, la domesticité enfantine ressemble davantage à un projet élaboré par un ensemble d'acteurs.

  2. Les institutions sportives et les pouvoirs publics en Afrique noire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La restitution plus fine des données archivées et leur analyse plus approfondie révèlent alors que : la réexportation des pratiques socioéducatives de l'école vers les clubs civils s'est plutôt arrimée aux enjeux économiques, politiques, diplomatiques et dans une moindre mesure éducatifs, tant et si bien que les acteurs ...

  3. Résultats de recherche | Page 85 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les différents éléments constitutifs d''un système d''innovation existent au Burkina Faso, mais ce qui manque c''est l''inter-action entre les acteurs pouvant permettre des synergies. Published date. 1 janvier 2011. Rapports. IRRIGATION. Mécanismes d'adaptation aux changements climatiques des communautés rurales dans ...

  4. Problematique de l'adequation formation-emploi au Benin | Migan Z ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans ce contexte de crise économique difficile, la recherche de l'adéquation formation-emploi est devenue l'une préoccupation majeures de la plupart des pays en voie de développement pour la résolution de la crise de l'emploi qui perdure. Au Bénin, malgré les différentes actions entreprises par les acteurs de la vie ...

  5. Des alliances d’action pour faire des enjeux sociétaux une source d’innovation, de création et de transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lemoine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Les rapports entre l’économie et les autres sphères de la société sont en train de se transformer, et avec eux, les expressions de la solidarité et les modèles d’engagement. Parmi eux, les alliances entre acteurs hétérogènes (entreprises, ONG et « social business », pouvoirs publics, acteurs de l’Internet, etc. permettent de s’attaquer aux grands enjeux de ce monde avec davantage de justesse et d’efficacité. En agrégeant des acteurs aux logiques différentes dans une dynamique de co-création, les alliances ouvrent de nouveaux horizons de développement. Avec la Clinton Global Initiative, Bill Clinton s’est donné comme objectif d’encourager les alliances sur des actions généreuses qui soient efficaces et mesurables. Si la dynamique fonctionne dans le monde anglo-saxon, elle peine à s’installer en Europe. Pourtant les acteurs européens disposent de nombreux atouts pour s’engager dans de nouvelles alliances transformatrices de notre monde et auraient tout intérêt, pour ce faire, à se fédérer. Plusieurs membres européens de la Clinton Global Initiative ont ainsi lancé le réseau « The European Network » pour amorcer un mouvement en Europe et donner une ambition européenne à l’engagement sociétal. Cet article décrit les singularités des alliances avant de présenter la structuration de l’action européenne en relation avec la Clinton Global Initiative.

  6. Résultats de recherche | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Difficultés à surmonter pour les mouvements laïques au Moyen-Orient : les acteurs islamistes ... ils n'ont joué qu'un rôle très mineur dans le mouvement de démocratisation. ... Au moment où se poursuit le conflit en Syrie, ce projet examinera les ... pour améliorer la conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine.

  7. Résultats de recherche | Page 24 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette recherche porte sur les changements qui se sont produits dans la violence criminelle en milieu urbain concurremment à l'évolution sociopolitique de la Côte d'Ivoire depuis les années 1990. Projet. Nature et acteurs de la violence urbaine en République démocratique du Congo. La République démocratique du ...

  8. Pratiques foncières à l'ombre du droit : l'application du droit foncier urbain à Ziguinchor, Sénégal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, G.S.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dans cette étude l'auteur analyse les problèmes liés à l'application du droit foncier dans la ville de Ziguinchor, capitale de la région méridionale du Sénégal. Le titre de cet ouvrage évoque les pratiques foncières de tous les acteurs: l'État (composé de différents groupes, tendances, fractions) et

  9. La Gestion des Déchets Urbains

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    les acteurs et leurs responsabilités, la perception et l'exercice de ces ..... Cependant, contre toute attente, la présidence de cette commission n'a pas été confiée au ...... A cause de ces facteurs d'attraction, la migration des régions rurales aux ...... exemple, pour la prestation des services primaires d'éducation et de santé).

  10. Asie | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... défis agricoles, environnementaux, technologiques, sociaux et économiques de l'Asie. Grâce à nos investissements stratégiques, nous aidons les acteurs régionaux à participer plus efficacement à résolution des problèmes régionaux. Qu'en résulte-t-il ? Des dirigeants régionaux forts, pour aujourd'hui et pour demain.

  11. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from December 12, 2002 about a disagreement between PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) company and the Power transportation Network (RTE), as manager of the public power transportation grid, relative to the tariffing of public networks use applicable to the consumers connected in 42 kV voltage; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 12 decembre 2002 sur un different qui oppose la societe PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) a Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (RTE), en tant que gestionnaire du reseau public de transport d'electricite, relatif a la tarification d'utilisation des reseaux publics applicable aux consommateurs raccordes en tension 42 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a high voltage tariff disagreement between PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) company (La Defense, Courbevoie France) and RTE, the French manager of the power transportation grid. PEMAR company claims for a contract of power supply tariff conformable with the application of the decree from July 19, 2002 which, after comparison with the previous decrees, contains a mistake in the definition of voltage classes. (J.S.)

  12. Notice of the Electric Power Control Commission at the 1 february 2001 on the decree concerning the information confidentiality held by the public networks of transportation or electric power distribution, taking into account for the application of the 16 and 20 sections of the law number 2000-108 of the 20 february 2000 related to the modernization and the development of the electrical utilities; Avis de la Commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 1 fevrier 2001 sur le decret relatif a la confidentialite des informations detenues par les gestionnaires de reseaux publics de transport ou de distribution d'electricite pris pour l'application des articles 16 et 20 de la loi no 2000-108 du 20 fevrier 2000 relative a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the decree concerning the information confidentiality held by the public networks of transportation or electric power distribution, taking into account for the application of the 16 and 20 sections of the law number 2000-108 of the 20 february 2000 related to the modernization and the development of the electrical utilities and a comment of this decree by J. Syrota. (A.L.B.)

  13. Improving Shade Modelling in a Regional River Temperature Model Using Fine-Scale LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Loicq, P.; Moatar, F.; Beaufort, A.; Melin, E.; Jullian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Air temperature is often considered as a proxy of the stream temperature to model the distribution areas of aquatic species water temperature is not available at a regional scale. To simulate the water temperature at a regional scale (105 km²), a physically-based model using the equilibrium temperature concept and including upstream-downstream propagation of the thermal signal was developed and applied to the entire Loire basin (Beaufort et al., submitted). This model, called T-NET (Temperature-NETwork) is based on a hydrographical network topology. Computations are made hourly on 52,000 reaches which average 1.7 km long in the Loire drainage basin. The model gives a median Root Mean Square Error of 1.8°C at hourly time step on the basis of 128 water temperature stations (2008-2012). In that version of the model, tree shadings is modelled by a constant factor proportional to the vegetation cover on 10 meters sides the river reaches. According to sensitivity analysis, improving the shade representation would enhance T-NET accuracy, especially for the maximum daily temperatures, which are currently not very well modelized. This study evaluates the most efficient way (accuracy/computing time) to improve the shade model thanks to 1-m resolution LIDAR data available on tributary of the LoireRiver (317 km long and an area of 8280 km²). Two methods are tested and compared: the first one is a spatially explicit computation of the cast shadow for every LIDAR pixel. The second is based on averaged vegetation cover characteristics of buffers and reaches of variable size. Validation of the water temperature model is made against 4 temperature sensors well spread along the stream, as well as two airborne thermal infrared imageries acquired in summer 2014 and winter 2015 over a 80 km reach. The poster will present the optimal length- and crosswise scale to characterize the vegetation from LIDAR data.

  14. Geochemical behaviour of plutonium isotopes in natural media (lakes, rivers, estuaries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeandel, C.P.

    1981-10-01

    Artificial radionuclide activities ( 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu) were measured in natural environments. Their distribution and geochemical behaviour are evaluated and compared them to these of the 137 Cs. In a volcanic crater lake, influenced only by atmospheric fallout (Lac Pavin, France), sediments are enriched in 239+240 Pu, whereas 137 Cs stays in the dissolved phase. Diffusion processes and migration of radionuclides is shown to occur in sediments. Remobilization of 239+240 Pu is probable at the sediment/water interface. In the Garonne-Dordogne, Seine and Loire rivers, the 239+240 Pu activity levels in suspended matter are little influenced by the waste discharges of nuclear power plants. The element is essentially transported in the particulate fraction, more than is 137 Cs. In all the esturies studied (Gironde, Seine, Loire) 239+240 Pu concentrations in suspended matter increase between the river and the estuary. Simultaneously a removal of plutonium from the dissolved phase is observed. High plutonium concentrations are measured in the Seine estuary; they are attributed to a ''marine'' contamination: the French nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague discharges low level radioactive liquid wastes, a part may reach the Seine estuary. There are no decrease in particulate 137 Cs concentrations between the river and the estuary of the Gironde, such as it occurs in the Loire. In this last case, the phenomenon is explained by the presence of ''young caesium'' originating in the power plant effluents and which is more exchangeable than 137 Cs of atmospheric origin. In the Seine estuary, the influence of marine contamination causes an increase of particulate and dissolved 137 Cs concentrations [fr

  15. Un paysage de l’industrie : canaux et usines en Val de Germigny (Cher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Léon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le canal de Berry et le canal latéral à la Loire, qui se rejoignent au port de Marseille-lès-Aubigny, ont été ouverts à la fin des années 1830. Ils constituent un maillon essentiel du réseau de canaux dans la France centrale. Le canal de Berry, voulu par les sidérurgistes berrichons pour approvisionner les forges en charbon, a rapidement joué un rôle déterminant dans l’implantation de nouvelles usines entre le milieu du XIXe siècle et les années 1920, surtout les tuileries-briqueteries et celles produisant de la chaux hydraulique et du ciment naturel. Pour les mêmes raisons, ces dernières ont aussi choisi les bords du canal latéral à la Loire qui a été initialement conçu pour pallier les insuffisances de la navigation sur le fleuve. Les canaux seront d’abord considérés comme des ouvrages hydrauliques, architecturaux et techniques mais on verra aussi le trafic et le fret qui les animent. Ils sont enfin les serviteurs des grandes usines qui en dépendent étroitement pour leur approvisionnement et l’écoulement de leur production. Par conséquent, un paysage particulier s’est constitué, caractérisé par le lien organique entre canal et usines selon une géographie linéaire : formes de la proximité de l’établissement industriel par rapport à la voie d’eau artificielle, embranchements particuliers (canaux, voies ferrées et ponts, ports.The Berry canal and the lateral canal running alongside the Loire, which meet up at the port of Marseille-lès-Aubigny, were cut at the end of the 1830s. They are an essential part of the network of canals in central France. The Berry canal, originally created for the iron and steel producers of the Berry region in order to facilitate coal supplies to their ironworks, became a vital influence in the implantation of new factories, from the middle of the nineteenth century up to the 1920s. Of particular importance were the brick and tile works, and other factories producing

  16. Application of directional solidification ingot (LSD) in forging of PWR reactor vessel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamou, C.; Poitrault, I.

    1985-09-01

    Creusot-Loire Industrie uses this type of ingot for manufacture of Framatome 1300 and 1450 MW 4-loop PWR reactor vessel heads. This type of ingot offers a number advantages: improved internal soundness; greater chemical, structural and mechanical homogeneity of the finished part; simplified forging process. After a brief description of the pouring and solidification processes, this paper presents an analysis of the results of examinations performed on the prototype forging, as well as review of results obtained during industrial fabrication of dished heads from LSD ingots. The advantages of the LSD ingot over conventional ingots are discussed in conclusion

  17. Influence de la densité de plantation et du mode d'entretien du sol sur l'alimentation minérale de la vigne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Morlat

    1984-06-01

    In a field experiment started in 1971 at Montreuil-Bellay (Valley of Loire several planting densities with « Chenin » vine grafted on S04 rootstock, were compared with two soil management treatments (chemical weed control and permanent grass cover. Every year, mineral composition of leaves and musts is determined. The permanent grass cover increases Mg and P concentrations of leaves while the Zn concentration of leaves increases in the low density vines. A good positive correlation between the P percentage of leaves ant this of musts is obtained. The permanent grass cover decreases the N concentration of musts while the low density vines with chemical control increase this percentage.

  18. Application of image processing methods to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, R.; Odet, C.; Tuncer, T.; Bodson, F.; Varcin, E.

    1985-01-01

    This study was carried out with the financial support of the Commission of the European Communities as part of the CECA research program comprising of IRSID, INSA de Lyon and the Framatome and Creusot Loire companies. Its purpose was to evaluate the possibility of using digital enhancement of radiographic images to improve defect visibility in industrial radiography, thereby providing assistance in defect detection and a method for automatic analysis of radiographs. This paper provides full results obtained from work on digital processing of radiographs showing real and artificial defects. Furthermore, work on simulated automatic defect detection is also presented. 2 refs

  19. Dams. Bulletin of the technical service of electric power and big dams; Barrages. Bulletin du service technique de l`energie electrique et des grands barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Dams bulletin reports on technical news concerning big French dams in operation. This issue comprises 5 papers. Two of them are examples of granting problems which led to the dismantling of the dams of Kernansquillec (Cotes d`Armor, France) and Maisons-Rouges (Indre-et-Loire, France) for economical and environmental reasons. The 3 other papers concern the life of French dams (technical control reports of the French dams in operation), the activities of the control service (annual inspections, preparation of draining operations, renewing of granting), and some general information (organisation of competent authorities, colloquium reports, hydro-power production during the first quarter of 1997). (J.S.)

  20. Les déplacements domicile-travail structurent-ils encore les territoires ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Zaninetti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduite en France dans le recensement de 1968, la mesure des déplacements domicile-travail s’est imposée comme le critère exclusif de définition de structuration des territoires par les aires urbaines. Toutefois, le processus de para-urbanisation généralisée du territoire constaté en région Centre – Val de Loire entre 1990 et 2011 remet en cause la pertinence du recensement pour la mesure des mobilités professionnelles habituelles et la structuration urbaine du territoire.

  1. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 2 concerns the Bretagne (Brittany), Pays de la Loire, Haute-Normandie, Basse-Normandie and Centre regions. (J.S.)

  2. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 2; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 2 concerns the Bretagne (Brittany), Pays de la Loire, Haute-Normandie, Basse-Normandie and Centre regions. (J.S.)

  3. Comparative bioaccumulation and toxicity of silver in different populations of the intra-sedimentary clam Macoma balthica exposed or not to metal contamination in their natural medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.; Geffard, A.; Boisson, F.; Ballan-Dufrancais, C.; Jeantet, A.Y.; Berthet, B.; Mouneyrac, C.

    1999-01-01

    Tolerance to pollutants was observed in living organisms chronically exposed in their environment and detoxification processes have been evoked to explain such observations. In the present study, this hypothesis has been tested in clams originating from an industrialized estuary (Loire, Fr) and from an area submitted only to low anthropogenic influx (Bay of Somme, Fr). The comparison was carried out at different contamination levels in clams exposed to silver (50 to 100 ng Ag.ml -1 till LT 50 when 50% lethality was reached), a metal which has been described as liable to be detoxified through insolubilization and/or binding to metallothionein (MT)

  4. Involvement of local stakeholders in the development of new information schemes for the displaying of environmental radiological monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollinger, Francoise; Lebeau, Audrey; Petitfrere, Michael; Eimer, Michel; Ganay, Claude de; Gadbois, Serge; Leprieur, Fabrice; Vaillant, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of radionuclides concentration in the environment and associated potential health impacts are key and legitimate questions for the population living around nuclear facilities. In spite of the efforts from authorities, public experts and operators to make this information available and understandable, mainly through Local Liaison Committees (LLC), the way it is usually formalized makes it difficult to meet non-expert expectations. In this context, the IRSN launched a pilot project in the Loire Valley to define new schemes for the displaying of this information. This project brings together representatives from LLCs - local elected people, trade unions and environmental NGOs -, experts from the IRSN - environment and radiation protection departments - and facilitators - CEPN and MUTADIS -. Its objectives are: 1-) To identify all nuclear facilities and producers of measurements in the environment within the Valley; 2-) To clearly define local population expectations regards environmental radiological survey; 3-) To select adequate measurements values and presentational schemes; 4-) To provide recommendations regarding the environment monitoring strategy. This project is also connected with the French national measurement network. Within this national network, the IRSN is in charge of developing a database that brings together all the results from environmental radiological monitoring, in order to provide all these data to the population, including elements about impacts on human health. This network will take advantage of the work achieved within the pilot project. The facilitation process mainly consisted in fostering relations of trust (notably with the preparation of detailed minutes of the project meetings), and supporting both local stakeholders and IRSN experts in the project management and the development of a common language at the crossroad between scientific and technical knowledge and local actors' understanding of their own environment. This

  5. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  6. [Satisfaction survey in general hospital personnel involved in blood transfusion: implementation of the ISO 9001: 2000 standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chord-Auger, S; de Bouchony, E Tron; Moll, M-C; Boudart, D; Folléa, G

    2004-07-01

    As part of its policy of constant quality improvement, Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS) des Pays de la Loire (Pays de la Loire Regional blood transfusion institution) carried out a satisfaction survey among the hospital personnel involved in prescribing and using immuno-hematological tests and labile blood products. The polling tool selected by agreement between the hospital management and quality assurance department was a questionnaire that permitted item rating and free commentary. It addressed the personnel's perception of the quality of erythrocyte immuno-hematological (EIH) testing and of the products administered, as well as their perception of the quality of communications with the local EFS. The questionnaire was sent to 26 physicians and 32 senior nurses in 15 hospital departments. The reply rate was 60% and expressed a 85% overall satisfaction level. Dissatisfaction causes were more specifically analysed, the main one involving labile blood product distribution in emergency situations. A joint undertaking by the EFS and the hospital led to the implementation of corrective measures, including the writing and implementation of a common standard operating procedure for emergency transfusion management. The results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of this type of survey and the interest, to a blood transfusion centre and the hospital personnel involved in transfusion, of assessing their very own perception of service quality.

  7. Satisfaction survey in general hospital personnel involved in blood transfusion: implementation of the ISO 9001: 2000 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chord-Auger, S; Tron de Bouchony, E; Moll, M C; Boudart, D; Folléa, G

    2004-10-01

    As part of its policy of constant quality improvement, Etablissement francais du sang (EFS) des pays de la Loire (Pays de la Loire Regional Blood Transfusion Centre) carried out a satisfaction survey among the hospital personnel involved in prescribing and using immunohaematological tests and labile blood products (LBP). The polling tool selected by agreement between the Saint Nazaire's hospital management and Quality Assurance (QA) Department was a questionnaire that permitted item rating and free commentary. It addressed the personnel's perception of the quality of erythrocyte immunohaematological (EIH) testing and of the products administered, as well as their perception of the quality of communications with the local EFS. The questionnaire was sent to 26 physicians and 32 senior nurses in 15 hospital departments. The reply rate was 60% and expressed an 85% overall satisfaction level. Dissatisfaction causes were more specifically analysed, the main one involving LBP distribution in emergency situations. A joint undertaking by the EFS and the hospital led to the implementation of corrective measures, including the writing and implementation of a common standard operating procedure for emergency transfusion management. The results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of this type of survey and the interest, to a blood transfusion centre and the hospital personnel involved in transfusion, of assessing their very own perception of service quality.

  8. Carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Carbon 14 is one of the most abundant radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in the environment. The aim of this conference day organized by the French society of radioprotection (SFRP) was to take stock of our knowledge about this radionuclide (origins, production, measurement, management, effects on health..): state-of-the-art of 14 C metrology; dating use of 14 C; 14 C management and monitoring of the Hague site environment; Electricite de France (EdF) and 14 C; radiological and sanitary impact of 14 C contamination at the Ganagobie site (Haute-Provence, France); metabolism and biological effects of 14 C; 14 C behaviour in the marine environment near Cogema-La Hague plant; distribution of 14 C activities in waters, mud and sediments of the Loire river estuary; dynamical modeling of transfers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment of 14 C released by nuclear power plants in normal operation: human dose calculation using the Calvados model and application to the Loire river; 14 C distribution in continents; modeling of 14 C transfers in the terrestrial environment from atmospheric sources. (J.S.)

  9. Kinetics of heterogeneous systems; La cinetique des milieux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniz, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    In this report, a general transport theory treatment is presented for the kinetics study as applied to finite heterogeneous systems. The theory is applicable to experiments near the critical point as well as to pulsed neutron experiments on multiplying or non-multiplying lattices. The general method is also applied to exponential experiments on infinite non-diverging lattices. The particularity of the present study is the explicit introduction of heterogeneity in the formulation and the search for the dependence of the parameters on the buckling of the finite medium. As a result of this, the finite medium parameters are in the first place expressed in terms of the corresponding infinite medium ones through the buckling and the anisotropic migration areas, and in the second place all the parameters are expressed as integrals only over an unit cell instead of over the whole pile. A preliminary less detailed study is first made in order to distinguish clearly between what are called 'dynamic parameters' and 'static parameters', and to define the meanings given in this report to these two terms. In the appendices are given approximate one-group treatments for the study of the dynamic fine structure, the time constant in infinite lattices, and the anisotropic diffusion coefficients in non-multiplying lattices. (author) [French] On presente dans ce rapport une methode generale, utilisant la theorie du transport pour l'etude de la cinetique des milieux finis heterogenes. La theorie est applicable aussi bien aux experiences pres de la criticite qu'aux experiences par sources pulsees de neutrons sur des reseaux multiplicateurs ou non-multiplicateurs. La methode generale est aussi appliquee aux experiences exponentielles sur des reseaux infinis non-divergents. La particularite de l'etude est l'introduction explicite de l'heterogeneite dans la formulation et la recherche de la dependance des parametres par rapport au laplacien du reseau fini. Il en resulte d'une part que les

  10. Jeux d'échelles, territoires de rechercheExemples africains et malgaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Blanc-Pamard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available La mise en évidence des jeux d’échelles dans le travail d’un chercheur, à travers un itinéraire de recherche, est l’objet de cet article. La question posée est celle du choix d’une échelle particulière d’observation ou de plusieurs échelles emboîtées. Deux types de territoires sont étudiés dans les campagnes tropicales, en Côte d’Ivoire et à Madagascar : les territoires construits par les acteurs (cadre de recherche en mettant l'accent sur le terroir, les territoires construits pour les acteurs (cadre d’action par la politique de décentralisation avec la nouveauté que représente la commune rurale. Dans les deux cas, la représentation cartographique a un rôle important : les cartes jouent le rôle d’analyseur, produisent des informations dans le cadre d’un espace qui est celui des acteurs, sont un instrument de réflexion et un support de dialogue entre chercheurs et développeurs. Depuis les années 1990, les politiques de gestion des ressources naturelles qui s’accompagnent d’une reconnaissance du rôle des populations s’interrogent sur le bon cadre territorial : le local (terroir ou le supralocal (commune rurale.

  11. Possibility of using radioactivity control measurements for determining contamination paths in nutritional vectors; Etude des possibilites d'utilisation des resultats de la surveillance de la radioactivite pour la recherche des trajectoires d'evolution de la contamination des vecteurs alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The object of the report is to study the possibility of using results of radioactivity controls for determining the paths followed by contamination in nutritional vectors; these are necessary for calculating protection norms. Radioactive contamination of a nutritional vector is expressed in terms of parameters which suggest that a certain number of criteria may be used for choosing the results which are to be exploited. An actual example of a 'vertical' study based on results of measurements made purely for control purposes shows the difficulties which may be encountered. A list of the results obtained by the control networks set up in the Community Countries, either for the atmosphere, for milk, or for other foodstuffs, shows that these networks are not at the present organised in such a way as to make such a study possible. It appears desirable that a large part of the work carried out by the control Services be oriented in such a way as to yield the complementary information required for experimental studies of radioactive contamination transfers. (author) [French] L'objet du rapport est l'examen des possibilites d'utilisation des resultats de la surveillance de la radioactivite pour la recherche des trajectoires d'evolution de la contamination des vecteurs alimentaires, necessaires au calcul des niveaux de protection. La contamination radioactive d'un vecteur alimentaire s'exprime en fonction de parametres, qui suggerent de retenir un certain nombre de criteres pour la selection des resultats a exploiter. Un exemple concret d'etude 'verticale' basee sur des resultats de mesures faites uniquement dans un but de controle met en evidence les difficultes rencontrees. L'inventaire des resultats obtenus par les reseaux de controle des differents Pays de la Communaute, soit pour l'atmosphere, soit pour le lait, soit pour d'autres aliments, montre que ces reseaux ne sont pas actuellement organises de facon a permettre de telles etudes, Il parait souhaitable qu

  12. Prediction du profil de durete de l'acier AISI 4340 traite thermiquement au laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamri, Ilyes

    Les traitements thermiques de surfaces sont des procedes qui visent a conferer au coeur et a la surface des pieces mecaniques des proprietes differentes. Ils permettent d'ameliorer la resistance a l'usure et a la fatigue en durcissant les zones critiques superficielles par des apports thermiques courts et localises. Parmi les procedes qui se distinguent par leur capacite en terme de puissance surfacique, le traitement thermique de surface au laser offre des cycles thermiques rapides, localises et precis tout en limitant les risques de deformations indesirables. Les proprietes mecaniques de la zone durcie obtenue par ce procede dependent des proprietes physicochimiques du materiau a traiter et de plusieurs parametres du procede. Pour etre en mesure d'exploiter adequatement les ressources qu'offre ce procede, il est necessaire de developper des strategies permettant de controler et regler les parametres de maniere a produire avec precision les caracteristiques desirees pour la surface durcie sans recourir au classique long et couteux processus essai-erreur. L'objectif du projet consiste donc a developper des modeles pour predire le profil de durete dans le cas de traitement thermique de pieces en acier AISI 4340. Pour comprendre le comportement du procede et evaluer les effets des differents parametres sur la qualite du traitement, une etude de sensibilite a ete menee en se basant sur une planification experimentale structuree combinee a des techniques d'analyse statistiques eprouvees. Les resultats de cette etude ont permis l'identification des variables les plus pertinentes a exploiter pour la modelisation. Suite a cette analyse et dans le but d'elaborer un premier modele, deux techniques de modelisation ont ete considerees, soient la regression multiple et les reseaux de neurones. Les deux techniques ont conduit a des modeles de qualite acceptable avec une precision d'environ 90%. Pour ameliorer les performances des modeles a base de reseaux de neurones, deux

  13. "Liberalisation du marche cerealier au Burkina Faso." Une analyse neo-institionelle de son organisation et de son efficacite temporelle et spatiale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassolé, Boebie Toussaint

    2000-01-01

    Cette étude a pour objectif d'analyser la réaction des marchés céréaliers ou du système de commercialisation des céréales et évaluer sa performance dans cet environnement libéral. Plus precisement, il s'agit d'analyser l'évolution de la structure du marché céréalier et le comportement des acteurs

  14. Acquisitions de la Bibliothèque de l’Institut de Géographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AfriqueALIOU BARRY, Mamadou, PARIS, Le commerce moderne des armes en Afrique : données chiffrées, circuits et acteurs, Paris, l’Harmattan, DL 2008, G 19-3427 BARRAT, Jacques, Géopolitique du Burkina Faso, Paris, SEM, DL 2008, G 19-3428 BRÉDELOUP, BERTONCELLO, LOMBARD, CRÉPIN, OSMONT, LANGUMIER, Abidjan, Dakar : des villes à vendre? : la privatisation made in Africa des services urbains, Paris, Ed. l’Harmattan, DL 2008, G 19-3421 GARY-TOUNKARA, Daouda, COQUERY-VIDROVITCH, Migrants soudanais-ma...

  15. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  16. A la recherche de l'opérationnalité : le cas de l'agriculture familiale dans le Nordeste du Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, P.; Sabourin, E.; Sautier, D.; Gama da Silva, P.C.; Tonneau, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Le projet d'appui au développement de l'agriculture familiale dans le Nordeste du Brésil a pour but de produire des références méthodologiques (analyse de situation et intervention) pour la recherche (identification de thèmes prioritaires), pour le développement (connaissances pour l'action) et pour la formation. Pour atteindre ces objectifs, l'équipe du projet est impliquée dans différentes opérations de développement conduites en partenariat avec des acteurs locaux, en assurant trois princi...

  17. Les Fintech sont-elles une opportunité ou une menace pour les banques traditionnelles ?

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, Aldwin; Sonney, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Dans ce travail, nous étudierons les potentielles opportunités et menaces que sont les Fintech pour les institutions bancaires. Cela nous permettra de savoir si, à l’avenir, ces entreprises vont s’imposer et remplacer les banques telles que nous les connaissons ou alors aider, forcer les acteurs traditionnels à effectuer leur révolution numérique pour répondre aux nouvelles attentes des clients. Afin de répondre à cette interrogation, les trois strates de l’environnement bancaire ont été anal...

  18. Adoption et retombées d'une nouvelle technologie de dépistage des infections à ERV en contexte hospitalier québécois

    OpenAIRE

    Attieh, Randa

    2015-01-01

    La « Polymerase Chain Reaction» (PCR) est une technologie moléculaire qui se veut performante pour détecter les entérocoques résistants à la vancomycine (ERV) en contexte hospitalier. La traduction de cette technologie dans les pratiques professionnelles des acteurs est conceptualisée comme un processus d’adaptation et d’ajustements des rôles entre la technologie et le milieu hospitalier. Par souci de mieux comprendre la traduction de la nouvelle technologie de dépistage PCR dans les pratique...

  19. Gouvernance locale, conflits et consolidation de la paix en République Démocratique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynor, Niamh

    2013-01-01

    Le lien étroit entre la pauvreté, les inégalités, la marginalisation, l’exploitation et le conflit est maintenant bien établi. Tirant les leçons provenant de la littérature pertinente, il devient clair que l’efficacité des réformes de gouvernance locale dans les contextes post-conflit dépend de leur impact sur les conditions politiques, économiques et sociales des conflits. Ceci dépend en revanche des ententes, des motivations et des actions des différents acteurs à l’égard du pro...

  20. La génétique au musée : figures et figurants du débat public

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marec , Joëlle; Babou , Igor

    2004-01-01

    Il existe un intense débat social autour des enjeux de la génétique et surtout des applications industrielles et médicales de la génomique. Les acteurs de ce débat s'expriment publiquement et sont bien identifiés, tant en France que dans le monde : associations et ONG, syndicats, partis politiques, chercheurs, juristes, groupes de l'industrie agroalimentaire, pharmaceutique ou bio-médicale, comités d'éthique, etc. Les expositions consacrées à la génétique sont remarquablement nombreuses depui...

  1. Les figures multiples du maire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lebraud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors même que l’ensemble du personnel gouvernemental et parlementaire est sujet à une relative désaffection de la part des citoyens, les maires français jouissent, on le sait, d’une popularité qui fait d’eux les figures centrales de la scène politique. Au-delà de la décentralisation, qui a souvent renforcé leur image de décideurs, ils ont su tirer parti de la dimension identitaire qui caractérise l’échelon communal pour devenir les acteurs indispensables de la vie locale. ...

  2. Le groupe de travail EPNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLLE, Pascal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En France, les procédés de traitement des eaux usées des petites et moyennes collectivités sont en constante évolution et leur diversité augmente fortement. Constitué à l'initiative d'Irstea, le groupe de travail EPNAC a pour objectif de mutualiser et de diffuser une information technique et cohérente sur ces procédés auprès des acteurs de l'assainissement.

  3. Les trois traditions du foie gras dans la gastronomie française Foie Gras as represented by three traditional protagonists in French gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Mognard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La promulgation du foie gras comme patrimoine gastronomique et culturel français en janvier 2006, nous invite à questionner le processus de patrimonialisation du foie gras en France. La patrimonialisation est habituellement étudiée dans les interactions entre les acteurs des filières courte et longue. Des travaux récents invitent à renouveler cette approche en ajoutant les professionnels des métiers de bouche à l’analyse et à en inscrire l’étude dans la longue durée. Les trajectoires sur le long terme de trois catégories d’acteurs sont ici retracées par l’étude des traditions et des métiers de bouche, industrielle et fermière. Cette analyse fait notamment ressortir des relations entre chefs cuisiniers et industriels et la mobilisation de la cuisine du gras dans l’offre agritouristique. Ces aspects confirment l’intérêt d’envisager l’analyse des patrimonialisations en passant du système binaire des acteurs de la production (filières courtes et longues à un système ternaire des acteurs de la valorisation (industriels, producteurs fermiers et professionnels des métiers de bouche.In January 2006, the production of foie gras was declared «patrimoine gastronomique et culturel français » (French gastronomic and cultural heritage. But how has foie gras become food heritage in France? Foie gras as food heritage is usually analyzed through interactions between the actors of the food-processing industry and farming networks. Recent works re-use this approach in a long-term perspective, adding the professionals of catering trade to the analysis. Long-term trajectories of three categories of actors are described here through the study of catering trade, food-processing industry and farmer traditions. This analysis brings out the relations between chefs and industrialists and the implication of the cuisine du gras in the agrotourism experience. It confirms the interest in renewing the analyses of food heritage

  4. Théâtre et Neuroscience: l’éveil d’un nouveau dialogue entre arts et science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorys Faria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but de démontrer, à travers une perspective historique, que l’étude neurophysiologique et expressive des émotions surgit en tant que vecteur facilitateur du dialogue entre le théâtre et les sciences du vivant. Font également partie de ce travail l’exploration de certains concepts neuroscientifiques actuellement utilisés dans la recherche expérimentale sur les émotions humaines, ainsi que la réflexion sur les liens possibles entre la neuroscience des émotions et le travail de l’acteur

  5. Das Erbe der Menschheit.

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Breidenbach; Pál Nyíri

    2005-01-01

    Le concept d’« héritage » est apparu avec les efforts des États-nations occidentaux modernes émergents, au 19 e siècle, pour apporter une signification nationale à leurs paysages et à leurs environnements construits. Aujourd’hui, cependant, certains des moteurs centraux de ce mouvement de l’héritage sont des acteurs globaux plutôt que nationaux. Le projet le plus prestigieux pour la promotion de l’idée d’« héritage global » est la liste de l’Héritage mondial de l’ Unesco . Que deviennent les ...

  6. Le contentieux camerounais devant les instances sportives internationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikoume François Claude

    2016-01-01

    Les acteurs du sport depuis lors, utilisent donc les voies de recours au niveau international soit vers les fédérations sportives internationales ou encore et surtout vers le TAS qui s'occupe des litiges de toutes les disciplines sportives. Il est question ici de faire un inventaire casuistique descriptif non exhaustif des requêtes contentieuses camerounaises portées devant les diverses instances sportives internationales ; ceci permettra de questionner l'esprit processuel et la qualité technique de leurs réclamations juridiques en matière sportive.

  7. Un chantier naval à Hochiminh-Ville

    OpenAIRE

    Bogani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Cet article s’intéresse à trois types de bateaux au Vietnam qui naviguaient sur les fleuves et les eaux du Delta et servaient principalement au transport. Leur description, associée à L’étude d’un chantier naval, permet de dégager les constantes et les innovations concernant les bateaux en bois. La description de la filière économique et technique menant à la réalisation d’un bateau permet de comprendre le rôle des différents acteurs impliqués (propriétaires, architectes, ouvriers et parmi eu...

  8. Les activités sportives « hybrides » comme réponse à l’accélération des rythmes de vie

    OpenAIRE

    Quidu, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Dans le monde contemporain, la majorité des acteurs sociaux fait quotidiennement l’expérience d’une accélération effrénée des rythmes de vie. Cette course contre la montre, qui tend à devenir chronique, semble affecter non seulement la sphère des obligations professionnelles et familiales mais aussi le champ des pratiques de loisirs. Dans un contexte de pénurie temporelle, où le temps est devenu une denrée aussi rare que précieuse, consentir d’y consacrer une partie à des activités non produc...

  9. Favoriser le succès : rapport annuel 2011-2012 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 juin 2013 ... Cette année, en plus d'exposer l'ensemble des progrès réalisés par ... la notion de réussite concernant les think tanks, lors de L'Échange de l'ITT qui s'est ... Lorsque la recherche locale est source de changements véritables en Afrique ... De quel type d'information les acteurs de la sphère politique ont-ils ...

  10. Mouline Nabil, Le califat imaginaire d’Ahmad al-Mansûr. Pouvoir et diplomatie au Maroc au xvie siècle, PUF, Proche-Orient, Paris, 2009, 371 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Ferhat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Au lendemain de la bataille des Trois Rois, plus connue au Maroc sous le nom de Ouad al Makhazin, de redoutables acteurs s’affrontent : les Habsbourgs d’Espagne et leurs ennemis protestants aux Pays Bas, l’Angleterre, le Portugal dont l’autonomie est désormais remise en question, ainsi que de multiples petits princes locaux et les maîtres des zaouyas sans oublier les corsaires qui, il faut le rappeler, forment un réseau qui n’est pas toujours à l’ordre d’un pays. Plusieurs excellents livres r...

  11. Retour d'expérience sur la co-construction d'un guide sur la gouvernance territoriale

    OpenAIRE

    Maurel, P.; Barbe, E.; Rey-Valette, H.; Chia, E.; Soulard, C.; Michel, L.; Pinto, M.

    2014-01-01

    / La gouvernance territoriale est devenue un enjeu majeur et une question centrale pour la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Dans le cadre du programme de recherche en partenariat PSDR, un collectif hybride composé de chercheurs, de professionnels du développement territorial et d'acteurs locaux s'est réuni au sein du projet Gouv.Innov. En s'appuyant sur plusieurs terrains d'étude, ce collectif a progressivement construit une définition de la gouvernance territoriale ainsi qu'une grill...

  12. Etude cinétique de la dégradation de l'Endosufane en solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'. a-endosulfane et le b-endosulfane ont été sélectionnés pour cette étude. Leurs dégradations dans l'eau de forage et dans l'eau déionisée ont été respectivement effectuées dans un réacteur muni d'une lampe basse pression de 6 watts ou par exposition à la lumière solaire. La photodégradation dans l'eau de forage est ...

  13. Réordonner l’espace et le temps :

    OpenAIRE

    Senil, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    La multiplication des objets, des acteurs et des logiques de la patrimonialisation génère un brouillage de plus en plus important sur la force et le sens de nos rapports au passé. Dans ce contexte, cet article se propose de réfléchir aux processus d’émergence de nouveaux objets patrimoniaux et aux conséquences de ces mobilisations. Il s’appuie sur l’analyse comparée de deux objets symétriques et tous deux patrimonialisés : la grotte Chauvet et le viaduc de Millau. En montrant que chaque objet...

  14. Google Scholar, Google Print ... un nouvel entrant pour la diffusion de la recherche.

    OpenAIRE

    Ertzscheid, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    La diffusion des résultats de la recherche scientifique est un enjeu majeur pour l'économie et au-delà la société de la connaissance. Plusieurs nouveaux entrants bouleversent actuellement la carte des acteurs en ce domaine. Cet article propose une analyse des motivations, du positionnement et des enjeux mobilisés par l'arrivée de Google sur ce marché. Nous situons d'abord les effets de cette entrée sur l'évaluation de la recherche, et précisons comment se mettent en place de nouvelles pratiqu...

  15. ﻧﻘﺎط 4 إﻧﺤﻨﺎء ذو ؛ اﻷﻣﻮاج اﻧﺒﻌﺎث ؛ اﻷآﺴﺪة ؛ اﻟﺘﺂآﻞ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Haouam et al. 1. INTRODUCTION. Des cas de fissures observés dans le monde lors des trois dernières décennies au niveau des circuits primaires des réacteurs nucléaires à eau pressurisée ont été à l'origine de travaux de recherche mettant en évidence le rôle des facteurs aggravants liés à l'utilisation de l'inconel.

  16. Stratégie mondiale et innovations organisationnelles:le cas du passage du cinéma à la diffusion numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Livian, Yves

    2013-01-01

    the passage to digital cinema is an excellent example of a decision taken by a dominant actor,and of organisational innovations linked with a tecnological change. this case is interesting also for theoretical reasons:strategic change, creation of a market with norms,institutional adaptations; le passage à la diffusion numérique offre un excellent exemple d'adaptation d'un secteur(le cinéma) à une décision d'un acteur dominant,et d'innovations organisationnelles liées à un changement technolog...

  17. Pros and cons on ''Hitlers' bomb''. Studies on nuclear research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H.

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)

  18. The Value ff Cowpea Diversity in the Transition Guinea Sudan Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les objectifs de l'étude sont : (i) d'évaluer les préférences des commerçants et consommateurs ; (ii) d'évaluer les caractéristiques des variétés du niébé commercialisé telles que perçues par ces acteurs ; (iii) et d'évaluer comment ils font leur choix par rapport au produit à rendre disponible sur le marché. Il ressort de l'étude ...

  19. Après le postdramatique : narration et fiction entre écriture de plateau et théâtre néo-dramatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Monfort

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le théâtre contemporain, que ce soit en France ou en Allemagne, la notion de récit intervient dans la représentation traditionnelle théâtrale, introduisant une redéfinition de la fiction et de l’acteur.Im zeitgenössischen Theater, sei es in Frankreich oder in Deutschland, werden Erzählung und herkömmliche Bühnendarstellung in Korrelation gebracht, wobei der Begriff der Fiktion sowie die Rolle des Schauspielers als Handlungsträger neu definiert werden.

  20. Pataphysique de la menace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tavaglione

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu’on la croyait morte il y a à peine vingt ans, la gauche radicale forme pourtant aujourd’hui une galaxie vive et bouillonnante. « De l’extrême-gauche classique à l’altermondialisation », comme l’écrit Philippe Raynaud, la scène politique française fourmille aujourd’hui d’acteurs nourrissant « l’ambition de définir une “autre politique” en rupture avec le consensus libéral ou avec les formes actuelles de la mondialisation » (Raynaud, 2006 ...

  1. Les Problèmes Linguistiques, Culturels et Sociolinguistiques De La ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le film dont on parle est un film à long métrage. Ce n'était pas facile de trouver le manuscrit du film, mais là, où on l'a trouvé, le contenu était différent de ce que disaient les acteurs. Nous avons écouté la sonorité du film qui exige la spontanéité afin de le mettre sur papier et puis le traduire. Nous avons rencontré beaucoup ...

  2. Semaine alpine 2008 : innover (dans) les Alpes

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdeau, Philippe; Bourdeau, Philippe; Corneloup, Jean; Corneloup, Jean; Finger-Stich, Andréa; Finger-Stich, Andréa; Giraut, Frédéric; Giraut, Frédéric; Kohler, Yann; Kohler, Yann; Macchiavelli, Andrea; Macchiavelli, Andrea; Scheurer, Thomas; Scheurer, Thomas; Ullrich, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Ce premier dossier en ligne se penche sur une question de grande actualité : l’innovation, pour interroger les conceptions et mises en œuvre de démarches innovantes dans les contextes montagnards. Ces textes sont issus de la « Semaine alpine », qui s’est déroulée en juin 2008 à l’Argentière-La Bessée, dans les Hautes-Alpes (France). Ces « Semaines alpines », en alternance avec les « Forums alpins », rassemblent tous les deux ans des chercheurs et des acteurs locaux de l’ensemble de l’arc alp...

  3. Protection et valorisation du patrimoine géomorphologique en Île- de-France (Bassin de Paris, France)État des lieux et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bétard, François

    2015-01-01

    Reconnu depuis une dizaine d’années seulement, le patrimoine géomorphologique fait l’objet d’une attention accrue de la part des scientifiques et des acteurs du territoire, en raison des menaces grandissantes qui pèsent sur la préservation des reliefs et des paysages, mais aussi compte tenu des potentialités qu’offre la valorisation culturelle et touristique des sites d’intérêt géomorphologique (ou géomorphosites) pour le développement local. En France métropolitaine, la région Île-de-France ...

  4. Deux approches du risque d'inondation en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno LEDOUX

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available En France, les sources d’informations centralisées sur les risques naturels sont rares. Pourtant, une politique de prévention engagée par l’État nécessite de disposer d’une information à l’échelle nationale, d’évaluer les enjeux et de mobiliser les acteurs. Deux sources d’informations sont décrites et exploitées, qui permettent, par une représentation cartographique nationale, d’amorcer analyses et débats.

  5. Santé et hygiénisme dans les villes du canal de Suez (fin XIXe-1ère moitié du XXe siècle)

    OpenAIRE

    Frémaux, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Cet article identifie, à partir des archives de la Compagnie du canal de Suez, les problématiques qui ont favorisé l'émergence de figures de la santé dans les villes qui se sont développées sur les rives du canal de Suez. Il analyse les solutions mises en œuvre par les acteurs de la planification urbaine et de la construction, en lien avec les doctrines hygiénistes développées en Europe.

  6. Nouvelles approches ergonomiques de la cartographie des risques industriels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éliane Propeck-Zimmermann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Les cartes actuelles présentent des insuffisances pour une gestion territoriale des risques industriels. En redéfinissant le concept de «situation à risques» et en l'implémentant dans un SIG, on peut disposer à la demande d'informations riches et variées: cartes analytiques, de synthèse, typologies, requêtes spatiales diverses. Les recherches en cours visent à développer une interface ergonomique pour faciliter la concertation entre différents acteurs.

  7. Francophonie et profondeur stratégique

    OpenAIRE

    Bagayoko, Niagalé; Ramel, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    La profondeur stratégique correspond à un ensemble de ressources (territoriales, matérielles et humaines) sur la base desquelles un acteur international peut s’appuyer en vue de mener à bien sa mission. Cette quête de profondeur demeure une des préoccupations constantes en période de guerre. Cependant, une posture stratégique en période de paix ne néglige pas non plus cette recherche de la profondeur, qui exerce une fonction non négligeable dans la constitution ou le renforcement d’un espace ...

  8. Ministère de l’écologie et du développement durable, Entreprises et environnement, Rapport à la Commission des comptes et de l'économie de l'environnement, Paris, La documentation Française, Collection « Réponses environnement », 2004, 222 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Petit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Le rapport Entreprises et environnement se présente comme un volumineux dossier sur une thématique d’actualité. En effet, depuis le sommet de Johannesburg en 2002, les entreprises font, plus que jamais, partie du paysage des acteurs du développement durable et nombreuses sont celles qui se sont dotées, ces dernières années, d’une direction environnement ou développement durable ou d’une cellule de réflexion sur ces questions. Cet engouement constitue, pour nombre d’entre elles, une réponse au...

  9. La désacidification biologique des vins. Etat de la question, perspectives d'avenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lonvaud-Funel

    1994-06-01

    Sa maîtrise passe par l'utilisation de levains bactériens, dont les plus récents sont ensemencés directement au vin après la fermentation alcoolique. Les résultats des recherches fondamentales sur l'enzyme malolactique permettent aujourd'hui d'envisager la construction de réacteurs enzymatiques et sans doute plus rapidement, le transfert de cette activité enzymatique chez les levures de vinification.

  10. Comportement à la corrosion intrinsèque de couches minces à base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo, le Mg et les Terres rares Y et Gd. Le réacteur de pulvérisation ... dépôts réalisés sur substrat en verre servent pour la caractérisation de leur .... en Terres rares. Ceci pourrait s'expliquer par la différence de rayon atomique entre ces deux terres rares et celui de l'Al pur. (rY = 0,177 nm, rGd = 0,178 nm et. rAl = 0,143 nm).

  11. Entrepreneuriat social

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; L’entrepreneuriat social est une expression actuellement en vogue, dans les universités et les écoles de management qui lui consacrent un nombre croissant de recherches et de formations, dans les livres ou les journaux qui relatent les exploits d’hommes et de femmes capables de « changer le monde », dans les fondations telles que Ashoka, qui soutiennent l’action de ces entrepreneurs, mais aussi auprès des acteurs publics qui développent des partenariats avec les « entr...

  12. Île de Nantes – Designedly Ways of Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of abandoned industrial sites over the last half century can be considered a waste- or byproduct of urban development. What we understand as waste in an urban development perspective, and not least what we do with it, are central themes in the sustainability discussion...... provides a new framework for understanding urban metabolism from a development perspective, and demonstrates how urban development can be seen as an open-ended process. This article presents and discusses Chemetoff’s innovative approach using a theoretical framework drawing on contemporary philosophical...... discussions of the convergence between ethics and aesthetics, and the ethics of recognition. This article focuses on the transformation of the island, Île de Nantes, located in the Loire River in southwest France. Between 2000 and 2010, Chemetoff conducted the process of transforming the island, which...

  13. Manufacturing of welded polyblock turbine rotors for pressurized water reactor nuclear plants; Optimization of the steel grade; Effect of impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisseloup, J.; Poitrault, I.S.; De Badereau, A.; Bocquet, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Le Creusot Heavy Forge has been manufacturing low-pressure (LP) disks and shaft ends for 1300-MW nuclear power plants. These forgings, in weldable 1.8Cr-1Ni-0.8Mo steel, are welded by Alsthom Atlantique. With the aim of improved quality, homogeneity of mechanical properties, hardenability, and weldability, this metallurgical research has been carried out: 1. Optimization of the steel grade (the effect of silicon, manganese, and molybdenum). 2. The influence of tempering and stress relief treatment parameters. 3. The effect of impurities. These studies have led the Steel Melting Shop of Creusot-Loire Factory to invest in a high-performance process of steelmaking: the heating ladle refining process. This new process has had spectacular results that have been confirmed by investigations on cut-up industrial forgings

  14. Focus - Le développement de la méthanisation dans l’Ouest de la France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE GUEN, Gaëlle ; DAMIANO, Armelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Les régions Pays de la Loire et Bretagne sont les premières régions d’élevage en France, avec une forte présence des industries agro-alimentaires. Face à ce constat, ces deux régions ont un fort potentiel de développement de la méthanisation. Les schémas régionaux climat air énergie (SRCAE se sont penchés sur cette question. Des études sur les filières de méthanisation ont été réalisées dans ce cadre, et les principales données issues de ces études sont présentées ici.

  15. Looking for Clues to the Mystery of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Michael

    1996-08-01

    From the vast central hall in Chambord Castle, the largest of the great chateaux on France's River Loire, an ornate double-helical staircase rises to a roof terrace. It was an appropriate setting for a banquet of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (ISSOL), which held its triennial meeting last month in nearby Orleans. Without double-helical DNA and RNA molecules, life would not exist. At the meeting, nearly 300 scientists, including three Nobel laureates, grappled with the riddle of how these molecules first appeared and how they evolved into self-reproducing cells-questions that have gained new urgency with the hint that life in some form also may have evolved on Mars (see pages 864 and 924).

  16. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  17. Regional radiological observations of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    After having recalled the objective of regional radiological observations (establishment of an updated referential of radioactivity levels in some parts of the environment which are typical of the concerned territory), and indicated the three main steps of these observations (definition of a methodology which may differ from one territory to the other, sampling and analysis, assessment of the radiological status of the studied territory), this report presents a methodology which can be applied to big rivers and predominantly agricultural territories. The radiological observations of different areas are reported (Val de Loire, Rhone valley, areas of persistence like mountains, or mining areas). Maps indicate the sampling location and the analysed products (food, soil, plants) and report of the ground or aquatic environment analysis, or available data and sampling strategy are given. The New Caledonia radiological observation is also reported

  18. Colza et abeilles : exposé de la problématique et mise en place d’un dispositif de vigilance sur les ruchers en région Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Céline

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The apiarian and agricultural sectors got together to set up an apiary survey in Eure-et-Loir, in 2010, during oilseed rape flowering. The aim of this observatory was to highlight what can occur during oilseed rape flowering regarding bee population evolution and agricultural practices. The year 2010 was marked by important larvae and brood mortalities which induced a national investigation. Among the 4 surveyed apiaries, 2 were also concerned by these mortalities but this could not be explained by the observations and the analysis that were carried out. However, this survey enabled us to identify apiarian and agricultural practices around the apiaries and to combine expert testimonies of apiarian and agricultural professionals.

  19. Impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle over France and associated uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayon, Gildas; Boé, Julien; Martin, Éric; Gailhard, Joël

    2018-05-01

    This study deals with the evolution of the hydrological cycle over France during the 21st century. A large multi-member, multi-scenario, and multi-model ensemble of climate projections is downscaled with a new statistical method to drive a physically-based hydrological model with recent improvements. For a business-as-usual scenario, annual precipitation changes generally remain small, except over southern France, where decreases close to 20% are projected. Annual streamflows roughly decrease by 10% (±20%) on the Seine, by 20% (±20%) on the Loire, by 20% (±15%) on the Rhone and by 40% (±15%) on the Garonne. Attenuation measures, as implied by the other scenarios analyzed, lead to less severe changes. However, even with a scenario generally compatible with a limitation of global warming to two degrees, some notable impacts may still occur, with for example a decrease in summer river flows close to 25% for the Garonne.

  20. Savoir lire les centres historiques comme clé pour construire la ville de demain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sierra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yves Dauge est sénateur d’Indre et Loire (membre de la commission de la culture, de l'éducation et de la communication, membre du groupe d'études sur le patrimoine architectural. Inspecteur général de l’équipement, ancien maire de Chinon, il a été délégué interministériel à la ville et au développement social urbain de 1988 à 1991. Il a conduit la délégation française au Vème Forum Urbain Mondial à Rio. Il anime avec les services du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères et Européennes, le nouvea...

  1. Angers: étude chrono-chorématique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lefèvre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation chrono-chorématique d’Angers (Maine-et-Loire du Ier siècle av. J.-C. au XIIIe siècle rend aisément lisibles les éléments majeurs de la topographie historique, dépassant le niveau du point pour atteindre celui de la surface. La confrontation des modèles obtenus permet de repérer les transformations et les persistances et met en évidence la dynamique urbaine. La confrontation avec des modèles théoriques replace Angers par rapport à un idéal-type et met en avant les spécificités propres à l’objet d’étude.

  2. Influence of anthropogenic stress on fitness and behaviour of a key-species of estuarine ecosystems, the ragworm Nereis diversicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouneyrac, C., E-mail: catherine.mouneyrac@uco.f [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Perrein-Ettajani, H. [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Amiard-Triquet, C. [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor - a key species in estuaries - along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. - Fitness, and behaviour in Nereis diversicolor are affected by anthropogenic pressure.

  3. TIC & TER. Stratégie numérique et qualité de service à la SNCF

    OpenAIRE

    Emangard, Pierre-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Le développement des techniques d’information et de communication a conduit la SNCF à développer une stratégie commerciale numérique vis-à-vis de tous ses segments de clientèle. S’appuyant sur le cas du secteur Sud Loire Océan, l’article montre que le développement des services d’information à la clientèle en temps réel a paradoxalement servi d’alibi pour laisser la qualité du service ferroviaire régional TER se dégrader, ce qui a eu pour conséquence une baisse sensible du trafic. Cet exemple...

  4. Isoquinolines from the Roots of Thalictrum flavum L. and Their Evaluation as Antiparasitic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Richomme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids from Thalictrum flavum L. (Ranuculaceae growing in the Loire valley (France were isolated and evaluated for their antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal activities. Berberine was identified as a major component but its analogue, pseudoberberine, was isolated for the first time from this plant. As far as bisbenzylisoquinolines are concerned, thalfoetidine was also isolated and, besides, its nor- derivative, northalfoetidine, was identified as a new compound. Previously isolated alkaloids from Thalictrum species such as northalidasine, northalrugosidine, thaligosidine, thalicberine, thaliglucinone, preocoteine, O-methylcassythine and armepavine were newly described in the roots of T. flavum. Tertiary isoquinolines, and particularly bisbenzylisoquinolines, were found to be leishmanicidal against L. major. Thalfoetidine appeared as the most potent but its new nor- derivative northalfoetidine, as well as northalidasine, were of particular interest due to the fact that their potential leishmanicidal activity was not associated to a strong cytotoxicity.

  5. Sources et bibliographie

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Sources manuscrites Archives nationales JJ 97, JJ 111 (registres du Trésor des Chartes) P 490 ; P 492 ; P 493 ; P 13782 ; P 14022 ; P 14023 (Chambre des comptes, Forez, anciens aveux, 1214-1514 et titres du Forez, 1173-1519). Archives départementales de la Loire Série B B 1171 ; B 1189 ; B 1190 ; B 1353 ; B 1571 ; B 1717 ; B 1724 ; B 1839 ; B 1842 ; B 1844 ; B 1850 ; B 1851 ; B 1852 ; B 1853 ; B 1854 ; B 1856 ; B 1858 ; B 1860 ; B 1861 ; B 1862 ; B 1864 ; B 1865 ; B 1866 ; B 1867 ; B 1869 ; B...

  6. Hommage à Yves Rouquette

    OpenAIRE

    Rouanet, Marie

    2018-01-01

    En 1960, je faisais partie de la Corpo des Lettres où j’avais créé un cercle occitan. Les soirées se voulaient absolument modernes, loin d’un passéisme que je détestais. Alan Ward et Guy Broglia, qui avait mis en musique les poèmes de Lafont, furent parmi mes premiers invités. Charles Camproux, le professeur d’occitan, me conseilla de demander une causerie à Yves Rouquette. Un an après nous étions mariés. En 1962 naquit notre premier fils Laurent. Nous fûmes nommés en Loire Atlantique cette a...

  7. Cycle tourism and rail trails as examples of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macià Serra i Serra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that while cycle tourism remains only a small sector within sustainable tourism, it has great growth potential and attractive characteristics for the communities that engage in it. Based on this thesis, first, a description is given of cycle tourism, its characteristics, evolution and impacts. Second, its implementation through public policies over the past two decades is analysed. Third, the way cycle tourism has developed in various countries is examined, along with what “rail trails” are, comparing two successful case studies (Girona’s Vies Verdes and La Loire à Vélo. Finally, the conclusions highlight the importance of this sustainable means of tourism, the implementation of which requires cooperation and networking between various public and private actors, and raises the question of whether this type of tourism is replicable in medium-developed countries.

  8. Nicolas Chevillard (XVIIe siècle : tableaux en Bourgogne et en Normandie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Benoit-Cattin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La vie et l'œuvre de Nicolas Chevillard, peintre de Mâcon (Saône-et-Loire sont fort mal documentées. Ce que l'on en sait tient en peu de lignes : il est taxé de 40 livres à Mâcon en 1660 et reçoit 33 livres de la ville "pour avoir fait, en grand volume, le portrait de Son Altesse Sérénissime Mons. Le Prince, gouverneur de Bourgogne, qui est joinct à ceux de ses prédécesseurs audit gouvernement, en la salle de l'hostel commun de la ville de Macon". On ignore ce qu'il est advenu de ce tableau,...

  9. Proceedings of the 2009 CIGRE Canada conference on power systems : innovation and renewal : building the new power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conseil International des Grands Reseaux Electriques (CIGRE) is the International Council on Large Electric Systems. It promotes technical, economic and environmental developments in electricity transmission and generation. CIGRE Canada is the Canadian National Committee which fosters the participation of Canadian members in CIGRE activities. CIGRE Canada organizes an annual conference that provides a forum for power system engineers, decision makers,economists, and academics to discuss technological developments in electrical power systems. The presentations at this conference addressed issues regarding the use of renewable energy sources in power transmission and distribution systems, with particular reference to control and protection; HVDC and MVDC; modelling tools; interface technologies; and reduced carbon generation and sustainability. The use of active distribution systems was also discussed in terms of future trends; the role of information technology and communications; and the role of energy storage. The session on smart grids addressed issues such as power utility perspectives; sensing, measurements and controls; advanced interfaces and decision support systems; open-architecture; distributed energy resources; and regulatory issues. Issues concerning the interconnection of non traditional energy sources to the power systems were also discussed along with recent research initiatives related to renewable energy source development. The sessions were entitled: smart grids; distributed energy resources; wind and solar PV; AC systems and HV lines; wide area measurements; power system operation and control; modelling and analysis; substation automation; and HVDC and facts. The conference featured 66 presentations, of which 35 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  10. Biological monochromator with a high flux in the visible spectrum; Un monochromateur biologique a haut flux dans le visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, M; Guerin de Montgareuil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The object is to carry out research into photosynthesis using energetic illuminations similar to those employed with white light studies. The limitations are due mainly to the source. A comparison of various possible solutions has led to the choice of the sun used in conjunction with 4 large gratings. In an intermediate stage, a description is given of a medium-aperture monochromator with a 3 kW xenon arc and a single grating. With this set-up it is possible to obtain the following performance, given as an example; energy illumination, 1.3 mW/cm{sup 2} over a surface of 50 cm{sup 2} and for a bandwidth at half-height of 50 Angstroms. (authors) [French] L'objectif est de poursuivre en lumiere monochromatique des etudes de photosynthese avec des eclairements energetiques analogues a ceux qu'on utilise en lumiere blanche. Les limitations se situent principalement au niveau de la source. Une comparaison effectuee entre differentes solutions possibles conduit a preconiser l'emploi du soleil associe a 4 grands reseaux. En etape intermediaire on decrit un monochromateur de moyenne ouverture, avec un arc au xenon de 3 kW et un seul reseau, qui permet d'atteindre les performances suivantes donnees a titre d'exemple: eclairement energetique de 1,3 mW/cm{sup 2} sur une surface de 50 cm{sup 2} et pour une bande passante a mi-hauteur de 50 Angstroems. (auteurs)

  11. Continuous analytical control of the streaming waters in a uranium treatment plant and of various chemical products using automatic discharge valves; Controle par analyse en continu des eaux de ruissellement d'une usine traitant de l'uranium et divers produits chimiques avec commande automatique des vannes de decharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archimbaud, M; Simeon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France)

    1968-07-01

    This report describes a method for controlling the streaming waters produced by the Pierrelatte Centre; it is based on continuous analysis, with simultaneous recording of the species liable to be found accidentally in the corresponding hydrological circuits (chlorides, fluorides, chromium VI, uranium). An alarm set off at pre-determined thresholds leads to an automatic cutting off of the discharge valves; the outward flow of the waters is thus interrupted. This study has shown the various applications which can be found for this water control method, and gives an idea of the cost price. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit un mode de controle des eaux de ruissellement provenant du Centre de Pierrelatte base sur une analyse en continu, avec enregistrement des corps susceptibles de se retrouver accidentellement dans les reseaux hydrologiques correspondants (chlorures, fluorures, chrome VI, uranium). Le declenchement d'une alarme a partir de seuils choisis permet de fermer automatiquement les vannes de decharge et d'arreter ainsi l'ecoulement vers l'exterieur. Cette etude montre quelles peuvent etre les diverses applications de cette methode de controle des eaux et elle indique un ordre de grandeur du prix de revient. (auteurs)

  12. Towards the development of a regional electricity market in Central Africa: Issues and Challenges; Vers la realisation d'un marche regional de l'electricite en Afrique Centrale: Enjeux et defies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, Rheaume; Mbadinga, David; Kitoko Senghi, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    This article gives a short description of the African continent. It then describes the 5 energy pools covering 54 countries: COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. More specifically, the article looks at the main strategies and methods to be put in place in order to implement the electricity market, in particular the regional market of Central Africa. The current interconnecting projects and studies between different African countries, made by RSW international in collaboration with different partners, are presented, and in a more comprehensive way, the one related to the Interconnexion of the electrical networks of the member countries of the ECCAS. [French] Cet article presente une courte description du continent africain. Par la suite, on decrit les 5 pools energetiques couvrant les 54 pays : COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. Plus specifiquement, on aborde les principales strategies et moyens a mettre en place pour implanter et developper le marche de l'electricite, plus particulierement le marche regional de l'Afrique centrale. Les projets ou etudes d'interconnexion en cours entre differents pays de l'Afrique, realises par RSW International de concert avec differents partenaires, sont presentes et, de facon plus exhaustive, celle relative au projet de l'Interconnexion des Reseaux Electriques des Pays Membres de la CEEAC.

  13. New methods and applications in emission spectroscopy (1960); Methodes et applications nouvelles en spectroscopie d'emission (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Emission spectroscopy, are already well-established instrumental analytical technique, has in recent years known important developments. Two mains factors are responsible; firstly the demands of metallurgy for purer and purer materials or alloys which are increasingly complex and difficult to analyse by chemical means; secondly, progress in optics, especially in the production of gratings, and in electronics in the field of photomultiplier tubes. We will not here catalogue all the new applications and methods, but we will consider a few amongst the most representative outside the conventional field. (author) [French] La spectroscopie d'emission, technique analytique instrumentale deja ancienne, a pris, depuis quelques annees, une extension notable. Deux facteurs principaux ont contribue a ce succes: d'une part, l'exigence de la metallurgie en materiaux de plus en plus pur ou en alliages de plus en plus complexes, difficiles a analyser chimiquement, d'autre part, les progres realises en optique, principalement dans la fabrication des reseaux, et en electronique dans le domaine des tubes photomultiplicateurs. Nous ne ferons pas ici le recensement de toutes les applications ou methodes nouvelles, mais nous en choisirons quelques unes des plus representatives hors du domaine classique. (auteur)

  14. A study of filtering problems of background noise in nuclear spectrometry, improvement of signal-to-noise ratio, and of pulse characteristics produced by the optimum predictor device; Etude de problemes de filtrage de bruit de fond en spectrometrie nucleaire, amelioration du rapport signal sur bruit et des caracteristiques de l'impulsion mise en forme par le dispositif du predicteur optimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-01

    The purpose of nuclear spectrometry is the precise measurement of particles energy. The resolving power of a spectrometer design is an important factor. Two main phenomena are involved in the limitation of this resolving power: The statistical fluctuations of the detector itself, and the background noise. For a given noise, the theory of filters enables the calculation of networks specially designed for the improvement of signal to noise ratio. The proposed system should lead to an improvement of 10.5 per cent of this ratio. Experiments have confirmed this theoretical estimation. The predictor device also makes possible the obtaining of shortened pulses. (author) [French] Les mesures en spectrometrie nucleaire ont pour but la determination precise de l'energie des particules. Le pouvoir de resolution d'une chaine de spectrometrie est une caracteristique importante. Deux phenomenes principaux concourent a limiter ce pouvoir de resolution: les fluctuations statistiques du detecteur et le bruit de fond. Pour un bruit de fond donne, la theorie des filtres permet de calculer des reseaux susceptibles de modifier le rapport signal sur bruit. Le systeme propose permet d'ameliorer de 10.5 pour cent ce rapport lorsqu'on se place dans les conditions optimales. Les resultats experimentaux confirment les previsions. Le dispositif predicteur permet aussi un raccourcissement de l'impulsion dans le temps. (auteur)

  15. Proceedings of the 2008 CIGRE Canada conference on power systems : technology and innovation for the Canadian power grids of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Conseil International des Grands Reseaux Electriques (CIGRE) promotes technical, economic and environmental developments in electricity transmission and generation. CIGRE Canada is one of 53 national committees of CIGRE. This conference showcased Canadian contributions to the electric power industry and how technology and innovation in the future will influence North American power grids. It provided a forum to discuss technological developments in the electric power industry and present products and services for electrical power systems. Issues concerning the interconnection of non traditional energy sources to the power systems were also discussed along with recent research initiatives related to renewable energy source development. The sessions of the conference were entitled: wind reliability and forecasting; substation automation and communication; human resources and long range planning; power system protection and control; distributed generation; electric vehicles and renewable energy; HVDC and facts; modeling and simulation; markets; overhead transmission lines; and new sensor and de-icing technologies and data management systems. All 68 presentations featured at this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Spectacle

    CERN Multimedia

    Spectacle

    2010-01-01

    Du 4 au 8 décembre 2010 à l'Alhambra de Genève   Créée et mise en scène par des acteurs et chanteurs professionnels, cette comédie musicale dynamique est une première en Suisse. Elle est destinée particulièrement aux enfants entre 4 et 10 ans. Dans un spectacle dynamique, intelligeant et haut en couleurs, retrouvez les aventures de Rosalie… petite souris bien malicieuse qui va faire sa première rentrée à l'école et rêve de devenir une star de la chanson! Chacun des personnages permet à l’enfant de s’identifier à l’un d’entre eux ; tous ont des caractéristiques très humaines. Ainsi, les différentes scènes transportent les jeunes spectateurs à vibrer de la même façon que les acteurs. De ...

  17. Recompositions territoriales et gouvernance des régions de montagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rudaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La revendication d’une spécificité montagnarde est au cœur de nombreuses actions collectives contemporaines. Ce processus de distinction d’un territoire redéfinit le statut de la montagne, reformule les problématiques et les contenus des projets territoriaux, redéfinit les acteurs et les relations qu’ils entretiennent. L’ensemble de ces recompositions a des implications sur la gouvernance des territoires. L’article, qui discute des positions des acteurs et de la légitimation des entités montagnardes, ne porte pas sur une étude de cas particulière mais recourt à des exemples pris dans diverses régions de montagne du monde pour illustrer les processus en cours.The claim of a mountain specificity is at the heart of a number of contemporary collective actions. This process of territorial distinction redefines the status of mountains, reformulates the content of territorial projects, and redefines the actors and the relations they foster. This set of recompositions has implications on the governance of territories. The article, which discusses the actors’ positions and the legitimization of mountain entities, does not examine a particular case study but refers to a variety of examples taken in various areas of mountain of the world to illustrate the processes in progress.

  18. « L’implantation » comme construction de la présence palestinienne au Liban durant la tutelle syrienne (1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comment a été construite et formulée la question de la présence des réfugiés palestiniens au Liban par la classe politique libanaise dans l’après-guerre civile ?  Pour répondre à cette question, l’auteur propose d’étudier la question de l’implantation – al-tawtîn – en montrant l’existence de conditions d’ouverture d’un espace discursif sur cette question, à la faveur des accords de Taëf d’une part et d’autre part en vertu du contexte régional de signature des accords d’Oslo. Sont alors examinées les prises de positions argumentées sur la question palestinienne des différents acteurs du champ politique libanais durant les années quatre-vingt-dix et au début des années 2000. Trois types d’interprétation du tawtîn illustrent alors la nature polysémique de cette notion laquelle est conçue, en conclusion, comme un méta-discours en regard des positionnements communautaires des acteurs politiques libanais mais aussi du contexte de l’hégémonie syrienne au Liban.

  19. NUTRITION Les bases de la politique nutritionnelle de santé publique en France : le constat et les recommandations du HCSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercberg Serge

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La mise en place d’une politique nutritionnelle apparaît comme une grande priorité de santé publique en France, comme dans l’ensemble de l’Europe. Outre les immenses enjeux humains, sociaux et économiques, les relations entre l’alimentation et la santé ont comme particularité : de concerner l’ensemble de la population; de reposer sur des connaissances scientifiques bien documentées; de concerner des facteurs de risque (ou de protection bien identifiés sur lesquels il est possible d’intervenir; d’avoir un impact important sur l’incidence des grandes maladies chroniques; d’impliquer, autour du consommateur, de multiples acteurs du champ de la nutrition; et d’avoir des références en termes de faisabilité. Pour toutes ces raisons, il apparaît aujourd’hui indispensable de faire, en France, de la promotion de la nutrition et de l’activité physique, un grand « programme national nutrition-santé », impliquant l’ensemble des acteurs concernés et disposant des moyens à la hauteur de ses ambitions. C’est la conclusion du groupe de travail ayant rédigé le rapport « Pour une politique nutritionnelle de santé publique en France : enjeux et propositions », sous l’égide du HCSP.

  20. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  1. Gouvernance environnementale locale et comportements économiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Beaurain

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La notion de gouvernance est mobilisée de manière croissante aujourd’hui pour évoquer de nouvelles formes de coopérations entre acteurs de la vie économique et sociale. Appliquée aux questions environnementales, la gouvernance pose à la fois la question de la maîtrise du temps par les acteurs et celle du territoire d’application des décisions prises. On peut donc considérer qu’elle engage un renouvellement de l’articulation entre le temps et l’espace, que doit prendre en compte l’analyse des choix économiques dans ce domaine. L’exemple du bassin d’emploi dunkerquois montre que cette articulation est au cœur d’une participation des entreprises à la gouvernance environnementale.The concept of governance is more and more raised to conjure up new ways of cooperation between actors of the economic and social life. Applied to environmental matters, governance ask both the question of mastery of the time and the one of the territory’s application for taken decisions. We can consider that it engage a renewal of the joint between time and space, that the analysis of economic choices had to take into account. The example of “Dunkerque” show that this joint is the heart of firm’s collaboration in environmental governance.

  2. Les microalgues marines : source alternative d’acide eicosapentaènoïque (EPA et d’acide docosahexaènoïque (DHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencreac’h Gaëlle

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides de microalgues marines sont riches en acide eicosapentaènoïque (EPA, C20 :5 et en acide docosahexaènoïque (DHA, C22 :6, deux acides gras hautement insaturés de la série ω3 (AGHI-ω3, et représentent aujourd’hui une source alternative potentielle face aux huiles de poissons. Les microalgues synthétisent de l’EPA et\\\\ou du DHA dans des proportions relatives variables selon leur classe taxonomique. D’autre part, pour une même espèce, les teneurs en ces acides gras dépendent fortement des conditions de culture. De part leur métabolisme photoautotrophe, la production de biomasse microalgale à grande échelle nécessite la conception de bioréacteurs spécifiques, les photobioréacteurs, qui représentent encore aujourd’hui un défi technologique. La poursuite de travaux de recherche, dans des domaines très divers, reste nécessaire pour confirmer la viabilité économique des procédés industriels de production d’EPA et de DHA par les microalgues.

  3. Radioprotection et ingénierie nucléaire

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Le développement de l'énergie nucléaire repose sur deux piliers essentiels : la sûreté nucléaire, qui concerne la machine, et la radioprotection, qui se préoccupe des hommes. Construit de manière fiable, un réacteur nucléaire se doit d'irradier le moins possible ses opérateurs et conduire à un impact très faible pour les populations avoisinantes. Tout cela est soumis à des règles strictes, élaborées au niveau international, et qui ne tolèrent aucun écart. Les ingénieurs qui ont à concevoir, construire et conduire ces machines doivent maîtriser les règles de protection : cet ouvrage leur est destiné. La radioprotection, si elle se fonde principalement sur des bases scientifiques, intègre également une dimension sociétale exigeante. Ces activités sont en effet sous le regard critique et permanent de nos concitoyens, qui exigent des acteurs de cette industrie une maîtrise totale de la radioprotection ; un ingénieur qui ne connaîtrait pas la genèse de la radioprotection, ses règle...

  4. La Mise en Jeu des Objets Techniques sur les Scènes Théâtrales Contemporaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Valero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur l’usage par le comédien de l’objet technique en posant la question suivante: la prise en mains de celui-ci en scène est-elle initiatrice de nouvelles pratiques de jeu? L’objet technique est d’abord défini d’un point de vue général. Son statut est ensuite caractérisé par rapport au contexte théâtral: comment se différencie-t-il de n’importe quel autre objet scénique? Instrument de jeu pour l’acteur, il développe des habiletés de jeu particulières: le travail scénique du Wooster Group est donné en exemple. L’objet technique apparaît dès lors comme un prolongement instrumental pour le corps jouant de l’acteur: des expériences artistiques se situant dans cette perspective sont ensuite étudiées.

  5. La grange seigneuriale de « l’hébergement » de Flux à Lailly-en-Val (Loiret au XIVe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bontemps

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La grange seigneuriale de Flux à Lailly-en-Val (Loiret est construite sur le lit majeur de la Loire en zone primitivement inondable. Transformée par les siècles, elle n’en conserve pas moins son pourtour d’origine et une charpente à fermes et pannes sur poteaux dont les bois ont été coupés vers 1320 (dendrochronologie. Grâce à des aveux du XIVe siècle, postérieurs d’un tiers de siècle à sa construction, on constate qu’elle occupait une situation à part dans « l’hébergement » de Flux. Son implantation près de Beaugency permettait de transporter la part des récoltes qui y étaient entreposées en peu de temps pour y être vendue.The seigniorial barn of Flux at Lailly-en-Val (Loiret was built on the main bed of the river Loire which, at the time, was liable to inundation. The building has been modified over the centuries but nonetheless conserves its original footprint and its original wooden trusses and purlins. These are supported by posts the timber of which, according to dendrochronological analysis, was cut in about 1320. In archival consents dating from the 14th century, a third of a century after the construction, it is possible to see how the barn occupied a peripheral situation in the ‘hébergement’, the lodging of Flux. Its location near Beaugency allowed for parts of the harvest to be rapidly stored in the barn prior to sale.

  6. Genetic integrity of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. 1758 within the Vienne River drainage basin after five decades of stockings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European grayling of the upper Vienne River drainage basin represent the westernmost populations inside the natural distribution of the species. Since the 19th century, their extension across this sub-basin has been dramatically reduced by the harnessing of the river network for dams, initially serving mills but then hydroelectric power generation. Since the 1960s, local fishing authorities have attempted to compensate for these declines with stocking programs, but the efficiency of these efforts have never been accurately monitored. We aim to evaluate the genetic imprints of these stocking programs and thus provide an indirect measure of the long-term survival of stocked fish. Three target populations were analyzed at both mtDNA (Control Region and nDNA levels (12 µSats, and compared to populations representative of surrounding drainage basins or fish farm facilities. Among 37 "wild" fish sequenced, only three control region haplotypes were identified, all belonging to the highly divergent Loire basin lineage. Two were specific to the Upper Vienne area, and one was observed in some individuals of the most downstream location, but previously described from the upper Allier sub-drainage. Microsatellite analysis of 87 "wild" fish also demonstrated a rather low diversity within each population (but typical for the Loire drainage with all Upper Vienne individuals belonging to a single diagnosable unit. This genetic cluster was clearly distinct from all other samples including hatchery strains, which strongly supports its native origin. The only piece of evidence of a possible stocking contribution was the occurrence of the Allier haplotype, but it cannot be excluded that this haplotype was also native to this reach of river. The total lack of genetic impact of five decades of stocking deeply questions the efficacy of this management approach, at least in a regional context.

  7. Recherche d'une politique de gestion des stocks d'eau de barrages-réservoirs en vue de soutenir les étiages. 2. Utilisation d'un modèle alterné annuel apports-déficits pour la recherche des conditions de gestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, C.; Masson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    In the upper catchment of the River Loire, France, the construction of five reservoir dams has been planned to sustain the low flows in the Loire valley. The management of these reservoirs, to be built successively, must be approached from partial or complete points of view in order to establish the daily draft decisions at every stage of the project. A hydrological criteria concerning the low flows at a station in the valley (namely the "objective point") is used to judge the results. It is possible to determine the optimal carry-over storage for this criterion with the use of a long series of simulated inflows to reservoirs and annual deficits, when the future conditions are presumed to be known. The statistical analysis of the results helps in the formulation of the objectives for long-term Q1 assuring the carry-over storage for a predetermined risk of failure. This objective for long-term Q1 will not hold good if the low flow is severe. Thus some deterministic and statistical hypotheses have been used to formulate an objective for the mean term of flow Q2 ( tj) which is calculated each day tj and adjusted to the hydrological conditions of the year. The target draft Cb at the objective point is the minimum of the pair [( Q1, Q2 ( tj)]. Water is discharged each day to meet this target flow, while maintaining all the constraints of the flows downstream to the reservoirs. It takes into account the time needed for transfer of water and permits a good prediction of either the flow propagation in the upper watershed or the evolution of the inflows from downstream catchments. A modular model is used to calculate the daily flow. The results obtained from simulation were satisfactory.

  8. Architectures fromagères en pays d’Auge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Lecherbonnier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Camemberts, livarots et pont-l’évêque participent encore largement à l'identification du pays d'Auge. Entre Saint-Pierre-sur-Dives et Livarot, de nombreux hâloirs, ou pièces d’affinage, témoignent de l’importance d’une production fermière aujourd’hui révolue et souvent peu documentée. Une simple lecture architecturale de ces édifices permet cependant de déterminer quels fromages y ont été affinés. Elle remet aussi en cause les principes couramment admis concernant leur aménagement, en particulier la disposition de leurs ouvertures, et montre que les prescriptions techniques émises au XIXe siècle et relayées par les sociétés savantes, sont restées lettre morte.Camemberts, livarots and pont-l’évêque are still largely part of the characterizing components of the pays d’Auge. Between Saint-Pierre-sur-Dives and Livarot, many hâloirs or cheese maturing rooms attest the importance of that bygone and often poorly documented agricultural production. A mere architectural examination of these buildings allows us nevertheless to determine which kind of cheese had been matured in which building. It gives us also a whole new perspective on the commonly received principles about the arrangement of the buildings, especially the setting of their apertures, and points the fact that the technical prescriptions from the 19th century that have been spread through the scientific societies have had no follow-up.

  9. Une fosse du Bronze final IIb dans le Val d’Orléans à Sandillon (Loiret : données archéologiques et contexte environnemental A Late Bronze Age pit IIb in the Val d’Orléans at Sandillon (Loiret: archaeological data and environmental context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Froquet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Un diagnostic archéologique réalisé en 2004 à Sandillon (Loiret a permis la découverte d’une occupation du Bronze final IIb dans la plaine alluviale de la Loire. Les structures sont peu nombreuses, mais une fosse se distingue par un ensemble céramique exceptionnel par sa richesse, sa conservation et la présence de formes encore inconnues en région Centre. Ce corpus céramique, corrélé par une datation par radiocarbone, offre désormais un jalon fiable pour la région. Par ailleurs, ces vestiges ont pu être replacés dans leur environnement immédiat grâce à une étude géomorphologique et à l’analyse des restes carpologiques contenus dans la fosse. Ainsi, le croisement des données permet de tenter une approche paléo environnementale sur une occupation en contexte fluviatile et de préciser les relations entre l’homme et son milieu durant cette période chronologique.An archaeological diagnostic carried out in 2004 at Sandillon (Loiret enabled the discovery of a final Bronze Age IIb occupation in the alluvial Loire valley. There are few structures but one pit is noteworthy for a ceramic collection, exceptional in its abundance, its preservation and the presence of previously unknown forms in the Centre region. This ceramic corpus, dated by radiocarbon, henceforth provides a reliable standard for the region. Moreover, these relics could be set in their immediate environment thanks to a geomorphological study and to the analysis of carpological remains contained in the pit. So, the crossing of data allows us to attempt an environmental paleolithic approach to an occupation in a freshwater context and to clarify the relationship between man and his environment in this chronological period.

  10. Public/privé : la (redistribution des rôles dans la production des espaces publics à Paris et à Berlin

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    Antoine Fleury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’évaluer quelles sont les réalités de la privatisation des espaces publics au sein des métropoles européennes, en examinant la distribution des rôles entre acteurs publics et privés, à Paris et Berlin. La confrontation de ces deux cas conduit à relativiser la privatisation des espaces publics dans les métropoles européennes, en tout cas en ce qui concerne l’intervention du secteur privé dans leur production. Alors que le recours au privé demeure limité à quelques morceaux de ville et varie d’une ville à l’autre, l’investissement public global dans le domaine des espaces publics demeure considérable. Les formes et modes de l’action publique ont en outre été profondément renouvelés depuis les années 1980. Pour autant, si les pouvoirs publics gardent une place prépondérante dans ce domaine, c’est de plus en plus en associant les acteurs privés dans toute leur diversité, des acteurs économiques aux résidants et aux acteurs locaux, en passant par les professionnels de la ville. C’est finalement avec cette ouverture aux résidants et aux acteurs locaux que se dessinent plus précisément des tendances à la privatisation au sein des métropoles européennes, les intérêts privés pesant fortement sur les décisions des élus, les enjeux locaux pouvant s’inscrire en contradiction avec ce qui fait la ville dans son ensemble.The present article focuses on the privatisation of public spaces in European metropoles (Paris, Berlin in looking at task distribution between public and private actors. Confronting both cities sheds a new light on privatisation practices in European metropoles, at least as far as the private sector’s intervention in producing public spaces is concerned. Private actors intervene in relatively limited areas, with no general pattern. On the contrary, public investment in public spaces remains considerable. Furthermore, patterns form and modes of public action

  11. The Scottish Research Reactor Centre and its Facilities for the Production and Exploitation of Short-Lived Radioisotopes; Le Réacteur de Recherche Ecossais et ses Installations pour la Production et l'Exploitation des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode; ШОТЛАНДСКИЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ РЕАКТОРНЫЙ ЦЕНТР И ЕГО ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ СРЕДСТВА ДЛЯ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА И ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ КОРОТКОЯИВУШХ РАДИОИЗОТОПОВ; El Centro del Reactor de Investigacion de Escocia y sus Instalaciones para la Produccion y Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, A. [The Royal College of Science and Technology, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1963-03-15

    The Scottish Research Reactor Centre is now under construction and will be completed and in operation by the summer of 1963. The reactor is 100 kW of the tank type with water cooling and water/graphite moderation using enriched U{sup 235} fuel. The experimental facilities include a large thermal column, a large shield experiment water tank and a radioisotope production facility with transfer rabbit tubes. There are effectively three through tubes in the central core; one through tube in the thermal column, several small central vertical stringers and one six-inch square vertical stringer penetrating to the centre of the core. Many horizontal stringers pass through the thermal column, the central one penetrating to within one inch of a fuel tank. The reactor facilities are supported by a wide variety of adjacent small laboratories. These include hot source handling and preparation facilities, changing rooms, electrical and mechanical workshops, darkrooms, microcurie laboratories, animal house, biological and chemical laboratories, low-background counting room, lecture theatre and a library. It is expected that the research will extend over many scientific and technological disciplines; a good proportion of the work will involve short-lived radioisotopes and typical projects are described. (author) [French] Le reacteur de recherche ecossais actuellement en construction sera termine et entrera en service pendant l'ete 1963. Il s'agit d'un reacteur-piscine de 100kW a uranium-235 enrichi, refroidi a l'eau eti ralenti a l'eau et au graphite. Les installations experimentales comprennent une grande colonne thermique, un grand reservoir d'eau blinde pour les experiences, et une installation de production de radioisotopes munie de tubes de transfert a fonctionnement pneumatique. Trois tubes traversent le coeur central, un autre traverse la colonne thermique. Il existe eniin plusieurs petites gouttieres verticales centrales et une gouttiere verticale a section carree de 15 cm de cSte, qui penetre jusqu'au centre du coeur. De nombreuses gouttieres horizontales traversent la colonne thermique, la gouttiere centrale penetrant jusqu'a 2,5 cm d'un reservoir de combustible. Le reacteur est dote de toute une serie de petits laboratoires adjacents: installations de manutention et de preparation de sources de haute activite, vestiaires, ateliers d'electricite et de mecanique, chambres noires, laboratoires pour activites de l'order du microcurie, salle pour animaux, laboratoires de biologie et de chimie, salle de comptage a faible bruit de fond'amphitheatre et bibliotheque. On pense que les recherches s'etendront a de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques et technologiques; une grande partie du travail portera sur les radioisotopes a courte periode; l'auteur decrit quelques projects caracteristiques. (author) [Spanish] El centro del reactor de investigacion de Escocia se encuentra en construccion, calculandose que entrara en servicio en el verano de 1963. El reactor de tipo tanque tiene una potencia de 100 kW, es refrigerado por agua y moderado por agua y grafito; el combustible es uranio enriquecido en el isotopo sssu. Las instalaciones experimentales consisten en una gran columna termica, con tanque de agua blindado de grandes dimensiones y una instalacion de produccion de radioisotopos con tuberias de transporte neumatico. El cuerpo central es atravesado por tres tubos, la columna termica, por uno; ademas, existen varios pequenos dispositivos centrales de acceso vertical y otro dispositivo de acceso de seccion cuadrada , de 6 pulgadas, que penetra verticalmente hasta el centro del cuerpo del reactor. Muchos otros dispositivos de acceso horizontal atraviesan la columna termica, y el del centro del cuerpo penetra hasta 1 pulgada de los tanques de combustible. El centro comprendera un gran numero de locales auxiliares en los que se instalaran dispositivos para manejar y preparar fuentes de alta actividad, vestuarios, talleres electricos y mecanicos, cuartos oscuros, laboratorios para trabajar con actividades del orden del microcurie, criaderos de animales, laboratorios biologicos y quimicos, local de recuento de baja actividad de fondo, sala de conferencias y biblioteca. Se espera que las investigaciones abarquen muchos campos cientificos y tecnologicos. Gran parte de los trabajos se efectuaran con ayuda de radioisotopos de periodo corto. La memoria describe algunos de los proyectos mas caracteristicos. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhee vremja vedetsja stroitel'stvo Shotlandskogo issledovatel'skogo reaktornogo centra, kotoryj vstupit v stroj k vesne 1963 goda. Ustanovka predstavljaet soboj reaktor bakovogo tipa moshhnost'ju 100 kvt s vodjanym ohlazhdeniem i vodografitovym zamedlitelem pri ispol'zovanii obogashhennogo topliva (uran{sup 235}). Jeksperimental'noe tehnicheskoe oborudovanie vkljuchaet bol'shuju teplovuju kolonnu., bol'shoj vodjanoj bak s zashhitoj, a takzhe ustanovku dlja proizvodstva radioizotopov s pnevmaticheskim transporterom. V centre aktivnoj zony imejutsja tri skvoznye truby; imeetsja takzhe odna skvoznaja truba v teplovoj kolonne,a takzhe neskol'ko nebol'shih central'nyh vertikal'nyh stringerov i odin vertikal'nyj stringer secheniem v dkjmov, dohodjashhie do centra aktivnoj zony reaktora. Mnogo gorizontal'nyh stringerov prohodit cherez teplovuju kolonnu, prichem central'nyj stringer prohodit na rasstojanii odnogo dkjma ot toplivnogo baka. V dopolnenie k reaktornomu tehnicheskomu oborudovanie imeetsja mnozhestvo nebol'shih laboratorij. Jeti laboratorii vkljuchajut oborudovanie dlja poluchenija gorjachih istochnikov i raboty s nimi, a takzhe komnatu dlja pereodevanija, jelektricheskie i mehanicheskie masterskie, temnye komnaty, laboratorii dlja raboty s mikrokjurievymi kolichestvami, pomeshhenie dlja zhivotnyh, biologicheskuju i himicheskuju laboratorii, schetnuju komnatu s nizkim urovnem fona, lekcionnyj zal i biblioteku. Predpolagaetsja, chto issledovanija budut kasat'sja mnogih nauchnyh i tehnicheskih disciplin: bol'shaja chast' raboty budet svjazana s ispol'zovaniem korotkozhivushhih radioizotopov. Opisyvajutsja tipovye proekty. (author)

  12. Fédérations multinationales et coordination multi-niveaux. Comparaison des mécanismes de participation régionale à la politique européenne en Allemagne et en Espagne

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    Emmanuelle Mathieu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Comment expliquer le recours extensif au bilatéralisme dans les relations intergouvernementales (RIG au sein des États multinationaux ? En étudiant le fédéralisme multinational sous l’angle des jeux d’acteurs, cet article contribue à sa compréhension comme système d’action et enrichit l’étude des RIG par la mise en évidence de nouveaux facteurs structurants. Il montre que l’hétérogénéité caractérisant l’ensemble des entités fédérées favorise le développement de relations individualisées avec l’État fédéral. La démonstration repose sur une comparaison de l’adaptation des RIG espagnoles et allemandes à l’intégration européenne. Les négociations au Conseil de l’Union européenne exigent une position nationale claire et unique, indépendamment du nombre d’acteurs dont les compétences sont concernées dans l’ordre interne. Cette exigence oriente les acteurs nationaux vers un mécanisme multilatéral de participation des entités fédérées à la politique européenne. Alors que le recours au multilatéralisme n’a pas même été questionné en Allemagne, l’Espagne peine à l’intégrer à son système basé sur le bilatéralisme. Le recours au mode d’organisation territorial, notamment au fédéralisme asymétrique et dual, et au multinationalisme permet d’expliquer ces difficultés.

  13. La gouvernance des villes françaises

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    Gilles Pinson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article défend l’idée selon laquelle il n’est plus satisfaisant d’étudier les formes du gouvernement des villes françaises au travers du seul cadre d’analyse des rapports centre-périphérie. La dévolution de compétences aux gouvernements urbains, les transformations du capitalisme et des politiques des États ont fait des villes françaises non plus uniquement des espaces de mise en œuvre des politiques publiques mais des acteurs de l’élaboration de ces politiques et des visions stratégiques qui les inspirent. Les relations « horizontales » qui associent les acteurs urbains peuvent être considérées comme la première explication des formes que prend l’action publique urbaine. Dès lors, il est légitime d’appréhender désormais la gouvernance et les politiques urbaines en France au travers d’outils théoriques qui accordent un rôle de premier plan aux interactions entre acteurs et groupes urbains et aux conflits et logiques de coalition dans lesquels ils sont impliqués. Parmi ces outils théoriques, l’approche en termes de régimes urbains semble particulièrement prometteuse.This article defends the idea according to which it is not satisfactory any more to study the forms of governance of the French cities through the centre-periphery analytical framework. The devolution of new functions to urban governments, the transformations of capitalism and States policies have turned French cities from mere implementation spaces of public policies built at another level to central actors of the production of urban policies and strategies. The «horizontal» relationships linking the urban actors between them can be considered to be the first explanation of the scope and shapes of urban policies. Since then, it is legitimate to study urban governance and policies in French cities through theoretical tools which grant a primary role to the interactions between urban actors and groups and to the conflicts and

  14. The concept of glocal seafood: a case study of Madagascar shrimps

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    Inger Beate Pettersen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude de cas considère le concept de produits « glocaux » dans des perspectives théoriques issues de géographie et de marketing, en observant l’effet de la mondialisation sur les systèmes de productions locaux. Ce papier met en valeur le pouvoir relatif des forces locales et globales, et le jeu interactif entre acteurs globaux et locaux à partir de l’étude empirique des crevettes de Madagascar sur le marché français. L’étude montre que les acteurs locaux peuvent définir les stratégies liées aux conditions et à la croissance économique de leur production, tout en étant dépendant des ressources extérieures et étrangères. Le succès des crevettes de Madagascar sur le marché français est donc tributaire de l’interaction et des relations entre les différents acteurs.This paper discusses the concept of glocal seafood through theories drawn from geography and marketing. The central theme of the paper is the effect of globalization processes on local production systems. We discuss the relative power of local and global forces and the interplay between local and global and actors. Moreover, we explain the specific glocalization process of the seafood industry and provide evidence from an empirical study of the success on the French market of shrimps from Madagascar, a pioneering country with regard to developing sustainable fisheries and seafood farming. The case shows that local actors have the power and control to set conditions and define strategies for economic growth in the local seafood industry. However, the local production system in turns depends on foreign resources – financial, technical and human, to create economic growth. The success of Madagascar shrimps is therefore the result of the long term interplay between local and global actors.

  15. L’instabilité organisationnelle des districts industriels. Dynamiques des transformations internes d’un village de métier au nord du Viêt Nam The Organizational Instability of Industrial Districts: Dynamic Internal Transformations of a Craft Village in Northern Vietnam

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    Nguyen Quy Nghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Le village de métier est un sujet d’étude attractif, mais rarement traité comme une forme d’agglomération industrielle ou abordé sous l’angle de la sociologie industrielle. Le développement actuel des villages de métier montre bien la présence intensive des entreprises de tailles variées et l’implication d’autres acteurs en dehors du milieu de production (par exemple les autorités locales, le milieu de l’éducation. L’introduction d’acteurs nouveaux implique le changement des relations existantes, contribuant ainsi à la mise en place d’une nouvelle configuration. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que l’organisation des villages de métier, qui est conçue comme un type de district industriel, est marquée par l’instabilité ou le changement permanent de la configuration générale, mais aussi par une transformation interne des acteurs au sein du district. À travers une étude de cas à Bát Tràng – un centre de production céramique au nord du Viêt Nam – cet article a pour objectif de montrer comment des entreprises familiales se réorganisent en structure plus formalisée, comment elles mobilisent du capital social pour régler leurs difficultés et les stratégies d’innovation qu’elles développent.Craft village is an attractive research subject, however it is rarely treated as a form of industrial agglomeration or studied from industrial sociology perspective. The current development of craft villages demonstrates the intensive presence of entreprises of all sizes and involvement of non productive actors (e.g. local authorities, education sector. The introduction of new actors therefore implies a change of existing relationships, contributing to the formulation of new configuration. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the organization of craft villages, as a type of industrial district, is marked by instability or permanent change in the overall configuration, but also by

  16. Les querelles de mots dans le discours politique : modèle d’analyse et étude de cas à partir d’une polémique sur le mot « rigueur » Verbal Disputes in Political Discourse: A Model of Analysis and a Case Study of a Controversy over the Word “Rigueur”

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    Raphaël Micheli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de contribuer à la description d’un type particulier d’affrontement qui met régulièrement aux prises les acteurs politiques dans l’espace médiatique contemporain : la querelle de mots. Dans ce genre de cas, un mot particulier est érigé en objet du désaccord, sous l’effet d’un travail de cadrage médiatique opéré par les journalistes : les acteurs politiques sont amenés à prendre position quant à son usage et à justifier leur prise de position au moyen d’arguments. On esquisse un modèle d’analyse de ces querelles de mots et l’on teste ce modèle sur un corpus de discours constitué à partir d’une polémique ayant opposé plusieurs acteurs politiques français autour du mot « rigueur » entre mai et juillet 2010. Sur le plan méthodologique, la démarche se situe à la croisée de la linguistique, des théories de l’argumentation et des sciences de la communication et des médias : elle articule l’étude des formes du métalangage ordinaire à celle du fonctionnement argumentatif des discours et des enjeux contemporains de la médiatisation du politique.This paper aims to contribute to the description of a particular type of confrontation, often taking place between political actors in contemporary media, namely verbal disputes. In such confrontations, a particular word becomes the very object of disagreement. Under the effect of a framing process led by journalists, political actors are invited to take a stand as to whether the word should or should not be used and to justify their position by means of arguments. I propose a model of analysis for verbal disputes, and I test it using a data set composed of a controversy involving several French political actors over the use of the word “rigueur” between May and July, 2010. Methodologically, this paper is influenced by linguistics, argumentation theory and media studies. The paper is focused on describing forms of

  17. La construction du cadre institutionnel face au processus de démocratisation et de développement

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    Riadh Bouriche

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En règle générale, les humains s’efforcent de rendre leur environnement plus prévisible. En effet, la construction d’un cadre institutionnel a toujours été une brique essentielle de la civilisation dans la mesure où les institutions, en restreignant le nombre de choix possibles, peuvent permettre aux individus d’améliorer leurs capacités à maîtriser l’environnement politique, économique ou social. Ainsi, la source profonde des institutions se trouve dans les tentatives des humains de structurer l’environnement pour le rendre plus prévisible, même si cela génère encore plus d’incertitudes pour d’autres acteurs. La question qui se pose est celle de la caractérisation de la notion de cadre institutionnel, de la construction de ce cadre et du développement des outils d’ingénierie et d’action politiques. En outre, la question du bon gouvernement signifie problème d’efficacité de l’action publique ou tout simplement problèmes à résoudre. Dans un cadre qui présuppose l’existence d’un optimum et d’un équilibre, la gouvernance par l’action est pensée comme levier essentiel pour corriger les défaillances existantes dans la société institutionnelle et sectorielle. Il s’agit de mettre en route un mécanisme permettant aux acteurs d’arriver à des décisions mutuellement satisfaisantes et contraignantes et de résoudre des conflits par la négociation, la coopération et l’action (démocratisation et développement : l’objectif ici est de mobiliser le cadre institutionnel, tous les réseaux et même toute la citoyenneté des différents acteurs.

  18. L’Observatoire numérique Nouvelle-Calédonie

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    Charlotte Ullmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ses missions consistent à observer le développement numérique et favoriser l’animation territoriale des acteurs en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Parrainée par l’association calédonienne pour les technologies de l’information et de la communication (ACTIC et le ministère en charge de l’économie numérique du Gouvernement de Nouvelle-Calédonie nommé depuis mai 2009, une mission d’étude a été menée depuis juin 2010 pour définir les contours d’un Observatoire numérique. A travers cette étude, il s’agissai...

  19. Shakespeare dans le Brésil du 19e siècle : un exemple de transfert culturel

    OpenAIRE

    Segurado, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Partant de l’Angleterre vers l’Europe continentale au 18ème siècle, les pièces de Shakespeare arrivent au Brésil au 19ème siècle via des modèles français. Ce transfert culturel se fait d’abord par la perception de la culture étrangère imposée au Brésil lors de sa colonisation, suivie d’une graduelle interaction avec elle, puis d’une réinvention adaptée à la couleur locale. L’acteur João Caetano débute en 1835 une approche plus nationaliste, mais c’est la littérature qui voit surgir un authent...

  20. Gamifier un quiz – Effet graduel sur la performance, l’immersion et la perception de compétence

    OpenAIRE

    le Maire, Nathalie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Colaux, Catherine; Verpoorten, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Dans un contexte marqué par l’arrivée d’une génération pour laquelle les technologies, les réseaux sociaux et les jeux en ligne relèvent de l’évidence (Stein, 2013; Weiler, 2004), le jeu a souvent été qualifié de véhicule d’une pédagogie rendant l’étudiant acteur de son apprentissage, conférant une dimension de défi aux activités éducatives et générant une motivation intrinsèque (Foster, 2008; Kang & Tan, 2008; McFarlane et al., 2002; Mitchell & Savill-Smith, 2004; Papastergiou, 2009). Ce pot...