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Sample records for loin pain hematuria

  1. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

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    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HYPNOTHERAPY INTERVENTION FOR LOIN PAIN HEMATURIA: A CASE STUDY1

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    Elkins, Gary R.; Koep, Lauren L.; Kendrick, Cassie E.

    2012-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer-term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions—including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, end-point, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms. PMID:22098573

  3. Clinical characteristics of acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction

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    Jeonghwan Lee

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: ARF with severe loin pain and PRV can present with loin or abdominal pain, even without a history of anaerobic exercise. Careful history taking and appropriate imaging studies are critical in the diagnosis and management of this syndrome.

  4. Does this case hold the answer to one of the worse types of pain in medicine--that of loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS).

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    Russell, Alan; Chatterjee, Suman; Seed, Michael

    2015-04-26

    A patient with loin pain haematuria syndrome suffering chronic throbbing pulsing pain overlaid with prolonged periods of incapacitating colic and overnight vomiting was presented 10 months following diagnosis. Ultrasound was normal. No renal or ureteral stones, or filling defects were seen on CT. At cytoscopy, bladder and urethra were normal, and bloody urine effluxed from the left ureteric orifice. The ureters were normal at diagnosis, and developed new abutting non-penetrating calcifications by 8 months. Pain episodes of complete incapacitating intensity of 2-4 h duration were reduced to 10 min with 5 mg crushed tadalafil administered at onset. If tadalafil was delayed to after onset, the original course of agony resulted. Daily tadalafil reduced loin pain intensity, but not the exacerbations. Tadalafil efficacy may indicate that the pain exacerbations are due to spasm of ureter smooth muscle. 5 mg tadalafil taken at onset alleviated severe loin pain exacerbations in this case of loin pain haematuria syndrome. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome.

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    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  6. Renal US in children with asymptomatic hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, A.S.; Strife, J.L.; Bisset, G.S. III.

    1987-01-01

    The authors reviewed the renal US clinical evaluation, and laboratory data of 78 pediatric patients referred for asymptomatic hematuria. Patients with known renal disease, trauma, mass, infection, or severe pain were excluded. Thirty-two presented with gross hematuria. Nine had abnormal findings on US (28%). Increased echogenicity was the most common abnormality. Forty-five presented with microscopic hematuria. Eight had abnormal findings on US (18%). Bladder wall thickening was the most common abnormality. All patients with renal disease or significant anatomic abnormalities presented with gross hematuria and/or associated abnormalities in history, physical examination, or urinalysis. In asymptomatic patients with microscopic hematuria, significant US abnormalities are rare

  7. [Psychogenic purpura with hematuria and sexual pain disorder: a case report].

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    Ozyildirim, Ilker; Yücel, Başak; Aktan, Melih

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic purpura (Gardner-Diamond syndrome) is the occurrence and spontaneous recurrence of painful ecchymosis following emotional stress and minor trauma. Although the exact mechanism of this syndrome remains unknown, apart from skin lesions, different types of hemorrhaging have been reported, such as epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bleeding from the ear canals and eyes. We report a psychogenic purpura case that presented with hematuria in addition to skin lesions. Based on the psychiatric evaluation she was diagnosed with major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additionally, sexual pain disorder accompanied these disorders. With the help of antidepressant and supportive psychotherapy, the patient's ecchymosis and bleeding disappeared. During 8 months of follow-up the symptoms did not return. Vaginismus has not been reported in patients with psychogenic purpura. The presence of vaginismus, which is seen more frequently in eastern cultures and is thought to be related to sociocultural determinants, suggests that some cultural factors may be common to both psychogenic purpura and vaginismus. The aim of this case report was to call attention to a syndrome that is rarely seen and diagnosed, and to discuss its relationship to psychosocial factors. This syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of not only ecchymotic lesions, but also various types of bleeding, including hematuria. Despite the fact that its etiology and treatment are not clearly understood, it should be noted that psychological factors play a role in this disease and therefore, psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches can be effective.

  8. Severe loin pain following renal biopsy in a high-risk patient: A case report of a rare combination of pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistula

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    Desai Madhav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with low-grade fever, anuria and renal failure. He had no prior history of nephropathy and retinopathy. Since anuria persisted, a renal biopsy was performed using automated gun, under ultrasound guidance. Two hours after the renal biopsy was performed, the patient developed severe left loin pain that required analgesics and sedatives. Ultrasound of the abdomen performed immediately, two hours and four hours after the biopsy, did not reveal any hematoma. The hemoglobin was stable when the patient developed loin pain, but after eight hours decreased to 9.1 g/dL, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a big peri-nephric hematoma around the left kidney. He was managed with blood transfusions and a selective angiogram was done. It revealed a pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistula from the segmental artery of lower pole of the left kidney; both were closed by using microcoils and liquid embolic agent N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA. The only risk factor the patient had at the time of renal biopsy was severe renal failure. Our case suggests that severe loin pain immediately after renal biopsy in a patient with renal failure warrants careful follow-up of hemoglobin and imaging, even if initial imaging is normal. Further fall of hemoglobin necessitates early evaluation with angiogram, which helps in diagnosing the treatable, although rare, complications like pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistula.

  9. Gross hematuria as the presentation of an inguinoscrotal hernia: a case report

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    Ansari Kayvan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several complications have been reported with inguinal hernias. Although hematuria and flank pain, either as the presentation or as a complication of inguinal hernia, are infrequent, this condition may lead to the development of obstructive uropathy, which can have diverse manifestations. Case presentation A 71-year-old Iranian man with Persian ethnicity presented with new onset episodes of gross hematuria and left-sided flank pain. A physical examination revealed a large and non-tender inguinal hernia on his left side. An initial workup included an abdominal ultrasound, an intravenous pyelogram and cystoscopy, which showed left hydronephrosis and a bulging on the left-side of his bladder wall. On further evaluation, computed tomography confirmed that his sigmoid colon was the source of the pressure effect on his bladder, resulting in hydroureteronephrosis and hematuria. No tumoral lesion was evident. Herniorrhaphy led to the resolution of his signs and symptoms. Conclusion Our case illustrates a rare presentation of inguinal hernia responsible for gross hematuria and unilateral hydronephrosis. Urologic signs and symptoms can be caused by the content of inguinal hernias. They can also present as complications of inguinal hernias.

  10. KILT (Kidney and IVC Abnormalities with Leg Thrombosis) Syndrome in a 41-Years-Old Man with Loin Pain and Fever.

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    Fung, James Kiujing; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wan

    2017-05-01

    KILT syndrome is a rare condition composing the triad of kidney and inferior vena cava anomaly and extensive venous thrombosis. We present a case of newly diagnosed KILT syndrome in a 41-years-old gentleman presenting with loin pain and fever. Reviewing previous case reports, KILT syndrome is usually an incidental finding on imaging studies and there is a wide scope of initial clinical presentations. However, recent evidence suggests IVC anomaly may have caused subsequent renal hypoplasia. Identification of the underlying etiology may be helpful in planning early vascular intervention to treat the condition.

  11. Nutcracker Syndrome and Sickle Cell Trait: A Perfect Storm for Hematuria.

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    Ahmad, Amier; McElwee, Samuel K; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2017-05-01

    We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman with a history of sickle cell trait (SCT) who presented with several months of hematuria and was found to have nutcracker syndrome (NCS). While SCT is a common cause of hematuria resulting from renal papillary necrosis, our patient had concomitant abdominal pain and anemia, prompting further evaluation and the subsequent diagnosis of NCS. Interestingly, the anoxia in the left renal vein from NCS predisposes patients with SCT to sickling. Our case highlights key clinical features of both NCS and SCT and the relationship between the two disease processes.

  12. The giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infection in man in Australia.

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    Fernando, S S

    1983-04-01

    A 47-year-old, previously healthy farmer from Grafton, N.S.W. in Australia, developed loin pain and hematuria 2 months after minor trauma to his loin. A renal cyst was found by ultrasound and arteriography. At operation, a thick-walled cyst containing 800 ml of clotted blood was excised together with a small wedge of kidney. Ring-like structures measuring 70 X 45 mu were found in the fibrous cyst wall and in the surrounding fat. These birefringent double-walled "rings" with equally spaced radial striations were identified as the eggs of Dioctophyma renale.

  13. Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report

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    Sountoulides P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma. Case presentation A 72-year-old man, who was heavy smoker, presented with massive hematuria and flank pain. CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits. However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis. Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system. At the same time successful selective transcatheter embolization of the lesion was performed. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of upper tract hematuria. In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

  14. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2012-02-03

    Hematuria may have a number of causes, of which the more common are urinary tract calculi, urinary tract infection, urinary tract neoplasms (including renal cell carcinoma and urothelial tumors), trauma to the urinary tract, and renal parenchymal disease. This article discusses the current status of imaging of patients suspected of having urologic causes of hematuria. The role of all modalities, including plain radiography, intravenous urography or excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluation of these patients is discussed. The article highlights the current status of MDCT urography in imaging of patients with hematuria, and discusses various-often controversial-issues, such as optimal protocol design, accuracy of the technique in imaging of the urothelium, and the significant issue of radiation dose associated with MDCT urography.

  15. Creation and validation of a visual macroscopic hematuria scale for optimal communication and an objective hematuria index.

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    Wong, Lih-Ming; Chum, Jia-Min; Maddy, Peter; Chan, Steven T F; Travis, Douglas; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    Macroscopic hematuria is a common symptom and sign that is challenging to quantify and describe. The degree of hematuria communicated is variable due to health worker experience combined with lack of a reliable grading tool. We produced a reliable, standardized visual scale to describe hematuria severity. Our secondary aim was to validate a new laboratory test to quantify hemoglobin in hematuria specimens. Nurses were surveyed to ascertain current hematuria descriptions. Blood and urine were titrated at varying concentrations and digitally photographed in catheter bag tubing. Photos were processed and printed on transparency paper to create a prototype swatch or card showing light, medium, heavy and old hematuria. Using the swatch 60 samples were rated by nurses and laymen. Interobserver variability was reported using the generalized kappa coefficient of agreement. Specimens were analyzed for hemolysis by measuring optical density at oxyhemoglobin absorption peaks. Interobserver agreement between nurses and laymen was good (kappa = 0.51, p visual scale to grade and communicate hematuria with adequate interobserver agreement is feasible. The test for optical density at oxyhemoglobin absorption peaks is a new method, validated in our study, to quantify hemoglobin in a hematuria specimen. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CT urography and hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretlau, Thomas; Hansen, Rasmus H; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) urography is now used in the work-up of patients with hematuria. The dose of contrast medium and radiation varies considerably between the different CT protocols. PURPOSE: To study the disease prevalence in a consecutive group of patients with hematuria...

  17. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this article, we will discuss the current status of imaging in patients with hematuria of urologic origin. Issues impacting evaluation of these patients with radiography, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and sonography will be discussed. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Low-dose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria. Using ultrasound alone, it is often difficult to differentiate renal transitional cell carcinoma from other causes of filling defects of the renal collecting system such as blood clots, sloughed papillae, or fungus balls. The prominence of the role of excretory urography in the evaluation of patients with hematuria has diminished, and MDCT urography is now preferred to excretory urography in most cases.

  18. Bladder Metastasis of non-Small Cell Lung Cancer : an Unusual Cause of Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, O. Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yildirim, M. Erol; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 2% of bladder malignancies are metastatic. The lung cancer makes metastasis sporadically to the bladder. A-69-year-old female patient presented with a history of pain in kidneys, vomiting and hematuria. Cystoscopic examination of the patient revealed small bladder capacity and solitary

  19. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

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    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  20. Inverted Nutcracker Syndrome: A Case of Persistent Hematuria and Pain in the Presence of a Left-Sided Inferior Vena Cava

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    Obi Ekwenna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome is described as the symptomatic compression of left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, resulting in outflow congestion of the left kidney. We present the case of a 51-year-old male with a left-sided inferior vena cava, resulting in compression of the right renal vein by the superior mesenteric artery. Secondary to this anatomic anomaly, the patient experienced a many-year history of flank pain and intermittent gross hematuria. We have termed this unusual anatomic finding and its associated symptoms as the “inverted nutcracker syndrome”, and describe its successful management with nephrectomy and autotransplantation.

  1. Hematuria and clot retention after transvaginal oocyte aspiration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modder, Joshua; Kettel, L Michael; Sakamoto, Kyoko

    2006-09-01

    To report a case of bladder injury with hematuria and urinary retention after transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Case report. Emergency room in a university medical center. A 28-year-old woman presented with urinary retention and suprapubic pain 8 hours after oocyte aspiration. Foley catheter, intravenous fluid bolus, bladder irrigation, and computed tomography with postvoid films that showed a blood clot in the bladder. Patient was discharged home with antibiotics and catheter in place. Clinical follow-up. Patient passed voiding trial 4 days later and was artificially inseminated. No further hematuria or voiding problems were reported, and she had a successful pregnancy. Patients who elect to undergo oocyte aspiration should be warned about the possibility of bladder injury because of the close proximity of the ovaries to the bladder, and physicians should have an appropriate treatment plan.

  2. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria.

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    Alam, Shadrul; Das Choudhary, Mrigen Kumar; Islam, Kabirul

    2008-02-01

    To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder. An intervention study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College between January 1998 and December 2003. A total of 43 boys (mean age 8 years, SD+/-2.6) were enrolled. In all cases, a leech had entered the urinary bladder through the urethra causing hematuria. All patients were equipped with a self-retaining Foley catheter. They were managed by infusing 50ml of normal saline into the urinary bladder through the catheter that was then clamped for 3h. After removing the catheter, in all cases the whole leech was spontaneously expelled intact, dead or alive, within 2-24h during the subsequent act of micturition. Hematuria gradually diminished to a clear flow within the next 6h in 27 cases, 12h in 14 cases and 24h in two cases. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks, and none developed recurrent hematuria. Catheterization and irrigation of the urinary bladder with normal saline is a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive method of removing the leech and controlling hematuria.

  3. Evaluation of hematuria in anticoagulated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, J.T.; Clark, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of investigating hematuria in anticoagulated patients the authors examined records of 25 consecutive patients with hematuria who were on an anticoagulation regimen with sodium warfarin (Coumadin) for various thromboembolic disorders. All had undergone intravenous urography (IVU) and 12 had undergone cystoscopy. Potential bleeding sources were discovered in 14 patients by IVU and in seven patients by cystoscopy. Disorders found were renal stones (4), transitional carcinoma (1), lymphoma (1), retroperitoneal hematoma (1), bladder tumors (2), calcified renal mass (1), hemorrhagic cystitis (2), and enlarged prostate (7). In 18 (72%) patients, the findings on IVU and/or cystoscopy were abnormal. Hematuria is a serious symptom that warrants investigation in anticoagulated as well as nonanticoagulated patients

  4. WhatsApp Use In The Evaluation of Hematuria.

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    Sener, Tarik Emre; Butticè, Salvatore; Sahin, Bahadir; Netsch, Christopher; Dragos, Laurian; Pappalardo, Rosa; Magno, Carlo

    2018-03-01

    The advancements in telemedicine provide the possibility to send photos of hematuria cases to professionals for further evaluation. We aimed to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of WhatsApp use in the evaluation of hematuria. Between December 2014 and April 2016, 212 patients were evaluated prospectively for hematuria by 2 groups of urologists; Group A: in direct contact with patients for evaluation; Group B: "blind" urologist who had no access to the patients' data but received pictures via WhatsApp. Two photos of voided urine in a sterile container were taken and sent using WhatsApp. The opinions of Group A and B about the grade of hematuria were evaluated. Shapiro-Wilk test and Fleiss' kappa statistics were used for statistical analyses. The median age of patients was 71 (min 22, max 96). The Group A urologists were in accordance in 96.22% of cases. Group B urologists had common opinions in 99.5% (n = 203) and there was almost perfect agreement between 2 groups (λ = 0.992). The number of common opinions among "blind" urologists is more than the number of common opinions among the consultants. When further classification is performed as serious and non-serious hematuria, the rate of misdiagnosing serious cases is approximately 6.5-7%. However, using WhatsApp, the urologists can differentiate normal urine and any form of hematuria with 100% accuracy. It is possible to evaluate hematuria remotely and also reduce unnecessary costs of services for hematuria of mild clinical significance by using telemedicine. WhatsApp can provide valuable aid to tertiary hospitals where the urologist is not always present as well as in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bleeding Diathesis in Unobserved Ground After the Diagnostic Ureterorenoscopy Gross Hematuria

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    Ižsmail Nalbant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hematuria is one of the common urological problem. The main causes of hematuria are malignancies, urinary tract infection and urinary tract stone disease. But sometimes use of anticoagulants, bleeding diathesis and intravesical chemotherapy can cause the hematuria. In our study, we aimed to present a patient with hematuria and has bleeding diathesis but detected any additional urological pathology.

  6. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

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    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  7. Familial microscopic hematuria caused by hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria.

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    Praga, M; Alegre, R; Hernández, E; Morales, E; Domínguez-Gil, B; Carreño, A; Andrés, A

    2000-01-01

    We report 12 patients belonging to five different families in whom persistent isolated microhematuria was associated with hypercalciuria and/or hyperuricosuria. Four patients had episodes of gross hematuria, three patients had passed renal stones, and a history of nephrolithiasis was obtained in four of the families (80%). Calcium oxalate and uric acid crystals were commonly observed in the urine sediments. Urinary erythrocytes had a normal appearance on phase-microscopic examination. Reduction of calciuria and uricosuria by thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, forced fluid intake, and dietetic measures led to a persistent normalization of urine sediment with complete disappearance of hematuria. Determination of calcium and uric acid urinary excretions should be included in the study of familial hematuria.

  8. Hematuria following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurka, Marie K; Chen, Leonard N; Bhagat, Aditi; Moures, Rudy; Kim, Joy S; Yung, Thomas; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Krishnan, Pranay; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Hematuria following prostate radiotherapy is a known toxicity that may adversely affect a patient’s quality of life. Given the higher dose of radiation per fraction using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) there is concern that post-SBRT hematuria would be more common than with alternative radiation therapy approaches. Herein, we describe the incidence and severity of hematuria following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer at our institution. Two hundred and eight consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with SBRT monotherapy with at least three years of follow-up were included in this retrospective analysis. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® (Accuray) to doses of 35–36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Toxicities were scored using the CTCAE v.4. Hematuria was counted at the highest grade it occurred in the acute and late setting for each patient. Cystoscopy findings were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Hematuria-associated bother was assessed via the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC)-26. The median age was 69 years with a median prostate volume of 39 cc. With a median follow-up of 48 months, 38 patients (18.3%) experienced at least one episode of hematuria. Median time to hematuria was 13.5 months. In the late period, there were three grade 3 events and five grade 2 events. There were no grade 4 or 5 events. The 3-year actuarial incidence of late hematuria ≥ grade 2 was 2.4%. On univariate analysis, prostate volume (p = 0.022) and history of prior procedure(s) for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with hematuria. On multivariate analysis, history of prior procedure(s) for BPH (p < 0.0001) and α 1A antagonist use (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with the development of hematuria. SBRT for prostate cancer was well tolerated with hematuria rates comparable to other radiation modalities. Patients factors

  9. Transarterial embolization for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformations or fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaoxi; Liu Shiyuan; Dong Weihua; Dong Sheng; Jia Ningyang; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transarterial embolization for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformation or fistulae. Methods: Seven patients with gross hematuria caused by renal arterial abnormalities were retrospectively reviewed, of which three had congenital renal arteriovenous malformations and the other four had non-neoplastic acquired renal arteriovenous fistulae. All patients were confirmed by renal arterial angiography and undergone embolization with various embolic materials. Results: Embolization was successfully carried out in all cases. Gross hematuria disappeared one to seven days after the procedure. No severe complications were encountered. No recurrence occurred within 12 to 36 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Transarterial embolization is safe and effective for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformations or fistulae. (authors)

  10. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in temperature declines during chilling between the loin and ham likely contributed to the weak nature of relationships. Equilibration of longissimus dorsi

  11. Hematuria screening test for urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuttiangtum, Ayuth; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.

  12. [Placenta percreta with bladder invasion: an uncommon cause of hematuria during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Solís, A; Leo-Barahona, M; Romero-López, A I; Gómez-Guerrero, J M

    2014-01-01

    Placenta percreta with bladder invasion is a very uncommon condition that can lead to very severe complications in pregnant women. Although it is often diagnosed during delivery, imaging techniques are very useful for early diagnosis, which is fundamental for planning surgery and avoiding potentially lethal complications. We present the case of a woman with a history of cesarean section who presented with hematuria and low back pain. The diagnosis of placenta percreta with bladder invasion was suggested after ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and was confirmed at surgery. We provide a brief review of the literature, emphasizing the role of imaging techniques. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh pork was studied. Radiation treatments were carried out under air on fresh pork loins at doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy and the loins were evaluated for deamidation, solubility, sulphydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. Deamidation was significantly (p⩽0.05) affected by the treatment with 98% deamidation at a dose of 8 kGy. No significant changes (p>0.05) were noted in sulphydryl content under the same conditions. The increase in deamidation resulted in a decrease in hydrophobicity and an increase in protein solubility. γ-irradiation also reduced the number of microorganisms in the meat. Mesophiles were more resistant to the irradiation treatment than psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas. All irradiated pork samples (1 or 3 kGy) had a bacterial count lower that 10(7) CFU/g after 15 days of storage. A minimal dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to increase the shelf life of fresh pork loins although variations in initial pork contamination was found to be the determining factor accounting for the effectiveness of the treatment

  14. An explorative study on pork loin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Hviid, Marchen Sonja; Larsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Bag-of-words (BoW) image description has shown good performance for a large variety of image recognition scenarios. We investigate approaches to alleviating a standard BoW image description pipeline representations for the specific task of recognizing pork loins. Specifically, we extend the Bo...

  15. [Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia presenting with hematuria and severe anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, A; Goren, E; Segal, M

    1995-07-01

    A patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was admitted with hematuria and severe anemia after mild recurrent episodes of epistaxis. Telangiectasias were found in the skin and buccal and nasal mucosa. No defect in the coagulation mechanism was found; thrombocyte count and function were normal. On cystoscopy, tortuous engorged vessels, some actively bleeding, were seen in the trigonal mucosa. Biopsy showed enlarged vessels in the lamina propria. Electrocoagulation of the bleeding vessels stopped hematuria, but 6 months later it recurred. This time Nd-YAG laser was used to stop the bleeding after electrocoagulation was ineffective.

  16. Vesical schistosomiasis with terminal hematuria in sub-Saharan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J; Calleja, E; Marne, C; Borque, A

    2014-03-01

    To know the characteristics of vesical schistosomiasis caused by schistosoma hematobium in immigrant patients. The retrospective study of 41 cases microbiologically diagnosed in our hospital over the last 16 years is presented. Data was collected on origin, age, presentation form, diagnostic tests and treatment. All were African patients whose ages ranged from 4 to 32 years and who had terminal macroscopic hematuria. Most of the patients (85%) were men. In all of the cases, diagnosis was by a urinary microbiological study and in one case, cystoscopy with a biopsy of a typical vesical lesion. Terminal hematuria is the most representative clinical sign. They were treated with praziquantel. The epidemiology and intermittent terminal hematuria in African patients should lead to the suspicion of vesical schistosomiasis as the first diagnostic option. Urinary microbiological study is a rapid, non-invasive, test with high diagnostic yield that would avoid performing invasive studies. Its simple treatment assures high level of compliance and consequent efficacy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary magnesium and duration of refrigerated storage on the quality of vacuum-packaged, boneless pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Davis, J R; Rakes, L K; Maxwell, C V; Stivarius, M R; Pohlman, F W

    2001-01-01

    Quality data were initially collected on 78 pork loins from crossbred pigs fed diets containing 0, 1.25 or 2.5% magnesium mica (MM). Loins were then vacuum-packaged, and randomly assigned to either 4 or 8 weeks of storage at 2°C. Dietary MM had no (P > 0.05) effect on moisture loss/retention or subjective and objective color measurements. Purge volume increased (Pwater-holding capacity of pork loins during storage, the data indicated inclusion of MM in swine diets may retard onset of oxidative rancidity in vacuum-packaged pork loins.

  18. Treatment of Persistent Gross Hematuria with Tranexamic Acid in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this retrospective study we aimed to compare the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA vs etamsylate, two hemostatic agents, on hematuria duration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 40 patients with ADPKD and macroscopic hematuria. 20 patients receiving TXA and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection were compared with 20 matched patients receiving etamsylate and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection. The primary outcome was hematuria duration and the secondary outcomes were blood transfusion requirements and adverse events. Results: The hematuria duration was shorter in the TXA group compared with the etamsylate group (4[3-5] d vs 7[6-10] d, P<0.001. The volume of blood transfusion tended to be less in the TXA group than in the etamsylate group (300±115 ml vs 486±195 ml, P=0.12, and the number of patients needing a blood transfusion also tended to be lower [20% (4/20 vs 35% (7/20, P=0.29]. TXA and etamsylate were equally well tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Our study indicates that TXA treatment was more effective than etamsylate in stopping bleeding in ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria.

  19. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102 at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw decreased (p<0.05 up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05 increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05 color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  20. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Ewa; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Przybylski, Wiesław; Tambor, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively). The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene); alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane); aldehyde (hexanal); alcohol (2-furanmethanol); ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone); phenol (guaiacol); and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene). Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production. PMID:27456422

  1. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Górska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene; alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; aldehyde (hexanal; alcohol (2-furanmethanol; ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone; phenol (guaiacol; and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene. Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production.

  2. Analysis of MRI by fractals for prediction of sensory attributes: A case study in loin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the use of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI of meat products, specifically loin, in order to determine sensory parameters of loin. For that, the capability of different fractal algorithms was evaluated (Classical Fractal Algorithm, CFA; Fractal Texture Algorithm, FTA...... was analysed. Results on this study firstly demonstrate the capability of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI from meat product. Different combinations of the analysed techniques can be applied for predicting most sensory attributes of loins adequately (R > 0.5). However, the combination of SE, OPFTA and MLR...... offered the most appropriate results. Thus, it could be proposed as an alternative to the traditional food technology methods....

  3. A national audit of retail lamb loin quality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Channon, H A; Hopkins, D L; Hall, D G; van de Ven, R

    2002-07-01

    A retail audit of lamb loin tenderness was conducted over a 12-month period to determine the variation in tenderness of Australian lamb. Tenderness was objectively measured using Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force. Muscle pH and cooking loss were determined on all samples and colour was measured on a sub-sample of loins. A total of 909 midloins from retail butcher shops and supermarkets located in four Australian capital cities (Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, and Perth) were evaluated at four sampling times (December 1997 and March, June, and October 1998). Overall, 20.3% of all midloins purchased had a WB shear force value above the threshold level of 5 kg. Generic samples from Melbourne butcher shops were similar for WB shear force on average to the generic samples from Canberra and Sydney, whereas those from Melbourne supermarkets had significantly (Plamb had a greater WB shear force (Plamb. No relationship was found between price per kg and shear force (r=0.02) for loins purchased in Sydney (n=220). Price per kg differed between months (Plamb sold in the domestic market. A lamb eating quality assurance system, based on set protocols, is one approach that is currently being investigated in Australia to ensure the supply of consistently high eating quality lamb to consumers.

  4. Macroscopic hematuria: A rare etiology in western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide, the infection frequently being found in migrants and travelers, its recognition in Italy may be delayed as patients may either present symptoms or be asymptomatic, especially with regard to localization in the bladder, in a similar way to other infectious diseases. We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in a young African male with persistent hematuria which did not respond to antibiotic treatment administered on suspicion of a urinary bacterial infection. The present case indicates that urinary schistosomiasis should be ruled out, especially in those patients presenting symptoms and coming from areas known to be endemic for helminthiasis. Finally, bladder polyps must be ruled out in cases of migrants with unexplained urinary inflammation associated either with or without hematuria.

  5. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P water before pumping and bind less (P water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  6. Urinary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wai Man Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient′s past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1 of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.

  7. Nephrolithiasis and hematuria--sometimes a stony road to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, L; Quack, I; Weiner, S M; Waldherr, R; Henning, B; Hofebauer, S; Rump, L C

    2005-08-01

    We report a case of a young man with a history of kidney stones. Occurrence of gross hematuria several months after the extracorporeal shock wave, lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment lead to hospitalization. By ultrasound and abdominal CT scan, the urologist could exclude post-renal causes of the gross hematuria and acute renal failure. After transfer to a department of nephrology hemodialysis was started, an immediate kidney biopsy was performed and prednisolone was administered on the same day. The kidney biopsy revealed an anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. The renal function did not recover and the patient remained on hemodialysis. In the literature it has been hypothesized that ESWL-treated patients are prone to develop anti-GBM disease by liberation of glomerular basement antigen through the ESWL high energy shock waves. An additional hypothesis considering the higher susceptibility for anti-GBM disease among certain HLA-tissue types is discussed with regard to our case. Unfortunately, the prolonged track to diagnosis and delayed immunosuppressive treatment could not prevent poor clinical outcome. Although anti-GBM disease is a rather rare disease, it should be included as a differential diagnosis for hematuria--especially months after ESWL treatment. Otherwise early diagnosis may be missed and as in our patient immunosuppressive treatment will remain unsuccessful to recover renal function.

  8. Idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog; the usefulness of a method of partial occlusion of the renal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, M; Watanabe, T; Yugeta, N; Maeda, H; Fujii, K; Wakao, Y; Takahashi, M; Yamamura, H

    1997-04-01

    Exploratory laparotomy was performed on a dog suspected of having idiopathic renal hematuria. Two catheters were inserted into the bilateral ureters, and hematuria from the left kidney was confirmed. The blood flow was occluded in the ventral and dorsal rami of the left renal artery in order to localize the site of hemorrhage. As hematuria disappeared when the dorsal ramus was occluded, the site of renal hematuria was localized to the area dominated by the dorsal ramus of the renal artery. As a result of ligating the dorsal ramus of the left renal artery in this dog, renal hematuria subsided, and the dog has shown a favorable course, to date, one year after surgery.

  9. Non-destructive analysis of sensory traits of dry-cured loins by MRI-computer vision techniques and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés; Ávila, María Del Mar; G Rodríguez, Pablo; Perez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with computer vision techniques have been proposed as an alternative or complementary technique to determine the quality parameters of food in a non-destructive way. The aim of this work was to analyze the sensory attributes of dry-cured loins using this technique. For that, different MRI acquisition sequences (spin echo, gradient echo and turbo 3D), algorithms for MRI analysis (GLCM, NGLDM, GLRLM and GLCM-NGLDM-GLRLM) and predictive data mining techniques (multiple linear regression and isotonic regression) were tested. The correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the prediction results. The combination of spin echo, GLCM and isotonic regression produced the most accurate results. In addition, the MRI data from dry-cured loins seems to be more suitable than the data from fresh loins. The application of predictive data mining techniques on computational texture features from the MRI data of loins enables the determination of the sensory traits of dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Macroscopic Hematuria After Conventional or Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Results From a Prospective Phase 3 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe, E-mail: sanguineti@ifo.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcidiacono, Fabio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Saracino, Bianca Maria; Farneti, Alessia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Gomellini, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcangeli, Giorgio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results: Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions: MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.

  11. Macroscopic Hematuria After Conventional or Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Results From a Prospective Phase 3 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Fabio; Landoni, Valeria; Saracino, Bianca Maria; Farneti, Alessia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Gomellini, Sara; Strigari, Lidia; Arcangeli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results: Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions: MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.

  12. Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, B N; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality were assessed on 52.0 and 47.5% of carcasses, respectively. Loin chop slice shear force (SSF), cured ham quality, and adipose iodine value (IV) were evaluated on at least 10% of the population. The slope of regression lines and coefficients of determination between HCW and quality traits were computed using PROC REG of SAS and considered significant at ≤ 0.05. As HCW increased, boneless loins became darker and redder, evidenced by lower L* (β = -0.0243, color score (β = 0.0024, ham face color ( ham face L* values and 0.47% of the variability in a* values. Heavier carcasses produced thicker and firmer bellies, with HCW accounting for 37.81% of the variability in belly thickness (β = 0.0272, ham quality explained by HCW was poor (≤5.60%), suggesting that HCW is a poor predictor of the primal quality of pigs within this weight range. Nonetheless, HCW was a moderate predictor of belly quality traits. The findings of this study suggest that increasing HCW did not compromise loin, ham, or belly quality attributes.

  13. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  14. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, Tyler R. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY (United States); United States Department of Veterans Affairs Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY (United States); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Ge, Wenzhen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Bjurlin, Marc A. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  15. Prediction of pork loin quality using online computer vision system and artificial intelligence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng-Hung; Newman, David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a computer vision system (CVS) for objective measurement of pork loin under industry speed requirement. Color images of pork loin samples were acquired using a CVS. Subjective color and marbling scores were determined according to the National Pork Board standards by a trained evaluator. Instrument color measurement and crude fat percentage were used as control measurements. Image features (18 color features; 1 marbling feature; 88 texture features) were extracted from whole pork loin color images. Artificial intelligence prediction model (support vector machine) was established for pork color and marbling quality grades. The results showed that CVS with support vector machine modeling reached the highest prediction accuracy of 92.5% for measured pork color score and 75.0% for measured pork marbling score. This research shows that the proposed artificial intelligence prediction model with CVS can provide an effective tool for predicting color and marbling in the pork industry at online speeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  17. Procedural Priorities of the Pork Loin Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Dhein Dill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pork meat production industry is facing new challenges as a consequence of consumers’ expectations regarding the quality and safety of food products. For the present study, experts and consumers in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were interviewed to identify the attributes of pork loin that need to be improved. Consumers have particular concerns about the juiciness, fibrousness, and portion size of the meat, the diversity of cuts and safety and animal welfare. The supply chain was also analyzed in order to verify the procedural priorities that need to be improved in order to meet the demands of consumers. Experts were interviewed using the quality function deployment methodology. The findings of the study indicate that, improvements must be made in the production sector in terms of animal handling and transportation. In the processing sector, improvements are required regarding slaughter control of PSE and DFD, the development of new packaging, and product fractionation. The requirements in the distribution sector relate to information campaigns for consumers to diffuse the nutritional characteristics of pork loin and in the product safety through sanitary inspection.

  18. Microbiological quality and safety of Skipjack tuna loins (Katsuwonus Pelamis intented for canning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is a food widely consumed fresh and canned as well. After catching and filleting, a pre-cooking step is normally followed by freezing and shipping to canning industry as loins. The aim of this paper was to assess the microbiological quality and safety of tuna loins (50 samples imported by an Italian canned tuna producer from two different FAO fishing areas. Total bacterial count (TBC, Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, pH measurement, S. aureus enterotoxin and histamine levels were evaluated. Significant differences were evidenced for TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Coliforms and pH between fishing areas. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in all the samples tested at 1 to 3 Log cfu/g; Staphylococcus warneri, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. intermedius, S. vitulinus and S. sciuri were also identified. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin were not detected. Histamine ranged between 0 to 5 mg/kg. The tuna loins analysed in this paper have to be considered safe; staphylococci presence represents a possible concern and has to been taken in account when risk analysis is carried out.

  19. Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, María Rosario; Estévez, Mario; Morcuende, David; Cava, Ramón

    2004-12-15

    The effect of the type of frying culinary fat (olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, and pig lard) on volatile compounds isolated from fried pork loin chops (m. Longissimus dorsi) was measured by SPME-GC-MS. Frying modified the fatty acid composition of lipids from pork loin chops, which tended to be similar to that of the culinary fat used to fry. Volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of fatty acids increased, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and hydrocarbons. Besides, each culinary fat used modified the volatile profiles in fried meat differently. Sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops presented the highest aldehyde aliphatic content, probably due to their highest content of polyunsaturated acids. Hexanal, the most abundant aldehyde in fried samples, presented the most elevated content in sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops. In addition, these samples presented more heterocyclic compounds from the Maillard reaction than other fried samples. Volatiles detected in olive oil-fried pork loin chops were mainly lipid-derived compounds such as pentan-1-ol, hexanal, hept-2-enal, nonanal, decanal, benzaldehyde, and nonan-2-one. Butter-fried pork loins were abundant in ketones with a high number of carbons (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, undecan-2-one, tridecanone, and heptadecan-2-one). Pig lard-fried pork loin chops presented some Strecker aldehydes isolated in only these samples, such as 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal, and a sulfur compound (dimethyl disulfide) related to Strecker aldehydes.

  20. The role of imaging in the investigation of painless hematuria in adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    The radiologic investigation of asymptomatic hematuria has changed significantly due to the introduction of new imaging modalities and innovative techniques, such as computed tomography urogaphy, which allows a comprehensive evaluation of the entire urinary tract in a single study. There is still a role for "older" imaging modalities, such as intravenous urography and ultrasound, and their use is still advocated in younger patients with a lower risk of malignancy to minimize radiation dose. Combined modality imaging can also be useful for characterization of lesions. Guidelines have recently been published for the radiologic investigation of hematuria; these are discussed in this article.

  1. The effect of sex, carcass mass, back fat thickness and lean meat content on pork ham and loin characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Knecht

    2016-01-01

    P  ≤ 0.01. Half-carcass mass showed a strong negative correlation with bone content in ham and loin (r = −0.35 and r = −0.21, respectively. Back fat thickness and meat content strongly and inversely correlated with the content of ham and loin in half-carcasses (r = −0.41 and r = 0.59 for back fat thickness; r = 0.66 and r = −0.57 for lean meat content. Close and inverse correlations of back fat thickness and lean meat content were observed with regard to their content in ham and loin (P  ≤ 0.01.

  2. Hematuria renal idiopática: reporte de un caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Serna Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de hematuria renal idiopática en un canino de la raza Mastín Napolitano de 7,5 años de edad, presentado a consulta por hematuria con varios meses de evolución; los análisis de sangre, orina y las ayudas de imagenología (radiografía y ecografía no fueron suficientes para indicar un diagnóstico. Se recomendó la celiotomía exploratoria y, después de cateterizar los uréteres desde el interior de la vejiga, se estableció que el sangrado provenía del riñón derecho, el cual fue extirpado con su uréter. Se realizaron exámenes de histopatología del riñón extirpado, encontrándose nefrosis y un proceso degenerativo generalizado a nivel de corteza y médula renal. La hematuria no se resolvió en el postoperatorio, seguramente por ser de origen bilateral; el paciente murió de otra causa no relacionada, y no fue posible evaluar el riñón contralateral.

  3. CT urography in the diagnosis of renal masses in patients with hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warshauer, D.M.; Street, L.; McCarthy, S.M.; Glickman, M.G.; Ritcher, J.; Rosenfield, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal method for the diagnosis of renal masses in patients with hematuria has been in question since the introduction of axial imaging techniques. A prospective study comparing excretory urography and nephrotomography (EU) with limited renal CT was undertaken. Results showed EU able to detect approximately 75% of CT-confirmed masses greater than 2 cm, but less than 10% of CT masses smaller than 2 cm. These results suggest that a combination study of CT/EU utilizing a single contrast injection with EU for imaging the collecting system and CT for renal parenchymal evaluation would be the best screening study in patients with hematuria

  4. Changes in microflora and other characteristics of vacuum-packaged pork loins irradiated at 3.0 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebepe, S.; Molins, R.A.; Charoen, S.P.; Farrar, H. IV; Skowronski, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of 3.0-kGy irradiation on microflora and other attributes of fresh, vacuum-packaged pork loins were examined during storage (2-4 degrees C, 98 days) and mishandling (24-25 degrees C, 24 and 48 hr). Shelf life of pork chops from irradiated loins was determined at 5 degrees C. Irradiated loins kept at 2-4 degrees C tested negative for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus. Yersinia spp., was detected in pork chops held at 5 degrees C; this organism, C. perfringens and Aeromonas spp. were present in abused samples. In two irradiated samples Listeria monocytogenes was found. Irradiation reduced aerobic, anaerobic and Aeromonas spp. counts; lactobacilli were least affected. Chemical spoilage began after 91 days at 2-4 degrees C. With irradiation, TBA values were unaffected but Hunter a color values increased

  5. Severe hematuria after transurethral electrocoagulation in a patient with an arteriovesical fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangyi; Lin, Yiwei; Chen, Bin; Zhou, Xianyong; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Shen, Yuehong; Xie, Liping

    2013-12-01

    Arteriovesical fistulas are extremely rare. Only eleven cases were previously reported in the literature. They can occur iatrogenically, traumatically or spontaneously. We report an unusual case of a 62-year-old woman with arteriovesical fistula that developed fatal hematuria after transurethral electrocoagulation. Computed tomography (CT) and selective angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the right superior vesical artery with arteriovesical fistula formation, which was managed by transarterial embolization. Contrast enhanced CT or CT angiography should be performed when a pulsatile hemorrhage is revealed during cystoscopy. Therapeutic vesical arterial embolization should be considered as a safe and effective procedure for arteriovesical fistulas. Transurethral electrocoagulation may cause severe hematuria for pulsatile bladder bleeding in patients with pelvic vascular malformation.

  6. Hematuria intermitente: Esquistosomiasis vesical. A propósito de un caso Intermittent hematuria: Vesical schistosomosis. Concerning one case

    OpenAIRE

    D. Morales; J. Molina; A. Martínez Ortiz; V. Martínez Artola; X. Beristáin

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente con esquistosomiasis vesical que consideramos inusual en nuestro entorno. El cuadro clínico de esta parasitosis es habitualmente el de una hematuria intermitente de semanas de evolución que no se resuelve con las medidas terapéuticas habituales. Debido al aumento de población inmigrante procedente de áreas endémicas, debemos pensar cada vez más en esta patología emergente. Con el tratamiento el proceso se resuelve satisfactoriamente, pudiéndose evita...

  7. Computed tomography-urography for upper urinary tract imaging: is it required for all patients who present with hematuria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; Nio, C. Y.; de la Rosette, Jean M. C. H.; Laguna, M. Pilar; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    To define in which patients who present with microscopic or macroscopic hematuria CT urography (CTU) is indicated as an imaging mode for the upper urinary tract (UUT). We conducted a prospective study on consecutive patients who attended a modern protocol-driven hematuria clinic from January 2006 to

  8. Pre-diagnosis quality of life (QoL) in patients with hematuria : Comparison of bladder cancer with other causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens-Laan, C.A.; Kil, P.J.M.; Bosch, J.L.; de Vries, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine quality of life (QoL), health status, sexual function, and anxiety in patients with primary hematuria who later appear to have bladder cancer (BC) and patients with other diagnoses. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 598 patients with primary hematuria were enrolled in this

  9. Updated estimates of HAL n and RN- effects on pork quality: fresh and processed loin and ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, P; Glénisson, J; Figwer, P; Pires, J; Damon, M; Franck, M; Le Roy, P

    2010-12-01

    A 1000-pig F2 intercross QTL detection experimental population was generated using two commercial sire lines. Independent carriers of HAL n and RN- mutations (10% and 14%, respectively) were included in this population as control genotypes. The effects of HAL n and RN- heterozygous genotypes on fresh and transformed loins and hams were estimated using a mixed model methodology. The results document the unfavorable effects of both mutations on meat quality. Smaller effects of HAL Nn genotype compared to HAL nn or RN-rn+ genotypes were estimated. Interestingly, effects of HAL Nn genotype on meat pH and loin color could be insignificant at 24-h postmortem, but translate into higher water losses on storage and cooking, and result in tougher cooked loin. Using the same methodology, significant effects of the PRKAG3 (RN) I199 allele on ultimate pH values but not on glycolytic potential were observed. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression of porcine myosin heavy chain 1 gene in Berkshire loins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of porcine myosin heavy chain 1 gene in Berkshire loins with a high pH24 value. Jin Hun Kang, Woo Young Bang, Eun Jung Kwon, Yong Hwa Lee, Da Hye Park, Eun Seok Cho, Min Ji Kim, Jong-Soon Choi, Hwa Chun Park, Beom Young Park, Chul Wook Kim ...

  11. The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Alparslan, E-mail: alparslanunsal@yahoo.com [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Caliskan, Eda Kazak [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Erol, Haluk [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can Zafer [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficiency of the following imaging algorithm, including intravenous urography (IVU) or computed tomography urography (CTU) based on ultrasonographic (US) selection, in the radiological management of hematuria. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-one patients with hematuria were prospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 106 cases with normal or nearly normal US result and then they were examined with IVU. Group 2 was composed of the remaining 35 cases which had any urinary tract abnormality, and they were directed to CTU. Radiological results were compared with clinical diagnosis. Results: Ultrasonography and IVU results of 97 cases were congruent in group 1. Eight simple cysts were detected with US and 1 non-obstructing ureter stone was detected with IVU in remaining 9 patients. The only discordant case in clinical comparison was found to have urinary bladder cancer on conventional cystoscopy. Ultrasonography and CTU results were congruent in 30 cases. Additional lesions were detected with CTU (3 ureter stones, 1 ureter TCC, 1 advanced RCC) in remaining 5 patients. Ultrasonography + CTU combination results were all concordant with clinical diagnosis. Except 1 case, radio-clinical agreement was achieved. Conclusion: Cross-sectional imaging modalities are preferred in evaluation of hematuria. CTU is the method of choice; however the limitations preclude using CTU as first line or screening test. Ultrasonography is now being accepted as a first line imaging modality with the increased sensitivity in mass detection compared to IVU. The US guided imaging algorithm can be used effectively in radiological approach to hematuria.

  12. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  13. Effect of low dose irradiation of pork loins on the microflora, sensory characteristics and fat stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, M.L.; Kraft, A.A.; Olson, D.G.; Walker, H.W.; Rust, R.E.; James, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packaged pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4 0 C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values

  14. Palliative percutaneous kidney embolization with enbucrilate in patients with renal cell carcinoma: safety and symptom control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Karolkiewicz, Maciej; Strześniewski, Piotr; Lasek, Władysław; Bryczkowski, Michał; Wolski, Zbigniew

    2007-05-01

    Primarily palliative renal embolization is a relatively rare procedure which is indicated in patients with unresectable kidney malignancies and in patients in poor general condition. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the role of primarily palliative transarterial renal embolization for the treatment of inoperable patients with renal cell carcinoma, assessing the indications, safety, and efficacy of this procedure. Seventy-three patients scheduled for palliative embolization between 1998 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed regarding their medical history, the procedure report, and data from the early postoperative period. Sixty-six of the 73 patients presented with renal cell carcinoma stage IV. The most common indication for embolization was hematuria (34%), followed by flank pain (32%), prophylaxis in stage IV (25%), lack of consent for surgery (7%), and poor general condition (3%). Embolizations were performed under local anesthesia with a mixture of enbucrilate and iodinated oil, with the use of additional embolizing materials in two cases. The procedure eliminated hematuria in 100% of cases and removed the loin pain completely in 72%. Migration of the embolizing material was observed in 10% of cases, and in 4% it resulted in symptomatic occlusion of the lower extremity distal arteries. Postembolic syndrome was noted in 92% of the patients Percutaneous palliative embolization with enbucrilate is a safe and effective method of treating patients with unresectable renal cell carcinoma. The potential effect of the embolization on cancer progression and improvement of survival in these patients still requires prospective investigation.

  15. Selective bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for controlling refractory hematuria due to the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC may lead to gross hematuria. However, the metastasis of head and neck cutaneous SCC to the urinary bladder has not been described in literature. Nowadays, noninvasive methods such as embolization, are considered as an appropriate choice for controlling life-threatening hematuria in patients with high operative risk. However, few reports exist on the effectiveness of this approach in managing the hematuria secondary to metastatic bladder SCC. Here we report a case of bladder SCC originating from the forehead cutaneous SCC. An 83-year-old man, a known case of forehead cutaneous SCC with distant metastasis, referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of hematuria. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic urinary bladder SCC. Angiography and embolization were undertaken and resulted in complete alleviation of the symptoms. The recurrence of hematuria or embolization-related complications were not observed during 3-month follow-up. Selective embolization of the bilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and efficient procedure for controlling severe hematuria in patients with primary or metastatic bladder SCC.

  16. Castleman's Disease: An Interesting Cause of Hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolofari, Sotonye Karl; Chow, Wai-Man; Hussain, Basharat

    2015-03-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by benign growths of the lymph node tissue. It is associated with a number of malignancies, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkins lymphoma, and POEMS syndrome. This report describes the case of a 38 year old gentleman, presenting with painless hematuria. Initial investigations, including flexible cystoscopy were unremarkable. However, subsequent imaging including CT Urogram and MR pelvis revealed multiple prevesical lesions. Histology obtained from excision biopsy revealed histological features consistent with Castleman's disease. In this report we discuss the nature, presentation and treatment modalities of this rare condition.

  17. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  18. Diagnóstico topográfico de las hematurias en pacientes pediátricos mediante el porcentaje de hematíes dismórficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bautista García Sánchez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para fijar un porcentaje de hematíes dismórficos que sirva de punto de corte óptimo para el diagnóstico topográfico de las hematurias en pacientes pediátricos. Se utilizaron datos clínicos y de laboratorio de 77 pacientes con hematuria glomerular y 15 con hematuria no glomerular. Mediante una metodología estadística se obtuvo 14 % como valor del punto, con lo que se asigna al grupo de las hematurias glomerulares todo paciente que presente una cifra de hematíes dismórficos igual o superior. El área bajo la curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic asociada a este test fue 0,9597, lo que indica una elevada exactitud para la prueba, bastante cercana del valor ideal 1,0 que indica una discriminación perfecta.It was conducted a study to fix a percentage of dimorphic red cells acting as an optimal cutting point for the topographic diagnosis of hematurias in pediatric patients. Clinical and laboratory data of 77 patients with glomerular hematuria and of 15 with non glomerular hematuria were used. By using a statistical methodology it was obtained a value of 14 % for the point. Any patient having the same or a higher number of dimorphic red cells is included in the group of glomerular hematurias. The area beneath the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve associated to this test was of 0,9597, which indicates an elevated accuracy for the test, very close to the ideal value of 1,0 that shows a perfect discrimination.

  19. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  20. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking.

  1. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  2. Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Ruiz, Jorge; Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Antequera, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60 and 80°C) and time (6 and 24h) to assess the effect on the volatile compound profile. Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous-vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Volatile compounds arising from lipid oxidation presented a high abundance in samples cooked at low or moderate cooking conditions (60°C for 6 and 24h, 80°C for 6h), while a more intense time and temperature combination (80°C for 24h) resulted on a higher concentration of volatile compounds arising from Strecker degradations of amino acids, as 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  4. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  5. Sensory and consumer evaluation of pork loins from crossbreeds between Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc, Iberian and Mangalitza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida Krestine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Iberian (I) and Mangalitza (M) boars were crossed with Duroc (D) and Landrace/Yorkshire (LY) sows and compared with the traditional crossbreed DLY. The sensory attributes were analysed, and consumers evaluated the fried loins. Gas chromatography (GC) aroma analysis was performed on the fried meat......, and fatty acid composition was determined on the loin and the subcutaneous fat, respectively. No marked differences were found in odour, appearance or flavour/taste between the alternative crossbreeds and DLY; however, the alternative crossbreeds had improved textural properties. Consumer evaluation...... revealed that the alternative crossbreeds obtained positive associations compared with DLY, and MD was ranked best or second best by almost 60% of the consumers. No pronounced differences were found in the aroma compounds between the different crossbreeds. Correlations were found between the fatty acid...

  6. The Nutcracker Syndrome as a Rare Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pournasiri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Renal vein entrapment, named nutcracker phenomenon, is a contraction of renal vein between abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery. Patients can be asymptomatic or clinically manifested, called nutcracker syndrome. Proteinuria, hematuria, flank pain, varicocele in males and pelvic congestion in females are reported in such patients. Case Presentation The current report presented an eight-year-old girl with micr...

  7. Palliative radiotherapy for hematuria complicating the local evolution of primitive bladder cancers; Radiotherapie palliative pour hematurie compliquant l'evolution locale des cancers primitifs de vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saillard, S.M.; Benyoucef, A.; Dubray, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Smaali, C.; Albouy, B.; Pfister, C.; Grise, P. [Centre hospitalier universitaire, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2010-10-15

    As a haemostatic irradiation is often proposed to patients suffering from a primitive bladder cancer, the authors report a retrospective mono-centric analysis of the effects of an external bi-dimensional palliative radiotherapy on patients taken into care for relapsing macroscopic hematuria after failure of local urological treatments. The assessment concerns the hematuria persistence, the interval without hematuric relapse, global survival, and transfusion needs. Based on a sample of 21 patients submitted to different irradiation schemes, the authors notice that a simple pelvic irradiation technique results in a fast symptomatic improvement of hematuria among fragile patients. Short communication

  8. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The changing scene of radiology: Value of urography as initial examination in infectious and hypertensive disease, hematuria and malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.; Gadeholt, G.; Hoeiem, L.; Aslaksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Four to 20% positive findings were found in a review of 1913 excretory urographics. Possibly relevant findings were 20% in patients referred for infectious disease, 10% in hypertensive disease, 6% in hematuria and 4% in neoplasms. Urography influenced treatment mainly in the 2 groups with few positive findings. The costs for positive findings may be acceptable in patients with hematuria or suspicion of neoplasms, but are too high in the other groups. Until ultrasonography can replace intravenous urography as the first screening method in upper urinary tract disease, the patient selection for urography in infectious and hypertensive disease should be improved. (orig.)

  10. Utility of urine cytology in evaluating hematuria with sonographically suspected bladder lesion in patients older than 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Eldin Helmy Mady

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Hematuria in patients older than 50 years with sonographically suspected bladder lesion mandates cystoscopy and biopsy. UC does not add more significant information in this group of patients.

  11. Effect of packaging type during postmortem aging and degree of doneness on pork chop sensory traits of loins selected to vary in color and marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehm, B J; King, D A; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2018-05-04

    The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins was evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28-mm-thick chops. Chop within each loin was randomly assigned to either individual vacuum packages or to individual Styrofoam trays and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) oxygen permeable film. Overwrapped PVC packages were then placed in bulk packages and flushed with a gas mixture that contained approximately 0.4% carbon monoxide, 30% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. Vacuum-packaged chops were aged until 14 d postmortem. Chops packaged in PVC overwrap were aged until 9 d postmortem in the bulk packages, then placed on simulated retail display until 14 d postmortem. Chops from each packaging type were cooked to an internal temperature of either 63 °C or 71 °C for the evaluation of slice shear force (SSF) or for evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by a trained panel. Data were analyzed as split-split plot design with production focus of the pigs, proposed USDA quality grade, packaging type, and degree of doneness as fixed effects. While there were main effect differences between production focuses, there were no interactions with production focus. There were also no 3-way (P ≥ 0.19) interactions and only one 2-way interaction among quality grade, packaging type, or degree of doneness. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0.30), juiciness (P = 0.49), flavor (P = 0.89), SSF (P = 0.13), or cook loss (P = 0.06) among USDA quality grades. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0

  12. Evaluation of an Epigenetic Profile for the Detection of Bladder Cancer in Patients with Hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Kim E M; Van Neste, Leander; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Many patients enter the care cycle with gross or microscopic hematuria and undergo cystoscopy to rule out bladder cancer. Sensitivity of this invasive examination is limited, leaving many patients at risk for undetected cancer. To improve current clinical practice more sensitive and noninvasive screening methods should be applied. A total of 154 urine samples were collected from patients with hematuria, including 80 without and 74 with bladder cancer. DNA from cells in the urine was epigenetically profiled using 2 independent assays. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction was performed on TWIST1. SNaPshot™ methylation analysis was done for different loci of OTX1 and ONECUT2. Additionally all samples were analyzed for mutation status of TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), PIK3CA, FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), HRAS, KRAS and NRAS. The combination of TWIST1, ONECUT2 (2 loci) and OTX1 resulted in the best overall performing panel. Logistic regression analysis on these methylation markers, mutation status of FGFR3, TERT and HRAS, and patient age resulted in an accurate model with 97% sensitivity, 83% specificity and an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.98). Internal validation led to an optimism corrected AUC of 0.92. With an estimated bladder cancer prevalence of 5% to 10% in a hematuria cohort the assay resulted in a 99.6% to 99.9% negative predictive value. Epigenetic profiling using TWIST1, ONECUT2 and OTX1 results in a high sensitivity and specificity. Accurate risk prediction might result in less extensive and invasive examination of patients at low risk, thereby reducing unnecessary patient burden and health care costs. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of CT urography and intravenous urography in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Byung Chul; Hwang, Ji Young [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We wanted to compare CT urography (CTU) with using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) for diagnosing the causes of hematuria. From January 2003 to March 2004, IVU and CTU were obtained in 48 patients. We evaluated the causes of hematuria in 34 of 48 patients. The IVU images were obtained by the conventional method. The CTU images were routinely obtained before intravenous contrast injection, and at 2 and 5 minutes after intravenous contrast injection. In case of delayed excretion of contrast by the kidneys, the delayed CT scans were obtained at 120 minutes after contrast injection. All the CT images, including the axial and 3D coronal reformatted CTUs with using software as well as conventional IVU images, were reviewed by two radiologists working in consensus. We decided if urinary stone existed or not and we looked for the indirect signs such as hydronephrosis or delayed excretion, etc. We also observed if it was possible to determine the mass, ureteral stricture and enhancement of the ureteral wall, etc. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each modality to diagnose urinary stone. We compared the detection rate according to the phases of CTU. We confirmed the presence of urinary tract stones in 27 of 34 patients who had undergone both IVU and CTU. We diagnosed ureteritis in 1, transitional cell carcinoma in 5 and acute pyelonephritis in 1 of the remaining 7 patients. The urinary stones were detected in fifteen patients on both IVU and CTU (15/27, 55.6%). We detected the urinary stones on CTU, but not IVU, in twelve patients (12/27, 44.5%). The sensitivity to detect the urinary stones was 100% (27/27) on CTU and 55.6% (12/27) on IVU respectively. The specificity was 100% (7/7) on IVU and CTU, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% (15/15) on IVU and 100% (27/27) on CTU, respectively. The negative predictive value was 36.8% (7/19) on IVU and 100% (7/7) on CTU

  14. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  15. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvel Seral Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia. With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity.

  16. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  17. Emphysematous cystitis: a rare cause of gross hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chirn-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infectious condition of the urinary bladder. The mortality rate is high if the diagnosis is delayed or if the treatment is inadequate. We present an uncommon case of emphysematous cystitis and highlight the risk factors for this disease. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and a central pontine infarction presented to the Emergency Department due to gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) and plain radiography revealed localized gas within the bladder that was compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. A Foley catheter was inserted. Urine culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2 g cefotaxime daily was initiated. Subsequent plain radiography and CT scan showed regression of intraluminal gas. We recommend CT for the definitive diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Adequate antibiotic therapy, strict blood glucose control, adequate drainage of urine, and early goal-directed therapy for suspected sepsis are suggested to prevent the complications of emphysematous cystitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  19. Arterioureteral Fistula: Treatment of a Hemorrhagic Shock with Massive Hematuria by Placing a Balloon Catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Hervé; Nicolacopoulos, Ioannis; Alame, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Arterioureteral fistulas (AUF) are serious diseases with increasing incidence. This case report relates the management of AUF in a patient with a history of abdominal oncological surgery, pelvic radiotherapy, and a double J stent in place. The fistula was discovered during a hemorrhagic shock with massive hematuria. The bleeding was controlled by a balloon catheter which led to endovascular treatment consisting of a covered stent. PMID:28465857

  20. Obstructing urethral calculus in a woman revealed to be the cause of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J S; Crew, J

    2012-10-01

    Urethral calculi are extremely rarely reported in Caucasian females and are usually associated with an anatomical abnormality such as a diverticulum or a stricture. Ureteric calculi can move to become lodged in the urethra, although this is rare in women because of their short urethral length. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with urinary retention secondary to an obstructing upper tract calculus that had moved into the urethra. Four years previously, the patient had been diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain following a primary posterior vaginal wall repair. Following treatment of the obstructing calculus, her symptoms of pelvic pain completely resolved. We report a very unusual case that highlights the importance of investigating chronic pelvic pain. This patient's symptom of vaginal pain, though highly localized, was caused by pathology elsewhere in the pelvis. Alternative diagnoses should be sought for such patients and investigation performed to detect any nonvisible hematuria.

  1. Biochemical, Oxidative, and Lipolytic Changes during Vacuum-Packed Storage of Dry-Cured Loin: Effect of Chestnuts Intake by Celta Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet of Celta pig breed on the characteristics of dry-cured loin, a traditional Spanish dry-cured meat product, after the manufacturing process and the vacuum-packed storage was studied. In general, no significant differences between the diets (chestnut, mixed, and concentrate diet were obtained for physicochemical (moisture, intramuscular fat, and titratable acidity and lipolytic parameters. Lower pH and higher values for oxidation parameters (peroxide and TBA values were obtained in loins from pigs fed with chestnuts. However, no differences were found for fatty acids from the different lipid fractions when diets were compared, with the exception of some minor fatty acids. Free fatty acids represented over 2.7% of the fat in the final product. The distinction between diets was procured when a discriminant canonical analysis was performed for fatty acid contents. After vacuum-packed storage, only a slight evolution of the studied parameters was obtained.

  2. Effect of tranexamic acid on gross hematuria: A pilot randomized clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharamzadeh, Payman; Ojaghihaghighi, Seyedhossein; Amjadi, Mohsen; Rahmani, Farzad; Farjamnia, Arezoo

    2017-12-01

    Local forms of the tranexamic acid have been effective in treating many haemorrhagic cases. So that the aim of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of local tranexamic acid in controlling painless hematuria in patients referred to the emergency department. This is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, which was conducted on 50 patients with complaints of painless lower urinary tract bleeding during June 2014 and August 2015. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 people each, one group receiving tranexamic acid and the other given a placebo. During bladder irrigation, local tranexamic acid and the placebo were injected into the bladder via Foley catheter. Patients were examined over 24h in terms of the amount of normal saline serum used for irrigation, level of hemoglobin, and blood in urine. In this study it was observed that consumption of tranexamic acid significantly decreased the volume of used serum for bladder irrigation (P=0.041) and the microscopic status of urine decreased significantly in terms of the hematuria after 24h (P=0.026). However, the rate of packed cell transfusion and drop in hemoglobin levels showed no significant difference in both groups of patients (P˃0.05). The results of this study showed that tranexamic acid could significantly reduce the volume of required serum for bladder irrigation to clear urine, but it had no significant effect on the drop in serum hemoglobin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arterioureteral Fistula: Treatment of a Hemorrhagic Shock with Massive Hematuria by Placing a Balloon Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Merzeau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterioureteral fistulas (AUF are serious diseases with increasing incidence. This case report relates the management of AUF in a patient with a history of abdominal oncological surgery, pelvic radiotherapy, and a double J stent in place. The fistula was discovered during a hemorrhagic shock with massive hematuria. The bleeding was controlled by a balloon catheter which led to endovascular treatment consisting of a covered stent.

  4. The effect of branding on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of knowing the brand or USDA grade on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks. Strip loins were selected to represent 5 USDA grades and brands, USDA Select, Choice, Prime, Certified Angus Beef (CAB; upper 2/3 Choice), and Select, from carcasses of cattle classified as Angus on the basis of phenotype. After 21 d of aging, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut, consecutively cut steaks were paired for consumer evaluation. Consumer panelists ( = 112) evaluated samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking. Additionally, consumers rated each palatability trait as either acceptable or unacceptable. Samples were fed in 2 rounds on the same day: blind and informed testing. In the first round, blind testing, consumers were served 1 sample from each treatment, with no product information provided. In the second round, consumers were informed of the brand or quality grade prior to sampling. During blind testing, CAB rated similar ( > 0.05) to Choice for all palatability traits; however, CAB rated greater ( 0.05) for all traits when tested blind, but Angus Select was rated greater ( brand was declared. When comparing blind and informed ratings, Angus Select and CAB had greater ( brand disclosure. However, ratings for Choice and Select samples were unaffected ( > 0.05) when brand was disclosed. Brand knowledge increased ( 0.05) in the percentage of Choice and Select samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits. These data indicate that Prime, CAB, and Angus Select steaks receive an increase in consumer palatability perception, or "brand lift," which does not occur for Choice and Select beef.

  5. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Martín, Alberto; Mayoral, Ana Isabel; Ruiz, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) and time (6, 12, and 24 h). Different physicochemical, histological and structural parameters were studied. Increasing cooking temperatures led to higher weight losses and lower moisture contents, whereas the effect of cooking time on these variables was limited. Samples cooked at 60 °C showed the highest lightness and redness, while increasing cooking temperature and cooking time produced higher yellowness values. Most textural variables in a texture profile analysis showed a marked interaction between cooking temperature and time. Samples cooked for 24h showed significantly lower values for most of the studied textural parameters for all the temperatures considered. Connective tissue granulation at 60 °C and gelation at 70 °C were observed in the SEM micrographs. The sous-vide cooking of lamb loins dramatically reduced microbial population even with the less intense heat treatment studied (60 °C-6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in the phospholipid fraction of intramuscular fat from pork loin (fresh and marinated) with different irradiation and packaging during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Marquez, I.; Narvaez-Rivas, M.; Gallardo, E.; Cabeza, C. M.; Leon-Camacho, M.

    2013-05-01

    A study on the effect of E-beam (1 and 2 kGy) on the phospholipid classes of fresh and marinated pork loin stored at 4 degree centigrade and 8 degree centigrade under different atmospheres (air, vacuum and carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres) has been conducted. This is the first time that a study of this kind has been carried out on these types of samples. The combined statistical treatment of the distinct variables shows that minor changes (cardiol pin and sphingomyelin between both types of loin, cardiolipin vs storage temperatures and phosphatidylethanolamine vs the modified atmospheres) are produced in the individual phospholipids subjected to the different selected conditions. The more relevant result was that no effect of the irradiation doses on the phospholipids classes was found, so the E-beam can be considered a useful tool to extend the shelf-life of fresh meat without changes in the phospholipid fraction. (Author) 24 refs.

  8. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4? for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4?. Despite that SSF was conducted with the ...

  9. Steroid instillation for idiopathic urethritis in children: an 8-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Sivasankar; Ninan, George Kaithayil; Pringle, Kirsty

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic urethritis (IU) in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We aim to report our experience with steroid instillation in IU in children. Retrospective data collection of all male children diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years. Patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and positive urine culture at presentation were excluded from the study. Data were collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystoscopy findings, management, and outcomes. A total of 16 male children were diagnosed with IU. The mean age was 11.6 (7-16) years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 10; frank hematuria in 7; loin pain in 5; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Serum C-reactive protein and full blood count was tested in 13 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Endoscopy findings included posterior urethritis in 12, anterior urethritis in 2, and urethral stricture with inflammation in 2 patients. Ten patients required more than one episode of steroid instillation. Mean follow-up was 19.4 (1-74) months. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 15 (93.6%) patients and improvement of symptoms and signs noted with ongoing treatment in 1 (6.4%) patient. IU in children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation. In our series, 93.6% of children had complete resolution of symptoms. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The use of molecular analyses in voided urine for the assessment of patients with hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukers, Willemien; Kandimalla, Raju; van Houwelingen, Diandra

    2013-01-01

    variables into a logistic regression model. Results Logistic regression analysis based on the five methylation markers, age, gender and type of hematuria resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and an optimism corrected AUC of 0.84 after internal validation by bootstrapping. Using a cut-off value...... examination of low risk patients and thereby, reducing patient burden and costs. Further validation in a large prospective patient cohort is necessary to prove the true clinical value of this model....

  11. Physicochemical and microbiological changes during the refrigerated storage of lamb loins sous-vide cooked at different combinations of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of cooking temperature (either 60 ℃ or 80 ℃) and time (6 h or 24 h) on the physicochemical (weight loss, moisture content, instrumental color, instrumental texture, lipid and protein oxidation) and microbiological changes underwent by sous-vide cooked lamb loins during refrigerated storage for 30 days. There was a slight trend to decreasing weight losses in some of the cooking treatments, but only in samples cooked at 60 ℃ for 6 h it was paralleled with an increase in moisture content. The only noteworthy oxidative change was a marked decrease in conjugated dienes after two weeks of storage in samples cooked at 80 ℃ for 24 h. Neither instrumental texture nor color showed noticeable variations during the storage. Microbial population remained quite low during the whole refrigerated storage. Overall, most of the studied parameters showed only scarce changes throughout 30 days of refrigerated storage that most likely would not influence the quality of sous-vide cooked loin lambs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy in children: The need for renal biopsy in pediatric patients with persistent asymptomatic microscopic hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ching Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB is essential for the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of children with unknown kidney disease. In this study, the safety and efficacy of PRB is investigated, and also the common etiologies of childhood kidney disease, based on histological findings. In addition, we explored the role of PRBs in the diagnosis of children who presented with persistent asymptomatic hematuria. Methods: By chart review, from July 2005 to July 2009, a total of 99 PRBs were performed on 91 children (43 girls and 48 boys; mean age, 10.9 ± 4.4 years under ultrasound (US guidance, by a doctor, using an automated 18-gauge biopsy needle following the same protocol, at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Results: The accuracy of the histological diagnosis was excellent. The most common post-biopsy complications were perirenal hematoma (11.1% and asymptomatic gross hematuria (3.0%, respectively. Nevertheless, these complications resolved spontaneously, and none had major bleeding episodes. Histological results showed that lupus nephritis, minimal change disease, and IgA nephropathy (IgAN could be the current leading causes of childhood kidney diseases in Taiwan. Conclusions: Automated ultrasound (US-guided PRB is a safe and reliable method of assessing childhood renal disease. A recent study shows that the presence of persistent asymptomatic isolated microhematuria in adolescents is a predictive marker of future end-stage renal disease. Hence, the emphasis of renal biopsy on children with persistent asymptomatic hematuria is beneficial for the early diagnosis of IgAN or other glomerulonephritis (GN, which tends toward progressive kidney disease in adulthood without prompt therapeutic intervention.

  13. Comparison of different image analysis algorithms on MRI to predict physico-chemical and sensory attributes of loin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Caro, Andrés; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2018-01-01

    -chemical and sensory analysis. CFA reached low relationship for the quality parameters of loins, the remaining algorithms achieved correlation coefficients higher than 0.5 noting OPFTA that reached the highest correlation coefficients in all cases except for the L* coordinate color that GLCM obtained the highest...... correlation coefficient. These high correlation coefficients confirm the new algorithm as an alternative to the other computer vision approaches in order to compute the physico chemical and sensory parameters of meat products in a non-destructive and efficient way....

  14. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    Case presentation. A seventy five year old Libyan man was seen in the urology department of Tripoli Medical Centre, Tripoli, Libya with six month history of left loin pain. The patient noted a mass in the left loin two days before he was assessed in the hospital. Also he started to vomit. There was no history of haematuria.

  15. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and shear force in Texel lamb loins using combinations of different X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Knott, S; Matthews, K R; Lambe, N R

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) parameters, including spiral computed tomography scanning (SCTS) parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF) and mechanically measured shear force were derived from two previously published studies. Purebred Texel (n = 377) of both sexes, females (n = 206) and intact males (n = 171) were used to investigate the prediction of IMF and shear force in the loin. Two and three dimensional CT density information was available. Accuracies in the prediction of shear force and IMF ranged from R 2 0.02 to R 2 0.13 and R 2 0.51 to R 2 0.71 respectively, using combinations of SCTS and CT scan information. The prediction of mechanical shear force could not be achieved at an acceptable level of accuracy employing SCTS information. However, the prediction of IMF in the loin employing information from SCTS and additional information from standard CT scans was successful, providing evidence that the prediction of IMF and related meat eating quality (MEQ) traits for Texel lambs in vivo can be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. La subjugation des femmes musulmanes et la sororité dans Loin de Médine par Assia Djebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel van Deventer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les premières femmes musulmanes telles qu’elles sont représentées dans l’oeuvre d’Assia Djebar, Loin de Médine, récit situé au tout début de l’histoire de l’Islam. A travers les parcours narratifs de plusieurs femmes marquantes de l’histoire de l’Islam, l’auteur identifie la sororité comme arme unique contre toute oppression. Une lecture critique invite non seulement les lectrices mais aussi les lecteurs contemporains à examiner le statut actuel des femmes musulmanes.

  17. Microscopic or occult hematuria, when reflex testing is not good laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froom, Paul; Barak, Mira

    2010-01-01

    Consensus opinion suggests that hematuria found by dipstick and not confirmed on microscopic examination (<2 erythrocytes per high power field) signifies a false-positive reagent strip test result. Standard practice is to repeat the dipstick test several days later and if still positive to confirm by microscopic examination. If discordant results are obtained, experts recommend reflex testing for urinary myoglobin and hemoglobin concentrations. The question is whether or not this approach represents good laboratory practice. These recommendations are not evidence based. We conclude that the reference range for red blood cells on the reagent strip should be increased to 25x10(6) cells/L for young men, and 50x10(6) cells/L for the rest of the adult population, ranges consistent with flow cytometry reports. Confirmation reflex testing using tests that have inferior sensitivity, precision and probably accuracy is not recommended.

  18. Identification of two novel mutations C79X and R235Q in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene in a patient presenting with hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B. P.; Meijer, J.; Dobritzsch, D.; Lohkamp, B.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Roelofsen, J.; Abeling, N. G. G. M.; Duran, M.; Buzing, C.

    2008-01-01

    A patient with hematuria was shown to have thymine-uraciluria. The dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 0.16 nmol/mg/h; controls: 9.9 +/- 2.8 nmol/mg/h. Analysis of DPYD showed that the patient was compound heterozygous for the novel mutations 237C

  19. Scintigraphic detection of 'yo-yo' phenomenon in incomplete ureteric duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.W.; Chan, Kam-wing; Metreweli, Constantine

    2003-01-01

    'Yo-yo' reflux in an incompletely duplicated renal system was demonstrated on 99m Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renal scintigraphy in a 7-year-old girl presenting with low-grade fever and pyelonephritis. Incomplete duplication and a bifid renal pelvis, which may be seen in up to 4% of the North American population, occasionally causes symptoms because of recurrent urinary tract infection or loin pain. 99m Tc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy can demonstrate 'yo-yo' reflux in patients with incomplete renal duplication and should be considered in cases with unexplained loin pain, even if 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy is normal. (orig.)

  20. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis as a functional somatic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John W

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has the characteristics of a functional somatic syndrome (FSS). There is no accepted definition of an FSS. Consequently, this paper reviewed the literature for common FSS characteristics and for reports that BPS/IC has these characteristics. Eleven articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria and yielded 18 FSS characteristics. BPS/IC patients manifest all but two: the exceptions were normal light microscopic anatomy (after hydrodistention under anesthesia, some BPS/IC bladders have Hunner's lesions and most have petechial hemorrhages) and normal laboratory tests (many BPS/IC patients have hematuria). Petechial hemorrhages and hematuria are probably related and may appear during naturally-occurring bladder distention. Without such distention, then, the 90% of BPS/IC patients without a Hunner's lesion have all the characteristics of an FSS. Comparisons in the opposite direction were consistent: several additional features of BPS/IC were found in FSSs. This systematic but untested method is consistent with but does not test the hypothesis that BPS/IC in some patients might best be understood as an FSS. Like most conditions, BPS/IC is probably heterogeneous; hence only a proportion of BPS/IC cases are likely to be manifestations of an FSS. This hypothesis has several implications. Explorations of processes that connect the FSSs might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of BPS/IC. Patients with FSSs are at risk for BPS/IC and may benefit from future preventive strategies. Therapies that are useful in FSSs also may be useful in some cases of BPS/IC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concurrent Preoperative Presence of Hydronephrosis and Flank Pain Independently Predicts Worse Outcome of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Jan, Hau-Chern; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Li, Ching-Chia; Li, Wei-Ming; Ke, Hung-Lung; Huang, Shu-Pin; Liu, Chia-Chu; Lee, Yung-Chin; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Liang, Peir-In; Huang, Chun-Nung

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of preoperative hydronephrosis and flank pain on prognosis of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. In total, 472 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma managed by radical nephroureterectomy were included from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital Healthcare System. Clinicopathological data were collected retrospectively for analysis. The significance of hydronephrosis, especially when combined with flank pain, and other relevant factors on overall and cancer-specific survival were evaluated. Of the 472 patients, 292 (62%) had preoperative hydronephrosis and 121 (26%) presented with flank pain. Preoperative hydronephrosis was significantly associated with age, hematuria, flank pain, tumor location, and pathological tumor stage. Concurrent presence of hydronephrosis and flank pain was a significant predictor of non-organ-confined disease (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 2.10, P = 0.025). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly poorer overall and cancer-specific survival in patients with preoperative hydronephrosis (P = 0.005 and P = 0.026, respectively) and in patients with flank pain (P hydronephrosis and flank pain independently predicted adverse outcome (hazard ratio = 1.98, P = 0.016 for overall survival and hazard ratio = 1.87, P = 0.036 for and cancer-specific survival, respectively) in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. In addition, concurrent presence of hydronephrosis and flank pain was also significantly predictive of worse survival in patient with high grade or muscle-invasive disease. Notably, there was no difference in survival between patients with hydronephrosis but devoid of flank pain and those without hydronephrosis. Concurrent preoperative presence of hydronephrosis and flank pain predicted non-organ-confined status of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. When accompanied with flank pain, hydronephrosis represented an independent predictor for worse outcome in patients with upper tract

  2. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  3. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Saccular aneurysm of segmental branch of the main renal artery: approach to diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, B.; Hamcan, S.; Bozkurt, Y.; Kara, K.; Aslan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Renal artery aneurysms rarely detected clinical situation. Mostly determined by symptoms such as hematuria, hypertension and flank pain. Generally detected during investigation of symptoms or incidentally. Objectives and tasks: We aim to present the findings of CTA and DSA of the 58-year-old male patient with flank pain, hematuria and hypertension complaints. Materials and methods: We performed CTA and selective renal angiography to 58-year-old male patient with complaints of hypertension, flank pain and hematuria. Results: Approximately 11.5x 13.5 mm size of saccular aneurysm at the upper segmental branch of the left renal artery and focal cortical infarct detected in CT abdomen of the patient before treatment. The aneurysm was confirmed with selective renal angiography examination and treated with Cardiatis stent in the same procedure. Conclusion: Primary goal of treatment of renal artery aneurysms is to prevent complications such as rupture and thrombosis. Renal artery aneurysms have been treated with open surgery previously. Parenchyma preventive and minimally invasive treatments such as Cardiatis stent placement successfully uses currently

  5. Idiopathic urethritis in children: Classification and treatment with steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Sivasankar; Pringle, Kirsty; Ninan, George K

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic urethritis [IU] in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We propose a classification for IU based on cystourethroscopy findings and symptoms (Grade 1 - 4) and report our experience with use of topical and oral steroids in IU. Retrospective data collection of all male children (0-16 years) diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years between 2005 and 2012 at our institution. Data was collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystourethroscopy findings, management and outcomes. A total of 19 male children were diagnosed with IU. The median age of the patients was 13(7-16) years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 12; hematuria in 9; loin pain in 6; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Both patients with scrotal pain had previous left scrotal exploration that revealed epididymitis. Serum C-reactive protein and Full blood count was tested in 15 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Cystourethroscopy revealed urethritis of grade-I in 2; grade-II in 11; and grade-III in 3 patients. There were 3 patients with systemic symptoms from extra-urethral extension of inflammation (grade-IV). Mean follow up was 18.9(1-74) months. All patients had steroid instillation at the time of cystourethroscopy. Three patients with IU grade IV required oral steroids (prednisolone) in view of exacerbation of symptoms and signs despite steroid instillation. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 18(94.7%) patients. Significant improvement in symptoms and signs was noted in 1(5.3%) patient who is still undergoing treatment. IU in male children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation, especially in grade I and II. Grade III, will need steroid instillation but treatment of scarring and stricture will necessitate longer duration of treatment. In children with IU and extra-urethral symptoms (grade IV), oral steroids may be required.

  6. Prediction of intramuscular fat levels in Texel lamb loins using X-ray computed tomography scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Conington, J; Maltin, C; Knott, S; Lambe, N R

    2014-10-01

    For the consumer, tenderness, juiciness and flavour are often described as the most important factors for meat eating quality, all of which have a close association with intramuscular fat (IMF). X-ray computed tomography (CT) can measure fat, muscle and bone volumes and weights, in vivo in sheep and CT predictions of carcass composition have been used in UK sheep breeding programmes over the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the most accurate combination of CT variables to predict IMF percentage of M. longissimus lumborum in Texel lambs. As expected, predicted carcass fat alone accounted for a moderate amount of the variation (R(2)=0.51) in IMF. Prediction accuracies were significantly improved (Adj R(2)>0.65) using information on fat and muscle densities measured from three CT reference scans, showing that CT can provide an accurate prediction of IMF in the loin of purebred Texel sheep. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Stability of lamb loin stored under refrigeration and packed in different modified atmosphere packaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rafaella de Paula Paseto; Freire, Maria Teresa de Alvarenga; de Paula, Elisa Silva Maluf; Kanashiro, Ana Livea Sayuri; Catunda, Fernanda Antunes Pinto; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho; Trindade, Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems (vacuum, 75% O2+25% CO2 and 100% CO2) on the stability of lamb loins stored at 1±1°C for 28 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms, coliform at 45°C, coagulase-positive staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria and presence of Salmonella), physical and chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], objective color, pH, water loss from cooking [WLC] and shear force), sensory (acceptance testing using a 9-point hedonic scale) and gas composition analyses were performed. Lamb meat remained stable with respect to the majority of the evaluated physical and chemical indexes and within the standards established by Brazilian legislation for pathogenic microorganisms throughout the storage period in all three packaging systems. However, with respect to psychrotrophic microorganisms, 100% CO2 packaging system provided increased stability despite presenting lower appearance preference. © 2013.

  8. Degree of Left Renal Vein Compression Predicts Nutcracker Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Hangge

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome (NS refers to symptomatic compression of the left renal vein (LRV between the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery with potential symptoms including hematuria, proteinuria, left flank pain, and renal venous hypertension. No consensus diagnostic criteria exist to guide endovascular treatment. We aimed to evaluate the specificity of LRV compression to NS symptoms through a retrospective study including 33 NS and 103 control patients. The size of the patent lumen at point of compression and normal portions of the LRV were measured for all patients. Multiple logistic regression analyses (MLR assessing impact of compression, body mass index (BMI, age, and gender on the likelihood of each symptom with NS were obtained. NS patients presented most commonly with abdominal pain (72.7%, followed by hematuria (57.6%, proteinuria (39.4%, and left flank pain (30.3%. These symptoms were more commonly seen than in the control group at 10.6, 11.7, 6.8, and 1.9%, respectively. The degree of LRV compression for NS was 74.5% and 25.2% for controls (p < 0.0001. Higher compression led to more hematuria (p < 0.0013, abdominal pain (p < 0.006, and more proteinuria (p < 0.002. Furthermore, the average BMI of NS patients was 21.4 and 27.2 for controls (p < 0.001 and a low BMI led to more abdominal pain (p < 0.005. These results demonstrate a strong correlation between the degree of LRV compression on imaging in diagnosing NS.

  9. Ureteroscopy for treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.K. Fathelbab

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... Loin pain and colic were the most common presenting symptoms (90.2%). Twenty-seven patients (65.9%) ... of urinary tract-related abdominal pain in pregnant women with a reported prevalence of .... or a laser lithotriptor, a long lasting JJ stent (PercuflexTM, Boston. Scientific Corp., USA) was left until the ...

  10. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied....... FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more...

  11. Perforation of the Urinary Bladder Caused by Transurethral Insertion of a Pencil for the Purpose of Masturbation in a 29-Year-Old Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Bantis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urethra is a usual site of introduction of foreign bodies for autoerotic stimulation. We present an unusual case of bladder perforation caused by foreign body that was self-inserted in the urethra and consequently slipped inside the bladder in a 29-year-old female patient with psychiatric disease. The patient was referred to our department for macroscopic hematuria and abdominal pain. Imaging studies revealed the presence of a foreign body in the pelvic area which had perforated the left lateral wall of the bladder. The foreign body was removed via open cystotomy. In psychiatric patients hematuria and pelvic pain may result from insertion of a foreign body in the bladder usually during masturbation.

  12. JUNE ISSUE 2008 FINAL.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Method: Records of adult patients scheduled for nephrectomy at ... Key Words: Nephrectomy, renal tumours, loin pain, haematuria, kidney injury .... over a ten-year period at the University of Port- ..... kidney since 80 years back.

  13. Effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts. Cuts of pork loin were packaged in trays, covered with poly(vinyl chloride film. The trays were placed in a masterpack (MP, containing three gas compositions:  A 75% O2 : 25% CO2, B 50% O2 : 50% CO2 or C 100% CO2, and stored at 2 °C. Samples were taken after 1, 8, 15, and 22 days of storage, and evaluated for numerous shelf life traits. The development of Psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. was found from the 15th day of storage. There was a significant treatment effect for some of the considered parameters, such as pH (P < 0.05 and color [L* (P < 0.07, a* (P < 0.07 and b* (P < 0.01]. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.01 for the TBARS values. It can be concluded, from the microbiological point of view, that the use of modified atmospheres containing 25% to 100% CO2 promotes the conservation of meat for up to 15 days of storage under refrigeration. From the point of view of color, atmospheres containing 75% O2 : 25% CO2 and 50% O2 : 50% CO2 ensure the color of packaged pork meat when stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days. From the point of view of lipid oxidation, packages with 100% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of more than 15 days, whereas those with 75% O2 : 25% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of up to 8 days.

  14. Histopathologic Findings of Potential Kidney Donors With Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria: Impact on Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, E A; Ali, T Z; Abdulbaki, A; Ibrahim, I A; Almanae, H M; Aleid, H A

    2017-10-01

    Isolated microscopic hematuria (IMH) is not uncommon in potential kidney donors. The aim was to study the kidney biopsy findings of potential kidney donors with IMH and the impact of the histopathologic diagnoses on the decision to accept or decline such donors from kidney donation. In this retrospective study, all the potential kidney donors with IMH were identified from the medical records of patients who underwent kidney biopsies between January 2010 and December 2016. Forty-five such individuals were identified. The mean age of these potential donors was 32.6 years and 76% were male. All of them had normal blood pressure and no significant proteinuria. Seventeen (38%) biopsies showed histopathologic abnormalities; thin basement membrane disease (n = 13; 28%) was the most common cause followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (n = 4; 9%). Donors with abnormal biopsy findings were excluded from donation. However, 62% of the potential donors had normal kidney biopsy findings and were accepted for kidney donation. IMH justifies extensive work-up including kidney biopsy to identify donors who may have underlying significant glomerular pathology excluding them from kidney donation. On the other hand, kidney biopsy also helps in accepting the donors if it does not show significant abnormality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Circumcaval Ureter with Synchronous Ipsilateral Transitional Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    flank pain and gross hematuria of one year's duration. Clinical examination was unremarkable apart from ... ry tract stasis and a J- or fish-hook deformity of the ureter as it passes behind the inferior vena cava (IVC). ... Patients usually present with right flank pain and discomfort, which can be intermittent, dull or aching6.

  16. Ultrasonic diagnosis and transurethral incision of ureterocele with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Miskowiak, J; Stage, P

    1991-01-01

    In a 65-year-old woman with right-sided loin pain, ultrasonography revealed a grossly dilated and obstructed right pyelogram due to a 50-mm ureterocele. After transurethral lateral incision of the ureterocele, there was complete recovery without vesicoureteric reflux. Ultrasonography is advantage...

  17. Visually guided male urinary catheterization: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Paul A; Banks, Kevin; Shaffer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of urinary catheterizations involve complications. New techniques to reduce risks and pain are indicated. This study examines the feasibility and safety of male urinary catheterization by nursing personnel using a visually guided device in a clinical setting. The device, a 0.6-mm fiber-optic bundle inside a 14F triple-lumen flexible urinary catheter with a lubricious coating, irrigation port, and angled tip, connects to a camera, allowing real-time viewing of progress on a color monitor. Two emergency nurses were trained to use the device. Male patients 18 years or older presenting to the emergency department with an indication for urinary catheterization using a standard Foley or Coudé catheter were eligible to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were a current suprapubic tube or gross hematuria prior to the procedure. Twenty-five patients were enrolled. Data collected included success of placement, total procedure time, pre-procedure pain and maximum pain during the procedure, gross hematuria, abnormalities or injuries identified if catheterization failed, occurrence of and reason for equipment failures, and number of passes required for placement. All catheters were successfully placed. The median number of passes required was 1. For all but one patient, procedure time was ≤ 17 minutes. A median increase in pain scores of 1 point from baseline to the maximum was reported. Gross hematuria was observed in 2 patients. The success rate for placement of a Foley catheter with the visually guided device was 100%, indicating its safety, accuracy, and feasibility in a clinical setting. Minimal pain was associated with the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Idiopathic urethritis in children: Classification and treatment with steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankar Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic urethritis [IU] in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We propose a classification for IU based on cystourethroscopy findings and symptoms (Grade 1 - 4 and report our experience with use of topical and oral steroids in IU. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data collection of all male children (0-16 years diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years between 2005 and 2012 at our institution. Data was collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystourethroscopy findings, management and outcomes. Results: A total of 19 male children were diagnosed with IU. The median age of the patients was 13(7-16 years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 12; hematuria in 9; loin pain in 6; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Both patients with scrotal pain had previous left scrotal exploration that revealed epididymitis. Serum C-reactive protein and Full blood count was tested in 15 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Cystourethroscopy revealed urethritis of grade-I in 2; grade-II in 11; and grade-III in 3 patients. There were 3 patients with systemic symptoms from extra-urethral extension of inflammation (grade-IV. Mean follow up was 18.9(1-74 months. All patients had steroid instillation at the time of cystourethroscopy. Three patients with IU grade IV required oral steroids (prednisolone in view of exacerbation of symptoms and signs despite steroid instillation. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 18(94.7% patients. Significant improvement in symptoms and signs was noted in 1(5.3% patient who is still undergoing treatment. Conclusions: IU in male children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation, especially in grade I and II. Grade III, will need steroid instillation but treatment of scarring and stricture will necessitate longer duration of treatment. In children with IU and extra-urethral symptoms (grade IV, oral

  19. Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) in the Management of Refractory Hematuria of Prostatic Origin Secondary to Iatrogenic Urological Trauma: A Safe and Effective Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably, Isaam; Pereira, Keith; Chong, William; Bhatia, Shivank

    2016-02-01

    Incidence of refractory hematuria of prostatic origin (RHPO) is extremely rare, with an iatrogenic etiology even rarer. When conservative methods fail to control bleeding, more invasive surgical methods are needed. In this article we describe our experience with prostatic artery embolization (PAE) as a minimally invasive alternative treatment option in patients with RHPO secondary to iatrogenic urologic trauma. Three patients presented with RHPO. The etiologies were transurethral resection of prostate surgery, Foley catheter removal with a supratherapeutic international normalized ratio and self-traumatic Foley catheter removal respectively. Stepwise management with conservative and medical methods failed to control bleeding. Under local anesthesia and moderate sedation, bilateral PAE was performed via a right common femoral artery access and using cone beam computed tomography. An embolic mixture containing 300-500 um Embosphere® Microspheres (Biosphere Medical, Rockland, MA) was injected under fluoroscopic guidance until stasis was achieved. PAE using the described technique was a technical and clinical success in all three patients. Hematuria resolved within a period of 24 hours. There were no intra- or periprocedural complications. PAE offers a reasonable option in treatment of RHPO, regardless of the cause and may be attempted prior to surgical techniques or sometimes in conjunction. Being minimally invasive and performed under local anesthesia, PAE is especially useful when excessive bleeding prevents adequate visualization of a bleeding source during cystoscopy and in the elderly age group with several comorbidities. An added advantage is the prostatic parenchymal ischemia leading to significant prostate volume reduction and alleviation of the obstructive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean) to physical and immunological castrates (Improvest) in a commercial setting on carcass cutting yields and loin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2014-08-01

    Effects of feeding ractopamine (RAC; 5 mg/kg) to physically castrated (PC) and immunologically castrated (IC) pigs on carcass characteristics, cutting yields, and loin quality were evaluated using 285 carcasses. Male pigs were randomly assigned to sex treatments (PC and IC) at birth and fed the same nursery diets before allotment into 32 pens with 22 pigs per pen in a grow-finish barn. Pigs in the PC group were physically castrated at approximately 5 d of age, and pigs in the IC group were administered Improvest at 11 and 18 wk of age. Diet treatments (control or RAC) were initiated on study d 87. Pigs were marketed at 12 d (4.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), 19 d (5.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), and 33 d (7.5 wk post-second Improvest dose) following the start of final diet treatments. Three carcasses per pen were selected for evaluation of cutting yields and loin quality. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with fixed effects of sex, diet, market group, and their interaction; carcass (N = 285) was the experimental unit. Carcasses from RAC-fed pigs were heavier (P cutting yields, RAC-fed carcasses had greater (P ≤ 0.03) bone-in lean and total carcass cutting yields than control-fed carcasses while there were no differences (P > 0.05) between RAC-fed and control-fed carcasses when evaluating LM color, marbling, firmness, pH, drip loss, and tenderness. Carcasses from IC pigs had greater (P cutting yields than PC carcasses. There were minimal differences (P cutting yields, LM color, marbling and firmness scores, pH, purge loss, composition, and tenderness. The results from this study indicated RAC and immunological castration were additive in terms of improving carcass cutting yields while having minimal effects on pork quality.

  1. Learning curve of MRI-based planning for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Simon; Rylander, Susanne; Hokland, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    and increased significantly from average 8.3 to 9.0 Gy (p 95% of procedures, respectively, and did not change significantly. Hematuria occurred in (95%), hematoma (80%), moderate to strong pain (35%), and urinary retention (5...

  2. Nutcracker Syndrome Accompanying Pelvic Congestion Syndrome; Color Doppler Sonography and Multislice CT Findings: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, Mikail; Karadeniz Bilgili, Mihrace Yasemin; Sahin, Safa

    2014-01-01

    Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is a rare pathology, caused by compression of the left renal vein (LRV) between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), due to reduction of the angle between AA and SMA. This leads to LRV varices, left gonadal vein varices and therefore, the pelvic congestion syndrome. For this reason, coexistence of NCS and pelvic congestion syndrome has been described. It manifests by hematuria, proteinuria, and nonspecific pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion, dyspareunia and persistent genital arousal. We report a 27-year-old woman who experienced hematuria and left flank pain. The diagnosis of NCS accompanied by pelvic congestion syndrome was missed initially, but later on the diagnosis was made by color Doppler ultrasound, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography that were later performed. She refused interventional and surgical treatments, and was lost to follow up

  3. Urinary Schistosomiasis in an Adolescent Refugee from Africa: An Uncommon Cause of Hematuria and an Emerging Infectious Disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Castelli, Lucia; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Grosini, Alessia; Balzaretti, Michela; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bruni, Paola

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in an adolescent refugee from Gambia (arrived to Italy illegally), who was brought to the Emergency Department of our hospital. The patient complained of gross hematuria and, in the absence of clinical evidence of bacterial urinary infection, was admitted to the pediatric ward, considering his provenience and social setting. An appropriate collection and microscopic analysis of urine samples led to the detection of bilharzia. Much attention should be paid to this emerging disease in Europe by physicians in order to recognize and treat it timely, which could prevent future and higher costs for public health systems and could reduce the potential risk of environmental spreading. In fact, there are some areas in Italy where the parasite can find its intermediate host to complete its lifecycle.

  4. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood urolithiasis in Morocco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Due to the increase observed in the incidence of pediatric urolithiasis in the ... pain (28%), nephritic colic (22%), hematuria (22%) and urinary tract infection (13%). Stones were located in the upper urinary tract in 62.5% of cases.

  5. Renal cell carcinoma as a cause of iron deficiency anemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amar A. Dowd

    derived from the various parts of the nephron (epithelium or renal tubules) and possessing ... [3] is hematuria, flank pain, and an abdominal mass, similar to bloat- ... mass in the right kidney implicating its anterior aspect, measuring 62 × 48 mm.

  6. [A boy with cyclic vomiting and an alleged furosemide allergy on the basis of a subpelvic stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.F.; Wijk, J.A. van; Horst, H.J. van der; Bokenkamp, A.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy, known with a Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, was admitted to the hospital because of frequent vomiting since 3 days and loin pain. In previous years, he had been admitted several times for the same complaints but no cause had been identified. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen

  7. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat. PMID:27857541

  8. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-10-31

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat.

  9. Ureteritis cystica: A rare benign lesion | Ibrahim | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 63 year old Sudanese woman with a history of repeated attacks of right loin pain in whom magnetic resonance urography (MRU) showed multiple filling defects in the right ureter. These were initially thought to be malignant urothelial lesions. Ureteroscopy revealed cystic smooth walled masses which ...

  10. Upper urinary tract damage caused by ketamine snorting—A report of nine cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ying Lee; Yu-Chao Hsu; Chao-Yu Hsu; Eric Chieh-Lung Chou; Ching-Chia Li; Yung-Shun Juan; Mei-Yu Jang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The toxicity of ketamine to genitourinary system not only involved in lower urinary tract, which include urinary frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, dysuria and hematuria, but also upper urinary tracts. However, the reports of ketmaine-induced upper urinary tract damage were rare. Materials and methods: Herein, we reported nine ketamine abusers presented with moderate flank pain with hydronephrosis and lower urinary tract symptoms from three medical centers located around Taiwa...

  11. Influence of PA6 nanocomposite films on the stability of vacuum-aged beef loins during storage in modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, P A; Fernandez, A; Realini, C E; Lloret, E

    2014-01-01

    A masterbatch of polyamide 6 (PA6) containing dispersed nanoclays, was used to fabricate a novel multilayer film for vacuum packed meat. Performance of the nanocomposite was compared to a control PA6 multilayer and a high barrier commercial film. Addition of nanoclays improved oxygen barrier properties, UV-blocking capability and stiffness. Beef loins were vacuum-aged using the three films for 0 7, 14 and 21 days at 2°C. After each ageing time, beef steaks were packaged in commercial trays and high oxygen atmosphere and stored at 4°C for 9 days. Beef quality parameters and gas content were studied during display time in MAP (1, 3, 6 and 9 d). Beef quality parameters were not influenced by the packaging materials used during ageing and the performance of nanocomposites was comparable to high barrier films. Ageing had a positive impact on the stabilization of redness up to day 6 in MAP. Thereafter, oxymyoglobin content and oxidation levels were negatively influenced by ageing. © 2013.

  12. Simultaneous uterine and urinary bladder rupture in an otherwise successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szu-Ying; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Liang, Ching-Chung

    2010-12-01

    Uterine rupture is the primary concern when a patient chooses a trial of labor after a cesarean section. Bladder rupture accompanied by uterine rupture should be taken into consideration if gross hematuria occurs. We report the case of a patient with uterine rupture during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. She had a normal course of labor and no classic signs of uterine rupture. However, gross hematuria was noted after repair of the episiotomy. The patient began to complain of progressive abdominal pain, gross hematuria and oliguria. Cystoscopy revealed a direct communication between the bladder and the uterus. When opening the bladder peritoneum, rupture sites over the anterior uterus and posterior wall of the bladder were noted. Following primary repair of both wounds, a Foley catheter was left in place for 12 days. The patient had achieved a full recovery by the 2-year follow-up examination. Bladder injury and uterine rupture can occur at any time during labor. Gross hematuria immediately after delivery is the most common presentation. Cystoscopy is a good tool to identify the severity of bladder injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous Uterine and Urinary Bladder Rupture in an Otherwise Successful Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ying Ho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is the primary concern when a patient chooses a trial of labor after a cesarean section. Bladder rupture accompanied by uterine rupture should be taken into consideration if gross hematuria occurs. We report the case of a patient with uterine rupture during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. She had a normal course of labor and no classic signs of uterine rupture. However, gross hematuria was noted after repair of the episiotomy. The patient began to complain of progressive abdominal pain, gross hematuria and oliguria. Cystoscopy revealed a direct communication between the bladder and the uterus. When opening the bladder peritoneum, rupture sites over the anterior uterus and posterior wall of the bladder were noted. Following primary repair of both wounds, a Foley catheter was left in place for 12 days. The patient had achieved a full recovery by the 2-year follow-up examination. Bladder injury and uterine rupture can occur at any time during labor. Gross hematuria immediately after delivery is the most common presentation. Cystoscopy is a good tool to identify the severity of bladder injury.

  14. Page's kidney report in six cases and paper review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Zhao Zhongwen; Song Yufeng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis and treatment method of Page's kidney. Methods: The clinical materials in 6 cases of this disease combined with the paper review were analyzed. Results: The chief complaint of all cases were loin and abdominal pain in right side. Four cases were correctly diagnosed by ultrasound and CT examination before operation. Two cases were treated by the transepidermal renal puncture and withdrew the liquid, but the result was not good: the perirenal hematoma and symptom recurred after three days. The incision and drainage of renal capsule were performed in 6 cases, the result was good. Conclusion: The blunt trauma in the right renal abdominal region is the main reason. The chief complaint of the patient are loin pain and abdominal pain. Ultrasonic examination is the basic method, and the computed tomography is a main method. The result of transepidermal renal puncture and withdrawing the liquid is not good, for in the short period, the perirenal hematoma and symptom will recur. If the patient has the clinical symptoms, the incision and drainage of renal capsule is the method which has the good result. The nephrectomy is unnecessary, because the patient's renal function does not have been damaged

  15. Imaging of the urinary tract in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, A.; Hunskaar, S.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the indications for imaging of the urinary tract from the general practitioners' point of view. Urography should be used in the control of patients with previous attacks of ureteral colic, in patients presenting macroscopic hematuria and as a preoperative investigation prior to extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Ultrasound should be chosen in patients with microscopic hematuria and non-specific abdominal pain. Computerized tomography should be used in cases with non-specific findings using urography and ultrasound. There are no indications for imaging in women with recurrent urinary tract infection, in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy and in the evaluation of hypertension. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Imaging of the urinary tract in adults; A direction for general practice. Bildediagnostikk av urinveiene hos voksne; En rettledning for allmenpraksis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslaksen, A.; Hunskaar, S.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa. (Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway))

    1990-11-01

    This article discusses the indications for imaging of the urinary tract from the general practitioners' point of view. Urography should be used in the control of patients with previous attacks of ureteral colic, in patients presenting macroscopic hematuria and as a preoperative investigation prior to extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Ultrasound should be chosen in patients with microscopic hematuria and non-specific abdominal pain. Computerized tomography should be used in cases with non-specific findings using urography and ultrasound. There are no indications for imaging in women with recurrent urinary tract infection, in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy and in the evaluation of hypertension. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Which pediatric blunt trauma patients do not require pelvic imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Maya; Simone, Laura A; Wales, Paul W; Stimec, Jennifer; Stephens, Derek; Beno, Suzanne; Schuh, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a tool in identifying traumatized children at low risk of pelvic fracture and to determine the sensitivity of this low-risk model for pelvic fractures. We hypothesized that the proportion of children without predictors with pelvic fracture is less than 1%. This is a retrospective trauma registry analysis of previously healthy children 1 year to 17 years old presenting to the pediatric emergency department with blunt trauma. Postulated predictors of pelvic fracture on radiograph or computed tomography included pain/abnormal examination result of the pelvis/hip, femur deformity, hematuria, abdominal pain/tenderness, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 or lower, and hemodynamic instability. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of fracture. Of 1,121 eligible patients (mean [SD] age, 8.5 [4.6] years), 87 (7.8%) had pelvic fracture. Independent predictors included pain/abnormal examination result of the pelvis/hip (odds ratio [OR], 16.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-29.1), hematuria (OR, 6.6; 95% CI, 3.0-14.6), femoral deformity (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.1-11.3), GCS score of 13 or lower (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3), and hemodynamic instability (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.7-6.9). One of 590 children (0.2%; 95% CI, 0-0.5%) without predictors had pelvic fractures versus 86 (16.2%) of 531 in those with one or more predictors (OR, 119; 95% CI, 16.6-833). One of 87 children with pelvic fractures had no predictors (1.1%; 95% CI, 0-3%). When assuming a 100% radiography rate, this tool saves 53% pelvic radiographs. Children with multiple blunt trauma without pain/abnormal examination result of the pelvis/hip, femur deformity, hematuria, abdominal pain/tenderness, GCS score of 13 or lower, or hemodynamic instability constitute a low-risk population for pelvic fracture, with less than 0.5% risk rate. This population does not require routine pelvic imaging. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  18. The effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment on microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of vacuum packaged beef loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Ni, Y; Bauer, S; Paulsen, P; Modic, M; Walsh, J L; Smulders, F J M

    2017-06-01

    Effects on vacuum packaged and non-packaged beef longissimus samples exposed to atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) generated at different powers were studied over a 10day period of vacuum-, and a subsequent 3day period of aerobic storage. Exposure of non-covered beef samples under high power ACP conditions resulted in increased a*, b*, Chroma and Hue values, but ACP treatment of packaged loins did not impact colour (L*, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue), lipid peroxidation, sarcoplasmic protein denaturation, nitrate/nitrite uptake, or myoglobin isoform distribution. Colour values measured after 3days of aerobic storage following unpackaging (i.e. 20days post-mortem) were similar and all compliant with consumer acceptability standards. Exposure to ACP of the polyamide-polyethylene packaging film inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and two Escherichia coli strains resulted in >2 log reduction without affecting the integrity of the packaging matrix. Results indicate that ACP can reduce microbial numbers on surfaces of beef packages without affecting characteristics of the packaged beef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Housing Systems and the Diet Supplements on the Slaughter Value and Concentration of Mineral Elements in the Loin Muscle of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabryszuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance system as well as the effect of Se, Zn, and vitamin E supplementation of ram-lambs on the slaughter value and concentration of mineral elements in the loin muscle of lambs. The experiment was conducted on 72 Polish Merino ram-lambs divided into three groups: group C, indoor with no supplement, 19 lambs; S, indoor with supplement, 23 lambs; G, outdoor with no supplement, 30 lambs. From birth all the lambs were maintained indoor with their dams and then weaned at the age of 8 weeks. The rams from group C and S were placed in individual straw-bedded pens and fattened individually with concentrate mixture offered ad libitum until the age of 16 weeks. The lambs from group G were grazed every day from May to July (2 months. During the fattening period each lamb from the supplemented group S was administered per os 1 mL 0.1% Na2SeO4 (Se, 0.42 mg, 3 mL 10% ZnSO4 (Zn, 68 mg, and 1 mL premix protect vitamin E (0.1 g α-tocopherol, 5 mg lysine, 5 mg methionine daily. A comparison of half carcasses across the groups has shown no difference between the control group and the one with supplements, while the weight of half carcasses in the grazing group was smaller in comparison with groups C and S (p<0.001. The meat content in the pelvic limb showed no differences across all groups under study. The pelvic limb of grazing lambs contained less fat compared to the control and supplemented groups (p<0.001. The concentrations of Se and Zn in the blood plasma of ram-lambs from the supplemented group were significantly higher than for the control and grazing lambs. Inorganic Se and Zn supplementation with vitamin E to the diet of lambs increased Se and Zn levels in loin muscle (p<0.001 to 0.46 μg/g and 32.9 μg/g in fresh tissue, respectively.

  20. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient conditioned pain modulation despite pain persistence in painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granot, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Alleviation of pain, by either medical or surgical therapy, is accompanied by transition from less efficient, or pro-nociceptive, to efficient conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Spontaneous decrease or resolution of pain with disease progression is reported for some patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). To explore whether CPM changes similarly in parallel to spontaneous resolution of pain in PDN patients. In this cross-sectional study, thirty-three patients with PDN underwent psychophysical assessment of pain modulation on the forearm, remote from the clinical pain. Pain duration was not correlated with neuropathic pain intensity, yet, it correlated with CPM efficiency; patients with longer pain duration had same pain level, but more efficient CPM than those with short-pain duration (ρ = -0.417; P = 0.025, Spearman correlation). Patients with pain more than 2 years (median split) expressed efficient CPM that was not different from that of healthy controls. These patients also had lower temporal summation of pain than the short-pain duration patients group ( P < 0.05). The 2 patient groups did not differ in clinical pain characteristics or use of analgesics. Pro-nociception, expressed by less efficient CPM and high temporal summation that usually accompanies clinical painful conditions, seems to "normalize" with chronicity of the pain syndrome. This is despite continuing pain, suggesting that pro-nociceptivity in pain syndromes is multifactorial. Because the pain modulation profile affects success of therapy, this suggests that different drugs might express different efficacy pending on duration of the pain in patients with PDN.

  3. Effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef top loin steak color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, A R; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef LM color. Using a randomized complete block design, each beef longissimus lumborum muscle ( = 10; USDA Choice, 3 d postmortem) was equally divided into 3 sections and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods (21, 42, or 62 d at 2°C). After respective aging, each loin section was cut into four 2.5-cm-thick steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging types (PVC, HiOx-MAP [80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide], or CO-MAP [0.4% carbon monoxide, 69.6% nitrogen, and 30% carbon dioxide]). The steaks were displayed under continuous fluorescent lighting for 6 d, and surface color was determined daily using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer and a visual panel. The fourth steak was used to characterize oxygen consumption (OC), lipid oxidation, and metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) on 21, 42, and 62 d (before display). On d 6 display, MRA, OC, and lipid oxidation also were measured. An increase in aging time decreased ( packaging × display time interaction ( packaging types on d 6. At all aging periods, steaks packaged in CO-MAP had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had the least MRA ( packaged in CO-MAP and displayed for 6 d. However, steaks packaged in HiOx-MAP and displayed 6 d had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had a lower ( packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP when aged for 21 d and displayed 6 d. The results indicate that extended aging is detrimental to color stability when packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP. However, steaks in CO-MAP had stable red color during display. Decreased color stability in PVC and HiOx-MAP could be associated, in part, with decreased MRA and OC.

  4. Facilitated pronociceptive pain mechanisms in radiating back pain compared with localized back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... threshold (HPT) at the non-painful hand were also assessed. Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress, and disability were assessed with questionnaires. TSP was increased in patients with radiating back pain compared with localized back pain (Ppain or localized low...

  5. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  6. Stability of Antiradical Activity of Protein Extracts and Hydrolysates from Dry-Cured Pork Loins with Probiotic Strains of LAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kęska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of antiradical activity of protein extracts from LAB-inoculated dry-cured pork loins during long-term aging and evaluate their hydrolysates after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Analyses of hydrolysates by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS were strengthened with in silico analysis. The highest antiradical activity of the protein extracts was observed after 180 days of aging. The influence of the strain used (LOCK, BAUER, or BB12 on the inactivation ability of ABTS radicals varied during long-term aging. The IC50 values indicated the higher antiradical properties of salt-soluble (SSF compared to water-soluble fraction (WSF of proteins. The peptides generated by in vitro digestion have MW between 700 and 4232 Da and their length ranged from 5 to 47 amino acids in a sequence where Leu, Pro, Lys, Glu, and His had the largest share. This study demonstrates that the degradation of pork muscle proteins during gastrointestinal digestion may give rise to a wide variety of peptides with antiradical properties.

  7. Pain and pain behavior in burning mouth syndrome: a pain diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssell, Heli; Teerijoki-Oksa, Tuija; Kotiranta, Ulla; Kantola, Rosita; Bäck, Marjaliina; Vuorjoki-Ranta, Tiina-Riitta; Siponen, Maria; Leino, Ari; Puukka, Pauli; Estlander, Ann-Mari

    2012-01-01

    To characterize pain related to primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in terms of intensity, interference, and distress caused by the pain, as well as factors influencing the pain across a period of 2 weeks, and to study the use of coping and management strategies on a daily basis. Fifty-two female patients with primary BMS completed a 2-week pain diary. Pain intensity, interference, distress, and mood on a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale (NRS), as well as pain amplifying and alleviating factors, were recorded three times a day. The use of treatments (medication or other means) and coping strategies were recorded at the end of each day. Coefficient of variation, repeated measures analysis of variance, and correlative methods were used to assess the between- and within-subject variation, pain patterns, and associations between various pain scores. The overall mean pain intensity score of the 14 diary days was 3.1 (SD: 1.7); there was considerable variation in pain intensity between patients. Most patients experienced intermittent pain. On average, pain intensity increased from the morning to the evening. Intercorrelations between pain intensity, interference, distress, and mood were high, varying between rs = .75 and rs = .93 (P < .001). Pungent or hot food or beverages, stress, and tiredness were the most frequently mentioned pain-amplifying factors. The corresponding pain-alleviating factors were eating, sucking pastilles, drinking cold beverages, and relaxation. Thirty (58%) patients used pain medication and 35% reported using other means to alleviate their BMS pain. There was large variation in the use of coping strategies -between subjects. There were considerable differences in pain, in factors influencing the pain, and in pain behavior across BMS patients. This indicates that patient information and education as well as treatment of BMS pain should be individualized.

  8. Pain-relevant anxiety affects desire for pain relief, but not pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Banozic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain context plays a significant role in the perception of pain. Despite recent interest in vicarious learning and anxiety in pain modulation, there have been no attempts to explore pain modulation by specific environmental cues. Aims: Therefore, the present study evaluated pain responses in the condition that was attributed as either anxiety relevant (AR or anxiety irrelevant. Materials and Methods: Participants were exposed to both conditions through social observational learning. Pain perception was assessed by means of a visual analog scale ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = maximum imaginable pain. State anxiety, empathy, expectancy, and desire for pain relief were also measured at both neutral and emotionally inducing conditions. Results: No effect of relevancy of anxiety for the pain context on any of the pain-related constructs was found. However, participants in the AR condition reported an increased desire for pain relief. Maximizing similarities between observed and experienced pain context did not enhance observational learning effects in the emotionally inducing condition regardless of its relevance, but significant changes were found in comparison to the affectively neutral group. Conclusions: These results could have potentially significant clinical implications suggesting that even though observing painful procedures does not increase pain it could affect medication usage.

  9. Efficient conditioned pain modulation despite pain persistence in painful diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Granovsky

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:. Pro-nociception, expressed by less efficient CPM and high temporal summation that usually accompanies clinical painful conditions, seems to “normalize” with chronicity of the pain syndrome. This is despite continuing pain, suggesting that pro-nociceptivity in pain syndromes is multifactorial. Because the pain modulation profile affects success of therapy, this suggests that different drugs might express different efficacy pending on duration of the pain in patients with PDN.

  10. Acute renal infarction Secondary to Atrial Fibrillation Mimicking Renal Stone Picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Salih Bin; Al-Durihim, H.; Al-Jizeeri, A.; Al-Maziad, G.

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal infarction presents in a similar clinical picture to that of a renal stone. We report a 55-year-old Saudi female, known to have atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease. She presented with a two day history of right flank pain that was treated initially as renal stone. Further investigations confirmed her as a case of renal infarction. Renal infarction is under-diagnosed because the similarity of its presentation to renal stone. Renal infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of loin pain, particularly in a patient with atrial fibrillation. (author)

  11. Conditioned pain modulation in patients with nonspecific chronic back pain with chronic local pain, chronic widespread pain, and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.

  12. Painful Intercourse Is Significantly Associated with Evoked Pain Perception and Cognitive Aspects of Pain in Women with Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.

  13. Colorectal surgery patients' pain status, activities, satisfaction, and beliefs about pain and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carolyn; Constance, Kristel; Bédard, Denise; Purden, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    This study describes surgical colorectal cancer patients' pain levels, recovery activities, beliefs and expectations about pain, and satisfaction with pain management. A convenience sample of 50 adult inpatients who underwent colorectal surgery for cancer participated. Patients were administered the modified American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire on postoperative day 2 and asked to report on their status in the preceding 24 hours. Patients reported low current (mean 1.70) and average (mean 2.96) pain scores but had higher scores and greater variation for worst pain (mean 5.48). Worst pain occurred mainly while turning in bed or mobilizing, and 25% of patients experienced their worst pain at rest. Overall, patients expected to have pain after surgery and were very satisfied with pain management. Patients with worst pain scores >7 reported interference with recovery activities, mainly general activity (mean 5.67) and walking ability (mean 5.15). These patients were likely to believe that "people can get addicted to pain medication easily" (mean 3.39 out of 5) and that "pain medication should be saved for cases where pain gets worse" (mean 3.20 out of 5). These beliefs could deter patients from seeking pain relief and may need to be identified and addressed along with expectations about pain in the preoperative nursing assessment. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.

  15. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  16. Spontaneous pain attacks: neuralgic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Paroxysmal orofacial pains can cause diagnostic problems, especially when different clinical pictures occur simultaneously. Pain due to pulpitis, for example, may show the same characteristics as pain due to trigeminal neuralgia would. Moreover, the trigger point of trigeminal neuralgia can either

  17. Pain-related worry in patients with chronic orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C Ervin; Stockstill, John W; Stanley, William D; Wu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Pain-related worry is distinct from, but related to, pain catastrophizing (PC) and anxiety. Worry and its relationship with other variables have been studied in people with chronic pain but not in people with chronic orofacial pain. The authors explored the prevalence of trait, general and pain-related worry and the association of worry with higher pain levels and other variables. The authors assessed people who had a diagnosis of chronic orofacial pain by using nonpain-related trait worry, state anxiety, trait anxiety, PC and pain measures. The participants' answers to an open-ended question about what they were most worried about led to the identification of worry domains, including worry about pain. The authors found that worrying about pain was related significantly to worst and least pain levels, pain interference and pain duration, as well as moderated trait worry in predicting pain interference. Although trait worry was not correlated directly with pain, when moderated by PC, it made substantial contributions in predicting pain interference. Participants with chronic orofacial pain reported experiencing substantial levels of trait worry, anxiety, PC and worry about pain that related to pain ratings directly and indirectly. Clinicians should assess pain-related worry in patients with chronic orofacial pain to understand the effects of worry on pain and functioning. Clinicians could treat these patients more effectively by helping them reduce their levels of pain-related worry and focusing on improved coping.

  18. Pain Adaptability in Individuals With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Is Not Associated With Conditioned Pain Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dawn Wong Lit; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wang, Kelun; Xue, Charlie Changli; Wang, Yanyi; Zheng, Zhen

    2018-03-27

    Healthy humans can be divided into the pain adaptive (PA) and the pain nonadaptive (PNA) groups; PA showed a greater decrease in pain rating to a cold pressor test (CPT) than PNA. This study examined if the dichotomy of pain adaptability existed in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. CPTs at 2°C and 7°C were used to assess the status of pain adaptability in participants with either chronic nonspecific low back pain or knee osteoarthritis. The participants' potency of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and local inhibition were measured. The strengths of pain adaptability at both CPTs were highly correlated. PA and PNA did not differ in their demographic characteristics, pain thresholds from thermal and pressure stimuli, or potency of local inhibition or CPM. PA reached their maximum pain faster than PNA (t 41 = -2.76, P adaptability exists in musculoskeletal pain patients. Consistent with the healthy human study, the strength of pain adaptability and potency of CPM are not related. Pain adaptability could be another form of endogenous pain inhibition of which clinical implication is yet to be understood. The dichotomy of pain adaptability was identified in healthy humans. The current study confirms that this dichotomy also exists in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain, and could be reliably assessed with CPTs at 2°C and 7°C. Similar to the healthy human study, pain adaptability is not associated with CPM, and may reflect the temporal aspect of pain inhibition. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maintenance of Pain in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Williams, Amy E; Weidler, Erica M; Blatz, Allison M; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of 3 methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (ie, diary, parent report, child report). Seventy-six children (7-10 years old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18 to 24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Children's baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. Children who, however, displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. The presence of IBS symptoms in school-age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, whereas anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not.

  20. Altering gender role expectations: effects on pain tolerance, pain threshold, and pain ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Riley, Joseph L; Price, Donald D

    2003-06-01

    The literature demonstrating sex differences in pain is sizable. Most explanations for these differences have focused on biologic mechanisms, and only a few studies have examined social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of gender-role stereotypes to sex differences in pain. This study used experimental manipulation of gender-role expectations for men and women. One hundred twenty students participated in the cold pressor task. Before the pain task, participants were given 1 of 3 instructional sets: no expectation, 30-second performance expectation, or a 90-second performance expectation. Pain ratings, threshold, and tolerance were recorded. Significant sex differences in the "no expectation" condition for pain tolerance (t = 2.32, df = 38, P differ in their pain tolerance, pain threshold, or pain ratings. This is the first empirical study to show that manipulation of expectations alters sex differences in laboratory pain.

  1. Transperitoneal laparoscopic approach for retrocaval ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagraj H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We had a 14 year old boy, who presented with recurrent attacks of right loin pain. Investigations revealed a retrocaval ureter. A transperitoneal three port laparoscopic approach was undertaken. The retrocaval portion of ureter was excised. A double J stent was placed laparoscopically and ureteroureterostomy was done with intracorporeal suturing. The patient was discharged after 72 hours and the stent was removed on the 15th day. Follow up showed regression of hydronephrosis. We recommend this approach compared to open surgery, as it offers several advantages compared to conventional open surgery like decreased postoperative pain, decreased hospital stay and a cosmetically more acceptable surgical scar.

  2. Predicting postoperative pain by preoperative pressure pain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Wei; Somma, Jacques; Hung, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Yang, Chen-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Chuan

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative pressure pain sensitivity testing is predictive of postoperative surgical pain. Female subjects undergoing lower abdominal gynecologic surgery were studied. A pressure algometer was used preoperatively to determine the pressure pain threshold and tolerance. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess postoperative pain. A State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess patients' anxiety. Subjects received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain control. The preoperative pain threshold and tolerance were compared with the postoperative VAS pain score and morphine consumption. Forty women were enrolled. Their preoperative pressure pain threshold and tolerance were 141 +/- 65 kPa and 223 +/- 62 kPa, respectively. The VAS pain score in the postanesthesia care unit and at 24 h postoperatively were 81 +/- 24 and 31 +/- 10, respectively. Highly anxious patients had higher VAS pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (P pain tolerance was significantly correlated with the VAS at 24 h postoperatively (P pain tolerance after fentanyl administration (mean, 272 +/- 68 kPa) correlated significantly with morphine consumption in the first 24 h postoperatively (P pain tolerance is significantly correlated with the level of postoperative pain. Pain tolerance assessment after fentanyl was administered and fentanyl sensitivity predicted the dose of analgesics used in the first 24 h after surgery. The algometer is thus a simple, useful tool for predicting postoperative pain and analgesic consumption.

  3. Pain and the ethics of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1984-01-01

    In this article I clarify the concepts of 'pain', 'suffering', 'pains of body', 'pains of soul'. I explore the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives patients a strong prima facie right to freedom from unnecessary and unwanted pain and which places upon medical professionals two concomitant moral obligations to patients. First, there is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis, treatment and research. Next, there is the duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated. I develop in some detail that individuality of pain sensitivity must be taken into account in fulfilling these obligations. I explore the issue of the relevance of informed consent and the right to refuse treatment to the matter of pain relief. And I raise the question of what conditions, if any, should override the right to refuse treatment where pain relief is of paramount concern.

  4. Improvement of burn pain management through routine pain monitoring and pain management protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeong Tae; Hur, Giyeun; Kwak, In-Suk; Yim, Haejun; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Dohern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Boung Chul; Seo, Cheong Hoon; Chun, Wook

    2013-06-01

    Pain management is an important aspect of burn management. We developed a routine pain monitoring system and pain management protocol for burn patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of our new pain management system. From May 2011 to November 2011, the prospective study was performed with 107 burn patients. We performed control group (n=58) data analysis and then developed the pain management protocol and monitoring system. Next, we applied our protocol to patients and performed protocol group (n=49) data analysis, and compared this to control group data. Data analysis was performed using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of background pain and procedural pain, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale (STAIS), and Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale (HRSS). The NRS of background pain for the protocol group was significantly decreased compared to the control group (2.8±2.0 versus 3.9±1.9), and the NRS of procedural pain of the protocol group was significantly decreased compared to the control group (4.8±2.8 versus 3.7±2.5). CAPS and HDRS were decreased in the protocol group, but did not have statistical significance. STAIS and HRSS were decreased in the protocol group, but only the STAIS had statistical significance. Our new pain management system was effective in burn pain management. However, adequate pain management can only be accomplished by a continuous and thorough effort. Therefore, pain control protocol and pain monitoring systems need to be under constant revision and improvement using creative ideas and approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing individual painDETECT symptoms by average pain severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alesia Sadosky,1 Vijaya Koduru,2 E Jay Bienen,3 Joseph C Cappelleri4 1Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 2Eliassen Group, New London, CT, 3Outcomes Research Consultant, New York, NY, 4Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA Background: painDETECT is a screening measure for neuropathic pain. The nine-item version consists of seven sensory items (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure, a pain course pattern item, and a pain radiation item. The seven-item version consists only of the sensory items. Total scores of both versions discriminate average pain-severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe, but their ability to discriminate individual item severity has not been evaluated.Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional, observational study of six neuropathic pain conditions (N=624. Average pain severity was evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, with severity levels defined using established cut points for distinguishing mild, moderate, and severe pain. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was followed by ridit analysis to represent the probability that a randomly selected subject from one average pain-severity level had a more favorable outcome on the specific painDETECT item relative to a randomly selected subject from a comparator severity level.Results: A probability >50% for a better outcome (less severe pain was significantly observed for each pain symptom item. The lowest probability was 56.3% (on numbness for mild vs moderate pain and highest probability was 76.4% (on cold/heat for mild vs severe pain. The pain radiation item was significant (P<0.05 and consistent with pain symptoms, as well as with total scores for both painDETECT versions; only the pain course item did not differ.Conclusion: painDETECT differentiates severity such that the ability to discriminate average pain also distinguishes individual pain item severity in an interpretable manner. Pain

  6. Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Chen, Shanwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jianyong; Jin, Baiye

    2015-07-02

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) with flank pain, and hematuria, is often mistaken with renal colic originating from ureteric or renal calculus. Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT. A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound. She underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy that failed, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In preoperative view of the unusual shape of the calculus without hydronephrosis, noncontrast computed tomography was taken and demonstrated left ureteric calculus. However computed tomography angiography revealed, to our surprise, a calcified RVT that was initially thought to be a urinary calculus. This case shows that a calcified RVT might mimic a urinary calculus on conventional ultrasonography and ureteric calculus on noncontrast computed tomography. Subsequent computed tomography angiography disclosed that a calcified RVT caused the imaging findings, thus creating a potentially dangerous clinical pitfall. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a RVT needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever one detects an uncommon shape for a urinary calculus.

  7. Chronic loin pain in a 65-year old adult polycystic kidney disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    permanently by any intervention method adopted, and also to offer them the treatment ... through phosphorylation pathways, whereas ... The electrolyte, urea, and creatinine values were within .... N Engl J Med 1993;329:332-342. 5. Wilson DP.

  8. Metastatic malignant tumor in native kidney with acquired cystic disease after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de la Oliva, T.; Gonzalez Molina, M.

    1990-01-01

    Patients on long-term hemodialysis frequently develop Acquired Cystic Renal Disease (ARCD). When hematuria or flank pain occurs, the possibility of malignant renal tumors should be investigated. The authors present an ARCD patient who received a kidney transplant and developed malignancy in a native kidney, the first manifestation being bone metastases, and discuss the role of CT in evaluating these patients. (authors). 9 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Sclerotherapy for a simple renal cyst causing hydronephrosis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Hun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Hwang, Jin Ho; Jung, Sung Il [Dept. Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    A simple renal cyst usually remains asymptomatic and requires no invasive treatment. Occasionally, however, some cysts may cause pain, hematuria, hypertension, or obstruction of the collecting system. We describe a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with hydronephrosis caused by an ipsilateral simple renal cyst without any stone or significant mass in the urinary system. The patient was eventually treated successfully with sclerotherapy.

  10. The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2012-08-01

    Healthy children are often required to repeatedly undergo painful medical procedures (eg, immunizations). Although memory is often implicated in children's reactions to future pain, there is a dearth of research directly examining the relationship between the 2. The current study investigated the influence of children's memories for a novel pain stimulus on their subsequent pain experience. One hundred ten healthy children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a laboratory pain task and provided pain ratings. Two weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories as well as their expectancies about future pain. One month following the initial laboratory visit, children again completed the pain task and provided pain ratings. Results showed that children's memory of pain intensity was a better predictor of subsequent pain reporting than their actual initial reporting of pain intensity, and mediated the relationship between initial and subsequent pain reporting. Children who had negatively estimated pain memories developed expectations of greater pain prior to a subsequent pain experience and showed greater increases in pain ratings over time than children who had accurate or positively estimated pain memories. These findings highlight the influence of pain memories on healthy children's expectations of future pain and subsequent pain experiences and extend predictive models of subsequent pain reporting. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain adaptability in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain is not associated with conditioned pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Dawn Wong Lit; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wang, Kelun

    2018-01-01

    (MSK). CPTs at 2°C and 7°C were used to assess the status of pain adaptability in participants with either chronic non-specific low back pain or knee osteoarthritis. The participants' potency of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and local inhibition were measured. The strengths of pain adaptability...... at both CPTs were highly correlated. PA and PNA did not differ in their demographics, pain thresholds from thermal and pressure stimuli, or potency of local inhibition or CPM. PA reached their maximum pain faster than PNA (t41=-2.76, p... days whereas PNA did not (F (6,246) = 3.01, p = 0.01). The dichotomy of pain adaptability exists in MSK patients. Consistent with the healthy human study, the strength of pain adaptability and potency of CPM are not related. Pain adaptability could be another form of endogenous pain inhibition which...

  12. Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens ... Bracing: What Works? Home Prevention and Wellness Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines Pain Control After Surgery: ...

  13. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40

  14. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149

  15. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

  16. Pain Sensitivity and Pain Catastrophizing are Associated with Persistent Pain and Disability after Lumbar Spine Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; George, Steven Z.; Devin, Clinton J.; Wegener, Stephen T.; Archer, Kristin R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether pain sensitivity and pain catastrophizing are associated with persistent pain and disability after lumbar spine surgery. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Academic medical center. Participants Patients (N = 68, mean ± SD age = 57.9 ± 13.1 years, N female = 40 (58.8%)) undergoing spine surgery for a degenerative condition from March 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 were assessed 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) The main outcome measures were persistent back pain intensity, pain interference, and disability. Patients with persistent back pain intensity, pain interference, or disability were identified as those patients reporting Brief Pain Inventory scores ≥ 4 and Oswestry Disability Index scores ≥ 21 at all postoperative time points. Results From 6 weeks to 6 months after surgery, approximately 12.9%, 24.2%, and 46.8% of patients reported persistent back pain intensity, pain interference, or disability, respectively. Increased pain sensitivity at 6 weeks was associated with having persistent back pain intensity (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0; 4.1) after surgery. Increased pain catastrophizing at 6 weeks was associated with having persistent back pain intensity (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0; 1.2), pain interference (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0; 1.2), and disability (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1; 1.4). An interaction effect was not found between pain sensitivity and pain catastrophizing on persistent outcomes (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Findings suggest the importance of early postoperative screening for pain sensitivity and pain catastrophizing in order to identify patients at-risk for poor postoperative pain intensity, interference, and/or disability outcomes. Future research should consider the benefit of targeted therapeutic strategies for patients with these postoperative prognostic factors. PMID:26101845

  17. Pain chronification: what should a non-pain medicine specialist know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlion, Bart; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Aldington, Dominic; Kocot-Kepska, Magdalena; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Kalso, Eija

    2018-04-12

    Pain is one of the most common reasons for an individual to consult their primary care physician, with most chronic pain being treated in the primary care setting. However, many primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists lack enough awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately, and there is currently no clear, common consensus/formal definition of "pain chronification". This article, based on an international Change Pain Chronic Advisory Board meeting which was held in Wiesbaden, Germany, in October 2016, provides primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists with a narrative overview of pain chronification, including underlying physiological and psychosocial processes, predictive factors for pain chronification, a brief summary of preventive strategies, and the role of primary care physicians and non-pain medicine specialists in the holistic management of pain chronification. Based on currently available evidence, we propose the following consensus-based definition of pain chronification which provides a common framework to raise awareness among non-pain medicine specialists: "Pain chronification describes the process of transient pain progressing into persistent pain; pain processing changes as a result of an imbalance between pain amplification and pain inhibition; genetic, environmental and biopsychosocial factors determine the risk, the degree, and time-course of chronification." Early intervention plays an important role in preventing pain chronification and, as key influencers in the management of patients with acute pain, it is critical that primary care physicians are equipped with the necessary awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately.

  18. Pain as social glue: shared pain increases cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Jetten, Jolanda; Ferris, Laura J

    2014-11-01

    Even though painful experiences are employed within social rituals across the world, little is known about the social effects of pain. We examined the possibility that painful experiences can promote cooperation within social groups. In Experiments 1 and 2, we induced pain by asking some participants to insert their hands in ice water and to perform leg squats. In Experiment 3, we induced pain by asking some participants to eat a hot chili pepper. Participants performed these tasks in small groups. We found evidence for a causal link: Sharing painful experiences with other people, compared with a no-pain control treatment, promoted trusting interpersonal relationships by increasing perceived bonding among strangers (Experiment 1) and increased cooperation in an economic game (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings shed light on the social effects of pain, demonstrating that shared pain may be an important trigger for group formation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Pain-related guilt in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    Identifying mechanisms that mediate recovery is imperative to improve outcomes in low back pain (LBP). Qualitative studies suggest that guilt may be such a mechanism, but research on this concept is scarce, and reliable instruments to measure pain-related guilt are not available. We addressed this gap by developing and testing a Pain-related Guilt Scale (PGS) for people with LBP. Two samples of participants with LBP completed the scale and provided data on rates of depression, anxiety, pain intensity, and disability. Three factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis (n=137): "Social guilt," (4 items) relating to letting down family and friends; "Managing condition/pain guilt," (5 items) relating to failing to overcome and control pain; and "Verification of pain guilt," (3 items) relating to the absence of objective evidence and diagnosis. This factor structure was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis (n=288), demonstrating an adequate to good fit with the data (AGFI=0.913, RMSEA=0.061). The PGS subscales positively correlated with depression, anxiety, pain intensity, and disability. After controlling for depression and anxiety the majority of relationships between the PGS subscales and disability and pain intensity remained significant, suggesting that guilt shared unique variance with disability and pain intensity independent of depression and anxiety. High levels of guilt were reported by over 40% of participants. The findings suggest that pain-related guilt is common and is associated with clinical outcomes. Prospective research is needed to examine the role of guilt as a predictor, moderator, and mediator of patients' outcomes.

  20. Pain Intensity Moderates the Relationship Between Age and Pain Interference in Chronic Orofacial Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggero, Ian A; Geiger, Paul J; Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Carlson, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Chronic pain is associated with increased interference in daily functioning that becomes more pronounced as pain intensity increases. Based on previous research showing that older adults maintain well-being in the face of pain as well as or better than their younger counterparts, the current study examined the interaction of age and pain intensity on interference in a sample of chronic orofacial pain patients. Data were obtained from the records of 508 chronic orofacial pain patients being seen for an initial evaluation from 2008 to 2012. Collected data included age (range: 18-78) and self-reported measures of pain intensity and pain interference. Bivariate correlations and regression models were used to assess for statistical interactions. Regression analyses revealed that pain intensity positively predicted pain interference (R(2) = .35, B = 10.40, SE = 0.62, t(507) = 16.70, p theories, including socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits that as people age, they become more motivated to maximize positive emotions and minimize negative ones. The results highlight the importance of studying the mechanisms older adults use to successfully cope with pain.

  1. My Personal Journey With Ovarian Cancer Treatment: Caring and Chemotherapy Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Six years ago, I was diagnosed with stage IIIA ovarian low malignant cell potential cancer. It was the most shocking situation I have ever experienced. I didn't realize I had any symptoms, except occasional back pain, which I attributed to starting a new workout program. I had scheduled an abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan for recurrent microscopic hematuria, which my internist wanted to check. I was told I would hear the results in two days. Two hours after my CT scan, while I was eating ice cream and watching television, an on-call genitourinary doctor (who I did not personally know) called to tell me the good news-that I had kidney stones, thus the microscopic hematuria. However, the bad news was that I had ovarian cancer that had spread to my omentum. He said he would call my gynecologist right away.

  2. Headache attributed to masticatory myofascial pain: impact on facial pain and pressure pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Y M; Porporatti, A L; Stuginski-Barbosa, J; Bonjardim, L R; Speciali, J G; Conti, P C R

    2016-03-01

    There is no clear evidence on how a headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) can hinder the improvement of facial pain and masticatory muscle pain. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of a TMD-attributed headache on masticatory myofascial (MMF) pain management. The sample was comprised of adults with MMF pain measured according to the revised research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) and additionally diagnosed with (Group 1, n = 17) or without (Group 2, n = 20) a TMD-attributed headache. Both groups received instructions on how to implement behavioural changes and use a stabilisation appliance for 5 months. The reported facial pain intensity (visual analogue scale--VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT--kgf cm(-2)) of the anterior temporalis, masseter and right forearm were measured at three assessment time points. Two-way anova was applied to the data, considering a 5% significance level. All groups had a reduction in their reported facial pain intensity (P 0·100). A TMD-attributed headache in patients with MMF pain does not negatively impact pain management, but does change the pattern for muscle pain improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. When pain meets … pain-related choice behavior and pain perception in different goal conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Martien G S; Wiech, Katja; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in pain often face the choice between avoiding pain and pursuing other equally valued goals. However, little is known about pain-related choice behavior and pain perception in goal conflict situations. Seventy-eight healthy volunteers performed a computerized task requiring repeated choices between incompatible options, differing in their effect on probability to receive painful stimulation and money. Depending on group assignment, participants chose between increased pain probability versus decreased money probability (avoidance-avoidance conflict situation); decreased pain probability versus increased money probability (approach-approach conflict situation); or decrease versus increase in both probabilities (double approach/avoidance conflict situation). During the choice task, participants rated painfulness, unpleasantness, threat, and fearfulness associated with the painful stimulation and how they felt. Longer choice latency and more choice switching were associated with higher retrospective ratings of conflict and of decision difficulty, and more equal importance placed on pain avoidance and earning money. Groups did not differ in choice behavior, pain stimulus ratings, or affect. Across groups, longer choice latencies were nonsignificantly associated with higher pain, unpleasantness, threat, and fearfulness. In the avoidance-avoidance group, more choice switching was associated with higher pain-related threat and fearfulness, and with more negative affect. These results of this study suggest that associations between choice behaviors, pain perception, and affect depend on conflict situation. We present a first experimental demonstration of the relationship between pain-related choice behaviors, pain, and affect in different goal conflict situations. This experimental approach allows us to examine these relationships in a controlled fashion. Better understanding of pain-related goal conflicts and their resolution may lead to more effective pain

  4. [Pain and Christianity. A symbol for overcoming pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markschies, C

    2007-08-01

    Pain and Christianity appear to belong together: Christ's pain stands at the centre of God's healing; his pain leads to the salvation of mankind. We can learn from Jesus' example how to bear suffering and pain. In early Christian times, the belief that Jesus Christ suffered pain on the cross was usually not accepted. In line with the "apathy axiom", freedom from emotion was something to strive for at that time. Only after the acceptance of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD did the pain of Christ again stand in the centre of the Christian doctrine of salvation. The memory of the fact that Jesus himself had to undergo the worst pain can still help people to overcome their pain and comfort them.

  5. Competing effects of pain and fear of pain on postural control in low back pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazaheri, M.; Heidari, E.; Mostmand, J.; Negahban, H.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A cross-sectional, observational study. OBJECTIVE. To determine whether pain and fear of pain have competing effects on postural sway in patients with low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Competing effects of pain and pain-related fear on postural control can be proposed as

  6. Menopause affects pain depending on pain type and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Nanni, Michela; Bachiocco, Valeria; Vodo, Stellina; Aloisi, Anna M

    2012-05-01

    Women are more affected than men by many chronic pain conditions, suggesting the effect of sex-related mechanisms in their occurrence. The role of gonadal hormones has been studied but with contrasting results depending on the pain syndrome, reproductive status, and hormone considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pain changes related to the menopausal transition period. In this observational study, postmenopausal women were asked to evaluate the presence of pain in their life during the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods and its modification with menopause. One hundred one women were enrolled and completed questionnaires on their sociodemographic status, pain characteristics, and evolution. The most common pain syndromes were headache (38%), osteoarticular pain (31%), and cervical/lumbar pain (21%). Pain was present before menopause in 66 women, ceased with menopause in 17, and started after menopause in 18. Data were used for cluster analysis, which allowed the division of participants into four groups. In the first, all women experienced headaches that disappeared or improved with menopause. The second group included osteoarticular pain; the pain improved in half of these women and remained stable in the other half. The third group had cervical/lumbar pain, which disappeared or improved with menopause in all. The fourth group presented different kinds of moderate pain, which worsened in all. The present study provides preliminary data suggesting that menopause can affect pain depending on the painful condition experienced by the woman. This underlines the different interactions of menopause-related events with body structures involved in pain.

  7. Pain perception and modulation in acute and chronic pain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, L.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the evaluation of pain perception in acute and chronic pain patients and the strength of the endogenous pain modulation system in chronic pain patients. Additionally, pain phenotypes are determined in patients with chronic pain. The ability of patients with acute pain after

  8. Genetic variation of loin and ham quality in Finnish Landrace and Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. SEVÓN-AIMONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection potential for meat quality of economically important loin (longissimus and ham muscles (adductor, semimembranosus, biceps femoris has been assessed. Ultimate pH (pHu, meat colour (lightness, redness and yellowness, drip loss and two visually scored colour traits were recorded from 483 Finnish Landrace and 494 Finnish Large White station test pigs in a half-sib design. A univariate restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. The statistical model contained age at beginning of test, sex and time lapse from slaughter to dissection as fixed effects and slaughter batch, common environment of littermates and additive genetic effect of the animal as random effects. The average pHu values in adductor and semispinalis were between 5.6 and 6.1. The pHu were on average 5.4 and 5.5 in longissimus and semimembranosus respectively, with the latter two being lower than optimum values of 5.6 to 5.9. Lightness for semimembranosus turned to be clearly lighter (62 than for other muscles. Lightness for longissimus (56 was slightly lighter than optimum (from 48 to 54. The heritability varied from zero to 0.45 for pHu, from 0.02 to 0.34 for lightness, from 0.17 to 0.56 for redness, from zero to 0.28 for yellowness and from 0.05 to 0.16 for drip loss. Heritability for redness values was considerably higher than heritability for other meat quality traits. The heritability of quality traits spoke for possibilities for genetic improvement of meat quality. Genetic correlations between quality traits (pHu and lightness and average daily gain varied strongly among breeds and muscles. Genetic correlations between meat-% and pHu were in most cases high and unfavourable (rg from –0.36 to –0.68 except in longissimus, where it was 0.11. Genetic correlations between meat-% and lightness were unfavourable in Finnish Large White (from 0.47 to 0.92 but in Finnish Landrace estimates varied among muscles (from –0.40 to 0.47. Due to

  9. The periodontal pain paradox: Difficulty on pain assesment in dental patients (The periodontal pain paradox hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In daily dental practice, the majority of patients’ main complaints are related to pain. Most patients assume that all pains inside the oral cavity originated from the tooth. One particular case is thermal sensitivity; sometimes patients were being able to point the site of pain, although there is neither visible caries nor secondary caries in dental radiograph. In this case, gingival recession and dentin hypersensitivity are first to be treated to eliminate the pain. If these treatments failed, pain may misdiagnose as pulpal inflammation and lead to unnecessary root canal treatment. Study in pain during periodontal instrumentation of plaque-related periodontitis revealed that the majority of patients feel pain and discomfort during probing and scaling. It seems obvious because an inflammation, either acute or chronic is related to a lowered pain threshold. However, in contrast, in this case report, patient suffered from chronic gingivitis and thermal sensitivity experienced a relative pain-free sensation during probing and scaling. Lowered pain threshold which accompanied by a blunted pain perception upon periodontal instrumentation is proposed to be termed as the periodontal pain paradox. The objective of this study is to reveal the possibility of certain factors in periodontal inflammation which may involved in the periodontal pain paradox hypothesis. Patient with thermal hypersensitivity who was conducted probing and scaling, after the relative pain-free instrumentation, thermal hypersensitivity rapidly disappeared. Based on the successful periodontal treatment, it is concluded that chronic gingivitis may modulate periodontal pain perception which termed as periodontal pain paradox

  10. Pain Scores Are Not Predictive of Pain Medication Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Galloway

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94. We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA or RN administered (intravenous or oral medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management.

  11. Characterizing neuropathic pain profiles: enriching interpretation of painDETECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph C Cappelleri,1 Vijaya Koduru,2 E Jay Bienen,3 Alesia Sadosky4 1Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 2Eliassen Group, New London, CT, USA; 3Outcomes Research Consultant, New York, NY, USA; 4Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To psychometrically evaluate painDETECT, a patient-reported screening questionnaire for neuropathic pain (NeP, for discriminating among sensory pain symptoms (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure. Methods: The seven-item version of painDETECT provides an overall score that targets only sensory symptoms, while the nine-item version adds responses on two items to the overall score, covering pain course pattern and pain radiation. Both versions have relevance in terms of characterizing broad NeP. The nine- and seven-item versions of painDETECT were administered to subjects with confirmed NeP across six conditions identified during office visits to US community-based physicians. Responses on the sensory symptom items were dichotomized into “at least moderate” (ie, moderate, strongly, very strongly relative to the combined other responses (never, hardly noticed, slightly. Logistic regression of dichotomized variables on the total painDETECT score provided probabilities of experiencing each symptom across the range of painDETECT scores. Results: Both painDETECT versions discriminated among the symptoms with similar probabilities across the score ranges. Using these data, the probability of moderately experiencing each pain sensory item was estimated for a particular score, providing a pain profile. Additionally, the likelihood of experiencing each sensation was determined for a discrete increase in score, ie, the odds of at least a moderate sensation of burning (versus less than a moderate sensation was 1.29 for a 1-point increase, 3.52 for a 5-point increase, and 12.42 for every 10-point increase in the nine-item painDETECT score

  12. Treatment of lower ureteric stones by ESWL and ICPL: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Shameem, I A; Alam, A K M K; Kibria, S A M G

    2005-12-01

    This study was carried-out to find-out better and effective treatment option for Lower Ureteric Stones (LUS) by comparing Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) with ureterorenoscopic (URS) Intracorporeal Pneumatic Lithotripsy (ICPL). A total of 60 patients attending the outpatient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) with lower ureteric stones were divided into two groups, 30 in group-I (URS + ICPL) and the remaining 30 in group-II (ESWL). In group-I, 60% were male with mean age of 32.76 years and in group-II, 40% were male with mean age of 36.23 years. The ratio of involvement of right to left ureter was 1.7:1. The mean stone size was 10.7 + 2.69 mm (SD) in group-I and 9.9 + 1.97 mm (SD) in group-II. The differences in age, sex and side of involvement of ureter were not significant (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Among the groups 24 (80%) in group-I and 26 (86.61%) of patients in group-II were found stone free. The post procedure loin pain, fever and haematuria were more common in group-I than in group-II. The LUTS and loin pain were significantly more in group-I than in group-II (p ESWL was found effective method than URS + ICPL for the treatment of lower ureteric stones.

  13. Dysfunctional pain modulation in somatoform pain disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Stefanie; Stefanie, Klug; Anderer, Peter; Peter, Anderer; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Gerda, Saletu-Zyhlarz; Freidl, Marion; Marion, Freidl; Saletu, Bernd; Bernd, Saletu; Prause, Wolfgang; Wolfgang, Prause; Aigner, Martin; Martin, Aigner

    2011-06-01

    To date, pain perception is thought to be a creative process of modulation carried out by an interplay of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms. Recent research demonstrates that pain experience constitutes the result of top-down processes represented in cortical descending pain modulation. Cortical, mainly medial and frontal areas, as well as subcortical structures such as the brain stem, medulla and thalamus seem to be key players in pain modulation. An imbalance of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms are assumed to cause chronic pain disorders, which are associated with spontaneous pain perception without physiologic scaffolding or exaggerated cortical activation in response to pain exposure. In contrast to recent investigations, the aim of the present study was to elucidate cortical activation of somatoform pain disorder patients during baseline condition. Scalp EEG, quantitative Fourier-spectral analyses and LORETA were employed to compare patient group (N = 15) to age- and sex-matched controls (N = 15) at rest. SI, SII, ACC, SMA, PFC, PPC, insular, amygdale and hippocampus displayed significant spectral power reductions within the beta band range (12-30 Hz). These results suggest decreased cortical baseline arousal in somatoform pain disorder patients. We finally conclude that obtained results may point to an altered baseline activity, maybe characteristic for chronic somatoform pain disorder.

  14. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Popolizio, T.; D’Aprile, P.; Muto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  15. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  16. Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

  17. Pain and pain tolerance in professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajet-Foxell, B; Rose, F D

    1995-01-01

    Pain experience in sport had been the subject of increasing research in recent years. While sports professionals have generally been found to have higher pain thresholds than control subjects the reasons for this are not entirely clear. The present study seeks to investigate one possible explanatory factor, the importance of the popular image of the physical activity and of the self-image of its participants, by examining pain experience in professional ballet dancers. Like sports professionals, dancers were found to have higher pain and pain tolerance thresholds than age matched controls in the Cold Pressor Test. However, they also reported a more acute experience of the sensory aspects of the pain. Explanations of this apparent paradox are discussed both in terms of the neuroticism scores of the two groups and in terms of the dancers' greater experience of pain and its relationship with physical activity. The results illustrated the importance of using multidimensional measures of pain in this type of investigation. PMID:7788215

  18. Pain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Foulkes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pain, which afflicts up to 20% of the population at any time, provides both a massive therapeutic challenge and a route to understanding mechanisms in the nervous system. Specialised sensory neurons (nociceptors signal the existence of tissue damage to the central nervous system (CNS, where pain is represented in a complex matrix involving many CNS structures. Genetic approaches to investigating pain pathways using model organisms have identified the molecular nature of the transducers, regulatory mechanisms involved in changing neuronal activity, as well as the critical role of immune system cells in driving pain pathways. In man, mapping of human pain mutants as well as twin studies and association studies of altered pain behaviour have identified important regulators of the pain system. In turn, new drug targets for chronic pain treatment have been validated in transgenic mouse studies. Thus, genetic studies of pain pathways have complemented the traditional neuroscience approaches of electrophysiology and pharmacology to give us fresh insights into the molecular basis of pain perception.

  19. A Giant Pedunculated Urothelial Polyp Mimicking Bladder Mass in a Child: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rarely seen benign tumors with mesodermal origin. These polyps can involve kidney, pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra. The most common symptoms are hematuria and flank pain. The choice of treatment is either endoscopic or surgical resection of polyp by sparing kidney. Here, we presented a pediatric case with giant, fibroepithelial polyp that mimics bladder tumor, originating from middle segment of the ureter.

  20. Adenoma metanéfrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sayuri Ota

    Full Text Available Metanephric adenoma is a recently described, rare and benign renal tumor that generally occurs in adults and has an excellent prognosis. Pain, hematuria and palpable mass are the most commonly presented signs. We report the case of a 49-year old female with a 14-cm solitary right renal tumor. Radiological features of the tumor were non-specific and histopathological examination was essential to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  1. Characterization and functional inferences of a genome-wide DNA methylation profile in the loin ( muscle of swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonsu Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of swine. Methods A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates. The reference pig genome was annotated with 78.5% of the raw reads. A total of 33,506 putative methylated regions (PMR were identified from methylated regions that overlapped at least two samples. Results Of these, only 3.1% were commonly observed in all eight samples. DNA methylation patterns between two littermates were as diverse as between unrelated individuals (p = 0.47, indicating that maternal genetic effects have little influence on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM. The highest density of PMR was observed on chromosome 10. A major proportion (47.7% of PMR was present in the repeat regions, followed by introns (21.5%. The highest conservation of PMR was found in CpG islands (12.1%. These results show an important role for DNA methylation in species- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. PMR were also significantly related to muscular cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism. Conclusion This study indicated the biased distribution and functional role of DNA methylation in gene expression of porcine LDM. DNA methylation was related to cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism (e.g., insulin signaling pathways. Nutritional and environmental management may have a significant impact on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM.

  2. Cancer pain management: Basic information for the young pain physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPS Rana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain is multifactorial and complex. The impact of cancer pain is devastating, with increased morbidity and poor quality of life, if not treated adequately. Cancer pain management is a challenging task both due to disease process as well as a consequence of treatment-related side-effects. Optimization of analgesia with oral opioids, adjuvant analgesics, and advanced pain management techniques is the key to success for cancer pain. Early access of oral opioid and interventional pain management techniques can overcome the barriers of cancer pain, with improved quality of life. With timely and proper anticancer therapy, opioids, nerve blocks, and other non-invasive techniques like psychosocial care, satisfactory pain relief can be achieved in most of the patients. Although the WHO Analgesic Ladder is effective for more than 80% cancer pain, addition of appropriate adjuvant drugs along with early intervention is needed for improved Quality of Life. Effective cancer pain treatment requires a holistic approach with timely assessment, measurement of pain, pathophysiology involved in causing particular type of pain, and understanding of drugs to relieve pain with timely inclusion of intervention. Careful evaluation of psychosocial and mental components with good communication is necessary. Barriers to cancer pain management should be overcome with an interdisciplinary approach aiming to provide adequate analgesia with minimal side-effects. Management of cancer pain should comprise not only a physical component but also psychosocial and mental components and social need of the patient. With risk-benefit analysis, interventional techniques should be included in an early stage of pain treatment. This article summarizes the need for early and effective pain management strategies, awareness regarding pain control, and barriers of cancer pain.

  3. Multidimensional features of pain in patients with chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianna Resende de Jesus-Moraleida

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic neck pain is associated with significant health costs and loss of productivity at work. Objective: to assess pain and disability in individuals with chronic neck pain. Methods: 31 volunteers with chronic neck pain, mean age 29, 65 years, were assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire in Brazilian version (Br-MPQ and Neck Disability Index (NDI. The Br-MPQ analysis was performed based on the numerical values associated with the words selected to describe the experience of pain (Pain Rating Index - PRI, and present pain intensity (PPI. NDI was used to evaluate the influence of neck pain in performance of everyday tasks. Finally, we investigated the association between PPI and NDI. Results: PRI revealed that the most significant dimension was the sensory pain (70%, and the number of chosen words was 10 (2,62 out of 20 words. Mean PPI value was 1,23 (0,76 in five points; 40% of participants described pain intensity as moderate. NDI score was 9,77 (3,34, indicating mild disability. There was a positive association between disability and pain intensity (r = 0,36; p =0,046. Pain intensity and duration of pain were not associated. Conclusions: Findings of this study identified important information related to neck pain experienced by patients when suffering from chronic neck pain, moreover, the association between disability and pain intensity reinforces the importance of complementary investigation of these aspects to optimize function in them.

  4. Postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B

    1993-01-01

    also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree......Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...

  5. Alexithymic trait, painful heat stimulation and everyday pain experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga ePollatos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alexithymia was found to be associated with a variety of somatic complaints including somatoform pain symptoms. This study addressed the question of whether the different facets of alexithymia are related to responses in heat pain stimulation and its interrelations with levels of everyday pain as assessed by self report. Methods: In the study, sensitivity to heat pain was assessed in fifty healthy female participants. Alexithymia facets were assessed by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Pain threshold and tolerance were determined using a testing the limits procedure. Participants furthermore rated subjective intensities and unpleasantness of tonic heat stimuli (45.5 C to 47.5 C on visual analogue scales and on a questionnaire. Possible confounding with temperature sensitivity and mood was controlled. Everyday pain was assessed by self-report addressing everyday pain frequency, intensity and impairment experienced over the last two months. Results: Main results were that the facets of alexithymia were differentially associated with pain perception. The affective scale difficulties in describing feelings was associated with hyposensitivity to pain as indicated by higher pain tolerance scores. Furthermore, everyday pain frequency was related to increased alexithymia values on the affective scale difficulties in identifying feelings, whereas higher values on the cognitive alexithymia scale externally oriented thinking were related to lower pain impairment and intensity. Conclusions: We conclude that the different facets of alexithymia are related to alternations in pain processing. Further research on clinical samples is necessary to elucidate whether different aspects of alexithymia act as vulnerability factor for the development of pain symptoms.

  6. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Walter, J P; Dockerty, T R; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    To assess retail value and profitability, cutting test data were obtained in a simulated retail cutting room for boxed pork subprimals, bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), Boston butts (n = 148), fresh hams (n = 28), and boneless hams (n = 23). Processing times (seconds) and retail weights (kilograms) were used to determine relative value. Cutting style affected (P < .05) value differential (US$/subprimal) for bone-in and boneless loins. When cutting styles within subprimals were pooled, value differential was affected (P < .05) by purchasing specification for bone-in loins, boneless loins, Boston butts, and inside fresh hams. Processing bone-in loins to a boneless end point produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin than a bone-in retail end point. Bone-in loins fabricated to a boneless retail end point produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin than boneless loins fabricated to the same end point. The increase in retail value can be attributed to the increased number and weight of retail cuts produced from bone-in loins. The thick, boneless loin cutting style produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin as a result of a lower (P < .05) cost of fabrication and increased value of retail cuts than the thin, boneless cutting style. In general, boneless pork cutting methods were more profitable than bone-in cutting methods regardless of subprimal.

  7. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  8. The adjuvant value of Herba Cistanches when used in combination with statin in murine models

    OpenAIRE

    Wat, Elaine; Ng, Chun Fai; Koon, Chi Man; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Si; Tomlinson, Brian; Lau, Clara Bik San

    2017-01-01

    Statins are well known to have muscle toxicity problem. Herba Cistanches (HC) is a Chinese herb traditionally used for pain in the loins and knees. Our previous in vitro study suggested that it could protect against statin-induced muscle toxicity. However, its in vivo protective effect has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if the aqueous extract of HC (HCE) could prevent simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity in rats, and whether HCE could also exert beneficia...

  9. Effect of pain chronification and chronic pain on an endogenous pain modulation circuit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Lamana, S M S; Dias, E V; Athie, M; Parada, C A; Tambeli, C H

    2015-02-12

    We tested the hypothesis that chronic pain development (pain chronification) and ongoing chronic pain (chronic pain) reduce the activity and induce plastic changes in an endogenous analgesia circuit, the ascending nociceptive control. An important mechanism mediating this form of endogenous analgesia, referred to as capsaicin-induced analgesia, is its dependence on nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptor mechanisms. Therefore, we also investigated whether pain chronification and chronic pain alter the requirement for nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptor mechanisms in capsaicin-induced analgesia. We used an animal model of pain chronification in which daily subcutaneous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) injections into the rat's hind paw for 14 days, referred to as the induction period of persistent hyperalgesia, induce a long-lasting state of nociceptor sensitization referred to as the maintenance period of persistent hyperalgesia, that lasts for at least 30 days following the cessation of the PGE2 treatment. The nociceptor hypersensitivity was measured by the shortening of the time interval for the animal to respond to a mechanical stimulation of the hind paw. We found a significant reduction in the duration of capsaicin-induced analgesia during the induction and maintenance period of persistent mechanical hyperalgesia. Intra-accumbens injection of the μ-opioid receptor selective antagonist Cys(2),Tyr(3),Orn(5),Pen(7)amide (CTOP) 10 min before the subcutaneous injection of capsaicin into the rat's fore paw blocked capsaicin-induced analgesia. Taken together, these findings indicate that pain chronification and chronic pain reduce the duration of capsaicin-induced analgesia, without affecting its dependence on nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptor mechanisms. The attenuation of endogenous analgesia during pain chronification and chronic pain suggests that endogenous pain circuits play an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO

  10. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  11. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FOPQ): assessment of pain-related fear among children and adolescents with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E; Sieberg, Christine B; Carpino, Elizabeth; Logan, Deirdre; Berde, Charles

    2011-06-01

    An important construct in understanding pain-related disability is pain-related fear. Heightened pain-related fear may result in behavioral avoidance leading to disuse, disability, and depression; whereas confrontation of avoided activities may result in a reduction of fear over time and reengagement with activities of daily living. Although there are several measures to assess pain-related fear among adults with chronic pain, none exist for children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to develop a new tool to assess avoidance and fear of pain with pediatric chronic pain patients: the Fear of Pain Questionnaire, child report (FOPQ-C), and Fear of Pain Questionnaire, parent proxy report (FOPQ-P). After initial pilot testing, the FOPQ-C and FOPQ-P were administered to 299 youth with chronic pain and their parents at an initial multidisciplinary pain treatment evaluation. The FOPQ demonstrated very strong internal consistency of .92 for the child and parent versions. One-month stability estimates were acceptable and suggested responsivity to change. For construct validity, the FOPQ correlated with generalized anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and somatization. Evidence of criterion-related validity was found with significant associations for the FOPQ with pain, healthcare utilization, and functional disability. These results support the FOPQ as a psychometrically sound measure. Pain-related fear plays an important role in relation to emotional distress and pain-related disability among children and adolescents with chronic pain. Identification of patients with high levels of fear avoidance of pain with the FOPQ will inform how to proceed with psychological and physical therapy interventions for chronic pain. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer Pain Management Education Rectifies Patients' Misconceptions of Cancer Pain, Reduces Pain, and Improves Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Su-Jin; Keam, Bhumsuk; Hyun, Min Kyung; Ju Seo, Jeong; Uk Park, Keon; Oh, Sung Yong; Ahn, Jinseok; Lee, Ja Youn; Kim, JinShil

    2018-03-26

    More than half of the patients have reported improper management of breakthrough cancer pain. Empirical evidence is lacking concerning the effectiveness of cancer pain education on breakthrough pain control. This study aimed to examine the effects of individual pain education on pain control, use of short-acting analgesics for breakthrough pain, quality of life outcomes, and rectification of patients' misconceptions regarding cancer pain. A quasi-experimental design was used. In total, 176 (102 inpatients and 74 outpatients) and 163 (93 inpatients and 70 outpatients) cancer patients completed questionnaires on pain intensity, quality of life, use of short-acting medication for breakthrough pain, and misconceptions about cancer pain and opioid use before and immediately and/or seven days after individual pain education. The mean age of the participants was 60.9 years (±11.2), and 56.3% were male. The most common cancers were lung cancer (17.0%), colon cancer (15.9%), and breast cancer (12.5%). The subjects' reasons for attrition were conditional deterioration, death, or voluntary withdrawal (N = 13, 7.4%). Following the education, there was a significant reduction in overall pain intensity over 24 hours (P < 0.001). The outpatients showed more use of short-acting analgesics for breakthrough pain. Sleep quality change was most significantly associated with intervention; other quality of life aspects (e.g., general feelings and life enjoyment) also improved. Pain education also significantly reduced misconceptions regarding cancer pain management. The present educational intervention was effective in encouraging short-acting analgesic use for breakthrough pain, improving quality of life outcomes, and rectifying patients' misconceptions about analgesic use.

  13. Pain-related psychological correlates of pediatric acute post-surgical pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagé MG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available M Gabrielle Pagé,1 Jennifer Stinson,2,3 Fiona Campbell,2,4 Lisa Isaac,2,4 Joel Katz1,4,51Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University, 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, 3Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 4Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Post-surgical pain is prevalent in children, yet is significantly understudied. The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in pain outcomes and pain-related psychological constructs postoperatively and to identify pain-related psychological correlates of acute post-surgical pain (APSP and predictors of functional disability 2 weeks after hospital discharge.Methods: Eighty-three children aged 8–18 (mean 13.8 ± 2.4 years who underwent major orthopedic or general surgery completed pain and pain-related psychological measures 48–72 hours and 2 weeks after surgery.Results: Girls reported higher levels of acute postoperative anxiety and pain unpleasantness compared with boys. In addition, pain anxiety was significantly associated with APSP intensity and functional disability 2 weeks after discharge, whereas pain catastrophizing was associated with APSP unpleasantness.Conclusion: These results highlight the important role played by pain-related psychological factors in the experience of pediatric APSP by children and adolescents.Keywords: acute post-surgical pain, children, adolescents, pain anxiety, pain catastrophizing

  14. The Fear of Movement/Pain in Musculoskeletal Pain-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Akhbari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and review psychological influences of pain such as kinesiophobia and pain-related fear on patients with musculoskeletal pain and on rehabilitation outcomes. Materials & Methods: Fear is a universal and powerful emotion and, as a result, it can have a profound impact on human behavior. the fear-motivated behavior has the potential to adversely impact rehabilitation outcomes for patients with musculoskeletal pain. cross-sectional studies consistently documented a positive association between elevated pain-related fear and increased pain intensity and disability. in addition, several longitudinal studies indicated that elevated pain-related fear is a precursor to poor clinical outcomes. existence of catastrophizing in patients effect on the fear of movement/ (reinjury. this fear contributes to avoidance behaviors and subsequent disuse, depression, and disability. it has been established that kinesiophobia plays a negative role in the outcome of the rehabilitation of acute and chronic low back pain, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Results: The recent studies suggest that physical therapists should consider the role of pain-related fear and avoidance behaviors in patients' function and they should assess these cognitive and behavioral factors. or (physical therapists should assess pain-related fear when rehabilitating certain individuals with musculoskeletal pain. currently, there is a lot of evidence for the assessment of pain-related fear in patients with musculoskeletal pain. self-report questionnaires are readily available for assessment and investigation of pain-related fear and several studies have found support for their validity and reliability. recent research indicated that besides fear-avoidance responses, endurance-related responses lead to chronic pain via physical overload. the existence of mental kinesiophobia has been established in patients with chronic stress complaints, and this

  15. Differential pain modulation in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, Lise; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-12-29

    Background The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been changed by the International Association for the Study of Pain. This means that conditions such as fibromyalgia cannot, as sometimes discussed, be included in the neuropathic pain conditions. However, fibromyalgia and peripheral neuropathic pain share common clinical features such as spontaneous pain and hypersensitivity to external stimuli. Therefore, it is of interest to directly compare the conditions. Material and methods In this study we directly compared the pain modulation in neuropathic pain versus fibromyalgia by recording responses to a cold pressor test in 30 patients with peripheral neuropathic pain, 28 patients with fibromyalgia, and 26 pain-free age-and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were asked to rate their spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS (0-100 mm) immediately before and immediately after the cold pressor test. Furthermore the duration (s) of extremity immersion in cold water was used as a measure of the pain tolerance threshold, and the perceived pain intensity at pain tolerance on the VAS was recorded on the extremity in the water after the cold pressor test. In addition, thermal (thermo tester) and mechanical stimuli (pressure algometer) were used to determine sensory detection, pain detection, and pain tolerance thresholds in different body parts. All sensory tests were done by the same examiner, in the same room, and with each subject in a supine position. The sequence of examinations was the following: (1) reaction time, (2) pressure thresholds, (3) thermal thresholds, and (4) cold pressor test. Reaction time was measured to ensure that psychomotoric inhibitions did not influence pain thresholds. Results Pain modulation induced by a cold pressor test reduced spontaneous pain by 40% on average in neuropathic pain patients, but increased spontaneous pain by 2.6% in fibromyalgia patients. This difference between fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain patients was

  16. Enhanced Brain Responses to Pain-Related Words in Chronic Back Pain Patients and Their Modulation by Current Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2016-08-10

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain activations induced by pain-related adjectives. Subjects viewed pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words; subjects were asked to generate mental images related to these words during fMRI scanning. Brain activation was compared between CBP patients and HC in response to the different word categories and examined in relation to current pain in CBP patients. Pain-related words vs. neutral words activated a network of brain regions including cingulate cortex and insula in subjects and patients. There was stronger activation in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior midcingulate cortex in CPB patients than in HC. The magnitude of activation for pain-related vs. negative words showed a negative linear relationship to CBP patients' current pain. Our findings confirm earlier observations showing that pain-related words activate brain networks similar to noxious stimulation. Importantly, CBP patients show even stronger activation of these structures while merely processing pain-related words. Current pain directly influences on this activation.

  17. Evoked potentials after painful cutaneous electrical stimulation depict pain relief during a conditioned pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffken, Oliver; Özgül, Özüm S; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2017-08-29

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) evaluates the pain modulating effect of a noxious conditioning stimulus (CS) on another noxious test stimulus (TS), mostly based solely on subjective pain ratings. We used painful cutaneous electrical stimulation (PCES) to induce TS in a novel CPM-model. Additionally, to evaluate a more objective parameter, we recorded the corresponding changes of cortical evoked potentials (PCES-EP). We examined the CPM-effect in 17 healthy subjects in a randomized controlled cross-over design during immersion of the non-dominant hand into 10 °C or 24 °C cold water (CS). Using three custom-built concentric surface electrodes, electrical stimuli were applied on the dominant hand, inducing pain of 40-60 on NRS 0-100 (TS). At baseline, during and after CS we assessed the electrically induced pain intensity and electrically evoked potentials recorded over the central electrode (Cz). Only in the 10 °C-condition, both pain (52.6 ± 4.4 (baseline) vs. 30.3 ± 12.5 (during CS)) and amplitudes of PCES-EP (42.1 ± 13.4 μV (baseline) vs. 28.7 ± 10.5 μV (during CS)) attenuated during CS and recovered there after (all p pain ratings during electrical stimulation and amplitudes of PCES-EP correlated significantly with each other (r = 0.5) and with CS pain intensity (r = 0.5). PCES-EPs are a quantitative measure of pain relief, as changes in the electrophysiological response are paralleled by a consistent decrease in subjective pain ratings. This novel CPM paradigm is a feasible method, which could help to evaluate the function of the endogenous pain modulation processes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS-ID: DRKS00012779 , retrospectively registered on 24 July 2017.

  18. African Americans' Perceptions of Pain and Pain Management: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the perceptions of acute, persistent, and disease-specific pain and treatment options held by adult African Americans. Underassessment and undermanagement of pain in African Americans has been well documented; however, the cultural continuum of pain perceptions and their influence on pain assessment and management has not been synthesized. Electronic database searches of the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed, Web-based searches of the pain-specific journals plus a manual search of reference lists identified 41 relevant articles addressing perceptions of pain and/or pain management. Analysis of the literature revealed six themes: (a) meaning of pain, (b) description of pain, (c) coping with pain, (d) impact of pain, (e) patient-provider relationship, and (f) treatment approaches. These findings warrant further research and indicate the need for more precise evaluation of pain in African Americans, highlighting an imperative to incorporate cultural patterns into pain management practice and education. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Food-Derived Natural Compounds for Pain Relief in Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Yeong; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is characterized by dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. The number of patients with this type of pain has increased rapidly in recent years. Yet, available neuropathic pain medicines have undesired side effects, such as tolerance and physical dependence, and do not fully alleviate the pain. The mechanisms of neuropathic pain are still not fully understood. Injury causes inflammation and immune responses and changed expression and activity of receptors and ion channels in peripheral nerve terminals. Additionally, neuroinflammation is a known factor in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. During neuropathic pain development, the C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) acts as an important signaling mediator. Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for treating diseases. We and others have identified food-derived compounds that alleviate neuropathic pain. Here, we review the natural compounds for neuropathic pain relief, their mechanisms of action, and the potential benefits of natural compounds with antagonistic effects on GPCRs, especially those containing CCR2, for neuropathic pain treatment.

  20. Pain-related anxiety influences pain perception differently in men and women: a quantitative sensory test across thermal pain modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-03-01

    The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suprathreshold Heat Pain Response Predicts Activity-Related Pain, but Not Rest-Related Pain, in an Exercise-Induced Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Simon, Corey B.; Valencia, Carolina; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Borsa, Paul A.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR), a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal. PMID:25265560

  2. Enhanced Brain Responses to Pain-Related Words in Chronic Back Pain Patients and Their Modulation by Current Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain acti...

  3. PAIN INTENSITY AND PAIN INTERFERENCE AMONG TRAUMA PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deya Prastika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of trauma has been high and has gained attention worldwide. The energy involved in trauma results in specific tissue damage. Such tissue damage generally leads to pain. The high pain intensity possibly is consequence of trauma due to transfer energy to the body from external force and absorbed in wide area. This pain affected patients’ physical and psychological function, in which well known as pain interference. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the pain intensity and pain interference among trauma patients. Method: A systematic search of electronic databases (CINHAL, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Google scholar was conducted for quantitative and qualitative studies measuring pain intensity and pain interference. The search limited to hospitalized trauma patients in adult age. Results: The search revealed 678 studies. A total of 10 descriptive studies examined pain intensity and pain interference and met inclusion criteria. The pain intensity and pain interference was assessed using Brief Pain Inventory (BPI. Pain intensity of hospitalized trauma patients were moderate to severe. These including 6 studies in orthopedic trauma, one study in musculoskeletal, two in studies in combinational between orthopedic and musculoskeletal, and two studies in burn injury. Moreover, the patients also reported pain was relentless & unbearable. In accordance, data showed that pain interference was moderate to severe from six studies. These studies result in vary of functional interference. However, those studies examined pain interference on sleep, enjoyment of life, mood, relationship with other, walking, general activity, and walking. Conclusion: The evidence from 10 studies included in this review indicates that hospitalized trauma patients perceived moderate to severe pain intensity and pain interference. Further research is needed to better evaluate the pain of hospitalized trauma patients.

  4. Adaptability to pain is associated with potency of local pain inhibition, but not conditioned pain modulation: a healthy human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Wang, Kelun; Yao, Dongyuan; Xue, Charlie C L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pain sensitivity, adaptability, and potency of endogenous pain inhibition, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and local pain inhibition. Forty-one healthy volunteers (20 male, 21 female) received conditioning stimulation (CS) over 2 sessions in a random order: tonic heat pain (46 °C) on the right leg for 7 minutes and cold pressor pain (1 °C to 4 °C) on the left hand for 5 minutes. Participants rated the intensity of pain continuously using a 0 to 10 electronic visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measures were pressure pain thresholds (PPT) measured at the heterotopic and homotopic location to the CS sites before, during, and 20 minutes after CS. Two groups of participants, pain adaptive and pain nonadaptive, were identified based on their response to pain in the cold pressor test. Pain-adaptive participants showed a pain reduction between peak pain and pain at end of the test by at least 2 of 10 (n=16); whereas the pain-nonadaptive participants reported unchanged peak pain during 5-minute CS (n=25). Heterotopic PPTs during the CS did not differ between the 2 groups. However, increased homotopic PPTs measured 20 minutes after CS correlated with the amount of pain reduction during CS. These results suggest that individual sensitivity and adaptability to pain does not correlate with the potency of CPM. Adaptability to pain is associated with longer-lasting local pain inhibition. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Henoch-Schönlein purpura without systemic involvement beginning with acute scrotum and mimicking torsion of testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Verim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. Typical presentations of HSP are palpable purpura of the small vessels in the hips and lower limbs, abdominal pain, arthritis, and hematuria. Scrotal involvement manifested by the presence of scrotal pain and swelling during the course of the disease is rarely seen. HSP without systemic involvement with acute scrotum mimicking testicular torsion is even rare in the medical literature. In most cases, patients with this disease achieve complete recovery. Herein, we report an interesting HSP case with skin symptoms but without systemic involvement and then progression to acute scrotum resembling torsion of testis.

  6. Biobehavioral pain profile in individuals with chronic spine pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteliano, Deborah; Scherer, Yvonne Krall; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Pain in the spine is the most frequently described pain problem in primary care, afflicting at least 54 million Americans. When spinal pain becomes chronic, the prognosis for recovery is poor, often leading to disability and reduced quality of life. Clinical treatment is inadequate, often focusing on physical pathology alone. To improve treatment outcomes for chronic pain as recommended by current guidelines, the Biobehavioral Pain Profile (BPP), which includes six pain response subscales, was developed to guide cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The purpose of this study was to describe the BPP in 100 individuals with chronic spine pain and examine the associations between the BPP and important clinical outcomes, including chronic pain, disability, and quality of life. Participants reported a high level of pain, a low quality of life, and a high level of disability despite receiving treatment with opioids. Scores on BPP subscales including evaluating loss of control, past and current experience, physiologic responsivity, and thoughts of disease progression were elevated, indicating a need for CBT. Five of the six BPP subscales had a significant association with quality of life, chronic pain, and disability with the thought of disease progression being a strong factor for most of the clinical outcome variables. By identifying BPP, clinicians can provide appropriate treatments to improve individuals' quality of life and prevent further disability. Further study using the BPP to guide CBT is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney with Synchronous Ipsilateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with flank pain and gross macroscopic hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a solid mass in the left kidney and additionally another mass in the ureteropelvic junction of the same kidney with severe hydronephrosis. Left nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff removel was performed, and histopathological evolution showed a Fuhrman grade 3 clear cell type RCC with low-grade TCC of the pelvis.

  9. Keeping pain in mind: a motivational account of attention to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Legrain, Valéry; Vogt, Julia; Crombez, Geert

    2010-02-01

    Attention is a key concept in many theories of pain perception. A clinically popular idea is that pain is more intense in persons who are hypervigilant for or bias their attention to pain information. So far, evidence for such bias in pain patients as compared to healthy persons is inconclusive. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of distracting attention away from pain have shown contradictory results. In this review, we present a motivational perspective on attentional processing of pain that accounts for these inconclusive research findings. We argue that pain always has to be considered within a context of goal pursuit. From this perspective, two largely unexplored theoretical assumptions are introduced. First, when pain occurs during the pursuit of a certain goal, it may unintentionally capture attention although it is not relevant for the goal. Whether such unintentional attentional capture happens is not only dependent upon the characteristics of the pain but also on the characteristics of the focal goal. Second, attention to pain and pain-related information might be driven by a focal goal related to pain. Attentional processing of pain information will be particularly enhanced when the focal goal is related to pain management (e.g., attempting to gain control). Future research should systematically investigate the role of motivation and goal pursuit in the attentional processing of pain-related information. This motivational perspective offers a powerful framework to explain inter- and intra-individual differences in the deployment of attention to pain-related information.

  10. Bilateral experimental neck pain reorganize axioscapular muscle coordination and pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-04-01

    Neck pain is a large clinical problem where reorganized trunk and axioscapular muscle activities have been hypothesised contributing to pain persistence and pain hypersensitivity. This study investigated the effects of bilateral experimental neck pain on trunk and axioscapular muscle function and pain sensitivity. In 25 healthy volunteers, bilateral experimental neck pain was induced in the splenius capitis muscles by hypertonic saline injections. Isotonic saline was used as control. In sitting, subjects performed slow, fast and slow-resisted unilateral arm movements before, during and after injections. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight shoulder and trunk muscles bilaterally. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed bilaterally at the neck, head and arm. Data were normalized to the before-measures. Compared with control and post measurements, experimental neck pain caused (1) decreased EMG activity of the ipsilateral upper trapezius muscles during all but slow-resisted down movements (p neck pain reorganized axioscapular and trunk muscle activity together with local hyperalgesia and widespread hypoalgesia indicating that acute neck pain immediately affects trunk and axioscapular function which may affect both assessment and treatment. Bilateral clinical neck pain alters axioscapular muscle coordination but only effects of unilateral experimental neck pain has been investigated. Bilateral experimental neck pain causes task-dependent reorganized axioscapular and trunk muscle activity in addition to widespread decrease in pressure pain sensitivity. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  11. Cancer Pain Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of inflammatory and neuropathic pains have been elucidated and translated to patient care by the use of animal models of these pain states. Cancer pain has lagged behind since early animal models of cancer-induced bone pain were based on the systemic injection of carcinoma cells....... This precluded systematic investigation of specific neuronal and pharmacological alterations that occur in cancer-induced bone pain. In 1999, Schwei et al. described a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain that paralleled the clinical condition in terms of pain development and bone destruction, confined...... to the mouse femur. This model prompted related approaches and we can now state that cancer pain may include elements of inflammatory and neuropathic pains but also unique changes in sensory processing. Cancer induced bone pain results in progressive bone destruction, elevated osteoclast activity...

  12. Pain during mammography: Possible risk factors and ways to alleviate pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the literature surrounding the issue of pain experienced during mammography. This is an important topic since many women may refuse screening mammograms due to the possibility of a painful examination. It is a difficult area to research since the experience of pain is by nature subjective and the manner by which data have been collected has varied with many different pain assessment instruments being utilised. Accordingly there is wide variation in the degree of pain felt from only slight pain to some women finding it acutely painful. To discover why some women find it so painful certain risk factors that have been associated with painful mammography are explored. There are many of these risk factors but this article concentrates on three main areas: biological, psychological and staff-related. Once the reasons why some women experience such acute pain, ways to ease this may be found. Methods to alleviate painful mammography are suggested and discussed. The article concludes that there is a wide variance in the data collection techniques which could account for the wide variance in the reported pain. More research is required using a validated pain measurement to establish the extent of pain and to establish the effect of this on future compliance

  13. Conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing as preoperative predictors of pain following chest wall surgery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Grosen

    Full Text Available Variability in patients' postoperative pain experience and response to treatment challenges effective pain management. Variability in pain reflects individual differences in inhibitory pain modulation and psychological sensitivity, which in turn may be clinically relevant for the disposition to acquire pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing on postoperative pain and pain persistency.Preoperatively, 42 healthy males undergoing funnel chest surgery completed the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory before undergoing a sequential conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Subsequently, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was introduced and patients were instructed to reference the conditioning pain while answering. Ratings of movement-evoked pain and consumption of morphine equivalents were obtained during postoperative days 2-5. Pain was reevaluated at six months postoperatively.Patients reporting persistent pain at six months follow-up (n = 15 were not significantly different from pain-free patients (n = 16 concerning preoperative conditioned pain modulation response (Z = 1.0, P = 0.3 or level of catastrophizing (Z = 0.4, P = 1.0. In the acute postoperative phase, situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain, independently of anxiety and depression (β = 1.0, P = 0.007 whereas conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption (β = -0.005, P = 0.001.Preoperative conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing were not associated with the development of persistent postoperative pain following funnel chest repair. Secondary outcome analyses indicated that conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption and situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain intensity in the acute postoperative phase. These findings may have

  14. [The pain-emotion: Advocating pain as an emotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Das Neves, J; Sule, N; Serra, E

    2017-12-01

    Pain is a common experience, both physical and emotional. However we often feel powerless with our patients suffering pain. This paper aims to give a new heuristic and psychological understanding of pain. According to new theories, recent researches as well as different points of view, we form an analogy between pain and emotion. Throughout historical considerations pain has always been perceived through theories and beliefs, changing its definition. This is also the case for emotion. Could they be two ways of expressing a single phenomenon? First, we must clarify the definition of emotion. In past, emotion was considered as a multiple-conditioned notion. To be considered as an emotion the pain had to fill numerous features, which differ according to the scientific opinions. The emotion may be considered as a physical expression or perceived only as the consequences of a real emotion, i.e., the subjective feeling. We propose as a way of thinking that emotion brings together these two concepts. We support a flexible vision of emotion. To investigate the field of the emotion different mental steps may be thought of: we should conceive of the emotion as a stimulus, as an emotional evaluation and as a tendency to action, which becomes an emotional response. These steps are colored by subjective feelings. It can be summarized in three levels: the situation decoding (1), the response organization (2) and the effectiveness of the response (3). Second pain can be considered as a complex notion involving personal and subjective feelings. We can use multidimensional patterns and consider emotion with its multiple features: the generating mechanisms, the pain perception, the pain behavior and the environment. Each stage can be divided in different ways. Hence pain treatment could be approached as an emotional treatment. Indeed, we can make a link between generating mechanisms and emotion situation decoding, between pain perception and emotion situation decoding and response

  15. Are Pain-Related Fears Mediators for Reducing Disability and Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1? An Explorative Analysis on Pain Exposure Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J.; Staal, J. Bart; van Dongen, Robert T. M.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Klomp, Frank P.; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Design An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Interventions The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Outcome measures Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Results The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. Conclusion The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128 PMID:25919011

  16. Prevesical Calcification and Hydronephrosis in a Girl Treated for Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kuipers MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic STING procedure using Deflux is a common and minimal invasive treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with loin pain and de novo hydronephrosis and megaureter on the left. Ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a calcification at the ureterovesical junction. She had been treated with Deflux injections 5 years before. The clinical quiz addresses the differential diagnosis, workup, and pathogenesis of calcifications at the ureterovesical junction following endoscopic reflux therapy.

  17. Implicit associations between pain and self-schema in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Van Damme, Stefaan; De Schryver, Maarten; Crombez, Geert

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of pain in orthodontic patients based on preoperative pain assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baoyu; Ren, Manman; Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether pretreatment assessment of experimental pain can predict the level of pain after archwire placement. Methods One hundred and twenty-one general university students seeking orthodontic treatment were enrolled in this study. A cold pressor test was performed to estimate the pain tolerance of subjects before treatment. Self-reported pain intensity was calculated using a 10 cm visual analog scale during the 7 days after treatment. The relationship between pain tolerance and orthodontic pain was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results The maximum mean level of pain intensity occurred at 24 hours after bonding (53.31±16.13) and fell to normal levels at day 7. Spearman’s correlation analysis found a moderate positive association between preoperative pain tolerance and self-reported pain after archwire placement (P0.05). Conclusion A simple and noninvasive preoperative sensory test (the cold pressor test) was useful in predicting the risk of developing unbearable pain in patients after archwire placement. Self-reported pain after archwire placement decreased as individual pain tolerance increased. PMID:27042019

  19. Isolated Renal Hydatid Disease: Experience at the Queen Rania Urology Center, The King Hussein Medical Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Qamar, Adnan A.; Aljader, Khalaf M.; Habboub, Hazem

    2004-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we present our experience on the diagnosis and management of isolated Hydatid disease of kidneys. Between January 1999 and January 2003, eight patients were diagnosed to have Hydatid disease of kidney and constituted the subjects of this study. Their age ranged between 20 and 63 years age (mean 40); there were five males and three females. Loin pain was the commonest mode of presentation in these patients. Investigations performed included urine analysis, serological tests, eosinophil count and relevant radiological studies. Urine analysis showed hydatiduria in one patient, the Casoni's test was positive in two, Ghedini skin test was positive in three and esinophilia was noted in two other patients. All patients were treated surgically using loin supracoastal extra-peritoneal approach. Total nephrectomy was performed in five patients, partial nephrectomy in one while excision of the cyst was performed in two patients. Our report suggests that a combination of various investigative modalities with a high index of suspicion is necessary in establishing the correct diagnosis. Surgery remains the main option of treatment for renal hydatid disease. (author)

  20. Isolated renal hydatid disease: experience at the queen rania urology center, the king hussein medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qamar, Adnan A; Aljader, Khalaf M; Habboub, Hazem

    2004-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we present our experience on the diagnosis and management of isolated Hydatid disease of the kidneys. Between January 1999 and January 2003, eight patients were diagnosed to have Hydatid disease of the kidney and constituted the subjects of this study. Their age ranged between 20 and 63 years age (mean 40); there were five males and three females. Loin pain was the commonest mode of presentation in these patients. Investigations performed included urine analysis, serological tests, eosinophil count and relevant radiological studies. Urine analysis showed hydatiduria in one patient, the Casoni's test was positive in two, Ghedini skin test was positive in three and eosinophilia was noted in two other patients. All patients were treated surgically using loin supracostal extra-peritoneal approach. Total nephrectomy was performed in five patients, partial nephrectomy in one while excision of the cyst was performed in two patients. Our report suggests that a combination of various investigative modalities with a high index of suspicion is necessary in establishing the correct diagnosis. Surgery remains the main option of treatment for renal hydatid disease.

  1. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can ...... studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.......Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  2. First Dutch Consensus of Pain Quality Indicators for Pain Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meij, Nelleke; van Grotel, Marloes; Patijn, Jacob; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Kleef, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    There is a general consensus about the need to define and improve the quality of pain treatment facilities. Although guidelines and recommendations to improve the quality of pain practice management have been launched, provision of appropriate pain treatment is inconsistent and the quality of facilities varies widely. The aim of the study was to develop an expert-agreed list of quality indicators applicable to pain treatment facilities. The list was also intended to be used as the basis for a set of criteria for registered status of pain treatment facilities. The University Pain Center Maastricht at the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management of the Maastricht University Medical Center conducted a 3-round Delphi study in collaboration with the Board of the Pain Section of the Dutch Society of Anesthesiologists (NVA). Twenty-five quality indicators were selected as relevant to 2 types of pain treatment facilities, pain clinics and pain centers. The final expert-agreed list consisted of 22 quality indicators covering 7 quality domains: supervision, availability of care, staffing level and patient load, quality policy, multidisciplinarity, regionalization, and research and education. This set of quality indicators may facilitate organizational evaluation and improve insight into service quality from the perspectives of patients, pain specialists, and other healthcare professionals. Recommendations for improvements to the current set of quality indicators are made. In 2014 the process of registering pain treatment facilities in the Netherlands started; facilities can register as a pain clinic or pain center. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  3. Differences in Pain Processing Between Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain, Recurrent Low Back Pain, and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Danneels, Lieven; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Descheemaeker, Filip; Meeus, Mira

    2017-05-01

    The impairment in musculoskeletal structures in patients with low back pain (LBP) is often disproportionate to their complaint. Therefore, the need arises for exploration of alternative mechanisms contributing to the origin and maintenance of non-specific LBP. The recent focus has been on central nervous system phenomena in LBP and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various symptoms and characteristics of chronic pain. Knowledge concerning changes in pain processing in LBP remains ambiguous, partly due to the diversity in the LBP population. The purpose of this study is to compare quantitative sensory assessment in different groups of LBP patients with regard to chronicity. Recurrent low back pain (RLBP), mild chronic low back pain (CLBP), and severe CLBP are compared on the one hand with healthy controls (HC), and on the other hand with fibromyalgia (FM) patients, in which abnormal pain processing has previously been reported. Cross-sectional study. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Twenty-three RLBP, 15 mild CLBP, 16 severe CLBP, 26 FM, and 21 HC participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing was conducted by manual pressure algometry and computer-controlled cuff algometry. A manual algometer was used to evaluate hyperalgesia as well as temporal summation of pain and a cuff algometer was used to evaluate deep tissue hyperalgesia, the efficacy of the conditioned pain modulation and spatial summation of pain. Pressure pain thresholds by manual algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC, RLBP, and severe CLBP. Temporal summation of pain was significantly higher in FM compared to HC and RLBP. Pain tolerance thresholds assessed by cuff algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC and RLBP and also in severe CLBP compared to RLBP. No significant differences between groups were found for spatial summation or conditioned pain modulation. No psychosocial issues were taken into account for this

  4. The differences of brain cortical activation between superficial pain and deep pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ushida, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Tani, Toshikazu; Morio, Kazuo; Sasaki, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Shigeki

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) technology, we investigated the difference of pain related brain cortical activation derived from noxious stimulation to the skin and muscular tissue. Ten healthy volunteers who have no history of brain vascular disease were enrolled in this study. A cutaneous pain was provoked by isotonic (0.9%) saline injection into intra-dermal space on right lower leg through 24G plastic catheter, and a muscle pain was provoked by hypertonic (3%) saline injection into right tibialis anterior muscle. We used event-related FMRI to measure brain activity during each injection. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to quantify pain intensity and unpleasantness, and pain quality was assessed with several verbal descriptions. Pain unpleasantness rating was higher in the muscle pain compared to the cutaneous pain, despite the same pain intensity rating. The cutaneous pain had more acute pain onset than the muscle pain. Pain duration after stimulation was short in the cutaneous pain, but long in the muscle pain. The extent of the painful region tended to be larger with the muscle pain, but there was no statistical significance. Evoked FMRI response from the cutaneous pain showed distinct brain activation in the inferior and superior parietal cortex (BA: Brodmann area 5/7/40), primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2), insula, supplementary motor area (SMA, BA6), posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. On the other hand, FMRI response from muscle pain showed distinct brain activation mainly in the contralateral insula. These results suggest that the parietal lobe including the S1 is the essential area for cognition of sharp and well-localized pain conditions such as cutaneous pain, and may not be essential for cognition of diffuse pain derived from muscular tissue. (author)

  5. Characterizing the Pain Narratives of Parents of Youth with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E.; Law, Emily F.; Alberts, Nicole; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Questionnaire-based research has shown that parents exert a powerful influence on and are profoundly influenced by living with a child with chronic pain. Examination of parents' pain narratives through an observational lens offers an alternative approach to understanding the complexity of pediatric chronic pain; however, the narratives of parents of youth with chronic pain have been largely overlooked. The present study aimed to characterize the vulnerability- and resilience-based aspects of the pain narratives of parents of youth with chronic pain. Methods Pain narratives of 46 parents were recorded during the baseline session as part of two clinical trials evaluating a behavioral intervention for parents of youth with chronic pain. The narratives were coded for aspects of pain-related vulnerability and resilience. Results Using exploratory cluster analysis, two styles of parents’ pain narratives were identified. Distress narratives were characterized by more negative affect and an exclusively unresolved orientation towards the child’s diagnosis of chronic pain whereas resilience narratives were characterized by positive affect and a predominantly resolved orientation towards the child’s diagnosis. Preliminary support for the validity of these clusters was provided through our finding of differences between clusters in parental pain catastrophizing about child pain (helplessness). Discussion Findings highlight the multidimensional nature of parents’ experience of their child’s pain problem. Clinical implications in terms of assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26736026

  6. Making Sense of Low Back Pain and Pain-Related Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzli, Samantha; Smith, Anne; Schütze, Robert; Lin, Ivan; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Synopsis Pain-related fear is implicated in the transition from acute to chronic low back pain and the persistence of disabling low back pain, making it a key target for physical therapy intervention. The current understanding of pain-related fear is that it is a psychopathological problem, whereby people who catastrophize about the meaning of pain become trapped in a vicious cycle of avoidance behavior, pain, and disability, as recognized in the fear-avoidance model. However, there is evidence that pain-related fear can also be seen as a common-sense response to deal with low back pain, for example, when one is told that one's back is vulnerable, degenerating, or damaged. In this instance, avoidance is a common-sense response to protect a "damaged" back. While the fear-avoidance model proposes that when someone first develops low back pain, the confrontation of normal activity in the absence of catastrophizing leads to recovery, the pathway to recovery for individuals trapped in the fear-avoidance cycle is less clear. Understanding pain-related fear from a common-sense perspective enables physical therapists to offer individuals with low back pain and high fear a pathway to recovery by altering how they make sense of their pain. Drawing on a body of published work exploring the lived experience of pain-related fear in people with low back pain, this clinical commentary illustrates how Leventhal's common-sense model may assist physical therapists to understand the broader sense-making processes involved in the fear-avoidance cycle, and how they can be altered to facilitate fear reduction by applying strategies established in the behavioral medicine literature. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):628-636. Epub 13 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7434.

  7. Pronociceptive pain modulation in patients with painful chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Yarnitsky, David; Granovsky, Yelena; Sprecher, Elliot; Steiner, Mariana; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Pud, Dorit

    2011-08-01

    Several chemotherapy agents induce polyneuropathy that is painful for some patients, but not for others. We assumed that these differences might be attributable to varying patterns of pain modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate pain modulation in such patients. Twenty-seven patients with chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy were tested for detection thresholds (cold, warm, and mechanical) in both the forearm and foot, as well as for heat pain threshold, mechanical temporal summation (TS), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM; also known as the diffuse noxious inhibitory control-like effect), which were tested in the upper limbs. Positive correlations were found between clinical pain levels and both TS (r=0.52, P=0.005) and CPM (r=0.40, P=0.050) for all patients. In addition, higher TS was associated with less efficient CPM (r=0.56, P=0.004). The group of patients with painful polyneuropathy (n=12) showed a significantly higher warm detection threshold in the foot (P=0.03), higher TS (P<0.01), and less efficient CPM (P=0.03) in comparison to the group with nonpainful polyneuropathy. The painfulness of polyneuropathy is associated with a "pronociceptive" modulation pattern, which may be primary to the development of pain. The higher warm sensory thresholds in the painful polyneuropathy group suggest that the severity of polyneuropathy may be another factor in determining its painfulness. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  9. Pain and Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer pain, especially pain caused by metastasis to bone, is a severe type of pain, and unless the cause and consequences can be resolved, the pain will become chronic. As detection and survival among patients with cancer have improved, pain has become an increasing challenge, because traditiona...

  10. Chronic Widespread Back Pain is Distinct From Chronic Local Back Pain: Evidence From Quantitative Sensory Testing, Pain Drawings, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.

  11. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  12. Pain patterns and descriptions in patients with radicular pain: Does the pain necessarily follow a specific dermatome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurwitz Eric L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly stated that nerve root pain should be expected to follow a specific dermatome and that this information is useful to make the diagnosis of radiculopathy. There is little evidence in the literature that confirms or denies this statement. The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss the diagnostic utility of the distribution of pain in patients with cervical and lumbar radicular pain. Methods Pain drawings and descriptions were assessed in consecutive patients diagnosed with cervical or lumbar nerve root pain. These findings were compared with accepted dermatome maps to determine whether they tended to follow along the involved nerve root's dermatome. Results Two hundred twenty-six nerve roots in 169 patients were assessed. Overall, pain related to cervical nerve roots was non-dermatomal in over two-thirds (69.7% of cases. In the lumbar spine, the pain was non-dermatomal in just under two-thirds (64.1% of cases. The majority of nerve root levels involved non-dermatomal pain patterns except C4 (60.0% dermatomal and S1 (64.9% dermatomal. The sensitivity (SE and specificity (SP for dermatomal pattern of pain are low for all nerve root levels with the exception of the C4 level (Se 0.60, Sp 0.72 and S1 level (Se 0.65, Sp 0.80, although in the case of the C4 level, the number of subjects was small (n = 5. Conclusion In most cases nerve root pain should not be expected to follow along a specific dermatome, and a dermatomal distribution of pain is not a useful historical factor in the diagnosis of radicular pain. The possible exception to this is the S1 nerve root, in which the pain does commonly follow the S1 dermatome.

  13. Atypical electrophysiological activity during pain observation in amputees who experience synaesthetic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Enticott, Peter G; Giummarra, Melita J; Thomson, Richard H; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Bradshaw, John L

    2012-03-01

    There are increasing reports of people experiencing pain when observing pain in another. This describes the phenomenon of synaesthetic pain which, until recently, had been primarily reported in amputees with phantom pain. In the current study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate how amputees who experience synaesthetic pain process pain observed in another. Participants were grouped according to amputees who experience phantom and synaesthetic pain (n=8), amputees who experience phantom pain but not synaesthetic pain (n=10) and healthy controls (n=10). Participants underwent EEG as they observed still images of hands and feet in potentially painful and non-painful situations. We found that pain synaesthetes showed some reduced event-related potential (ERP) components at certain electrode sites, and reduced theta- and alpha band power amplitude at a central electrode. The finding of reduced ERP amplitude and theta band power may reflect inhibition of the processing of observed pain (e.g. avoidance/guarding as a protective strategy), and reduced alpha band power may indicate a disinhibition in control processes that may result in synaesthetic pain. These results provide the first documentation of atypical neurophysiological activity in amputees who experience synaesthetic pain when processing pain in another. © The Author (2011). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and CRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Due to faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and CRPS may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to down-regulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, while high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear as well as evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with CRPS suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues. PMID:26785161

  15. Future Directions for Pain Management: Lessons from the Institute of Medicine Pain Report and the National Pain Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sean

    2016-02-01

    According to the Institute of Medicine Relieving Pain in America Report and the soon to be released National Pain Strategy, pain affects over 100 million Americans and costs our country in over $500 billion per year. We have a greater appreciation for the complex nature of pain and that it can develop into a disease in itself. As such, we need more efforts on prevention of chronic pain and for interdisciplinary approaches. For precision pain medicine to be successful, we need to link learning health systems with pain biomarkers (eg, genomics, proteomics, patient reported outcomes, brain markers) and its treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Review: Psychogenic Aspect of Pain & Coceptualization of Psychogenic Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the sensory and emotional experience of discomfort whiehis usually associated with actual or threatened physical damsge or irritation . Virtvally all people experience pain at all ages. Children also experience pain from the moment of birth through childhood years. Underestaning pain in children is very important , because of treatment implication and its influence in child physical and psychological development . Experienced researchers have found that pain is a concequence of emotional disorder which is observed in some patients . in many cases we have seen that a patient says to his / her clinician that she has no pain because there is no evidence of somatic disease. Dicomfont involved in psychogenic pain seems to resort primerly from psychological process. Many of physicion are familiar with unpleasant and avoidant concequences of these distortions . In these cases , it s better for us to agree with patients , experience of pain and not to prob somatic risk factors and their mechanism all the time. The researches hove recognized that psychological factors cam cause pain which is named psychogenic pain. It means that the cause of pain has psychological roots , versus organic pain which is related to discomfort is caused by tissue damage . In this study , theorical , psychological , psychoanalytical and psycho social approaches and personality characteristics description related to pain and the relations among these approaches in this area have been studied . Also, the perception of pain among children with different gender have been probed

  17. Understanding cultural influences on back pain and back pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Nicholas; Lorenz, Eva; Pokora, Roman; Michaleff, Zoe A; Quartey, Jonathan N A; Oliveira, Vinicius Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain is highly prevalent and places a considerable burden on individuals, their families and communities. This back pain burden is unequally distributed around the world and within populations. Clinicians and researchers addressing back pain should be aware of the cultural, social and political context of back pain patients and how this context can influence pain perception, disability and health care use. Culture, which influences the beliefs and behaviour of individuals within a social group, could be considered an important contributor to the unequal distribution of back pain. However, there is paucity of high-quality research exploring the influence of culture on the experience and management of back pain. Further development and testing of specific tools, assessment methods and communication strategies are needed to improve our understanding of how cultural practices, values and identifications affect those dealing with back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of pain management interventions for neonatal circumcision pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, B A; Keck, J F; Gerkensmeyer, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of music and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) on pain responses of neonates undergoing circumcision. A randomized, double-blind experimental design was used with 23 neonates. Pain response was measured using an observational pain intensity rating scale and the physiologic parameters of heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation levels, salivary cortisol levels, and length of cry. Each infant's state was examined for a potential contribution to the pain response. Infant state, salivary cortisol levels, and respiratory rates were not significant. Pain ratings had considerable variability for all treatment conditions, but both single treatment groups had less pain by the end of the procedure. The heart rate was significantly lower for the EMLA group and remained stable for the music group. Oxygen saturation differences were statistically significant for the music group (P =.02) and approached significance for the EMLA group. Preliminary support was provided for the efficacy of EMLA and music to contribute to the pain relief of neonates undergoing circumcision. Further study is warranted. Neonates deserve interventions that will provide them with a less painful start in life.

  19. Pain modulatory phenotypes differentiate subgroups with different clinical and experimental pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B.; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    between subgroups. Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs in 400 chronic pain patients to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), pressure pain tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM: increase in c......PPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) at clinical painful and non-painful body areas were assessed. Based on TSP and CPM four distinct groups were formed: Group 1 (n=85) had impaired CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 2 (n=148) had...... impaired CPM and normal TSP. Group 3 (n=45) had normal CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 4 (n=122) had normal CPM and normal TSP. Group 1 showed more pain regions compared with the other three groups (PCPM and facilitated TSP plays an important role in widespread pain. Group 1...

  20. Vicarious pain experiences while observing another in pain: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eVandenbroucke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer’s characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. Methods: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving occasionally pricking (electrocutaneous stimuli themselves. In congruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were applied to the same spatial location. In incongruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were in the opposite spatial location. Participants were required to report on which location they felt a pricking sensation. Of primary interest was the effect of viewing another in pain upon vicarious pain errors, i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported. Furthermore, we explored the effect of individual differences in hypervigilance to pain, dispositional empathy and the rubber hand illusion (RHI upon vicarious pain errors. Results: Results of both experiments indicated that the number of vicarious pain errors was overall low. In line with expectations, the number of vicarious pain errors was higher in the pain responder group than in the comparison group. Self-reported hypervigilance for pain lowered the probability of reporting vicarious pain errors in the pain responder group, but dispositional empathy and the RHI did not. Conclusion: Our paradigm allows measuring vicarious pain experiences in students. However, the prevalence of vicarious experiences of pain is low, and only a small percentage of participants display the phenomenon. It remains however unknown which variables affect its occurrence.

  1. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  2. Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Angela; Michel, Gisela; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Müller, Rachel

    2017-10-23

    To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation. Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78). This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first

  3. Pain and pharmacologic pain management in long-stay nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Ulbricht, Christine M; Tjia, Jennifer; Lapane, Kate L

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies estimate that >40% of long-stay nursing home (NH) residents experience persistent pain, with 20% of residents in pain receiving no analgesics. Strengthened NH surveyor guidance and improved pain measures on the Minimum Data Set 3.0 were introduced in March 2009 and October 2010, respectively. This study aimed to provide estimates after the important initiatives of (1) prevalence and correlates of persistent pain; and (2) prevalence and correlates of untreated or undertreated persistent pain. We identified 1,387,405 long-stay residents in U.S. NHs between 2011 and 2012 with 2 Minimum Data Set assessments 90 days apart. Pain was categorized as persistent (pain on both assessments), intermittent (pain on either assessment), or none. Pharmacologic pain management was classified as untreated pain (no scheduled or as needed medications received) or potentially undertreated (no scheduled received). Modified Poisson models adjusting for resident clustering within NHs provided adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of persistent and intermittent pain was 19.5% and 19.2%, respectively, but varied substantially by age, sex, race and ethnicity, cognitive impairment, and cancer. Of residents in persistent pain, 6.4% and 32.0% were untreated and undertreated, respectively. Racial and ethnic minorities (non-Hispanic blacks vs whites, APR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13-1.25) and severely cognitively impaired residents (severe vs no/mild APR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.44-1.57) had an increased prevalence of untreated and undertreated pain. One in 5 NH residents has persistent pain. Although this estimate is greatly improved, many residents may be undertreated. The disturbing disparities in untreated and undertreated pain need to be addressed.

  4. Managing painful chronic wounds: the Wound Pain Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Patricia; Fogh, Karsten; Glynn, Chris

    2007-01-01

    of the pain experience: location, duration, intensity, quality, onset and impact on activities of daily living. Holistic management must be based on a safe and effective mix of psychosocial approaches together with local and systemic pain management. It is no longer acceptable to ignore or inadequately...... to the wound should be handled as one of the main priorities in chronic wound management together with addressing the cause. Management of pain in chronic wounds depends on proper assessment, reporting and documenting patient experiences of pain. Assessment should be based on six critical dimensions...... document persistent wound pain and not to develop a treatment and monitoring strategy to improve the lives of persons with chronic wounds. Unless wound pain is optimally managed, patient suffering and costs to health care systems will increase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr...

  5. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Saskia; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience (“liking”) of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward (“wanting”), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief “won” in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality. PMID:26464995

  6. Paediatric pain management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients is musculoskeletal pain, headache or abdominal pain.2. The pain ... Children older than four years of age can usually talk about their pain; at the age of six to eight years they can use the ... Pain presentation in children normally falls into one of the ... expression, body posture and movement.10 This scale is often.

  7. [Pain therapy in pediatric oncology: pain experience, drugs and pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Rolf

    2011-11-01

    Paediatric cancer patients often experience fear and pain from the disease but also in connection with the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The treatment of pain is a priority for all patients, especially for critically ill children because of their vulnerability and limited understanding. The experience of pain is always subjective and depends on the age, the pain experience and the environment.In contrast to adults, it is often difficult to detect character of pain, pain intensity and pain localization in very young patients. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are performed in analgosedation for a given drug scheme by a pediatrician experienced in intensive care.In addition, a local anesthetic for an access system/lumbar punctures in the form of EMLA® patch is to be carried out. A rapid and effective treatment of pain and appropriate analgesia can prevent patients from being traumatized.For severe pain, malignancy- or chemotherapy-induced (eg. mucositis WHO grade 3 and 4) initial use of strong opiates is recommended instead of climbing the WHO ladder. For strong opiates, there is no maximum dose, as long as a dose increase leads to clinically observable increase in analgesia, without severe side effects. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine as continuous subcutaneous or intravenous infusions and the possibility of a bolus injection is suited for children aged 6 years. A measurement of O2-saturation is essential during this infusion. Prophylactic approaches also must be used consistently in regard to the acute side effect of opiate treatment. Good experience, we have also made a non-drug therapy, e.g. personnel/physical affection, cuddling, massage, etc.The choice of analgesia depends on the nature and cause of pain. In neuropathic pain or phantom pain coanalgetics should be used to effectively treat pain in young patients. Different analgesic treatment approaches of the appropriate indications and adverse effects are presented. A

  8. Pain begets pain: When marathon runners are not in pain anymore, they underestimate their memory of marathon pain: A mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babel, P.; Bajcar, E.A.; Smieja, M.; Adamczyk, W.; Swider, K.J.; Kicman, P.; Lisinska, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: A previous study has shown that memory of pain induced by running a marathon might be underestimated. However, little is known about the factors that might influence such a memory distortion during pain recall. The aim of the study was to investigate the memory of pain induced by running

  9. The impact of experiential avoidance on the relations between illness representations, pain catastrophising and pain interference in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Karekla, Maria; Flouri, Magdalini; Vasiliou, Vasilis S; Kasinopoulos, Orestis; Papacostas, Savvas S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experiential avoidance (EA) on the indirect relationship of chronic pain patients' illness representations to pain interference, through pain catastrophising Design and main outcome measure: The sample consisted of 162 patients diagnosed with an arthritis-related or a musculoskeletal disorder. The effects of EA on the pathway between illness representations, pain catastrophising and pain interference were examined with PROCESS, a computational tool for SPSS Results: After controlling for patient and illness-related variables and pain severity, the 'illness representations-pain catastrophising-pain interference' pathway was interrupted at the higher levels of EA. The reason was that, at the high levels of EA, either the relation of illness representations to pain catastrophising or the relation of pain catastrophising to pain interference was not statistically significant. The findings indicate that EA is not a generalised negative response to highly aversive conditions, at least as far as the factors examined in this study are concerned. EA may rather reflect a coping reaction, the impact of which depends on its specific interactions with the other aspects of the self-regulation mechanism. At least in chronic pain, EA should become the focus of potential intervention only when its interaction with the illness-related self-regulation mechanism results in negative outcomes.

  10. Educational achievement and chronic pain disability: mediating role of pain-related cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Randy S; Geisser, Michael E

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relation between level of educational achievement (LOE) and the clinical morbidity associated with chronic pain. a multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program located within a university hospital. Two hundred ninety-nine consecutive patients with chronic spinal pain, average age 39.6 years (SD = 10.7) and with an average duration of pain of 41.9 months (SD = 51.6). Age, duration of pain, sex, and compensation and litigation status were controlled for in the statistical analysis because each was found to be significantly associated with LOE. Pain intensity was assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Affective distress was assessed by the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory. Severity of depressive symptoms was derived from scores from the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Pain beliefs and pain coping strategies were assessed by the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, respectively. Finally, self-report of pain-related disability was assessed by the Pain Disability Index. After controlling for relevant covariates, LOE was unrelated to pain intensity, severity of depressive symptoms, or affective distress, but was inversely related to self-reported disability. Persons with lower LOEs possessed a greater belief that pain is a "signal of harm," unrelated to emotional experience, disabling and uncontrollable. They also endorsed more passive and maladaptive coping strategies, including a tendency to catastrophize about their pain. Path analysis indicated that, after controlling for the influence of both the belief that pain is a "signal of harm" and catastrophizing on the association between LOE and disability, this relation loses statistical significance. These results suggest that pain-related cognitions mediate the relation between LOE and pain disability and that persons with lower LOEs are more likely to develop maladaptive pain beliefs and coping strategies.

  11. Pain Information Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ...

  12. NIH Pain Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ...

  13. Fear of pain in the context of intensive pain rehabilitation among children and adolescents with neuropathic pain: associations with treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E; Kaczynski, Karen J; Conroy, Caitlin; Logan, Deirdre E

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has implicated pain-related fear in relation to functional outcomes in children with chronic pain. The current study examined fear of pain, disability, and depression within the context of an intensive pain rehabilitation program. One hundred forty-five children and adolescents who participated in an intensive interdisciplinary pediatric pain rehabilitation day program were assessed in this study. Patients completed measures of pain intensity, pain-related fears, functional disability, and depressive symptoms at admission, discharge, and on average, 2 months postdischarge. After controlling for pain intensity, pain-related fear was significantly related to disability and depressive symptoms at all time points. As predicted, a decline in pain-related fear was significantly associated with a decrease in disability and depressive symptoms. Interestingly, high levels of pain-related fears at admission predicted less reduction in functional disability and depression at discharge, suggesting that high levels of pain-related fear may be a risk factor in relation to treatment outcomes. Overall, results indicate that the relationship between fear of pain and changes in disability and depressive symptoms are closely linked, with fear of pain playing an important role in treatment. This paper presents results underscoring the importance of pain-related fear in relation to treatment response for children and adolescents with chronic pain. These findings support the need to develop and implement interventions that target reductions in pain-related fear. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pain, emotion, headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussone, Gennaro; Grazzi, Licia; Panerai, Alberto E

    2012-10-01

    Pain has been considered as part of a defensive strategy whose specific role is to signal an immediate active danger to the organism. This definition fits well for acute pain. It does not work well, however, for chronic pain that is maintained even in absence of an ongoing, active threat. Currently, acute and chronic pain are considered to be separate conditions. What follows is a review of the different theories about pain and its history. Different hypotheses regarding pain mechanisms are illustrated. New data emerging from scientific research on chronic pain (migraine in particular) involving innovative imaging techniques are reported and discussed. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  15. Exploring the associations shared by mood, pain-related attention and pain outcomes related to sleep disturbance in a chronic pain sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lee; Wilson, Sue; Heron, Jon; Stannard, Catherine; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-05-01

    Sleep disturbance in chronic pain is common, occurring in two-thirds of patients. There is a complex relationship between chronic pain and sleep; pain can disrupt sleep and poor sleep can exaggerate pain intensity. This may have an impact on both depressive symptoms and attention to pain. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between chronic pain and sleep, and the role of mood and attention. Chronic pain patients, recruited from a secondary care outpatient clinic, completed self-report measures of pain, sleep, depressive symptoms and attention to pain. Hierarchical regression and structural equation modelling were used to explore the relationships between these measures. Participants (n = 221) were aged between 20 and 84 (mean = 52) years. The majority of participants were found to be 'poor sleepers' (86%) with increased pain severity, depressive symptoms and attention to pain. Both analytical approaches indicated that sleep disturbance is indirectly associated with increased pain severity Instead the relationship shared by sleep disturbance and pain severity was further associated with depressive symptoms and attention to pain. Our results indicate that sleep disturbance may contribute to clinical pain severity indirectly though changes in mood and attention. Prospective studies exploring lagged associations between these constructs could have critical information relevant to the treatment of chronic pain.

  16. Evaluation of pain incidence and pain management in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A prospective observational study, using the Numerical Rating Scale for pain (NRS pain), Numerical Rating Scale for anxiety (NRS anxiety), the Alder Hey Triage Pain Score (AHTPS), the COMFORT behaviour scale and the Touch Visual Pain Scale (TVPS). All patients were assessed at admission; those who were ...

  17. Happiness, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, and Distress in Individuals with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ravesloot, Craig; Ipsen, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the construct of happiness is related to pain intensity, pain interference, and distress in individuals with physical disabilities. This study involves cross-sectional analyses of 471 individuals with a variety of health conditions reporting at least mild pain. The first hypothesis that happiness mediates the relationship between pain intensity and two outcomes, pain interference and distress, was not supported. The second hypothesis was supported by a good fitting model (χ2(10) = 12.83, P = 0.23, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.025) and indicated that pain intensity significantly mediated the effect of happiness on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.13, P Happiness showed a significant direct effect on pain intensity (β = -0.20, P happiness components meaning, pleasure, and engagement fitted well (χ2(4) = 9.65, P = 0.05, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.055). Pain intensity acted as a significant mediator but only mediated the effect of meaning on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.07, P = 0.05) and on distress (indirect effect via pain interference: β = -0.04, P = 0.05). Only meaning (β = -0.10, P = 0.05), but neither pleasure nor engagement, had a significant direct effect on pain intensity. Participants who reported greater happiness reported lower pain interference and distress through happiness' effects on pain intensity. Experiencing meaning and purpose in life seems to be most closely (and negatively) associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and distress. Findings from this study can lay the groundwork for intervention studies to better understand how to more effectively decrease pain intensity, pain interference, and distress.

  18. Do pain-associated contexts increase pain sensitivity? An investigation using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Daniel S; Sterling, Michele; Smith, Ashley D

    2018-04-30

    Pain is not a linear result of nociception, but is dependent on multisensory inputs, psychological factors, and prior experience. Since nociceptive models appear insufficient to explain chronic pain, understanding non-nociceptive contributors is imperative. Several recent models propose that cues associatively linked to painful events might acquire the capacity to augment, or even cause, pain. This experiment aimed to determine whether contexts associated with pain, could modulate mechanical pain thresholds and pain intensity. Forty-eight healthy participants underwent a contextual conditioning procedure, where three neutral virtual reality contexts were paired with either unpredictable noxious stimulation, unpredictable vibrotactile stimulation, or no stimulation. Following the conditioning procedure, mechanical pain thresholds and pain evoked by a test stimulus were examined in each context. In the test phase, the effect of expectancy was equalised across conditions by informing participants when thresholds and painful stimuli would be presented. Contrary to our hypothesis, scenes that were associated with noxious stimulation did not increase mechanical sensitivity (p=0.08), or increase pain intensity (p=0.46). However, an interaction with sex highlighted the possibility that pain-associated contexts may alter pain sensitivity in females but not males (p=0.03). Overall, our data does not support the idea that pain-associated contexts can alter pain sensitivity in healthy asymptomatic individuals. That an effect was shown in females highlights the possibility that some subgroups may be susceptible to such an effect, although the magnitude of the effect may lack real-world significance. If pain-associated cues prove to have a relevant pain augmenting effect, in some subgroups, procedures aimed at extinguishing pain-related associations may have therapeutic potential.

  19. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic.

  20. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relation between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia R; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-12-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning, and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors (overprotection, minimizing, and/or encouragement) in response to their child's pain interact with child coping characteristics (eg, catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relation between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children's levels of maladaptive coping (ie, pain catastrophizing). Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated in the study. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: Protection, Minimizing, and Encouragement/Monitoring subscales). Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relation between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relation between parent protectiveness and disability. The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined, in part, by the child's coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP.

  1. Glia and pain: is chronic pain a gliopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Berta, Temugin; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-12-01

    Activation of glial cells and neuro-glial interactions are emerging as key mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Accumulating evidence has implicated 3 types of glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain: microglia and astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), and satellite glial cells of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Painful syndromes are associated with different glial activation states: (1) glial reaction (ie, upregulation of glial markers such as IBA1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and/or morphological changes, including hypertrophy, proliferation, and modifications of glial networks); (2) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways; (3) upregulation of adenosine triphosphate and chemokine receptors and hemichannels and downregulation of glutamate transporters; and (4) synthesis and release of glial mediators (eg, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases) to the extracellular space. Although widely detected in chronic pain resulting from nerve trauma, inflammation, cancer, and chemotherapy in rodents, and more recently, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy in human beings, glial reaction (activation state 1) is not thought to mediate pain sensitivity directly. Instead, activation states 2 to 4 have been demonstrated to enhance pain sensitivity via a number of synergistic neuro-glial interactions. Glial mediators have been shown to powerfully modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission at presynaptic, postsynaptic, and extrasynaptic sites. Glial activation also occurs in acute pain conditions, and acute opioid treatment activates peripheral glia to mask opioid analgesia. Thus, chronic pain could be a result of "gliopathy," that is, dysregulation of glial functions in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances and discuss remaining questions. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the

  2. Atypical electrophysiological activity during pain observation in amputees who experience synaesthetic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M.; Enticott, Peter G.; Giummarra, Melita J.; Thomson, Richard H.; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Bradshaw, John L.

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing reports of people experiencing pain when observing pain in another. This describes the phenomenon of synaesthetic pain which, until recently, had been primarily reported in amputees with phantom pain. In the current study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate how amputees who experience synaesthetic pain process pain observed in another. Participants were grouped according to amputees who experience phantom and synaesthetic pain (n = 8), amputees who experi...

  3. Pain after earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeletti Chiara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009. Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%. Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations.

  4. Renal Infarction Caused by Spontaneous Renal Artery Dissection: Treatment with Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis and Stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Ki Cheon

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is rare and presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of a 36-year-old man who had an SRAD-complicated renal infarction. The patient experienced severe unilateral flank pain. Enhanced abdominal computed axial tomography scan showed renal infarction, and urinalysis showed no hematuria. Selective renal angiography was essential to evaluate the extent of dissection and suitability for repair. The patient was treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis and frenal artery stenting.

  5. Henoch-Schönlein purpura in an older man presenting as rectal bleeding and IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth Charles B; Jirajariyavej Teeranun; Cheungpasitporn Wisit; Rosen Raquel M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. Typical presentations are palpable purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis, and hematuria. This vasculitic syndrome can present as an uncommon cause of rectal bleeding in older patients. We report a case of an older man with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. He presented with rectal bleeding and acute kidney injury secondary to IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Case presentation A 75-year-old Pol...

  6. The ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT): an evidence-based and multidimensional approach to classifying chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B; Bruehl, Stephen; Dworkin, Robert H; Dworkin, Samuel F; Loeser, John D; Turk, Dennis C; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Arnold, Lesley; Bennett, Robert; Edwards, Robert R; Freeman, Roy; Gewandter, Jennifer; Hertz, Sharon; Hochberg, Marc; Krane, Elliot; Mantyh, Patrick W; Markman, John; Neogi, Tuhina; Ohrbach, Richard; Paice, Judith A; Porreca, Frank; Rappaport, Bob A; Smith, Shannon M; Smith, Thomas J; Sullivan, Mark D; Verne, G Nicholas; Wasan, Ajay D; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Current approaches to classification of chronic pain conditions suffer from the absence of a systematically implemented and evidence-based taxonomy. Moreover, existing diagnostic approaches typically fail to incorporate available knowledge regarding the biopsychosocial mechanisms contributing to pain conditions. To address these gaps, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have joined together to develop an evidence-based chronic pain classification system called the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy. This paper describes the outcome of an ACTTION-APS consensus meeting, at which experts agreed on a structure for this new taxonomy of chronic pain conditions. Several major issues around which discussion revolved are presented and summarized, and the structure of the taxonomy is presented. ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences; and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors. In coming months, expert working groups will apply this taxonomy to clusters of chronic pain conditions, thereby developing a set of diagnostic criteria that have been consistently and systematically implemented across nearly all common chronic pain conditions. It is anticipated that the availability of this evidence-based and mechanistic approach to pain classification will be of substantial benefit to chronic pain research and treatment. The ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy is an evidence-based chronic pain classification system designed to classify chronic pain along the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial

  7. Analyzing musculoskeletal neck pain, measured as present pain and periods of pain, with three different regression models: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagberg Mats

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the literature there are discussions on the choice of outcome and the need for more longitudinal studies of musculoskeletal disorders. The general aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze musculoskeletal neck pain, in a group of young adults. Specific aims were to determine whether psychosocial factors, computer use, high work/study demands, and lifestyle are long-term or short-term factors for musculoskeletal neck pain, and whether these factors are important for developing or ongoing musculoskeletal neck pain. Methods Three regression models were used to analyze the different outcomes. Pain at present was analyzed with a marginal logistic model, for number of years with pain a Poisson regression model was used and for developing and ongoing pain a logistic model was used. Presented results are odds ratios and proportion ratios (logistic models and rate ratios (Poisson model. The material consisted of web-based questionnaires answered by 1204 Swedish university students from a prospective cohort recruited in 2002. Results Perceived stress was a risk factor for pain at present (PR = 1.6, for developing pain (PR = 1.7 and for number of years with pain (RR = 1.3. High work/study demands was associated with pain at present (PR = 1.6; and with number of years with pain when the demands negatively affect home life (RR = 1.3. Computer use pattern (number of times/week with a computer session ≥ 4 h, without break was a risk factor for developing pain (PR = 1.7, but also associated with pain at present (PR = 1.4 and number of years with pain (RR = 1.2. Among life style factors smoking (PR = 1.8 was found to be associated to pain at present. The difference between men and women in prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was confirmed in this study. It was smallest for the outcome ongoing pain (PR = 1.4 compared to pain at present (PR = 2.4 and developing pain (PR = 2.5. Conclusion By using different regression models different

  8. How well do clinical pain assessment tools reflect pain in infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeccah Slater

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain in infancy is poorly understood, and medical staff often have difficulty assessing whether an infant is in pain. Current pain assessment tools rely on behavioural and physiological measures, such as change in facial expression, which may not accurately reflect pain experience. Our ability to measure cortical pain responses in young infants gives us the first opportunity to evaluate pain assessment tools with respect to the sensory input and establish whether the resultant pain scores reflect cortical pain processing.Cortical haemodynamic activity was measured in infants, aged 25-43 wk postmenstrual, using near-infrared spectroscopy following a clinically required heel lance and compared to the magnitude of the premature infant pain profile (PIPP score in the same infant to the same stimulus (n = 12, 33 test occasions. Overall, there was good correlation between the PIPP score and the level of cortical activity (regression coefficient = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] limits 0.32-1.11, p = 0.001; correlation coefficient = 0.57. Of the different PIPP components, facial expression correlated best with cortical activity (regression coefficient = 1.26, 95% CI limits 0.84-1.67, p < 0.0001; correlation coefficient = 0.74 (n = 12, 33 test occasions. Cortical pain responses were still recorded in some infants who did not display a change in facial expression.While painful stimulation generally evokes parallel cortical and behavioural responses in infants, pain may be processed at the cortical level without producing detectable behavioural changes. As a result, an infant with a low pain score based on behavioural assessment tools alone may not be pain free.

  9. Early visceral pain predicts chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1week postoperatively...

  10. Pain cognition versus pain intensity in patients with endometriosis: toward personalized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, Mieke A W; Oosterman, Joukje M; van Rijn, C M; Ferdek, Magdalena A; Ruigt, Gé S F; Peeters, B W M M; Braat, Didi D M; Nap, Annemiek W

    2017-10-01

    To explore how pain intensity and pain cognition are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with endometriosis. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Multidisciplinary referral center. Women with laparoscopically and/or magnetic resonance imaging-proven endometriosis (n = 50) and healthy control women (n = 42). For HRQoL, two questionnaires: the generic Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Endometriosis Health Profile 30 (EHP-30). For pain cognition, three questionnaires: the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ), and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). For pain intensity, the verbal Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Association between pain intensity and pain cognition with HRQoL in women with endometriosis, and the differences in HRQoL and pain cognition between women with endometriosis and healthy controls. Health-related quality of life was statistically significantly impaired in women with endometriosis as compared with healthy control women. The variables of pain intensity and pain cognition were independent factors influencing the HRQoL of women with endometriosis. Patients with endometriosis had statistically significantly more negative pain cognition as compared with controls. They reported more pain anxiety and catastrophizing, and they were hypervigilant toward pain. Pain cognition is independently associated with the HRQoL in endometriosis patients. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon and may consider treating pain symptoms in a multidimensional, individualized way in which the psychological aspects are taken into account. In international guidelines on management of women with endometriosis more attention should be paid to the psychological aspects of care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their child’s pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children’s level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the child’s coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521

  12. Epidemiology of chronic pain in the office of a pain specialist neurologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen dos Santos Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of the present report was to describe the working experience of a pain specialist neurologist after concluding a medical residency program on neurology, area of concentration pain. Method A retrospective study was conducted for one year in the office of a pain specialist neurologist. Patients older than 18 years with chronic pain according to the criteria of the International Association for the Study of Pain, were included. Demographic data, chronic pain data and the treatments instituted were investigated. Results A total of 241 medical records were reviewed, mean patient age was 52.4 years and 79 (66.9% were women, and the mean score on a numeric pain scale was 8.69. The diagnoses were headaches (74.6%, neuropathic pain (17% and ostheomuscular pain (8.2%. We did not detect cancer pain. Patients received medication and procedures of anesthetic blockade. Conclusion This data can guide new medical residency programs on Neurology, area of concentration pain, to plan activities and studies.

  13. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Milton; Quintner, John; van Rysewyk, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The definition of pain promulgated by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is widely accepted as a pragmatic characterisation of that human experience. Although the Notes that accompany it characterise pain as "always subjective," the IASP definition itself fails to sufficiently integrate phenomenological aspects of pain. This essay reviews the historical development of the IASP definition, and the commentaries and suggested modifications to it over almost 40 years. Common factors of pain experience identified in phenomenological studies are described, together with theoretical insights from philosophy and biology. A fuller understanding of the pain experience and of the clinical care of those experiencing pain is achievable through greater attention to the phenomenology of pain, the social "intersubjective space" in which pain occurs, and the limitations of language. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  14. Children's pain perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and

  15. Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Rebecca A; Khadavi, Michael J; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by insidious onset anterior knee pain that is exaggerated under conditions of increased patellofemoral joint stress. A variety of risk factors may contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. It is critical that the history and physical examination elucidate those risk factors specific to an individual in order to prescribe an appropriate and customized treatment plan. This article aims to review the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of vicarious pain on self-pain perception: investigating the role of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrighena, Esslin L; Lu, Ge; Yuen, Wai Ping; Lee, Tatia MC; Keuper, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal) and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images), and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial) to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition), vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition), vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These findings suggest that the activation of defense mechanisms by vicarious pain depends on relatively elaborate cognitive processes, while – strikingly – the appetitive system is activated in highly automatic manner independent from stimulus awareness. Such mechanisms may have evolved to facilitate empathic, protective approach responses toward suffering individuals, ensuring survival of the protective social group. PMID:28831270

  17. Children in pain: recurrent back pain, abdominal pain, and headache in children and adolescents in a four-year-period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gessel, Hester; Gassmann, Jennifer; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the development of recurrent pain in 3 body locations in children and adolescents (baseline age, 9 to 14 years) in a 4-year period. In a large population-based longitudinal epidemiological study data was collected through annual postal questionnaires (longitudinal, n = 2025). Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used. Girls were more likely to report recurrent pain, demonstrated a steeper development during the 4-year period, and reported multiple pain more often than boys. Younger children reported less recurrent pain, but displayed a steeper trend of increasing prevalence rates as they grew older. Older children illustrated a more stable development of recurrent pain and reported multiple pain more often. Disability experienced because of recurrent pain was related strongest to pain intensity. Stable patterns of pain were related to higher intensity and disability reports. The children experienced headache as the most disabling of the 3 pains. The results show that boys and girls report recurrent pain in different patterns in the years. To identify risk factors, analysis should be performed separately for boys and girls. Furthermore, it is recommended to include children before the age of 9 years in a prevention study. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Responsiveness of the PROMIS Pain Interference Short Forms, Brief Pain Inventory, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain Subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Monahan, Patrick O; Kroenke, Kurt; Wu, Jingwei; Yu, Zhangsheng; Stump, Tim E; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity to change and the responsiveness to intervention of the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), 3-item PEG scale, and SF-36 Bodily Pain subscale in a sample of patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain of moderate severity. Standardized response means, standardized effect sizes, and receiver operating curve analyses were used to assess change between baseline and 3-month assessments in 250 participants who participated in a randomized clinical effectiveness trial of collaborative telecare management for moderate to severe and persistent musculoskeletal pain. The BPI, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain measures were more sensitive to patient-reported global change than the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, especially for the clinically improved group, for which the change detected by the PROMIS short forms was not statistically significant. The BPI was more responsive to the clinical intervention than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures. Post hoc analyses exploring these findings did not suggest that differences in content or rating scale structure (number of response options or anchoring language) adequately explained the observed differences in the detection of change. In this clinical trial, the BPI and PEG measures were better able to detect change than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures.

  19. Neck pain and disability due to neck pain: what is the relation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Pain and disability are interrelated, but the relationship between pain and disability is not straightforward. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neck pain (NP) intensity, NP duration, and disability based on the population-based 'Funen Neck and Chest Pain......' study. Pain intensity was measured using 11-box numerical rating scales, pain duration was measured using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, and disability was measured by the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression analyses were...... used to measure correlations and strength of associations between pain intensity, pain duration, and disability given domain specific characteristics (socioeconomic, health and physical, comorbidity, and variables related to consequences of NP). Neck pain was very common, but mainly mild and did...

  20. Relationship of musculoskeletal pain and well-being at work - Does pain matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Ceder, Kirsi; Haanpää, Maija; Korhonen, Päivi E; Kautiainen, Hannu; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-04-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a common symptom and many people even with chronic pain continue to work. The aim of our study is to analyze how musculoskeletal pain affects work well-being by comparing work engagement in employees with or without pain, and how pain-related risk of disability is associated with work engagement. In a separate analysis, we also studied, how psychosocial factors are related to work engagement. This is a cross-sectional study of Finnish female employees of the city of Pori, Finland (PORi To Aid Against Threats (PORTAAT) study). Data was collected by trained study nurses and self-administrated questionnaires. Work well-being was measured by work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) questionnaire and the burden of pain was measured by using the short version of Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ). Study population was divided into four groups: those without pain and the groups with low (I), medium (II) or high (III) ÖMPSQ score, reflecting increasing risk of long term disability due to musculoskeletal pain. The study nurse assessed psychosocial risk factors using defined core questions. We evaluated 702 female employees, 601 (86%) had suffered from musculoskeletal pain over the past 12 months, whereas 101 (14%) reported no pain at all. Pain was chronic (duration at least 3 months) in 465/601 (77%) subjects. Subjects with musculoskeletal pain were older, had higher BMI and were on sick leave more often than subjects without pain. Of the psychosocial risk factors, depression, type D personality, anxiety and hostility were significantly more common among subjects with musculoskeletal pain. Hypertension and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly more frequent in the musculoskeletal pain group. Quality of sleep and working capability were significantly better among persons without pain. Average weekly working hours were slightly higher among those with musculoskeletal pain. In

  1. Pain. Part 2a: Trigeminal Anatomy Related to Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Tara; Egbuniwe, Obi

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand the underlying principles of orofacial pain it is important to understand the corresponding anatomy and mechanisms. Paper 1 of this series explains the central nervous and peripheral nervous systems relating to pain. The trigeminal nerve is the 'great protector' of the most important region of our body. It is the largest sensory nerve of the body and over half of the sensory cortex is responsive to any stimulation within this system. This nerve is the main sensory system of the branchial arches and underpins the protection of the brain, sight, smell, airway, hearing and taste, underpinning our very existence. The brain reaction to pain within the trigeminal system has a significant and larger reaction to the threat of, and actual, pain compared with other sensory nerves. We are physiologically wired to run when threatened with pain in the trigeminal region and it is a 'miracle' that patients volunteer to sit in a dental chair and undergo dental treatment. Clinical Relevance: This paper aims to provide the dental and medical teams with a review of the trigeminal anatomy of pain and the principles of pain assessment.

  2. Optimism, pain coping strategies and pain intensity among women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: According to the biopsychosocial model of pain, it is a multidimensional phenomenon, which comprises physiological (sensation-related factors, psychological (affective and social (socio-economic status, social support factors. Researchers have mainly focused on phenomena increasing the pain sensation; very few studies have examined psychological factors preventing pain. The aim of the research is to assess chronic pain intensity as determined by level of optimism, and to identify pain coping strategies in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods : A survey was carried out among 54 women during a 7-day period of hospitalisation. The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R (optimism; Scheier, Carver and Bridges, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ; Rosenstiel and Keefe and the 10-point visual-analogue pain scale (VAS. Results: The research findings indicate the significance of optimism in the experience of chronic pain, and in the pain coping strategies. Optimists felt a significantly lower level of pain than pessimists. Patients with positive outcome expectancies (optimists experienced less pain thanks to replacing catastrophizing (negative concentration on pain with an increased activity level. Regardless of personality traits, active coping strategies (e.g. ignoring pain sensations, coping self-statements – appraising pain as a challenge, a belief in one’s ability to manage pain resulted in a decrease in pain, whilst catastrophizing contributed to its intensification. The most common coping strategies included praying and hoping. Employment was an important demographic variable: the unemployed experienced less pain than those who worked. Conclusions : The research results indicate that optimism and pain coping strategies should be taken into account in clinical practice. Particular attention should be given to those who have negative outcome expectations, which in turn determine strong chronic pain

  3. Phantom Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Because this is yet another version of tangled sensory wires, the result can be pain. A number of other factors are believed to contribute to phantom pain, including damaged nerve endings, scar tissue at the site of the amputation and the physical memory of pre-amputation pain in the affected area. ...

  4. Neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Re

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is the expression of a dysfunction or primary lesion of a nerve in the peripheral or central nervous system, or both, rather than the biological signal transmitted by the nerve following peripheral nociceptor activation. It represents about 20% of all painful syndromes, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5%, however is actual incidence is hard to pinpoint due to the difficulties encountered in distinguishing it from chronic pain, of which it represents a significant percentage, on account of the not infrequent concurrence of conditions. It is crucial to recognise the variety of symptoms with which it can present: these can be negative and positive and, in turn, motor, sensitive and autonomic. In public health terms, it is important to emphasise that the diagnosis of neuropathic pain does not in most cases require sophisticated procedures and does not therefore weigh on health expenditure. In clinical practice, a validated scale (the LANSS is mentioned is useful for identifying patients presenting neuropathic pain symptoms. Therapy is based on three categories of medication: tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptics and opioids at high doses: neuropathic pain has a bad reputation for often resisting common therapeutic approaches and responding less well that nociceptor pain to monotherapy. Therapeutic strategies are all the more adequate the more they are based on symptoms and therefore on the pain generation mechanisms, although the recommendations are dictated more by expert opinions that double-blind randomised trials.

  5. Pain without nociceptors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minett, Michael S; Falk, Sarah; Santana-Varela, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Nav1.7, a peripheral neuron voltage-gated sodium channel, is essential for pain and olfaction in mice and humans. We examined the role of Nav1.7 as well as Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in different mouse models of chronic pain. Constriction-injury-dependent neuropathic pain is abolished when Nav1.......7 is deleted in sensory neurons, unlike nerve-transection-related pain, which requires the deletion of Nav1.7 in sensory and sympathetic neurons for pain relief. Sympathetic sprouting that develops in parallel with nerve-transection pain depends on the presence of Nav1.7 in sympathetic neurons. Mechanical...... and cold allodynia required distinct sets of neurons and different repertoires of sodium channels depending on the nerve injury model. Surprisingly, pain induced by the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin and cancer-induced bone pain do not require the presence of Nav1.7 sodium channels or Nav1.8-positive...

  6. Inviting pain? Pain, dualism and embodiment in narratives of self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Amy

    2013-06-01

    The role of pain in the practice of self-injury is not straightforward. Existing accounts suggest that self-injury does not cause 'physical' pain, however self-injury is also said to alleviate 'emotional' pain by inflicting 'physical' pain. This article explores these tensions using sociological theories regarding the socio-cultural and subjective nature of pain. Analysis derives from in-depth, life-story interviews carried out in the UK with people who had self-injured. Findings contribute to on-going debates within social science regarding the nature of pain. Participants' narratives about pain and self-injury both drew on and challenged dualistic models of embodiment. I suggest that self-injury offers a unique case on which to extend existing theoretical work, which has tended to focus on pain as an unwanted and uninvited entity. In contrast, accounts of self-injury can feature pain as a central aspect of the practice, voluntarily invited into lived experience. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of pain intensity, pain disability, and the number of pain locations in depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Denise J C; Naarding, Paul; Collard, Rose M; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Late-life depression and pain more often co-occur than can be explained by chance. Determinants of pain in late-life depression are unknown, even though knowledge on possible determinants of pain in depression is important for clinical practice. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were 1) to describe pain characteristics of depressed older adults and a nondepressed comparison group, and 2) to explore physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain in depressed older adults. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons cohort, consisting of 378 depressed persons, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, and 132 nondepressed persons aged 60 years and older, were used in a cross-sectional design. Pain characteristics were measured by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the contribution of physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants to outcomes pain intensity, disability, and the number of pain locations. Depressed older adults more often reported chronic pain and experienced their pain as more intense and disabling compared to nondepressed older adults. Adjusted for demographic, physical, and lifestyle characteristics, multinomial logistic regression analyses showed increased odds ratios (OR) for depression in acute pain (OR 3.010; P=0.005) and chronic pain (OR 4.544, Presearch could focus on the temporal relationship between anxiety, late-life depression, and pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sudden amnesia resulting in pain relief: the relationship between memory and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daniel S; Choi, Deborah Y; Whittington, Robert A; Nedeljković, Srdjan S

    2007-11-01

    Nociceptive pain and its emotional component can result in the development of a "chronic pain memory". This report describes two patients who had long histories of chronic pain and opioid dependence. Both patients experienced sudden memory loss that was followed by significant pain reduction and an eradication of their need for opioid management. Neural centers involved in sensory pain, its affective component, opioid dependence, and memory overlap in the brain and share common pathways. The anterior cingulate cortex, the insular cortex, and the amygdala are examples of regions implicated in both pain and memory. One of the patients in the report experienced multiple seizure episodes, which may have contributed to memory loss and pain relief. The role of electroconvulsive therapy as it relates to amnesia and pain is reviewed. Questions are raised regarding whether therapies that address the memory component of pain may have a role in the treatment of long-term chronic pain patients.

  9. Ketamine for pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Kelly; Dahan, Albert; van de Donk, Tine; Aarts, Leon; Niesters, Marieke; van Velzen, Monique

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine as an analgesic agent is still under debate, especially for indications such as chronic pain. To understand the efficacy of ketamine for relief of pain, we performed a literature search for relevant narrative and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We retrieved 189 unique articles, of which 29 were deemed appropriate for use in this review. Ketamine treatment is most effective for relief of postoperative pain, causing reduced opioid consumption. In contrast, for most other indications (that is, acute pain in the emergency department, prevention of persistent postoperative pain, cancer pain, and chronic non-cancer pain), the efficacy of ketamine is limited. Ketamine’s lack of analgesic effect was associated with an increase in side effects, including schizotypical effects. PMID:28979762

  10. [From Descartes to fMRI. Pain theories and pain concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerker, H O

    2007-08-01

    In the seventeenth century the philosopher Rene Descartes was the forerunner by establishing a scientific hypothesis on the origin of pain. Much later, in the nineteenth century, pain hypotheses emerged which explained the pain sensation either on the basis of intense stimulation of any kind of nerve fibers (intensity hypothesis) or on the basis of specific nociceptors (specificity hypothesis). The "gate control theory" established by Melzack and Wall (1964) offered an explanation of modulations of pain sensation by the interaction between nociceptive and non-nociceptive nerve fibers and by descending control in the central nervous system. Though this hypothesis is outdated in its original form, it had - in a more common formulation - a great influence on our understanding of pain. For building a bridge to our present knowledge, the molecular structure of the nociceptor membrane is of particular importance. On this basis also new pain therapies have been developed. On the other hand, the methods of functional imaging allow the identification of brain regions related to pain processing at a macroscopic level. This new technology opened up new ways of understanding chronic pain processes and new possibilities for the control of therapeutic effects.

  11. The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers’ responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity. Methods: The sample consisted

  12. The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers' responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity. Methods: The sample consisted

  13. Parental Perceptions about Pain and Pain Management Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pain management in neonates remains sub-optimal in sub-Saharan countries like Kenya due to lack of resources to procure pharmacological analgesics. There, however, exist low-cost, mother-driven pain management strategies such as breastfeeding and kangaroo care that can be used for pain relief in ...

  14. Conditioned pain modulation: a predictor for development and treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena

    2013-09-01

    Psychophysical evaluation of endogenous pain inhibition via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) represents a new generation of laboratory tests for pain assessment. In this review we discuss recent findings on CPM in neuropathic pain and refer to psychophysical, neurophysiological, and methodological aspects of its clinical implications. Typically, chronic neuropathic pain patients express less efficient CPM, to the extent that incidence of acquiring neuropathic pain (e.g. post-surgery) and its intensity can be predicted by a pre-surgery CPM assessment. Moreover, pre-treatment CPM evaluation may assist in the correct choice of serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor analgesic agents for individual patients. Evaluation of pain modulation capabilities can serve as a step forward in individualizing pain medicine.

  15. Do psychological states associate with pain and disability in chronic neck pain patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (pneck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.

  16. Pyelolymphatic backflow demonstrated by an abdominal CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durhan, Gamze; Ayyıldız, Veysel Atilla; Çiftçi, Türkmen Turan; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh

    2014-01-01

    Pyelolymphatic backflow phenomenon, which is a subtype of pyelorenal backflow, is a rare condition that occurs during the acute phase of urinary obstruction. Pyelorenal backflow has already been described in humans with retrograde pyelography. Our report presents a rare case of pyelolyphatic backflow demonstrated by a computed tomography. A 67-year-old man with a history of bladder carcinoma was admitted to the emergency department due to right-sided flank pain and hematuria. Hematuria resolved after insertion of a 3-way urinary catheter, but flank pain persisted. As a result, an abdominopelvic CT was performed. CT revealed numerous tiny, serpiginous tubular structures connected with each other and filled with urine. They began intrarenally and extended caudally surrounding the ureter in the retroperitoneum. Subsequently, the patient underwent an ultrasound-guided nephrostomy to decompress the collecting system of the right kidney. Antegrade pyelography revealed minimal hydroneprosis. However, no leakage from the ureter to the retroperitoneum was observed, proving that the changes demonstrated by a CT were due to pyelolymphatic reflux caused by increased pressure in the collecting tubules filling the lymphatics with opaque urine. This report presents a very rare case of pyelolymphatic reflux demonstrated by a CT. We present this case report as a reminder that although rare, pyelolymphatic reflux can occur as a result of obstruction without manifestations of hydronephrosis and it can be confused with leakage from the ureter

  17. Effects of vicarious pain on self-pain perception: investigating the role of awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrighena EL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Esslin L Terrighena,1,2 Ge Lu,1 Wai Ping Yuen,1 Tatia M C Lee,1–4 Kati Keuper1,2,5 1Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Hong Kong; 4Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in ­determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images, and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed ­significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition, vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition, vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These

  18. Corporatization of pain medicine: implications for widening pain care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Salimah H

    2011-04-01

    The current health care system in the United States is structured in a way that ensures that more opportunity and resources flow to the wealthy and socially advantaged. The values intrinsic to the current profit-oriented culture are directly antithetical to the idea of equitable access. A large body of literature points to disparities in pain treatment and pain outcomes among vulnerable groups. These disparities range from the presence of disproportionately higher numbers and magnitude of risk factors for developing disabling pain, lack of access to primary care providers, analgesics and interventions, lack of referral to pain specialists, longer wait times to receive care, receipt of poor quality of pain care, and lack of geographical access to pharmacies that carry opioids. This article examines the manner in which the profit-oriented culture in medicine has directly and indirectly structured access to pain care, thereby widening pain treatment disparities among vulnerable groups. Specifically, the author argues that the corporatization of pain medicine amplifies disparities in pain outcomes in two ways: 1) directly through driving up the cost of pain care, rendering it inaccessible to the financially vulnerable; and 2) indirectly through an interface with corporate loss-aversion/risk management culture that draws upon irrelevant social characteristics, thus worsening disparities for certain populations. Thus, while financial vulnerability is the core reason for lack of access, it does not fully explain the implications of corporate microculture regarding access. The effect of corporatization on pain medicine must be conceptualized in terms of overt access to facilities, providers, pharmaceuticals, specialty services, and interventions, but also in terms of the indirect or covert effect of corporate culture in shaping clinical interactions and outcomes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Conditioned pain modulation predicts duloxetine efficacy in painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitsky, David; Granot, Michal; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granovsky, Yelena

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to individualize the selection of drugs for neuropathic pain by examining the potential coupling of a given drug's mechanism of action with the patient's pain modulation pattern. The latter is assessed by the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation (TS) protocols. We hypothesized that patients with a malfunctioning pain modulation pattern, such as less efficient CPM, would benefit more from drugs augmenting descending inhibitory pain control than would patients with a normal modulation pattern of efficient CPM. Thirty patients with painful diabetic neuropathy received 1 week of placebo, 1 week of 30 mg/d duloxetine, and 4 weeks of 60 mg/d duloxetine. Pain modulation was assessed psychophysically, both before and at the end of treatment. Patient assessment of drug efficacy, assessed weekly, was the study's primary outcome. Baseline CPM was found to be correlated with duloxetine efficacy (r=0.628, P<.001, efficient CPM is marked negative), such that less efficient CPM predicted efficacious use of duloxetine. Regression analysis (R(2)=0.673; P=.012) showed that drug efficacy was predicted only by CPM (P=.001) and not by pretreatment pain levels, neuropathy severity, depression level, or patient assessment of improvement by placebo. Furthermore, beyond its predictive value, the treatment-induced improvement in CPM was correlated with drug efficacy (r=-0.411, P=.033). However, this improvement occurred only in patients with less efficient CPM (16.8±16.0 to -1.1±15.5, P<.050). No predictive role was found for TS. In conclusion, the coupling of CPM and duloxetine efficacy highlights the importance of pain pathophysiology in the clinical decision-making process. This evaluative approach promotes personalized pain therapy. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical activity, pain responses to heat stimuli, and conditioned pain modulation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Amanda L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-08-01

    Postmenopausal women (PMW) are at high risk for disabling pain and physical inactivity. This study sought to enhance the understanding of relationships between physical activity (PA) and pain among PMW using heat pain sensitivity test and conditioned pain modulation test. We hypothesized that, compared with active women, (i) inactive women would report higher pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings; (ii) inactive women in disabling pain would report higher pain intensity and pain unpleasantness at high, but not low, stimulus intensities; and (iii) inactive women would have less modulation. Sixty-eight PMW rated the pain intensity and pain unpleasantness of hot stimuli presented to the thenar eminence of the hand. A subset of 31 women rated the pain intensity of a test stimulus (noxious heat) and a conditioning stimulus (cold water) as part of the conditioned pain modulation task. PA was assessed objectively with accelerometry. Mixed-model analysis of variance (2 × 4 × 2; PA × Temperature × Pain Status) showed that inactive women in disabling pain rated pain unpleasantness higher than active women in disabling pain (F3,192 = 3.526, ∂η = 0.052, P = 0.016). Significantly lower pain unpleasantness ratings were found at the highest stimulus intensity (49°C) only for active women in disabling pain compared with inactive women in disabling pain (t11 = 2.523, P = 0.028). The other hypotheses were not supported. PA is associated with a reduced sensitivity to the unpleasantness of painful high-intensity heat stimuli among women in disabling pain.

  1. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulls HW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hailey W Bulls,1 Emily L Freeman,1 Austen JB Anderson,2 Meredith T Robbins,3 Timothy J Ness,3 Burel R Goodin1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST, while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24 and women (n=24 each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional

  2. Role of microglia in neuropathic pain, postoperative pain, and morphine tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yeong-Ray; Tan, Ping-Heng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Management of chronic pain such as nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain associated with diabetic neuropathy, viral infection, and cancer is a real clinical challenge. Major surgeries such as breast and thoracic surgery, leg amputation, and coronary artery bypass surgery also lead to chronic pain in 10–50% of individuals after acute postoperative pain, in part due to surgery-induced nerve injury. Current treatments mainly focus on blocking neurotransmission in the pain pathway and have only resulted in limited success. Ironically, chronic opioid exposure may lead to paradoxical pain. Development of effective therapeutic strategies requires a better understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. An important progress in pain research points to important role of microglial cells in the development of chronic pain. Spinal cord microglia are strongly activated after nerve injury, surgical incision, and chronic opioid exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that under all these conditions the activated microglia not only exhibit increased expression of microglial markers CD11b and Iba1 but also display elevated phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. Inhibition of spinal cord p38 has been shown to attenuate neuropathic pain and postoperative pain, as well as morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. Activation of p38 in spinal microglia results in increased synthesis and release of the neurotrophin BDNF and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These microglia-released mediators can powerfully modulate spinal cord synaptic transmission, leading to increased excitability of dorsal horn neurons, i.e. central sensitization, in part via suppressing inhibitory synaptic transmission. We review the studies that support the pronociceptive role of microglia in conditions of neuropathic pain, post-surgical pain, and opioid tolerance. Some of these studies have been accomplished by four Taiwanese anesthesiologists who are also

  3. How Is Pain Managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Pain Management Pain is a very common symptom in patients ... of pain. Pain Assessment The first step in pain management is a thorough assessment. Your healthcare provider will ...

  4. Cerebral interactions of pain and reward and their relevance for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2012-06-29

    Pain and reward are opponent, interacting processes. Such interactions are enabled by neuroanatomical and neurochemical overlaps of brain systems that process pain and reward. Cerebral processing of hedonic ('liking') and motivational ('wanting') aspects of reward can be separated: the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids play an important role for the hedonic experience, and the ventral striatum and dopamine predominantly process motivation for reward. Supported by neuroimaging studies, we present here the hypothesis that the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids are responsible for pain modulation by hedonic experience, while the ventral striatum and dopamine mediate motivational effects on pain. A rewarding stimulus that appears to be particularly important in the context of pain is pain relief. Further, reward, including pain relief, leads to operant learning, which can affect pain sensitivity. Indirect evidence points at brain mechanisms that might underlie pain relief as a reward and related operant learning but studies are scarce. Investigating the cerebral systems underlying pain-reward interactions as well as related operant learning holds the potential of better understanding mechanisms that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain, as detailed in the last section of this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Pain Diagnoses and Burden of Pain Among Active Duty Soldiers, FY2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Sharon; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Ritter, Grant A; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2018-03-14

    Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations. Data are from the MHS Data Repository including outpatient MHS direct care encounters, claims for outpatient purchased care from civilian providers, and vital records, for all soldiers continuously enrolled in TRICARE and not deployed in FY 2012. Ten pain-related diagnostic categories were conceptually derived for this analysis and identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We report the FY 2012 prevalence at the soldier-level (N = 297,120) for each pain category as a primary diagnosis, as well as in any diagnostic position, and at the soldier-level for reported pain level, duration, and military duty limitations. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to analyses. Overall, 63% of soldiers had at least one pain diagnosis and 59% had a primary pain diagnosis during FY 2012. Back and neck pain (22%), non-traumatic joint disorders (28%), and other musculoskeletal pain (30%) were the most frequent categories for primary diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of soldiers had a primary pain diagnosis in more than one category, and 23% in four or more categories. Moderate or severe pain levels were reported at least once during the year by 55% of soldiers who had a primary pain diagnosis. In the subsample of soldiers with primary pain in the first quarter, duration and chronicity of pain diagnoses varied by pain category: the back and neck pain category was the most common for both persistent

  6. Brief pain inventory scale: An emerging assessment modality for orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an emotional experience almost experienced by almost every one of us. Since the pain can neither be seen nor measured, it poses a challenge to the patient as well as the clinician in understanding its complicated nature and the best way of managing it. There is no simple method of pain evaluation due to its subjective nature. However, comprehensive approaches for its evaluation exists, of which most common pain scale used are visual analog scale, Mc-Gills questionnaire, brief pain inventory (BPI to name a few. We have tried to highlight the various advantages of the BPI scale over the other pain scales and to emphasize an improved instrument, which can be used as a promising modality for the assessment of orofacial pain.

  7. [Pain and emotional dysregulation: Cellular memory due to pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Minoru; Watanabe, Moe; Hamada, Yusuke; Tamura, Hideki; Ikegami, Daigo; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Igarashi, Katsuhide

    2015-08-01

    Genetic factors are involved in determinants for the risk of psychiatric disorders, and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic pain stimuli and intense pain have effects at a cellular and/or gene expression level, and will eventually induce "cellular memory due to pain", which means that tissue damage, even if only transient, can elicit epigenetically abnormal transcription/translation and post-translational modification in related cells depending on the degree or kind of injury or associated conditions. Such cell memory/transformation due to pain can cause an abnormality in a fundamental intracellular response, such as a change in the three-dimensional structure of DNA, transcription, or translation. On the other hand, pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective components. Recent human brain imaging studies have examined differences in activity in the nucleus accumbens between controls and patients with chronic pain, and have revealed that the nucleus accumbens plays a role in predicting the value of a noxious stimulus and its offset, and in the consequent changes in the motivational state. In this review, we provide a very brief overview of a comprehensive understanding of chronic pain associated with emotional dysregulation due to transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modification and miRNA regulation.

  8. How well do clinical pain assessment tools reflect pain in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Cantarella, Anne; Franck, Linda; Meek, Judith; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2008-06-24

    Pain in infancy is poorly understood, and medical staff often have difficulty assessing whether an infant is in pain. Current pain assessment tools rely on behavioural and physiological measures, such as change in facial expression, which may not accurately reflect pain experience. Our ability to measure cortical pain responses in young infants gives us the first opportunity to evaluate pain assessment tools with respect to the sensory input and establish whether the resultant pain scores reflect cortical pain processing. Cortical haemodynamic activity was measured in infants, aged 25-43 wk postmenstrual, using near-infrared spectroscopy following a clinically required heel lance and compared to the magnitude of the premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score in the same infant to the same stimulus (n = 12, 33 test occasions). Overall, there was good correlation between the PIPP score and the level of cortical activity (regression coefficient = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] limits 0.32-1.11, p = 0.001; correlation coefficient = 0.57). Of the different PIPP components, facial expression correlated best with cortical activity (regression coefficient = 1.26, 95% CI limits 0.84-1.67, p free.

  9. Self-reported pain and disability outcomes from an endogenous model of muscular back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steven Z

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to develop an induced musculoskeletal pain model of acute low back pain and examine the relationship among pain, disability and fear in this model. Methods Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced in 52 healthy volunteers (23 women, 17 men; average age 22.4 years; average BMI 24.3 using fatiguing trunk extension exercise. Measures of pain intensity, unpleasantness, and location, and disability, were tracked for one week after exercise. Results Pain intensity ranged from 0 to 68 with 57.5% of participants reporting peak pain at 24 hours and 32.5% reporting this at 48 hours. The majority of participants reported pain in the low back with 33% also reporting pain in the legs. The ratio of unpleasantness to intensity indicated that the sensation was considered more unpleasant than intense. Statistical differences were noted in levels of reported disability between participants with and without leg pain. Pain intensity at 24 hours was correlated with pain unpleasantness, pain area and disability. Also, fear of pain was associated with pain intensity and unpleasantness. Disability was predicted by sex, presence of leg pain, and pain intensity; however, the largest amount of variance was explained by pain intensity (27% of a total 40%. The second model, predicting pain intensity only included fear of pain and explained less than 10% of the variance in pain intensity. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a significant association between pain and disability in this model in young adults. However, the model is most applicable to patients with lower levels of pain and disability. Future work should include older adults to improve the external validity of this model.

  10. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  11. Pain and pain mechanisms in patients with inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rifbjerg-Madsen, S; Christensen, A W; Christensen, R

    2017-01-01

    completed the PDQ (RA: 3,826, PsA: 1,180, SpA: 1,093). 52% of all patients and 63% of PDQ-completers had VAS pain score ≥ 30 mm. The distribution of the PDQ classification-groups (18) were; RA: 56%/24%/20%. PsA: 45%/ 27%/ 28%. SpA: 55% / 24%/ 21%. More patients with PsA had PDQ score >18....... The objectives were to quantify and characterize pain phenotypes (non-neuropathic vs. neuropathic features) among Danish arthritis patients using the PDQ, and to assess the association with on-going inflammation. METHODS: The PDQ was included onto the DANBIO touch screens at 22 departments of Rheumatology......28-CRP and VAS pain but not with indicators of peripheral inflammation (CRP and SJC). Thus, pain classification by PDQ may assist in mechanism-based pain treatment....

  12. Pain assessment in time to get pain treatment on time – patients’ perspective of time during pain assessment after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptain, Kirsten; Bregnballe, Vibeke; Dreyer, Pia

    their pain. Furthermore, patients experienced that the nurses kept an eye on them by frequently contact and by being available for questions about pain. Conclusion: Pain experiences changes rapidly and therefore it is important to assess pain in time. Accurate pain assessment is essential to achieve...

  13. Paediatric pain management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW. Introduction. Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of. Pain (IASP) as ... lasts for a short time, whilst chronic pain normally persists for a much longer ..... on a regular time schedule, i.e. 'by the clock', whereby the medicine is .... combination with a non-opioid (from the first step) for severe pain.

  14. Pain assessment according to the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain classification in patients with spinal cord injury referred to a multidisciplinary pain center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnig, S; Landmann, G; Stockinger, L; Opsommer, E

    2016-10-01

    This is a retrospective study. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of pain types in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain (ISCIP) classification. This study was conducted in a multidisciplinary pain center. Socio-demographic and clinical data were examined and ISCIP classification was applied. Sixty-six individuals (51±13 years) with SCI had pain, a lesion older than 5 years in 67% and a pain history older than 5 years in 54% of patients. According to the ISCIP classification, nociceptive pain was present in 58% (musculoskeletal pain) and 3% (visceral pain) of the patients. At-level, below-level neuropathic pain and other neuropathic pain were observed, respectively in 53, 42 and 5% of patients. Unknown pain type was found in 8% of patients. Patients with complete lesions showed significantly more frequent neuropathic pain (P=0.021) and more frequent at-level SCI pain (P=0.00) compared with those with incomplete lesions. Patients with paraplegia had more often at-level pain (P=0.00), whereas patients with tetraplegia reported more often below-level pain (P=0.00). Patients had severe pain (mean intensity: 8.2 (±1.6) on a 0 to 10 numerical scale) and showed high grades of pain chronicity. Mild to severe depression and anxiety were present, respectively in 53 and 56% of patients. The health-related quality of life was low. The use of the ISCIP classification in a clinical setting is mirroring the very complex pain situation in patients with SCI referred to a multidisciplinary pain center, and it might be an important step for adequate pain therapy.

  15. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  16. Shared Genetics of Temporomandibular Disorder Pain and Neck Pain: Results of a Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Corine M; Schouten, Maarten J; Ligthart, Lannie; van Houtem, Caroline Mhh; de Jongh, Ad; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2018-03-06

    (1) To examine the heritability of TMD pain and of neck pain; and (2) to estimate the potential overlap in genetic and environmental factors influencing TMD pain and neck pain. Data from 2,238 adult female twins who completed a survey on TMD pain and neck pain were analyzed. The total variance of TMD pain and neck pain was decomposed into variance attributable to additive genetic effects and nonshared environmental effects. Bivariate structural equation modeling was applied to estimate trait-specific and genetic effects shared between traits. The prevalence of TMD pain and neck pain was 8.6% and 46.8%, respectively, while 6.7% of the twins reported both TMD pain and neck pain. The phenotypic correlation between TMD pain and neck pain, based on a liability threshold model, was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34 to 0.51). The heritability for TMD was 0.35 (0.17 to 0.51), and for neck pain was 0.33 (0.23 to 0.43). The genetic correlation between TMD pain and neck pain was 0.64 (0.35 to 1.00), and the environmental correlation was 0.32 (0.14 to 0.48). This study shows that variation in TMD pain and neck pain can in part be attributed to genes. The comorbidity between them is partly explained by genes that influence both traits and partly by the same environmental factors.

  17. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    OpenAIRE

    Juhui Choe; Hyun-Wook Kim; Mustafa M. Farouk; Yuan H. Brad Kim

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25) were aged at ?1.5?C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk). The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed ...

  18. Qualitative Evaluation of Pediatric Pain Behavior, Quality, and Intensity Item Candidates and the PROMIS Pain Domain Framework in Children With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, C Jeffrey; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Farrell, Jennifer; Barnett, Kimberly; Goldschneider, Ken; Dampier, Carlton; Cunningham, Natoshia; Crosby, Lori; DeWitt, Esi Morgan

    2015-12-01

    As initial steps in a broader effort to develop and test pediatric pain behavior and pain quality item banks for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), we used qualitative interview and item review methods to 1) evaluate the overall conceptual scope and content validity of the PROMIS pain domain framework among children with chronic/recurrent pain conditions, and 2) develop item candidates for further psychometric testing. To elicit the experiential and conceptual scope of pain outcomes across a variety of pediatric recurrent/chronic pain conditions, we conducted 32 semi-structured individual and 2 focus-group interviews with children and adolescents (8-17 years), and 32 individual and 2 focus-group interviews with parents of children with pain. Interviews with pain experts (10) explored the operational limits of pain measurement in children. For item bank development, we identified existing items from measures in the literature, grouped them by concept, removed redundancies, and modified the remaining items to match PROMIS formatting. New items were written as needed and cognitive debriefing was completed with the children and their parents, resulting in 98 pain behavior (47 self, 51 proxy), 54 quality, and 4 intensity items for further testing. Qualitative content analyses suggest that reportable pain outcomes that matter to children with pain are captured within and consistent with the pain domain framework in PROMIS. PROMIS pediatric pain behavior, quality, and intensity items were developed based on a theoretical framework of pain that was evaluated by multiple stakeholders in the measurement of pediatric pain, including researchers, clinicians, and children with pain and their parents, and the appropriateness of the framework was verified. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental knee pain evoke spreading hyperalgesia and facilitated temporal summation of pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Henriksen, Marius; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the deep-tissue pressure pain sensitivity and temporal summation of pain within and around healthy knees exposed to experimental pain. DESIGN: The study was designed as a randomized crossover trial, with each subject tested on 1 day. SETTING: All tests were carried...... occasions: baseline, immediately after the injection, and when pain had vanished. Assessments sites were located in the peripatellar region, vastus lateralis, and tibialis anterior muscles. RESULTS: The experimental knee pain model demonstrated 1) hyperalgesia to pressure stimulation on the infrapatellar...... fat pad during experimental pain, and 2) facilitated temporal summation of pressure pain at the infrapatellar fat pad and knee-related muscles. CONCLUSION: The increased sensitivity and temporal summation found in this study were exclusive to deep -tissue with no contralateral decreased pain...

  20. A Child's Concept of Pain: An International Survey of Pediatric Pain Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Joshua W; Hush, Julia M; Hancock, Mark J; Moseley, G Lorimer; Butler, David S; Simons, Laura E; Pacey, Verity

    2018-01-15

    A child's 'concept of pain' refers to how they understand what pain actually is, what function pain serves, and what biological processes are thought to underpin it. We aimed to determine pediatric pain experts' opinions of: (1) the importance and usefulness of assessing a child's concept of pain in clinical and/or research settings; (2) the usefulness of the content of items within currently published adult-targeted resources for assessing a child's concept of pain; and (3) important domains of a child's concept of pain to assess. Forty-nine pediatric pain experts (response rate = 75.4%) completed an online survey. Descriptive statistics and frequency of responses were analyzed. Experts from all included disciplines reported that assessing a child's concept of pain is important and useful both clinically and in a research setting (>80% reported very or extremely useful for each item). Experts considered that the content of 13 items from currently published adult-targeted resources was useful, but the wording was too complex for children aged 8-12 years. Experts considered that all seven of the proposed domains of a child's concept of pain was important to assess. The findings can be used to inform the development of an assessment tool for a child's concept of pain.

  1. Delayed Diagnosis of Iatrogenic Bladder Perforation in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette S. Birs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic bladder injuries have been reported in the neonate during umbilical artery/vein catheterization, voiding cystourethrogram, urinary catheterizations, and overwhelming hypoxic conditions. Patients with iatrogenic bladder perforations can present with acute abdomen indicating urinary peritonitis, septic-uremic shock, or subtle symptoms like abdominal distension, pain, hematuria, uremia, electrolyte imbalances, and/or difficulty urinating. The following neonatal case report of perforated bladder includes a review of the signs, symptoms, diagnostic tools, and management of bladder injury in neonates.

  2. Unusual Spread of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Clivus with Cranial Nerve Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Okudo, Jerome; Anusim, Nwabundo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unusual presentation affecting elderly males with a smoking history. The incidence of RCC varies while the incidence of spread of RCC to the clivus is rare. The typicality of RCC presentation includes hematuria, flank pain, and a palpable flank mass; however, RCC can also present with clival metastasis. The unique path of the abducens nerve in the clivus makes it susceptible to damage in metastasis. We report a case of a 54-year-old African American female that ...

  3. Pain relief with lidocaine 5% patch in localized peripheral neuropathic pain in relation to pain phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgaard Demant, Dyveke; Lund, Karen; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    In neuropathic pain with irritable nociceptor phenotype, up-regulation of sodium channels on nociceptors is supposed to be an important pain mechanism that may be targeted by topical sodium channel blockade. This randomised, double-blind, phenotype-panel, cross-over study with 4-week treatment pe...... had an effect on peripheral neuropathic pain, and it may be most efficacious in patients with irritable nociceptor phenotype. The lack of significant phenotype differences may be caused by too low statistical power.......In neuropathic pain with irritable nociceptor phenotype, up-regulation of sodium channels on nociceptors is supposed to be an important pain mechanism that may be targeted by topical sodium channel blockade. This randomised, double-blind, phenotype-panel, cross-over study with 4-week treatment...... periods of lidocaine 5% patch and placebo was performed to search for phenotype differences in effect. The primary efficacy measure was the total pain intensity on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS), and the primary objective was to compare the effect of lidocaine in patients with and without...

  4. Screening for pain-persistence and pain-avoidance patterns in fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of patients regarding pain-related cognitive-behavioral mechanisms, such as pain-avoidance and pain-persistence patterns, has been proposed to underlie varying treatment outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). PURPOSE: To investigate the validity of a screening

  5. Pain, pain intensity and pain disability in high school students are differently associated with physical activity, screening hours and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anabela G; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Queirós, Alexandra; Neto, Maritza; Rocha, Nelson P

    2017-05-16

    Studies exploring the association between physical activity, screen time and sleep and pain usually focus on a limited number of painful body sites. Nevertheless, pain at different body sites is likely to be of different nature. Therefore, this study aims to explore and compare the association between time spent in self-reported physical activity, in screen based activities and sleeping and i) pain presence in the last 7-days for 9 different body sites; ii) pain intensity at 9 different body sites and iii) global disability. Nine hundred sixty nine students completed a questionnaire on pain, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen based time watching TV/DVD, playing, using mobile phones and computers and sleeping hours. Univariate and multivariate associations between pain presence, pain intensity and disability and physical activity, screen based time and sleeping hours were investigated. Pain presence: sleeping remained in the multivariable model for the neck, mid back, wrists, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.17 to 2.11); moderate physical activity remained in the multivariate model for the neck, shoulders, wrists, hips and ankles/feet (OR 1.06 to 1.08); vigorous physical activity remained in the multivariate model for mid back, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.05 to 1.09) and screen time remained in the multivariate model for the low back (OR = 2.34. Pain intensity: screen time and moderate physical activity remained in the multivariable model for pain intensity at the neck, mid back, low back, shoulder, knees and ankles/feet (Rp 2 0.02 to 0.04) and at the wrists (Rp 2  = 0.04), respectively. Disability showed no association with sleeping, screen time or physical activity. This study suggests both similarities and differences in the patterns of association between time spent in physical activity, sleeping and in screen based activities and pain presence at 8 different body sites. In addition, they also suggest that the factors associated

  6. A typology of pain coping strategies in pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynn S; Baber, Kari Freeman; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to identify clinically meaningful profiles of pain coping strategies used by youth with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Participants (n=699) were pediatric patients (ages 8-18 years) and their parents. Patients completed the Pain Response Inventory (PRI) and measures of somatic and depressive symptoms, disability, pain severity and pain efficacy, and perceived competence. Parents rated their children's pain severity and coping efficacy. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the 13 PRI subscales identified pain coping profiles in Sample 1 (n=311) that replicated in Sample 2 (n=388). Evidence was found of external validity and distinctiveness of the profiles. The findings support a typology of pain coping that reflects the quality of patients' pain mastery efforts and interpersonal relationships associated with pain coping. Results are discussed in relation to developmental processes, attachment styles, and treatment implications.

  7. Assay sensitivity of pain intensity versus pain relief in acute pain clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neil; Hunsinger, Matthew; Chang, Phoebe D; McDermott, Michael P; Chowdhry, Amit K; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    The magnitude of the effect size of an analgesic intervention can be influenced by several factors, including research design. A key design component is the choice of the primary endpoint. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the assay sensitivity of 2 efficacy paradigms: pain intensity (calculated using summed pain intensity difference [SPID]) and pain relief (calculated using total pain relief [TOTPAR]). A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify acute pain studies that calculated both SPIDs and TOTPARs within the same study. Studies were included in this review if they were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigations involving medications for postsurgical acute pain and if enough data were provided to calculate TOTPAR and SPID standardized effect sizes. Based on a meta-analysis of 45 studies, the mean standardized effect size for TOTPAR (1.13) was .11 higher than that for SPID (1.02; P = .01). Mixed-effects meta-regression analyses found no significant associations between the TOTPAR - SPID difference in standardized effect size and trial design characteristics. Results from this review suggest that for acute pain studies, utilizing TOTPAR to assess pain relief may be more sensitive to treatment effects than utilizing SPID to assess pain intensity. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that TOTPAR may be more sensitive to treatment effects than SPIDs are in analgesic trials examining acute pain. We found that standardized effect sizes were higher for TOTPAR compared to SPIDs. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain severity and the economic burden of neuropathic pain in the United States: BEAT Neuropathic Pain Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Schaefer,1 Alesia Sadosky,2 Rachael Mann,3 Shoshana Daniel,4 Bruce Parsons,2 Michael Tuchman,5 Alan Anschel,6 Brett R Stacey,7 Srinivas Nalamachu,8 Edward Nieshoff9 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 3Covance Market Access Services Inc., San Diego, CA, 4Covance Market Access Services Inc., Conshohocken, PA, 5Palm Beach Neurological Center, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, 6Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 7Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 8International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 9Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: As with many chronic conditions, patients with neuropathic pain (NeP are high consumers of health care resources. However, limited literature exists on the economic burden of NeP, including its impact on productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize health care resource utilization, productivity, and costs associated with NeP by pain severity level in US adults.Methods: Subjects (n=624 with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-related peripheral NeP, post-trauma/post-surgical NeP, spinal cord injury with NeP, chronic low back pain with NeP, and small fiber neuropathy were recruited during routine office visits to US community-based general practitioners and specialists. Clinicians captured clinical characteristics, NeP-related medications, and health care resource utilization based on 6-month retrospective medical chart review. Subjects completed questionnaires on demographics, pain/symptoms, costs, and productivity. Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scores were used to classify subjects by mild, moderate, or severe pain. Annualized NeP-related costs (adjusted for covariates were estimated, and differences across pain severity groups were evaluated.Results: In total, 624 subjects were recruited (mean age 55.5±13.7 years; 55.4% male

  9. Melanocortins and Neuropathic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrinten, Dorien Henriëtte

    2003-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (pain initiated by a lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system) is characterised by symptoms such as allodynia (pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain) and hyperalgesia (an increased response to a stimulus that is normally painful). It constitutes a major

  10. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm extension movements were associated with predictable and unpredictable electrocutaneous pain or its absence. During a subsequent test phase non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli with a high or low intensity were presented during movement execution. We used hierarchical drift diffusion modeling to examine the influence of expecting pain on the perceptual decision-making process underlying intensity perception of non-painful sensations. In the first experiment (n=36), the pain stimulus was never presented during the test phase after conditioning. In the second experiment (n=39), partial reinforcement was adopted to prevent extinction of pain expectations. In both experiments, movements that were associated with (un)predictable pain led to higher pain-expectancy, self-reported fear, unpleasantness and arousal, as compared to movements that were never paired with pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .119 - .557; all p-values threat of the pain US remained present - we found that the expectation of pain affected decision-making. Compared to the no pain condition, an a priori decision-making bias towards the high intensity decision threshold was found with the strongest bias during unpredictable pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .469 - .504; all p-values affects inferential processes for subsequent painful but also for non-painful bodily stimuli, with unpredictability moderating these effects, and only when the threat of pain remains present due to partial reinforcement.

  11. Pain Anxiety and Its Association With Pain Congruence Trajectories During the Cold Pressor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shannon M; Cano, Annmarie; Goubert, Liesbet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Wurm, Lee H; Corley, Angelia M

    2017-04-01

    Incongruence of pain severity ratings among people experiencing pain and their observers has been linked to psychological distress. Previous studies have measured pain rating congruence through static self-report, involving a single rating of pain; however, this method does not capture changes in ratings over time. The present study examined the extent to which partners were congruent on multiple ratings of a participants' pain severity during the cold pressor task. Furthermore, 2 components of pain anxiety-pain catastrophizing and perceived threat-were examined as predictors of pain congruence. Undergraduate couples in a romantic relationship (N = 127 dyads) participated in this study. Both partners completed measures of pain catastrophizing and perceived threat before randomization to their cold pressor participant or observer roles. Participants and observers rated the participant's pain in writing several times over the course of the task. On average, observers rated participants' pain as less severe than participants' rated their own pain. In addition, congruence between partners increased over time because of observers' ratings becoming more similar to participant's ratings. Finally, pain catastrophizing and perceived threat independently and jointly influenced the degree to which partners similarly rated the participant's pain. This article presents a novel application of the cold pressor task to show that pain rating congruence among romantic partners changes over time. These findings indicate that pain congruence is not static and is subject to pain anxiety in both partners. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A nurse-initiated pain protocol in the ED improves pain treatment in patients with acute musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, Jorien; Berben, Sivera A.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Gaakeer, Menno I.; Eenennaam, Fred L.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2016-01-01

    While acute musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint, its management is often neglected. An implementation of a nurse-initiated pain protocol based on the algorithm of a Dutch pain management guideline in the emergency department might improve this. A pre–post intervention study was performed as

  13. A nurse-initiated pain protocol in the ED improves pain treatment in patients with acute musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.G.; Berben, S.A.A.; IJzerman, M.J.; Gaakeer, M.I.; Eenennaam, F.L. van; Vugt, A.B. van; Doggen, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    While acute musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint, its management is often neglected. An implementation of a nurse-initiated pain protocol based on the algorithm of a Dutch pain management guideline in the emergency department might improve this. A pre-post intervention study was performed as

  14. Pain in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Mafrica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a homeostatic mechanism that intervenes to protect the organism from harmful stimuli that could damage its integrity. It is made up of two components: the sensory-discriminative component, which identifies the provenance and characteristics of the type of pain; and the affective-motivational component, on which emotional reflexes, following the painful sensation, depend.There is a system for pain control at an encephalic and spinal level, principally made up of the periaqueductal grey matter, the periventricular area, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the pain-inhibition complex situated in the posterior horns of the spinal cord. Through the activation of these pain-control systems, the nervous system suppresses the afference of pain signals. Endogenous opioids represent another analgesic system.In the course of various studies on pain transmission in Down patients, the reduced tolerance of pain and the incapacity to give a qualitative and quantitative description emerged in a powerful way. All of these aspects cause difficulty in evaluating pain. This is linked to several learning difficulties. However, it cannot be excluded that in these anomalies of pain perception, both the anatomical and the neurotransmitter alteration, typical of this syndrome, may hold a certain importance.This fact may have important clinical repercussions that could affect the choice of therapeutic and rehabilitative schemes for treatment of pathologies in which pain is the dominant symptom, such as postoperative pain. It could influence research on analgesics that are more suitable for these patients, the evaluation of the depth of analgesia during surgical operation, and ultimately, absence of obvious pain manifestations. In conclusion, alterations of the central nervous system, neurotransmitters, pain transmission, and all related problems should be considered in the management of pain in patients with Down's syndrome, especially by algologists and

  15. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contextual influences on pain communication in couples with and without a partner with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; MacNab, Ying C

    2017-10-01

    This is an experimental study of pain communication in couples. Despite evidence that chronic pain in one partner impacts both members of the dyad, dyadic influences on pain communication have not been sufficiently examined and are typically studied based on retrospective reports. Our goal was to directly study contextual influences (ie, presence of chronic pain, gender, relationship quality, and pain catastrophizing) on self-reported and nonverbal (ie, facial expressions) pain responses. Couples with (n = 66) and without (n = 65) an individual with chronic pain (ICP) completed relationship and pain catastrophizing questionnaires. Subsequently, one partner underwent a pain task (pain target, PT), while the other partner observed (pain observer, PO). In couples with an ICP, the ICP was assigned to be the PT. Pain intensity and PO perceived pain intensity ratings were recorded at multiple intervals. Facial expressions were video recorded throughout the pain task. Pain-related facial expression was quantified using the Facial Action Coding System. The most consistent predictor of either partner's pain-related facial expression was the pain-related facial expression of the other partner. Pain targets provided higher pain ratings than POs and female PTs reported and showed more pain, regardless of chronic pain status. Gender and the interaction between gender and relationship satisfaction were predictors of pain-related facial expression among PTs, but not POs. None of the examined variables predicted self-reported pain. Results suggest that contextual variables influence pain communication in couples, with distinct influences for PTs and POs. Moreover, self-report and nonverbal responses are not displayed in a parallel manner.

  17. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation among the Pain-Fearful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Jackson, Todd; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of pain (FOP) can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men) and less (7 women, 6 men) pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain perception regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC), thalamus, superior frontal gyrus) and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex) during anticipation of "painful" stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole), though group differences were not apparent in most so-called "pain matrix" regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation.

  18. Patients with Concomitant Chronic Neck Pain and Myofascial Pain in Masticatory Muscles Have More Widespread Pain and Distal Hyperalgesia than Patients with Only Chronic Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltrán-Alacreu, Héctor; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2017-03-01

    Insufficient evidence exists to compare widespread pain (WP), pain sensibility, and psychological factors that occur in patients presenting with chronic neck pain (CNP) or a combination of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and other complaints. The present study compared the pain sensibility and psychological factors of subjects with CNP with those with TMD + CNP. Cross-sectional study. Local community. A nonprobabilistic convenience sample of 86 persons with CNP or TMD was recruited into three groups: CNP, TMD with myofascial pain in masticatory muscles with cocomitant CNP (TMD + CNP), and asymptomatic control groups consisted of 27, 29, and 30 participants, respectively. Participants underwent a clinical examination to evaluate WP with computerized assessment based on the pain drawing, pressure pain thresholds (PPT), and psychological factors, which were evaluated using the pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Statistically significant differences were observed between participants with CNP and TMD + CNP for WP (t = -2.80, P  < 0.01, d = -1.06). Post hoc analyses only revealed significant differences between TMD + CNP participants and asymptomatic controls for PPT at extratrigeminal areas. Pearson correlation analyses showed a moderate positive association between symptomatic groups within the WP and STAI ( P  < 0.05) and a moderate negative association between PCS and PPT ( P  < 0.05) at the right tibialis muscle. TMD + CNP participants had more areas of pain and also showed widespread pain hyperalgesia. Both groups of participants had psychological factors positively associated with STAI and WP; further, PCS and the PPT at the extratrigeminal region were negatively associated with each other in both groups, except for the left tibialis in the TMD + CNP group. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative testing of a patient's basal pain perception before surgery has the potential to be of clinical value if it can accurately predict the magnitude of pain and requirement of analgesics after surgery. This review includes 14 studies that have investigated the correlation between...... preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...

  20. Postamputation pain: studies on mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolajsen, Lone

    2012-10-01

    Amputation is followed by both painful and non-painful phantom phenomena in a large number of amputees. Non-painful phantom sensations rarely pose any clinical problem, but 60-80% of all amputees also experience painful sensations (i.e. phantom pain) located to the missing limb. The severity of phantom pain usually decreases with time, but severe pain persists in 5-10% of patients. Pain in the residual limb (i.e. stump pain) is another consequence of amputation. Both stump and phantom pain can be very difficult to treat. Treatment guidelines used for other neuropathic pain conditions are probably the best approximation, especially for the treatment of stump pain. The aim of the present doctoral thesis was to explore some of the mechanisms underlying pain after amputation. Ten studies were carried out (I-X). My PhD thesis from 1998 dealt with pain before the amputation and showed that preamputation pain increases the risk of phantom pain after amputation (I). A perioperative epidural blockade, however, did not reduce the incidence of pain or abnormal sensory phenomena after amputation (II, III). The importance of sensitization before amputation for the subsequent development of pain is supported by study IV, in which pressure pain thresholds obtained at the limb before amputation were inversely related to stump and phantom pain after 1 week. Afferent input from the periphery is likely to contribute to postamputation pain as sodium channels were upregulated in human neuromas (VI), although neuroma removal did not always alleviate phantom pain (V). Sensitization of neurons in the spinal cord also seems to be involved in pain after amputation as phantom pain was reduced by ketamine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist. Another NMDA-receptor antagonist, memantine, and gabapentin, a drug working by binding to the δ2α-subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, had no effect on phantom pain (VII-IX). Supraspinal factors are also important for pain after amputation as

  1. Pain acceptance and opiate use disorders in addiction treatment patients with comorbid pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lewei Allison; Bohnert, Amy S B; Price, Amanda M; Jannausch, Mary; Bonar, Erin E; Ilgen, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Studies from pain treatment settings indicate that poor acceptance of pain may be an important and modifiable risk factor for higher severity of opioid use. However, the degree to which pain acceptance relates to opioid use severity in the addiction treatment population is unknown. In this study of addiction treatment patients with co-morbid pain, we examined correlates of severity of opiate (heroin and prescription opioid) use, with a particular focus on the role of pain acceptance. Patients in residential addiction treatment with comorbid pain (N=501) were stratified into low, moderate and high severity of opiate use. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared across opiate severity categories. 72% (N=360) of the participants had symptoms that were consistent with an opiate use disorder. Younger age, Caucasian race, female gender, cocaine use and lower pain acceptance were associated with higher severity of opiate use, whereas pain intensity was not. Controlling for demographic and other risk factors, such as substance use and pain intensity, higher pain acceptance was associated with lower odds of severe prescription opioid (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.68 for a one SD increase in pain acceptance) and heroin use (AOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75 for a one SD increase in pain acceptance). Problematic opiate use is common in addictions treatment patients with chronic pain. Lower pain acceptance is related to greater opiate use severity, and may be an important modifiable target for interventions to successfully treat both pain and opiate use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Documentation of pain care processes does not accurately reflect pain management delivered in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Erin E; Bair, Matthew J; Carey, Timothy S; Weinberger, Morris

    2010-03-01

    Researchers and quality improvement advocates sometimes use review of chart-documented pain care processes to assess the quality of pain management. Studies have found that primary care providers frequently fail to document pain assessment and management. To assess documentation of pain care processes in an academic primary care clinic and evaluate the validity of this documentation as a measure of pain care delivered. Prospective observational study. 237 adult patients at a university-affiliated internal medicine clinic who reported any pain in the last week. Immediately after a visit, we asked patients to report the pain treatment they received. Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) to assess pain severity at baseline and 1 month later. We extracted documentation of pain care processes from the medical record and used kappa statistics to assess agreement between documentation and patient report of pain treatment. Using multivariable linear regression, we modeled whether documented or patient-reported pain care predicted change in pain at 1 month. Participants' mean age was 53.7 years, 66% were female, and 74% had chronic pain. Physicians documented pain assessment for 83% of visits. Patients reported receiving pain treatment more often (67%) than was documented by physicians (54%). Agreement between documentation and patient report was moderate for receiving a new pain medication (k = 0.50) and slight for receiving pain management advice (k = 0.13). In multivariable models, documentation of new pain treatment was not associated with change in pain (p = 0.134). In contrast, patient-reported receipt of new pain treatment predicted pain improvement (p = 0.005). Chart documentation underestimated pain care delivered, compared with patient report. Documented pain care processes had no relationship with pain outcomes at 1 month, but patient report of receiving care predicted clinically significant improvement. Chart review measures may not accurately

  3. The ACTTION–APS–AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I.; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B.; Hurley, Robert W.; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D.; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A.; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C.; Weisman, Steven J.; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Terman, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Objective. With the increasing societal awareness of the prevalence and impact of acute pain, there is a need to develop an acute pain classification system that both reflects contemporary mechanistic insights and helps guide future research and treatment. Existing classifications of acute pain conditions are limiting, with a predominant focus on the sensory experience (e.g., pain intensity) and pharmacologic consumption. Consequently, there is a need to more broadly characterize and classify the multidimensional experience of acute pain. Setting. Consensus report following expert panel involving the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). Methods. As a complement to a taxonomy recently developed for chronic pain, the ACTTION public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, the APS, and the AAPM convened a consensus meeting of experts to develop an acute pain taxonomy using prevailing evidence. Key issues pertaining to the distinct nature of acute pain are presented followed by the agreed-upon taxonomy. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Future efforts will consist of working groups utilizing this taxonomy to develop diagnostic criteria for a comprehensive set of acute pain conditions. Perspective. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) is a multidimensional acute pain classification system designed to classify acute pain along the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Conclusions. Significant numbers of patients still suffer from significant acute pain

  4. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L; Tighe, Patrick J; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B; Hurley, Robert W; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C; Weisman, Steven J; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B; Dworkin, Robert H; Terman, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing societal awareness of the prevalence and impact of acute pain, there is a need to develop an acute pain classification system that both reflects contemporary mechanistic insights and helps guide future research and treatment. Existing classifications of acute pain conditions are limiting, with a predominant focus on the sensory experience (eg, pain intensity) and pharmacologic consumption. Consequently, there is a need to more broadly characterize and classify the multidimensional experience of acute pain. Consensus report following expert panel involving the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). As a complement to a taxonomy recently developed for chronic pain, the ACTTION public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, the APS, and the AAPM convened a consensus meeting of experts to develop an acute pain taxonomy using prevailing evidence. Key issues pertaining to the distinct nature of acute pain are presented followed by the agreed-upon taxonomy. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Future efforts will consist of working groups utilizing this taxonomy to develop diagnostic criteria for a comprehensive set of acute pain conditions. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) is a multidimensional acute pain classification system designed to classify acute pain along the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Significant numbers of patients still suffer from significant acute pain, despite the advent of modern multimodal analgesic strategies

  5. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhui Choe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25 were aged at −1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk. The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity, water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C. Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Results Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05 made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05 and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009 of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003 and lipid oxidation (p<0.05 of model sausages. Conclusion This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  6. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Juhui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Farouk, Mustafa M; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Lamb loins ( M. longissimus lumborum , n = 25) were aged at -1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk). The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity), water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C). Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05) made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05) and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009) of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003) and lipid oxidation (p<0.05) of model sausages. This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  7. Chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A positron emission tomography study of wind-up pain in chronic postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Lonsdale, Markus Georg; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2011-01-01

    -induced wind-up pain in neuropathic pain patients. We therefore used positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the cerebral response pattern of mechanical wind-up pain in a homogenous group of 10 neuropathic pain patients with long-standing postherniotomy pain in the groin area. Patients were scanned...

  9. Differences in quality characteristics of normal, PSE and DFD pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P G; Bolink, A H; Merkus, G S

    1988-01-01

    Differences in water-holding capacity, colour and tenderness/toughness were studied in 21 pork loins belonging to three quality categories, i.e. dark firm dry (DFD), normal and pale soft exudative (PSE). The division into the three groups was based upon the ultimate pH-values of the loins ( 6·4). The PSE loins were characterized by a poor waterholding capacity, higher cooking loss and paler colour in contrast to the DFD category. The normal loins took an intermediate position. Neither sarcomere length, determined on fresh muscle tissue, nor Armour tenderometer values showed significant differences between the various quality categories. This was in contrast to the Warner-Bratzler (W-B) shear force values, determined on cooked loins, which had the lowest values in the DFD category. A strong relationship between the W-B values and the cooking losses was found. It was concluded that neither sarcomere length nor Armour tenderometer measurements were able to predict the shear force values of cooked pork loins. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  11. Words that describe chronic musculoskeletal pain: implications for assessing pain quality across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saurab; Pathak, Anupa; Jensen, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    People from different cultures who speak different languages may experience pain differently. This possible variability has important implications for evaluating the validity of pain quality measures that are directly translated into different languages without cultural adaptations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of language and culture on the validity of pain quality measures by comparing the words that individuals with chronic pain from Nepal use to describe their pain with those used by patients from the USA. A total of 101 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Nepal were asked to describe their pain. The rates of the different pain descriptor domains and phrases used by the Nepali sample were then compared to the published rates of descriptors used by patients from the USA. The content validity of commonly used measures for assessing pain quality was then evaluated. While there was some similarity between patients from Nepal and the USA in how they describe pain, there were also important differences, especially in how pain quality was described. For example, many patients from Nepal used metaphors to describe their pain. Also, the patients from Nepal often used a category of pain descriptor - which describes a physical state - not used by patients from the USA. Only the original McGill Pain Questionnaire was found to have content validity for assessing pain quality in patients from Nepal, although other existing pain quality measures could be adapted to be content valid by adding one or two additional descriptors, depending on the measure in question. The findings indicate that direct translations of measures that are developed using samples of patients from one country or culture are not necessarily content valid for use in other countries or cultures; some adaptations may be required in order for such measures to be most useful in new language and culture.

  12. [Validation of the Spanish version of Parent's Postoperative Pain Management pain scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullan, A M; Perelló, M; Jerez, C; Gómez, E; Planas, M J; Serrallonga, N

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of postoperative pain is a fundamental aspect of post-surgical care. When surgery is performed as an outpatient, the parents are mainly responsible for the assessment of pain, but they may not always correctly evaluate their children's pain. This makes it necessary to have tools that help them to assess postoperative pain reliably. The Parent's Postoperative Pain Measurement (PPPM) is a behavioral measurement tool of post-operative pain developed to help parents to assess their children's post-operative pain. The purpose of this work was to translate this scale into Spanish, and validate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the scale. Participants were 111 children aged 2 to 12 years, who had undergone surgery, and one of their parents. After the operation, the children's level of pain was assessed, and the parents completed the PPPM scale in Spanish. The PPPM items in Spanish showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha between 0.784 and 0.900) and the scale scores were closely related to the global pain assessment (Spearman's rho correlation between 0.626 and 0.431). The score on the scale decreased between the day of the operation and the next day, and discriminated well between children undergoing surgery qualified as low/moderate pain and high pain. We conclude that the Spanish version of the PPPM scale evaluated in this study, has good psychometric properties to assess postoperative pain by parents at home. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical conditions and body pain in patients presenting orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana Lúcia; Runho, Gabriel Henrique Farto; Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli de; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2012-05-01

    To verify the frequency of self-reported medical conditions and pain areas in orofacial pain patients, comparing them with patients from the routine dental care. Data were collected from archives of the Orofacial Pain Clinic (Group A, n=319) and of the routine dental care clinics (Group B, n=84) at Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, São Paulo, in Brazil. All individuals answered a standardized clinical questionnaire and completed a body map indicating their pain areas. The Mann-Whitney's test demonstrated that Group A presented a higher mean number of medical reports than Group B (p=0.004). In both groups, Pearson's correlation test showed that the highest frequencies of medical conditions were positively correlated to highest frequencies of painful areas (0.478, p=0.001 and 0.246, p=0.000, respectively). Group A tended to report more medical conditions and there was a positive correlation between the number of medical conditions and the one of pain areas for both groups.

  14. [Occupational low back pain in nursing workers: massage versus pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Talita Pavarini; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of massage for decreasing occupational low back pain in workers of a Nursing team in an Emergency Room. A randomized controlled trial, using a socio-demographic/morbidity questionnaire and a Pain Numeric Scale. Forty-five subjects were randomly allocated for intervention (G1 - Massage by acupressure), placebo group (G2 - application of Garlium Arseneid Laser 904 nm turned off) and control (G3 - no intervention). The main triggering factor, as well as the worsening of pain, was the patient manipulation, both with a prevalence of 34.9%. The main treatment for low back pain before this research was the use of medication, with a prevalence of 44.2%. In accordance with a variance analysis, only G1 presented a significant statistical difference, with a better result after 12 sessions. Massage presented an enormous effect (d = 4.59), corresponding to 86% of reduction in the pain level. Massage was effective to decrease occupational low back pain of those Nursing workers.

  15. Meeting Proceedings: Recommendations for Improved Acute Pain Services: Canadian Collaborative Acute Pain Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Collaborative Acute Pain Initiative, established in 2002, is a voluntary, multidisciplinary consortium of acute pain health professionals from across Canada whose goal is to improve acute pain management through discussion and consensus. The group met in January 2002 to define strategic areas related to the treatment of acute pain. The areas identified were: the definition of pain; the epidemiology of pain; the concept of an 'ideal' acute pain management service; education; therapeutic options; symptom management; and research and safety. In November 2002, a second meeting was held to develop objectives and recommendations for the management of acute pain based on the defined areas. The outcome of these discussions is summarized in this paper.

  16. Personalized pain medicine: the clinical value of psychophysical assessment of pain modulation profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David

    2013-01-01

    Experimental pain stimuli can be used to simulate patients' pain experience. We review recent developments in psychophysical pain testing, focusing on the application of the dynamic tests-conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation (TS). Typically, patients with clinical pain of various types express either less efficient CPM or enhanced TS, or both. These tests can be used in prediction of incidence of acquiring pain and of its intensity, as well as in assisting the correct choice of analgesic agents for individual patients. This can help to shorten the commonly occurring long and frustrating process of adjusting analgesic agents to the individual patients. We propose that evaluating pain modulation can serve as a step forward in individualizing pain medicine.

  17. Painful Memories: Reliability of Pain Intensity Recall at 3 Months in Senior Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Daoust

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Validity of pain recall is questioned in research. Objective. To evaluate the reliability of pain intensity recall for seniors in an emergency department (ED. Methods. This study was part of a prospective multicenter project for seniors (≥65 years old treated in an ED for minor traumatic injury. Pain intensity (0–10 numerical rating scale was evaluated at the initial ED visit, at one week (baseline, and 3 months. At three months, patients were asked to recall the pain intensity they had at baseline. Results. 482 patients were interviewed (mean age 76.6 years, SD ± 7.3 and 72.8% were female. Intraclass correlation coefficient between pain at baseline and its recall was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14–0.33. Senior patients tended to overestimate their pain intensity by a mean of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9–1.5 units. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the variance of baseline pain recall at 3 months was explained by pain at ED visit (11%, pain at 3 months (7%, and pain at baseline (2%. Conclusion. The accuracy of pain intensity recall after three months is poor in seniors and seems to be influenced by the pain experienced at the time of injury.

  18. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation Among the Pain-Fearful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of pain (FOP can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men and less (7 women, 6 men pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC, thalamus, superior frontal gyrus and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex during anticipation of painful stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole, though group differences were not apparent in most so-called pain matrix regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation.

  19. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  20. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Rogério Adas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and Beck Depression Scale (BDS were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0% had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10. There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0% patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%. Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%. Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5% patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P Conclusions The presence of MPS is not an exception after stroke and may present in association with CPSP

  1. Pain patterns during adolescence can be grouped into four pain classes with distinct profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Sinead; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    L (assessed by Euro-QoL 5D-3L). Latent class analysis was used to classify spatial pain patterns, based on the pain sites. The analysis included 2953 adolescents. RESULTS: Four classes were identified as follows: (1) little or no pain (63% of adolescents), (2) majority lower extremity pain (10%), (3) multi......-site bodily pain (22%) and (4) head and stomach pain (3%). The lower extremity multi-site pain group reported highest weekly sports participation (p ....001). Males were more likely to belong to the little or no pain class, whereas females were more likely to belong to the multi-site bodily pain class. CONCLUSIONS: Latent class analysis identified distinct classes of pain patterns in adolescents, characterized by sex, differences in HRQoL and sports...

  2. Pain volatility and prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis: a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Stamatiou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of the electromagnetic lithotripter in the treatment of pediatric lithiasis to that of the earlier electrohydraulic model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of children with lithiasis aged between 10 and 180 months who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. In the first group (26 children, ESWL was performed by using the electrohydraulic MPL 9000X Dornier lithotripter between 1994 and 2003 while in the second group (19 children the electromagnetic EMSE 220 F-XP Dornier lithotripter was used from April 2003 to May 2006. RESULTS: In the first group, 21/26 children (80.7% were stone free at first ESWL session. Colic pain resolved by administration of an oral analgesic in 6 (23%, brief hematuria (< 24 h resolved with increased fluid intake in 5 (19.2%, while slightly elevated body temperature (< 38°C occurred in 4 (15.3%. Four children (15.3% failed to respond to treatment and were treated with ureteroscopy. In the second group 18/19 children were completely stone free at first ESWL session (94.7%. Complications were infrequent and of minor importance: colic pain treated with oral analgesic occurred in 1 (5.26%, brief hematuria (< 24 h, resolved with increased fluid intake in 4 (21% and slightly elevated body temperature (< 38°C monitored for 48 hours occurred in 6 (31.5%. Statistical analysis showed that electromagnetic lithotripter is more efficacious and safer than the earlier electrohydraulic model. CONCLUSIONS: Technological development not only has increased efficacy and safety of lithotripter devices in treating pediatric lithiasis, but it also provided less painful lithotripsy by eliminating the need for general anesthesia.

  4. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  5. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Neonatal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  7. Measuring pain phenomena after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Pain Interference and Pain Behavior assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew L; Kisala, Pamela A; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Tulsky, David S

    2018-05-01

    To develop modern patient-reported outcome measures that assess pain interference and pain behavior after spinal cord injury (SCI). Grounded-theory based qualitative item development; large-scale item calibration field-testing; confirmatory factor analyses; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric. Five SCI Model Systems centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. N/A. Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Pain Interference item bank, SCI-QOL Pain Interference short form, and SCI-QOL Pain Behavior scale. Seven hundred fifty-seven individuals with traumatic SCI completed 58 items addressing various aspects of pain. Items were then separated by whether they assessed pain interference or pain behavior, and poorly functioning items were removed. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that each set of items was unidimensional, and item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the items. Ultimately, 7 items (4 from PROMIS) comprised the Pain Behavior scale and 25 items (18 from PROMIS) comprised the Pain Interference item bank. Ten of these 25 items were selected to form the Pain Interference short form. The SCI-QOL Pain Interference item bank and the SCI-QOL Pain Behavior scale demonstrated robust psychometric properties. The Pain Interference item bank is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications, and scores are transformed to the PROMIS metric.

  8. Chronic pain: One year prevalence and associated characteristics (the HUNT pain study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Vatten, Lars; Kaasa, Stein

    2017-12-29

    Background The reported prevalence of chronic pain ranges from 11% to 64%, and although consistently high, the calculated economic burden estimates also vary widely between studies. There is no standard way of classifying chronic pain. We have repeated measurements of pain in a longitudinal population study to improve validity ofthe case ascertainment. In this paper, associations between chronic pain and demographic characteristics, self reported health and functioning, work Incapacity and health care use were investigated in a sample from the general Norwegian population. Methods A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 Study) was invited to report pain every three months during a 12 month period. Chronic pain was defined as moderate pain or more (on the SF-8 verbal rating scale) in at least three out of five consecutive measurements. Self reported health and functioning was measured by seven of the eight subscales on the SF-8 health survey (bodily pain was excluded). Health care utilisation during the past 12 months was measured by self report, and included seeing a general practitioner, seeing a medical specialist and seeing other therapists. The survey data was combined with information on income, education, disability pension awards and unemployment by Statistics Norway, which provided data from the National Education database (NUDB) and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV). Results The total prevalence of chronic pain was 36% (95% CI34-38) among women and 25% (95% CI 22-26) among men. The prevalence increased with age, was higher among people with high BMI, and in people with low income and low educational level. Smoking was also associated with a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Subjects in the chronic pain group had a self-reported health and functioning in the range of 1-2.5 standard deviations below that of those without chronic pain. Among the chronic pain group 52% (95% CI 49-55), of participants

  9. The interactions between pain, pain-related fear of movement and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, L; Lund, H L; Holtermann, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Employees with physically heavy work have an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders leading to reduced work ability. AIMS: To investigate if a high level of musculoskeletal pain or pain-related fear of movement was associated with low productivity among employees with physically....... CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that musculoskeletal pain increases the risk of reduced work ability significantly, musculoskeletal pain and pain-related fear of movement were associated with low productivity only among employees with good work ability....... heavy work and differing work ability levels. METHODS: The study was conducted at a Danish production site and employees with physically heavy work in the production line were included in the study. Work ability was assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI), pain-related fear of movement with the Tampa...

  10. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  11. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school......-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11-13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain...... reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from...

  12. Pain in cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladosievicova, B.

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common problem among cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain. Overall prevalence of all types pain is about 40% in some cancer survivors with previous specific diagnosis. Until recently, impact of pain in cancer survivors have largely been unexamined. This complication can be predicted by type of malignancy, its therapy, time elapsed from completion of anticancer treatment and effectivity of previous pain interventions. As the purpose of this article is to update readers on more recent data about prevalence of pain in cancer survivors and common treatment-related chronic pain etiologies in patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase, previously known information about acute pain, pain in terminally ill patients. Some new studies in certain subpopulations of cancer survivors will be explored in more detail. (author)

  13. Personalized Pain Medicine: The Clinical Value of Psychophysical Assessment of Pain Modulation Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Granovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental pain stimuli can be used to simulate patients’ pain experience. We review recent developments in psychophysical pain testing, focusing on the application of the dynamic tests—conditioned pain modulation (CPM and temporal summation (TS. Typically, patients with clinical pain of various types express either less efficient CPM or enhanced TS, or both. These tests can be used in prediction of incidence of acquiring pain and of its intensity, as well as in assisting the correct choice of analgesic agents for individual patients. This can help to shorten the commonly occurring long and frustrating process of adjusting analgesic agents to the individual patients. We propose that evaluating pain modulation can serve as a step forward in individualizing pain medicine.

  14. Canadian Orofacial Pain Team workshop report on the Global Year Against Orofacial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Gilles J; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    The year 2013–2014 has been designated the Global Year Against Orofacial Pain by the International Association for the Study of Pain. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary Canadian and international group of clinical, research and knowledge-transfer experts attended a workshop in Montreal, Quebec. The workshop had two aims: to identify new pathways for innovative diagnosis and management of chronic orofacial pain states; and to identify opportunities for further collaborative orofacial pain research and education in Canada. Three topics related to chronic orofacial pain were explored: biomarkers and pain signatures for chronic orofacial pain; misuse of analgesic and opioid pain medications for managing chronic orofacial pain; and complementary alternative medicine, topical agents and the role of stress in chronic orofacial pain. It was determined that further research is needed to: identify biomarkers of chronic orofacial post-traumatic neuropathic pain, with a focus on psychosocial, physiological and chemical-genetic factors; validate the short-and long-term safety (ie, no harm to health, and avoidance of misuse and addiction) of opioid use for two distinct conditions (acute and chronic orofacial pain, respectively); and promote the use of topical medications as an alternative treatment in dentistry, and further document the benefits and safety of complementary and alternative medicine, including stress management, in dentistry. It was proposed that burning mouth syndrome, a painful condition that is not uncommon and affects mainly postmenopausal women, should receive particular attention. PMID:25522352

  15. Canadian Orofacial Pain Team workshop report on the global year against orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Gilles J; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    The year 2013-2014 has been designated the Global Year Against Orofacial Pain by the International Association for the Study of Pain. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary Canadian and international group of clinical, research and knowledge-transfer experts attended a workshop in Montreal, Quebec. The workshop had two aims: to identify new pathways for innovative diagnosis and management of chronic orofacial pain states; and to identify opportunities for further collaborative orofacial pain research and education in Canada. Three topics related to chronic orofacial pain were explored: biomarkers and pain signatures for chronic orofacial pain; misuse of analgesic and opioid pain medications for managing chronic orofacial pain; and complementary alternative medicine, topical agents and the role of stress in chronic orofacial pain. It was determined that further research is needed to: identify biomarkers of chronic orofacial post-traumatic neuropathic pain, with a focus on psychosocial, physiological and chemical-genetic factors; validate the short- and long-term safety (i.e., no harm to health, and avoidance of misuse and addiction) of opioid use for two distinct conditions (acute and chronic orofacial pain, respectively); and promote the use of topical medications as an alternative treatment in dentistry, and further document the benefits and safety of complementary and alternative medicine, including stress management, in dentistry. It was proposed that burning mouth syndrome, a painful condition that is not uncommon and affects mainly postmenopausal women, should receive particular attention.

  16. Endogenous pain modulation in chronic orofacial pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moana-Filho, Estephan J; Herrero Babiloni, Alberto; Theis-Mahon, Nicole R

    2018-06-15

    Abnormal endogenous pain modulation was suggested as a potential mechanism for chronic pain, ie, increased pain facilitation and/or impaired pain inhibition underlying symptoms manifestation. Endogenous pain modulation function can be tested using psychophysical methods such as temporal summation of pain (TSP) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), which assess pain facilitation and inhibition, respectively. Several studies have investigated endogenous pain modulation function in patients with nonparoxysmal orofacial pain (OFP) and reported mixed results. This study aimed to provide, through a qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the available literature, overall estimates for TSP/CPM responses in patients with OFP relative to controls. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane databases were searched, and references were screened independently by 2 raters. Twenty-six studies were included for qualitative review, and 22 studies were included for meta-analysis. Traditional meta-analysis and robust variance estimation were used to synthesize overall estimates for standardized mean difference. The overall standardized estimate for TSP was 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.49; P = 0.002), with moderate between-study heterogeneity (Q [df = 17] = 41.8, P = 0.001; I = 70.2%). Conditioned pain modulation's estimated overall effect size was large but above the significance threshold (estimate = 1.36; 95% confidence interval: -0.09 to 2.81; P = 0.066), with very large heterogeneity (Q [df = 8] = 108.3, P pain facilitation and trend for pain inhibition impairment in patients with nonparoxysmal OFP.

  17. Body Pain Reporting in Tricare Eligible Beneficiaries with Orofacial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    provider performed a standard orofacial pain clinical examination. This included at a minimum a cranial nerve exam, shoulder and cervical range of...Attachment 2 Date The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: Body pain reporting in...Tricare eligible beneficiaries with orofacial pain

  18. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  19. Shared Genetics of Temporomandibular Disorder Pain and Neck Pain : Results of a Twin Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M; Schouten, Maarten J; Ligthart, Lannie; van Houtem, Caroline Mhh; de Jongh, Ad; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: (1) To examine the heritability of TMD pain and of neck pain; and (2) to estimate the potential overlap in genetic and environmental factors influencing TMD pain and neck pain. METHODS: Data from 2,238 adult female twins who completed a survey on TMD pain and neck pain were analyzed. The total

  20. Language and the pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dianne; Williams, Marie; Butler, David

    2009-03-01

    People in persistent pain have been reported to pay increased attention to specific words or descriptors of pain. The amount of attention paid to pain or cues for pain (such as pain descriptors), has been shown to be a major factor in the modulation of persistent pain. This relationship suggests the possibility that language may have a role both in understanding and managing the persistent pain experience. The aim of this paper is to describe current models of neuromatrices for pain and language, consider the role of attention in persistent pain states and highlight discrepancies, in previous studies based on the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), of the role of attention on pain descriptors. The existence of a pain neuromatrix originally proposed by Melzack (1990) has been supported by emerging technologies. Similar technologies have recently allowed identification of multiple areas of involvement for the processing of auditory input and the construction of language. As with the construction of pain, this neuromatrix for speech and language may intersect with neural systems for broader cognitive functions such as attention, memory and emotion. A systematic search was undertaken to identify experimental or review studies, which specifically investigated the role of attention on pain descriptors (as cues for pain) in persistent pain patients. A total of 99 articles were retrieved from six databases, with 66 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. After duplicated articles were eliminated, the remaining 41 articles were reviewed in order to support a link between persistent pain, pain descriptors and attention. This review revealed a diverse range of specific pain descriptors, the majority of which were derived from the MPQ. Increased attention to pain descriptors was consistently reported to be associated with emotional state as well as being a significant factor in maintaining persistent pain. However, attempts to investigate the attentional bias of specific pain

  1. Neuropathic pain in the orofacial region: The role of pain history. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieb, W; Moreau, N; Chemla, I; Descroix, V; Boucher, Y

    2017-06-01

    Orofacial neuropathic pain is often difficult to treat, mostly because of still unclear underlying mechanisms. The occurrence of such neuropathic pain varies depending on different factors, of which preexisting preoperative pain seems to be of high importance. The aim of this study was thus to test the hypothesis that prior history of pain could indeed be considered a risk factor for the development of orofacial neuropathic pain in the same region. The study was performed in the dental department of the Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière (GHPS) in Paris, France. We investigated the presence of prior inflammatory pain before development of orofacial neuropathic pain in 56 patients. For each patient file, the following items were collected: age, gender; medical history; diagnosis; description of the pain (at time of consultation); presence or absence of prior dental treatment; date and type of dental treatment received. 41 patients (73%) of orofacial neuropathic pain patients had a history of pain compatible with an inflammatory condition; 4% (n=2) did not report any prior pain and 23% (n=13) could not remember. Among the patients with documented history of pain prior to neuropathy, 88% (n=36) received surgical treatment; 61%, (n=25) endodontic treatment and 22%, (n=9) restorative treatment. All eventually received endodontic treatment or tooth extraction. These dental treatments are compatible with the hypothesis of prior inflammatory pain in these patients. These results support the hypothesis that prior inflammatory pain could favor the development of orofacial neuropathic pain. Prevention and treatment of inflammatory trigeminal pain may therefore play a key role in preventing future neuropathic pain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain trajectory and exercise-induced pain flares during 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise in individuals with knee and hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, L F; Roos, E M; Bøgesvang, S J; Thorlund, J B

    2016-04-01

    Patients considering or engaged in exercise as treatment may expect or experience transient increases in joint pain, causing fear of exercise and influencing compliance. This study investigated the pain trajectory during an 8-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) program together with acute exercise-induced pain flares in persons with knee or hip pain. Individuals above 35 years self-reporting persistent knee or hip pain for the past 3 months were offered 8 weeks of supervised NEMEX, performed in groups twice weekly. The program consisted of 11 exercises focusing on joint stability and neuromuscular control. Participants self-reported joint pain on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) at baseline and 8-weeks follow-up. NRS pain ratings were also collected before and immediately after every attended exercise session. Joint pain was reduced from baseline (NRS 3.6; 95% CI 3.2-4.1) to 8-weeks follow-up (2.6; 95% CI 2.1-3.1), (P neuromuscular exercise. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidimensional Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pain: Introduction to the ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H; Bruehl, Stephen; Fillingim, Roger B; Loeser, John D; Terman, Gregory W; Turk, Dennis C

    2016-09-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to develop diagnostic criteria for chronic pain. The published evidence of the reliability and validity of existing diagnostic criteria is limited, and these criteria have typically not been used in clinical practice. The availability of a widely accepted, consistently applied, and evidence-based taxonomy of diagnostic criteria would improve the quality of clinical research on chronic pain and would be of great value in clinical practice. To address the need for evidence-based diagnostic criteria for the major chronic pain conditions, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have collaborated on the development of the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT). AAPT provides a multidimensional framework that is applied systematically in the development of diagnostic criteria. This article (1) describes the background and rationale for AAPT; (2) presents the AAPT taxonomy and the specific conditions for which diagnostic criteria have been developed (to be published separately); (3) briefly reviews the 5 dimensions that constitute the AAPT multidimensional framework and describes the 7 accompanying articles that discuss these dimensions and other important issues involving AAPT; and (4) provides an overview of next steps, specifically, the general processes by which the initial set of diagnostic criteria (for which the evidence base has been drawn from the literature, systematic reviews, and secondary analyses of existing databases) will undergo additional assessments of reliability and validity. To address the need for evidence-based diagnostic criteria for the major chronic pain conditions, the AAPT provides a multidimensional framework that is applied systematically in the development of diagnostic criteria. The long-term objective of AAPT is to advance

  4. Pain Treatment in Arthritis-Related Pain: Beyond NSAIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, Mart A F J; Pergolizzi Jr., Joseph V.; Mellinghoff, Hans-Ulrich; Merchante, Ignacio Morón; Nalamachu, Srinivas; O'Brien, Joanne; Perrot, Serge; Raffa, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Managing pain from chronic conditions, such as, but not limited to, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, requires the clinician to balance the need for effective analgesia against safety risks associated with analgesic agents. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pain is incompletely

  5. Knee pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The location of knee pain can help identify the problem. Pain on the front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or ... synovial fluid) that forms behind the knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in ...

  6. Prevalent pain and pain level among torture survivors: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorthe Reff, Olsen; Montgomery, Edith; Carlsson, J

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate change over nine months and over two years, as concerns the prevalence and level of pain in the head, back and feet, among previously tortured refugees settled in Denmark, and to compare associations between torture methods and the prevalence of pain at baseline and at follow...... pattern was found when examining the level of pain as indicated by Visual Analogue Scales. Pain in the feet at follow-up was associated with previous exposure to beating against the feet. Pain in the back at baseline and pain in the head at follow-up were associated with suffocation. CONCLUSION: More than...... ten years after the torture took place, survivors of torture continue to suffer from pain associated with the type of torture they had been subjected to. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programmes....

  7. Orofacial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Forssell, Heli; Grinde, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Pain of the oral mucosa is a common accompanying symptom of various oral mucosal lesions caused by local and systemic diseases. Pain of the oral mucosa is usually associated with a known cause of tissue damage, e.g. mucosal ulcer or erosion, and it generally responds to adequate treatment...... and dissolves after healing. Chronic pain, on the other hand, persists months and years after apparent tissue healing, and attempts to alleviate pain are challenging. Neuropathic pain occurs due to damage neurogenic structures in the peripheral and/or the central nervous system. It may occur in the absence...... of any obvious noxious stimuli, and in the oral mucosal, the pain is often described as tingling and burning. In the oral cavity, burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is presently considered to have neuropathic background. It is important for dental practitioners to have a clear understanding of the various...

  8. Occupational low back pain in nursing workers: massage versus pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pavarini Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of massage for decreasing occupational low back pain in workers of a Nursing team in an Emergency Room. Method: A randomized controlled trial, using a socio-demographic/morbidity questionnaire and a Pain Numeric Scale. Forty-five subjects were randomly allocated for intervention (G1 – Massage by acupressure, placebo group (G2 – application of Garlium Arseneid Laser 904nm turned off and control (G3 – no intervention. Results: The main triggering factor, as well as the worsening of pain, was the patient manipulation, both with a prevalence of 34.9%. The main treatment for low back pain before this research was the use of medication, with a prevalence of 44.2%. In accordance with a variance analysis, only G1 presented a significant statistical difference, with a better result after 12 sessions. Massage presented an enormous effect (d = 4.59, corresponding to 86% of reduction in the pain level. Conclusion: Massage was effective to decrease occupational low back pain of those Nursing workers.

  9. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  10. Resolution of pain after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, James C; Pan, Peter; Smiley, Richard M; Lavand'homme, Patricia; Landau, Ruth; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain after surgery occurs in 10-40% of individuals, including 5-20% of women after cesarean delivery in previous reports. Pain and depression 2 months after childbirth are independently associated with more severe acute post-delivery pain. Here we examine other predictors of pain at 2 months and determine the incidence of pain at 6 and 12 months after childbirth. Following Institutional Review Board approval, 1228 women were interviewed within 36 h of delivery. Of these, 937 (76%) were successfully contacted by telephone at 2 months, and, if they had pain, at 6 and 12 months after delivery. The primary outcome measure was presence of pain which began at the time of delivery. We also generated a model of severity of acute post-delivery pain and 2 month pain and depression. Pain which began at the time of delivery was remarkably rare 6 and 12 months later (1.8% and 0.3% [upper 95% confidence limit, 1.2%], respectively). Past history of pain and degree of tissue damage at delivery accounted for 7.0% and 16.7%, respectively, of one aspect in the variability in acute post-delivery pain. Neither of these factors was associated with incidence of pain 2 months later. Using a definition of new onset pain from delivery, we show a remarkably low incidence of pain 1 yr after childbirth, including those with surgical delivery. Additionally, degree of tissue trauma and history of chronic pain, risk factors for pain 2 months after other surgery, were unimportant to pain 2 months after cesarean or vaginal delivery.

  11. Neuropathic pain in leprosy: symptom profile characterization and comparison with neuropathic pain of other etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicher, Irina; Stump, Patrick Raymond Nicolas Andre Ghislain; Harnik, Simone Bega; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves; Baccarelli, Rosemari; Marciano, Lucia H S C; Ura, Somei; Virmond, Marcos C L; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies reported a high prevalence of neuropathic pain in leprosy, being especially present in "pharmacologically cured" patients. The presence of neuropathic pain in leprosy poses a supplementary burden in patient's quality of life, daily activities, and mood. The aim of this study was to assess whether neuropathic pain in leprosy has similar symptom profile as neuropathic pain of other etiologies and to retrospectively assess the efficacy of neuropathic pain medications regularly prescribed to leprosy. Leprosy and nonleprosy patients had their neuropathic pain characterized by the neuropathic pain symptom inventory (NPSI, ranges from 0 to 100, with 100 being the maximal neuropathic pain intensity) in a first visit. In a second visit, leprosy patients who had significant pain and received pharmacological treatment in the first evaluation were reassessed (NPSI) and had their pain profile and treatment response further characterized, including information on drugs prescribed for neuropathic pain and their respective pain relief. The pain characteristics based on NPSI did not significantly differ between leprosy and nonleprosy neuropathic pain patients in visit 1 after correction for multiple analyses, and cluster analyses confirmed these findings (ie, no discrimination between leprosy and nonleprosy groups; Pearson χ2 = 0.072, P = 0.788). The assessment of pain relief response and the drugs taken by each patient, linear regression analysis showed that amitriptyline, when effective, had the highest percentage of analgesic relief. Neuropathic pain in leprosy is as heterogeneous as neuropathic pain of other etiologies, further supporting the concept that neuropathic pain is a transetiological entity. Neuropathic pain in leprosy may respond to drugs usually used to control pain of neuropathic profile in general, and amitriptiline may constitute a potential candidate drug for future formal clinical trials aimed at controlling neuropathic pain in leprosy.

  12. Relationship of pain coping strategies and pain specific beliefs to pain experience in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels; Zachariae, R.

    2005-01-01

    compared using t-tests for independent samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the direct associations between each individual coping and belief scale, and the pain measure. RESULTS: Only the CHAQ and the cognitive belief composite factor score made statistically significant...... subscale of harm (mean +/- SD 2.7 +/- 0.6 and 1.8 +/- 0.7, respectively). Significant correlations were obtained between the pain measure and the pain-coping subscale of catastrophizing, the pain belief subscales of disability, harm, solicitude (inverse), control, and medical cure. CONCLUSION...

  13. The Impact of Pain on Different Aspects of Life Among Older People With Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investe the impact of pain on older people with chronic pain. Methods & Materials: Participants were 585 individuals (n=77 aged 60 years andover, n=508 aged Lessthan 60 years old with chronic pain in their leg, back, hands, neck and shoulders. The main assessment measure was the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI. Results: The two groups showed significant differences in three scales of important dimentions of pain experience. The old patients experienced more sever pain which effected their life, family supports and dependency. There were significant differents in three scales of evaluation and report of routin activities in the two groups. Conclusion: The old patients with chronic pain experienced more sever pain. The more sever pain, the more negative impact of pain in their life, requirement family support and dependency. Also, in the old patients with chronic pain group, the effect of chronic pain was more on outdoor activities, social and general activities than the group of usual patients with chronic pain. So, we should have more attention to general and social activities for providing care among older people with chrcnic pain than the other goups with chronic pain.

  14. Nutraceuticals and osteoarthritis pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela; Leong, Daniel J; Cardoso, Luis; Sun, Hui B

    2018-02-24

    Arthritis is a chronic disease of joints. It is highly prevalent, particularly in the elderly, and is commonly associated with pain that interferes with quality of life. Because of its chronic nature, pharmacological approaches to pain relief and joint repair must be safe for long term use, a quality many current therapies lack. Nutraceuticals refer to compounds or materials that can function as nutrition and exert a potential therapeutic effect, including the relief of pain, such as pain related to arthritis, of which osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form. Of interest, nutraceuticals have recently been shown to have potential in relieving OA pain in human clinical trials. Emerging evidence indicates nutraceuticals may represent promising alternatives for the relief of OA pain. In this paper, we will overview OA pain and the use of nutraceuticals in OA pain management, focusing on those that have been evaluated by clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the biologic and pharmacologic actions underlying the nutraceutical effects on pain relief based on the potential active ingredients identified from traditional nutraceuticals in OA pain management and their potential for drug development. The review concludes by sharing our viewpoints that future studies should prioritize elucidating the mechanisms of action of nutraceuticals in OA and developing nutraceuticals that not only relieve OA pain, but also mitigate OA pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative pain response to heat stimulation in total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict postopera......It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict...... and logistic regressions analyses were carried out including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety, depression, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as independent predictor for postoperative pain. 100 patients...... by the linear and logistic regression analyses, where only anxiety, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-Squares;0.05-0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinical relevant predictors for postoperative...

  16. Neuropathic pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operative difference is that neuropathic pain represents a delayed, ongoing response to damage that is no longer acute ... Postsurgical pain (including post- mastectomy and phantom limb pain). Spinal cord injury pain ... Management of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain tends to exhibit a relatively poor response.

  17. Physical Therapy in the Treatment of Central Pain Mechanisms for Female Sexual Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyken, Carolyn; Hilton, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of female sexual pain requires an interdisciplinary approach. Physical therapists trained in pelvic health conditions are well positioned to be active members of an interdisciplinary team addressing the assessment and treatment of female sexual pain. Changes within physical therapy practice in the last ten years have resulted in significant utilization of pelvic floor muscle relaxation and manual therapy techniques to address a variety of pelvic pain conditions, including female sexual pain. However, sexual pain is a complex issue giving credence to the necessity of addressing all of the drivers of the pain experience- biological, psychological and social. This review aims to reconcile current pain science with a plan for integrating a biopsychosocial approach into the evaluation and subsequent treatment for female sexual pain for physical therapists. A literature review of the important components of skilled physical therapy interventions is presented including the physical examination, pain biology education, cognitive behavioral influences in treatment design, motivational interviewing as an adjunct to empathetic practice, and the integration of non-threatening movement and mindfulness into treatment. A single case study is used to demonstrate the biopsychosocial framework utilized in this approach. Appropriate measures for assessing psychosocial factors are readily available and inform a reasoned approach for physical therapy design that addresses both peripheral and central pain mechanisms. Decades of research support the integration of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of complex pain, including female sexual pain. It is reasonable for physical therapists to utilize evidence based strategies such as CBT, pain biology education, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), yoga and imagery based exercises to address the biopsychosocial components of female sexual pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine

  18. A Preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study of Pain-Related Fear: Implications for Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Cameron L; Wright, Casey D; Chernus, Jonathan M; McNeil, Daniel W; Feingold, Eleanor; Crout, Richard J; Neiswanger, Katherine; Weyant, Robert J; Shaffer, John R; Marazita, Mary L

    2017-01-01

    Acute and chronic orofacial pain can significantly impact overall health and functioning. Associations between fear of pain and the experience of orofacial pain are well-documented, and environmental, behavioral, and cognitive components of fear of pain have been elucidated. Little is known, however, regarding the specific genes contributing to fear of pain. A genome-wide association study (GWAS; N = 990) was performed to identify plausible genes that may predispose individuals to various levels of fear of pain. The total score and three subscales (fear of minor, severe, and medical/dental pain) of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-9 (FPQ-9) were modeled in a variance components modeling framework to test for genetic association with 8.5 M genetic variants across the genome, while adjusting for sex, age, education, and income. Three genetic loci were significantly associated with fear of minor pain (8q24.13, 8p21.2, and 6q26; p pain total score and each of the FPQ-9 subscales. Multiple genes were identified as possible candidates contributing to fear of pain. The findings may have implications for understanding and treating chronic orofacial pain.

  19. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  20. Pain and Pain Management Among University Students: Online Survey and Web-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Tang, Angel; Budnick, Andrea; Ng, Shamay Sheung Mei; Yeung, Suey Shuk Yu

    2017-05-01

    Pain is common among university students. Unrelieved pain has adverse impacts on their quality of life. In this study, a pain management Web site was developed to distribute an online survey and provide Web-based pain education to university students. Participants were recruited from eight universities in Hong Kong using snowball sampling. The online survey included 37 items examining pain situations, pain management strategies, knowledge about self-medication, and demographic data of the participants. A total of 387 students participated and over 90 percent of them reported pain in the past 6 months. Around one-third of participants did not take any action to manage their pain. Pharmacological method was the most common strategy for students to relieve pain (37.2 percent). The use of over-the-counter (OTC) drug for pain relief was high (n = 214). However, OTC drug knowledge score was significantly higher among health-related group than nonhealth-related group (p education and completed the evaluation on its usefulness. Nonhealth-related students reported significantly higher scores of self-perceived usefulness for the online education than the health-related students (p online education program in the future.

  1. Multidisciplinary pain management programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Arnold, Bernhard; Pfingsten, Michael; Nagel, Bernd; Lutz, Johannes; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Ulrike Kaiser,1 Bernhard Arnold,2 Michael Pfingsten,3 Bernd Nagel,4 Johannes Lutz,5 Rainer Sabatowski1,61Comprehensive Pain Center, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, 2Department of Pain Management, Klinikum Dachau, Dachau, 3Pain Clinic, University Medicine, University of Göttingen, 4Day Care Unit, DRK Pain Center, Mainz, 5Interdisciplinary Pain Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University ...

  2. The painful shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The painful shoulder syndrome is very common. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis may be difficult. Shoulder pain may be caused by local processes or systemic diseases or can be referred. Periarthritis humeroscapularis (frozen shoulder) is the most common cause of painful shoulder syndrome. Biomechanical factors concerning the rotator cuff are involved in the etiopathogenesis of these pain syndromes. The therapy of frozen shoulder includes physical treatment, antirheumatic drugs, or X-ray treatment. Surgical measures may become necessary. In the course of rheumatoid arthritis the shoulder may be involved. Milwaukee-shoulder-syndrome has been described recently in crystal deposit diseases. Shoulder pain may be referred by mechanical irritations of nerve roots in the course of degenerative lesions of the cervical spine and also in the course of internal diseases of the heart, the lungs, or the gastrointestinal tract. In cases of shoulder pain without pathological data from arthrological, radiological or laboratory studies, one should always consider localized fibromyalgia in the shoulder-neck-region. The precise diagnosis of shoulder pain is an important prerequisite for treatment, the success of which should not be judged as pessimistic as it has been commonly done in the past. (orig.) [de

  3. Avicenna's concept of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Tashani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Sina (Latin name – Avicenna, 980–1037 is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  4. Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder-type pain and comorbid pains in a national US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, Octavia; Adams, Sally H; Gansky, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    To compare prevalences of self-reported comorbid headache, neck, back, and joint pains in respondents with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD)-type pain in the 2000-2005 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to analyze these self-reported pains by gender and age for Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites (Caucasians), Hispanics, and NH Blacks (African Americans). Data from the 2000-2005 NHIS included information on gender, age, race, ethnicity, education, different common types of pain (specifically TMJMD-type, severe headache/migraine, neck, and low back pains), changes in health status, and health care utilization. Estimates and test statistics (ie, Pearson correlations, regressions, and logistic models) were conducted using SAS survey analysis and SUDAAN software that take into account the complex sample design. A total of 189,977 people (52% female and 48% males, 73% NH Whites, 12% Hispanic, 11% NH Blacks, and 4% "Other") were included. A total of 4.6% reported TMJMD-type pain, and only 0.77% overall reported it without any comorbid headache/migraine, neck, or low back pains; also 59% of the TMJMD-type pain (n = 8,964) reported ⋝ two comorbid pains. Females reported more comorbid pain than males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, P neck pain, 64% low back pain, and 62% joint pain. Differences in gender and race by age patterns were detected. For females, headache/migraine pain with TMJMD-type pain peaked around age 40 and decreased thereafter regardless of race/ethnicity. Neck pain continued to increase up to about age 60, with a higher prevalence for Hispanic women at younger ages, and more pronounced in males, being the highest in the non-Whites. Low back pain was higher in Black and Hispanic females across the age span, and higher among non-White males after age 60. Joint pain demonstrated similar patterns by race/ethnicity, with higher rates for Black females, and increased with age regardless of gender. TMJMD-type pain was most often associated with

  5. First Dutch Consensus of Pain Quality Indicators for Pain Treatment Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, N. de; Grotel, M. van; Patijn, J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Kleef, M. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a general consensus about the need to define and improve the quality of pain treatment facilities. Although guidelines and recommendations to improve the quality of pain practice management have been launched, provision of appropriate pain treatment is inconsistent and the

  6. Optimism Moderates the Influence of Pain Catastrophizing on Shoulder Pain Outcome: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Simon, Corey B; Lentz, Trevor A; Gay, Charles W; Mackie, Lauren N; George, Steven Z

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. Background An abundance of evidence has highlighted the influence of pain catastrophizing and fear avoidance on clinical outcomes. Less is known about the interaction of positive psychological resources with these pain-associated distress factors. Objective To assess whether optimism moderates the influence of pain catastrophizing and fear avoidance on 3-month clinical outcomes in patients with shoulder pain. Methods Data from 63 individuals with shoulder pain (mean ± SD age, 38.8 ± 14.9 years; 30 female) were examined. Demographic, psychological, and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline. Validated measures were used to assess optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), fear avoidance (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity subscale), shoulder pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory), and shoulder function (Pennsylvania Shoulder Score function subscale). Shoulder pain and function were reassessed at 3 months. Regression models assessed the influence of (1) pain catastrophizing and optimism and (2) fear avoidance and optimism. The final multivariable models controlled for factors of age, sex, education, and baseline scores, and included 3-month pain intensity and function as separate dependent variables. Results Shoulder pain (mean difference, -1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.1, -1.2) and function (mean difference, 2.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 4.4) improved over 3 months. In multivariable analyses, there was an interaction between pain catastrophizing and optimism (β = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.35) for predicting 3-month shoulder function (F = 16.8, R 2 = 0.69, Poptimism lessened the influence of pain catastrophizing on function. There was no evidence of significant moderation of fear-avoidance beliefs for 3-month shoulder pain (P = .090) or function (P = .092). Conclusion Optimism decreased the negative influence of pain

  7. 21. Phantom pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.P.; Vanduynhoven, E.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.; Pope, J.E.; Mekhail, N.

    2011-01-01

    Phantom pain is pain caused by elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers after amputation or deafferentation. The reported incidence of phantom limb pain after trauma, injury or peripheral vascular diseases is 60% to 80%. Over half the

  8. Chest Pain: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...

  9. Multiple Nonspecific Sites of Joint Pain Outside the Knees Develop in Persons With Knee Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, David T; Niu, Jingbo; Quinn, Emily K; Neogi, Tuhina; Lewis, Cara L; Lewis, Cora E; Frey Law, Laura; McCulloch, Chuck; Nevitt, Michael; LaValley, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Many persons with knee pain have joint pain outside the knee, but despite the impact and high frequency of this pain, its distribution and causes have not been studied. We undertook this study to test the hypothesis of those studying gait abnormalities who have suggested that knee pain causes pain in adjacent joints but that pain adaptation strategies are highly individualized. We studied persons ages 50-79 years with or at high risk of knee osteoarthritis who were recruited from 2 community-based cohorts, the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study and the Osteoarthritis Initiative, and we followed them up for 5-7 years. We excluded those with knee pain at baseline and compared those who had developed knee pain at the first follow-up examination (the index visit) with those who had not. We examined pain on most days at joint regions outside the knee in examinations after the index visit. Logistic regression analyses examined the risk of joint-specific pain adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and symptoms of depression, and we performed sensitivity analyses excluding those with widespread pain. In the combined cohorts, 693 persons had knee pain at the index visit and 2,793 did not. A total of 79.6% of those with bilateral knee pain and 63.8% of those with unilateral knee pain had pain during follow-up in a joint region outside the knee, compared with 49.9% of those without knee pain. There was an increased risk of pain at most extremity joint sites, without a predilection for specific sites. Results were unchanged when those with widespread pain were excluded. Persons with chronic knee pain are at increased risk of pain in multiple joints in no specific pattern. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Understanding the role of culture in pain: Māori practitioner perspectives of pain descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Jane E; Fennell, Joyce A

    2011-01-21

    There is growing interest in the role of cultural diversity within healthcare settings yet minority ethnic groups are underrepresented in the healthcare literature, including the literature on pain. To better assess and treat pain in different cultures the perspectives and experiences of that culture must be taken into consideration and therefore the present study was undertaken to better understand Māori perspectives of pain. Māori healthcare providers and kaumātua (tribal leaders/elders) completed questionnaires relating to the experience of pain and were asked to provide feedback regarding the suitability of words and phrases typically used to describe symptoms of pain and pain-related disability. Participants were also asked to provide words, or phrases (in te reo Māori or English) representing characteristics of pain which had not been provided but would be useful in the assessment of pain in a Māori population. All of the pain descriptors, and 92% of the phrases regarding the experience of pain, provided were endorsed by the majority of participants demonstrating that, as in many cultures, Māori perceive pain as a multidimensional experience impacting them on physiological, psychological, and social dimensions and that the terms and phrases of measures commonly used to assess pain appropriately capture their pain experiences. The implications of these findings are that established measures can be used when assessing pain in Māori. However, it is beneficial to confirm that the descriptors used in those measures accurately capture the experiences being measured.

  11. Is temporomandibular pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders part of a more widespread pain syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Corine; Hofman, Nico; Mes, Carola; Lousberg, Richel; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder is a controversial issue that may be influenced by the widespread pain character and psychologic distress frequently observed in patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain, widespread pain, and psychologic distress in persons with chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain, using a controlled, single blind study design. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group was compared with 2 control groups: a chronic neck pain group and a no neck pain group. From 65 persons, a standardized oral history was taken, a physical examination of the neck and the masticatory system was performed, widespread pain was investigated by tender point palpation, and psychologic distress was measured with a questionnaire (SCL-90). Because the recognition of temporomandibular disorder pain and neck pain remains a matter of debate, 3 well-defined classification systems were used: one based on the oral history, a second on a combination of oral history and pain on active movements and palpation, and a third one based on a combination of oral history and function tests. Irrespective of the classification system used, the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group more often suffered from temporomandibular disorder pain (0.001neck pain group. Moreover, patients with whiplash-associated disorder showed more psychologic distress (0.000disorder suggests that the higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in these patients is part of a more widespread chronic pain disorder.

  12. Quality of life in major depressive disorder: the role of pain and pain catastrophizing cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Tso, Kwok-Chu; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Li, Wei-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Pain symptoms are frequent complaints in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although it is known that pain intensity and pain-related cognition predict quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic pain, limited studies have examined their roles in MDD. The study aimed to determine whether pain and pain catastrophizing were independent predictors of QOL in MDD after accounting for the impact of anxiety and depression. This is a prospective, naturalistic follow-up study. Ninety-one Chinese patients were enrolled during an acute episode of MDD, 82 of them were reassessed 3 months later using the same assessment on pain, anxiety, depression, and QOL. Pain intensity was evaluated using a verbal rating scale and a visual analog scale. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Pain-related cognition was assessed at baseline with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. There was significant improvement in pain, anxiety, depression, and QOL from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that pain intensity was significantly associated with QOL at baseline and 3 months. Pain complaint was more important than anxiety and depressive symptoms in predicting changes in both physical and psychosocial domains of QOL. After controlling for the severity of pain, anxiety, and depression, Pain Catastrophizing Scale score was independently associated with QOL in MDD. The study supports the specific role of pain and pain-related cognition in predicting QOL in depressed patients. Further studies targeting pain-related cognition for improving the outcome of MDD are necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lumbopelvic Core Stabilization Exercise and Pain Modulation Among Individuals with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungmali, Aatit; Joseph, Leonard H; Sitilertpisan, Patraporn; Pirunsan, Ubon; Uthaikhup, Sureeporn

    2017-11-01

    Lumbopelvic stabilization training (LPST) may provide therapeutic benefits on pain modulation in chronic nonspecific low back pain conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of LPST on pain threshold and pain intensity in comparison with the passive automated cycling intervention and control intervention among patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. A within-subject, repeated-measures, crossover randomized controlled design was conducted among 25 participants (7 males and 18 females) with chronic nonspecific low back pain. All the participants received 3 different types of experimental interventions, which included LPST, the passive automated cycling intervention, and the control intervention randomly, with 48 hours between the sessions. The pressure pain threshold (PPT), hot-cold pain threshold, and pain intensity were estimated before and after the interventions. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that LPST provided therapeutic effects as it improved the PPT beyond the placebo and control interventions (P pain intensity under the LPST condition was significantly better than that under the passive automated cycling intervention and controlled intervention (P pain threshold under the LPST condition also showed a significant trend of improvement beyond the control (P pain threshold were evident. Lumbopelvic stabilization training may provide therapeutic effects by inducing pain modulation through an improvement in the pain threshold and reduction in pain intensity. LPST may be considered as part of the management programs for treatment of chronic low back pain. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  14. Supporting Self-management of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread

  15. Social learning pathways in the relation between parental chronic pain and daily pain severity and functional impairment in adolescents with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda L; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S

    2017-10-06

    Having a parent with chronic pain (CP) may confer greater risk for persistence of CP from childhood into young adulthood. Social learning, such as parental modeling and reinforcement, represents one plausible mechanism for the transmission of risk for CP from parents to offspring. Based on a 7-day pain diary in 154 pediatric patients with functional abdominal CP, we tested a model in which parental CP predicted adolescents' daily average CP severity and functional impairment (distal outcomes) via parental modeling of pain behaviors and parental reinforcement of adolescent's pain behaviors (mediators) and adolescents' cognitive appraisals of pain threat (proximal outcome representing adolescents' encoding of parents' behaviors). Results indicated significant indirect pathways from parental CP status to adolescent average daily pain severity (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.31, p = 0.03) and functional impairment (b = 0.08, SE = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.03) over the 7-day diary period via adolescents' observations of parent pain behaviors and adolescent pain threat appraisal. The indirect pathway through parental reinforcing responses to adolescents' pain did not reach significance for either adolescent pain severity or functional impairment. Identifying mechanisms of increased risk for pain and functional impairment in children of parents with CP ultimately could lead to targeted interventions aimed at improving functioning and quality of life in families with chronic pain. Parental modeling of pain behaviors represents a potentially promising target for family based interventions to ameliorate pediatric chronic pain.

  16. Towards a physiology-based measure of pain: patterns of human brain activity distinguish painful from non-painful thermal stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin E Brown

    Full Text Available Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and support vector machine (SVM learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001. Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be

  17. Pain Catastrophizing and Anxiety are Associated With Heat Pain Perception in a Community Sample of Adults With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Marisa J; Moeschler, Susan M; Hoelzer, Bryan C; Hooten, W Michael

    2016-10-01

    The principle aim of this study was to investigate the associations between heat pain (HP) perception, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related anxiety in a heterogenous cohort of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain rehabilitation program. All adults consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program from July 2009 through January 2011 were eligible for study recruitment (n=574). Upon admission, patients completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20), and HP perception was assessed using a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) method of levels. Greater PCS scores were significantly correlated with lower standardized values of HP threshold (HP 0.5) (P=0.006) and tolerance (HP 5) (P=0.003). In a multiple variable model adjusted for demographic and clinical factors known to influence HP perception, every 10-point increase in the PCS was associated with a -0.124 point change in HP 0.5 (P=0.014) and a -0.142 change in HP 5 (P=0.014) indicating that participants with higher PCS scores had lower HP thresholds and tolerances, respectively. Similarly, greater PASS-20 scores significantly correlated with lower standardized values of HP 0.5 and HP 5. In a multiple variable model, every 10-point increase in the PASS-20 was associated with a -0.084 point change in HP 0.5 (P=0.005) and a -0.116 point change in HP 5 (P=0.001) indicating that participants with higher PASS-20 scores had lower HP thresholds and tolerances, respectively. The findings of this study extend the use of a standardized method for assessing HP in a heterogenous sample of adults with chronic pain. Although pain catastrophizing shares significant variance with pain-related anxiety, our findings suggest that either measure would be appropriate for use in future studies that incorporate the QST method of levels.

  18. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, O.; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  19. Neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Most often, everyday activities are to blame. Such ... of a heart attack , such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, or arm or jaw pain. ...

  20. Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... treat my pain? Can pelvic pain affect my emotional well-being? How can I cope with long- ...

  1. [Tips for taking history of pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2012-11-01

    Pain is physiologically classified as nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, and psychogenic pain. Nociceptive pain is further divided into visceral pain, somatic pain, and referred pain. Visceral pain is dull, and it is difficult to locate the origin of such pain. Somatic pain is sharp, severe, and well localized. On receiving visceral input for pain, it affects somatic nerve inputting to the same spinal segments, then referred pain is felt in the skin and muscles supplied by it. Referred pain is felt in an area that is located at a distance from its cause. History taking is the most important factor for determining the cause of pain. Generally, all the necessary information regarding pain can be acquired if pain-related history is obtained using the "OPQRST" mnemonic, that is, onset, provocation/palliative factor, quality, region/radiation/related symptoms, severity, and time characteristics.

  2. TelePain: Primary Care Chronic Pain Management through Weekly Didactic and Case-based Telementoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Diane M; Eaton, Linda H; McQuinn, Honor; Alden, Ashley; Meins, Alexa R; Rue, Tessa; Tauben, David J; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2017-12-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem among military personnel and a priority of the military health system. The U.S. Army Surgeon General's Pain Management Task Force recommends using telehealth capabilities to enhance pain management. This article describes the development and evaluation of a telehealth intervention (TelePain) designed to improve access to pain specialist consultation in the military health system. The study uses a wait-list controlled clinical trial to test: 1) effectiveness of the intervention, and 2) interviews to assess barriers and facilitators of the intervention implementation. The intervention involves a didactic presentation based on the Joint Pain Education Curriculum followed by patient case presentations and multi-disciplinary discussion via videoconference by clinicians working in the military health system. A panel of pain specialists representing pain medicine, internal medicine, anesthesiology, rehabilitation medicine, psychiatry, addiction medicine, health psychology, pharmacology, nursing, and complementary and integrative pain management provide pain management recommendations for each patient case. We use the Pain Assessment Screening Tool and Outcomes Registry (PASTOR) to measure patient outcomes, including pain, sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. This article reports some of the challenges and lessons learned during early implementation of the TelePain intervention. Weekly telephone meetings among the multisite research team were instrumental in problem solving, identifying problem areas, and developing solutions. Solutions for recruitment challenges included additional outreach and networking to military health providers, both building on.

  3. Why Does Acute Postwhiplash Injury Pain Transform into Chronic Pain Multimodal Assessment of Risk Factors and Predictors of Pain Chronification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    electrical temporal summation, and low socioeconomic status 7 predict chronic post-traumatic pain occurrence. Pressure-pain threshold- conditioned...psychological state of the patients b. Acute head pain, higher electrical temporal summation, and low socioeconomic status predict chronic post-traumatic...and neck pain patients Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0603 PI: David Yarnitsky Org: Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Award Amount: $1,499,904

  4. Fantom pain: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Sanja S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phantom limb pain is a common problem after limb amputation (41-85%. It is described as an extremely painful sensation in the missing part of the body that can last for hours, days or even years. It is considered to arise from cortical reorganization, although many factors can increase the risk of phantom limb pain: pain before surgery, age and sex of the patients, the time elapsed since surgery, stump pain, inadequate prosthesis. Phantom limb pain therapy is very complicated. Case report We reported a case of 80-year-old patient suffering from phantom limb pain and phantom sensation 25 years after the amputation of his left leg due to the injury. The patient has pain at the site of amputation, sensation that he has the leg and that it occupies an unusual position and almost daily exhausting phantom limb pain (6-9 visual analogue scale - VAS with disturbed sleep and mood. We managed to reduce the pain under 4 VAS and decrease the patient suffering by combining drugs from the group of coanalgetics (antidepressants, antiepileptics, non-pharmacological methods (transcutaneous electroneurostimulation - TENS, mirror therapy and femoral nerve block in the place of disarticulation of the left thigh. Conclusion Phantom limb pain therapy is multimodal, exhausting for both the patient and the physician and it is often unsuccessful. The combination of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities can give satisfactory therapeutic response.

  5. Different pain responses to chronic and acute pain in various ethnic/racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahavard, Behnoosh B; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-09-01

    Our goal in this study was to review the similarities and differences among ethnic groups and their respective responses to acute and chronic clinically related and experimentally induced pain. In this review, the PUBMED and Google-Scholar databases were searched to analyze articles that have assessed the variations in both acute and chronic pain responses among different ethnic/racial groups. According to the results from 42 reviewed articles, significant differences exist among ethnic-racial groups for pain prevalence as well as responses to acute and chronic pain. Compared with Caucasians, other ethnic groups are more susceptible to acute pain responses to nociceptive stimulation and to the development of long-term chronic pain. These differences need to be addressed and assessed more extensively in the future in order to minimize the pain management disparities among various ethnic-racial groups and also to improve the relationship between pain management providers and their patients.

  6. Chronic female pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is defined as nonmalignant pain perceived in the structures related to the pelvis that has been present for more than 6 months or a non acute pain mechanism of shorter duration. Pain in the pelvic region can arise from musculoskeletal, gynaecological, urologic, gastrointestinal and or neurologic conditions. Key gynaecological conditions that contribute to CPP include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, endometriosis, adnexa pathologies (ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, uterine pathologies (leiomyoma, adenomyosis and pelvic girdle pain associated with pregnancy. Several major and minor sexually transmitted diseases (STD can cause pelvic and vulvar pain. A common painful condition of the urinary system is Interstitial cystitis(IC. A second urologic condition that can lead to development of CPP is urethral syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with dysmenorrhoea in 60% of cases. Other bowel conditions contributing to pelvic pain include diverticular disease,Crohn′s disease ulcerative colitis and chronic appendicitis. Musculoskeletal pathologies that can cause pelvic pain include sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction, symphysis pubis and sacro-coccygeal joint dysfunction, coccyx injury or malposition and neuropathic structures in the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral plexus. Prolonged pelvic girdle pain, lasting more than 6 months postpartum is estimated in 3% to 30% of women. Nerve irritation or entrapment as a cause of pelvic pain can be related to injury of the upper lumbar segments giving rise to irritation of the sensory nerves to the ventral trunk or from direct trauma from abdominal incisions or retractors used during abdominal surgical procedures. Afflictions of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, pudendal and obturator nerves are of greatest concern in patients with pelvic pain. Patient education about the disease and treatment involved is paramount. A knowledge of the differential

  7. Shoulder Pain After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten R; Andersen, Claus; Ørding, Helle

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the time course of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery with respect to incidence, pain intensity, type of pain (referred versus musculoskeletal), and surgical approach. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Odense University Hospital, Denmark...... for musculoskeletal involvement (muscle tenderness on palpation and movement) with follow-up 12 months after surgery. Clinically relevant pain was defined as a numeric rating scale score>3. Of the 60 patients included, 47 (78%) experienced ipsilateral shoulder pain, but only 25 (42%) reported clinically relevant...... shoulder pain. On postoperative day 4, 19 patients (32%) still suffered shoulder pain, but only 4 patients (7%) had clinically relevant pain. Four patients (8%) still suffered shoulder pain 12 months after surgery. In 26 patients (55%), the shoulder pain was classified as referred versus 21 patients (45...

  8. The Pain of Labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Labour is an emotional experience and involves both physiological and psychological mechanisms. The pain of labour is severe but despite this its memory diminishes with time. Labour pain has two components: visceral pain which occurs during the early first stage and the second stage of childbirth, and somatic pain which occurs during the late first stage and the second stage. The pain of labour in the first stage is mediated by T10 to L1 spinal segments, whereas that in the second stage is carried by T12 to L1, and S2 to S4 spinal segments. Pain relief in labour is complex and often challenging without regional analgesia. Effective management of labour pain plays a relatively minor role in a woman's satisfaction with childbirth. PMID:26526404

  9. Pain Management in the Emergency Chain: The Use and Effectiveness of Pain Management in Patients With Acute Musculoskeletal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, Jorien; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Gaakeer, Menno I.; Berben, Sivera A.; Eenennaam, Fred L.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective While acute musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint in emergency care, its management is often neglected, placing patients at risk for insufficient pain relief. Our aim is to investigate how often pain management is provided in the prehospital phase and emergency department (ED) and

  10. Psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions: perspectives on comprehensive modeling of individual pain adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a complex construct that contributes to profound physical and psychological dysfunction, particularly in individuals coping with chronic pain. The current paper builds upon previous research, describes a balanced conceptual model that integrates aspects of both psychological vulnerability and resilience to pain, and reviews protective and exacerbating psychosocial factors to the process of adaptation to chronic pain, including pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and positive psychological resources predictive of enhanced pain coping. The current paper identifies future directions for research that will further enrich the understanding of pain adaptation and espouses an approach that will enhance the ecological validity of psychological pain coping models, including introduction of advanced statistical and conceptual models that integrate behavioral, cognitive, information processing, motivational and affective theories of pain.

  11. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a tooth ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is for ...

  12. The effects of music therapy on pain in patients with neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Esra Akın; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Çelik, Serkan; Khorshıd, Leyla

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relaxing music on pain intensity in patients with neuropathic pain. A quasi-experimental study, repeated measures design was used. Thirty patients, aged 18-70 years, with neuropathic pain and hospitalized in an Algology clinic were identified as a convenience sample. Participants received 60 minutes of music therapy. Classical Turkish music was played to patients using a media player (MP3) and headphones. Participants had pain scores taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th and 60th minutes of the intervention. Data were collected over a 6-month period in 2012. The patients' mean pain intensity scores were reduced by music, and that decrease was progressive over the 30th and 60th minutes of the intervention, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The results of this study implied that the inclusion of music therapy in the routine care of patients with neuropathic pain could provide nurses with an effective practice for reducing patients' pain intensity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

  14. [AIDS and pain management-a survey of German AIDS and pain management units.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, D; Radbruch, L; Grond, S; Heise, W

    1994-06-01

    The number of AIDS patients is steadily increasing. According to the literature these patients are often in severe pain. We evaluated pain diagnoses and treatments with two almost identical questionnaires for AIDS treatment units (ATU) and pain management units (PMU). Questions dealt with unit type and size, number of patients treated per year and the proportion of intravenous drug users. The units were also asked to give an estimate of pain aetiologies, pain types and localizations and treatment modalities offered. Completed questionnaires were returned by 38 of 235 ATU and 85 of 127 PMU. In the ATU, 16% of the patients (estimated at 580 patients per year) had pain requiring treatment. In 26 of the PMU approximately 120 AIDS patients per year were treated, while 59 PMU had not yet seen any AIDS patients. Pain was caused mainly by opportunistic infections and by neurological syndromes connected with AIDS. Pain aetiologies could not be differentiated in the ATU in 22% of patients (PMU 9%), and pain types in 33% (PMU 9%). Neuropathic pain (ATU 38%, PMU 89%) was more frequent than nociceptive pain (ATU 29%, PMU 36%). The treatment modalities were systemic pharmacotherapy in 76% of ATU and 73% of PMU and nerve blocks in 37% of ATU and 42% of PMU. In 82% of ATU the staff thought their analgesic therapy was adequate, and in 92% staff were interested in closer cooperation with PMU such as was currently practised in only 6 of the 38 units (16%) that responded. The high incidence of complicated neuropathic pain syndromes in AIDS patients requires a sophisticated therapeutic approach. Closer cooperation between AIDS specialists and pain specialists, comparable to that already existing for other patient groups, is therefore desirable.

  15. Why Social Pain Can Live on: Different Neural Mechanisms Are Associated with Reliving Social and Physical Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meghan L; Williams, Kipling D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2015-01-01

    Although social and physical pain recruit overlapping neural activity in regions associated with the affective component of pain, the two pains can diverge in their phenomenology. Most notably, feelings of social pain can be re-experienced or "relived," even when the painful episode has long passed, whereas feelings of physical pain cannot be easily relived once the painful episode subsides. Here, we observed that reliving social (vs. physical) pain led to greater self-reported re-experienced pain and greater activity in affective pain regions (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula). Moreover, the degree of relived pain correlated positively with affective pain system activity. In contrast, reliving physical (vs. social) pain led to greater activity in the sensory-discriminative pain system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and posterior insula), which did not correlate with relived pain. Preferential engagement of these different pain mechanisms may reflect the use of different top-down neurocognitive pathways to elicit the pain. Social pain reliving recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, often associated with mental state processing, which functionally correlated with affective pain system responses. In contrast, physical pain reliving recruited inferior frontal gyrus, known to be involved in body state processing, which functionally correlated with activation in the sensory pain system. These results update the physical-social pain overlap hypothesis: while overlapping mechanisms support live social and physical pain, distinct mechanisms guide internally-generated pain.

  16. Altered Associations between Pain Symptoms and Brain Morphometry in the Pain Matrix of HIV-Seropositive Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Deborrah; Ernst, Thomas; Cunningham, Eric; Chang, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Pain remains highly prevalent in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients despite their well-suppressed viremia with combined antiretroviral therapy. Investigating brain abnormalities within the pain matrix, and in relation to pain symptoms, in HIV+ participants may provide objective biomarkers and insights regarding their pain symptoms. We used Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pain questionnaire to evaluate pain symptoms (pain intensity, pain interference and pain behavior), and structural MRI to assess brain morphometry using FreeSurfer (cortical area, cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were evaluated in 12 regions within the pain matrix). Compared to seronegative (SN) controls, HIV+ participants had smaller surface areas in prefrontal pars triangularis (right: p = 0.04, left: p = 0.007) and right anterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.03) and smaller subcortical regions (thalamus: p ≤ 0.003 bilaterally; right putamen: p = 0.01), as well as higher pain scores (pain intensity-p = 0.005; pain interference-p = 0.008; pain-behavior-p = 0.04). Furthermore, higher pain scores were associated with larger cortical areas, thinner cortices and larger subcortical volumes in HIV+ participants; but smaller cortical areas, thicker cortices and smaller subcortical volumes in SN controls (interaction-p = 0.009 to p = 0.04). These group differences in the pain-associated brain abnormalities suggest that HIV+ individuals have abnormal pain responses. Since these abnormal pain-associated brain regions belong to the affective component of the pain matrix, affective symptoms may influence pain perception in HIV+ patients and should be treated along with their physical pain symptoms. Lastly, associations of lower pain scores with better physical or mental health scores, regardless of HIV-serostatus (p < 0.001), suggest adequate pain treatment would lead to better quality of life in all participants.

  17. A Comparison of Expectations of Physicians and Patients with Chronic Pain for Pain Clinic Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpin, Pádraig; Imran, Ather; Harmon, Dominic

    2017-03-01

    The patient-physician encounter forms the cornerstone of every health service. However, optimal medical outcomes are often confounded by inadequate patient-physician communication. Chronic pain is estimated to affect over 25% of the population. Its effects are multifaceted with patients at increased risk of experiencing emotional and functional disturbances. Therefore, it is crucial to address all components of the patient's pain experience, including beliefs and expectations. It is our understanding that no other study to date has evaluated the expectations of physicians and compared them to those of patients for pain clinic visits. We sought to describe and compare expectations of chronic pain patients and their physicians during a clinic consultation. We performed a retrospective review on patients attending the pain clinic for the first time who were enrolled and completed a questionnaire asking their expectations for their clinic visit as well as outcomes that would satisfy and disappoint them. Pain physicians were also included. We compared physicians' to patients' responses and evaluated relationships between patient responses and age, gender, pain location, Pain Self-Efficacy, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. One hundred chronic pain patients and 10 pain physicians were surveyed. Patients' clinical expectations for visits focused primarily on some pain relief (34%), education on the cause of pain (24%), and a definitive diagnosis (18%). Physician's expectations included formulation and communication of a management plan (70%), patient assessment for cause of pain (50%), and the education of patients on the cause of pain (40%) as important aims. Pain relief would satisfy the majority of patients (74%) and physicians (70%). No improvement would cause greatest dissatisfaction for patients (52%), but causing more harm would be disappointing to physicians (50%). Gender, age, pain location, and sleep quality all

  18. Acute pain assessment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clear, Elaine

    2016-05-01