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Sample records for logging borings c4993

  1. Neutron activation for logging the distribution of gold in bore-hole cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, H.; Watterson, J.I.W.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the non-destructive determination of gold in bore-hole cores has been developed using instrumental neutron activation analysis with a 252 Cf source. The procedure obtains the distribution and concentration of gold along the longitudinal axis of the core i.e. a log of the gold concentration. The accuracy of the method is comparable to fire assay at a level of 2 ppm and has a detection limit of 1 ppm under the conditions used. The assay of the gold is carried out by employing a novel variation of the conventional comparator method using gold wires as both standard and flux monitor. A method is described for logging gold in bore-hole cores using neutron activation with a 160 μg 252 Cf neutron source. The method has a limit of detection of about 1 ppm under the described conditions. (author)

  2. Use of bore logging for the determination of lithological characteristics of the Boom clay formation and interest for correlations in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Bonne, A.; Manfroy, P.; Vandenberghe, N.; Fierens, E.; Laga, P.

    1981-01-01

    It is first recalled that the purpose of the HADES project of the CEN/SCK at Mol (Belgium) is to study the possibility of geological disposal for radioactive wastes in the Boom clay formation at a depth between +-160 and 270 m. The different steps and aspects of the site investigation are exposed, and for each of them, the specific techniques used are reviewed. One of these steps is elaborated more in detail. It covers namely the lateral extrapolation of the lithological variations as established from a very detailed analysis of the initial cored boring. Among the usefull methods, the most practical and refined results were obtained from the resistivity logs in the reconnaissance holes. Finally, examples are shown of very detailed correlation on site scale, scale of the hydrogeological entity and regional scale (occurrence of Boom clay on the belgian territory)

  3. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  4. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  5. Mind where you bore!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    With renewable energies on the up and up, geothermal heating is becoming increasingly popular. An ardent supporter of sustainable development, CERN welcomes this trend, even though it has certain risks for the Laboratory.   More and more people in Switzerland and France are switching to geothermal heating, with the result that more and more bore holes are being sunk for geothermal probes. Since, on average, such bore holes go down to depths of 100 m they can have an impact on CERN’s underground facilities, which are also located at approximately that depth. In the Canton of Geneva, all bore holes, whatever their depth, are subject to planning permission. Applications for planning permission are granted – or refused – only after consultation with the Ground survey department (GESDEC). In France, only bore holes below a depth of 100 m require planning permission. In theory, bore holes to lesser depths simply need to be declared to the DREAL (Dire...

  6. SNG-logs at Skjern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Petersen, Jesper; Aage, Helle Karina

    1998-01-01

    Spectral Natural Gamma-ray logs have been run in two water supply borings at Skjern. The log data have been examined by a new technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - in order to get a detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of uranium and thorium gamma-rays from heavy...

  7. A boring solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiuk, M I; Iushkova, N E; Kozubovskii, A I

    1979-10-25

    A boring solution is being patented for boring for oil and gas, which can be used in wells, where the temperature of the circulating liquid reaches 100/sup 0/. Polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVE) is added for the purpose of decreasing viscosity of the solution at a temperature of agression into the boring solution containing clay, water, carboxymethylcellulose (CBC), a chloride from the number of sodium, potassium, or magnesium chlorides. The solution has the following composition in %: clay, 10 to 20; CBC, 1.5 to 2.0; chloride, 5 to 20; PVE, 0.5 to 2; water, up to 100. In accordance to GOST 1000-62 for the accepted PVE, the compound has the following composition, in %: monomer, 0.8; dry residue, greater than or equal to 50; plasticizer (tributyl phthalate), 5 to 15. The boring solution is processed according to the following method. The original solution, containing clay, water, salts, receives 1.5 to 2% CBC and afterwards it is processed with 0.5 to 2% PVE.

  8. Logging as a means of characterising the water in rock formations in groundwater collection borings; Utilizacion de diagrafias para la caracterizacion del agua de la formaciones en sondeos de captacion de aguas subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Curiel, J.M.; Miguel, M.J.; Dominguez, S.; Caparrini, N

    1998-12-01

    We present an improvement of the S.P. application to obtain water conductivity and total of dissolved solids in the permeable layers passed through open hole, supposing said levels completely water saturated (under phreatic level). The optimization consists of a methodology for the treatment and interpretation of S.P. logs as well as the development of computer codes to execute the following processes. Laboratory measurements to acquire a set of key values in the interpretation processes (R{sub w}e/R{sub w} and TDS/R{sub w}). Conversion of the obtained data and selected charts, with continuous application range, to analytical curves for their automatic procedure. Algorithms development in order to carry out the automatic determination of base line and the elimination of its displacements. This system have been applied over a set of 27 logs performed by the author in the south area of the Duero basin (Spain) as an example of multi-layered detrital. We show the conductivity and TDS results in comparison with the water analysis obtained through pumping. (Author) 30 refs.

  9. Borehole imaging tool detects well bore fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.A.; Bigelow, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on borehole imaging data which can provide high quality geological and petrophysical information to improve fracture identification, dip computations, and lithology determinations in a well bore. The ability to visually quantify the area of a borehole wall occupied by fractures and vugs enhances reservoir characterization and well completion operations. The circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL) instrument is an acoustic logging device designed to produce a map of the entire borehole wall. The visual images can confirm computed dips and the geological features related to dip. Borehole geometry, including breakout, are accurately described by complete circumferential caliper measurements, which is important information for drilling and completion engineers. In may reservoirs, the images can identify porosity type, bedding characteristics, and petrophysical parameters

  10. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  11. Pulsed neutron logging - a modern approach to petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navalkar, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    As hydrocarbons have strikingly different properties for neutrons as compared with rocks, neutronic methods are useful to prepare logs of bore holes drilled for petroleum exploration. The earlier neutron logs were based on steady neutron sources, but the superior logs, namely, neutron life time log and neutron induced spectral log are based on pulsed neutron sources. The methods of obtaining these logs, their limitations and the field equipment required are described briefly. As the two logs are complementary, a plea has been made to develop field equipment which can obtain two logs in a single run. (M.G.B.)

  12. Borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous ground water investigations have been accomplished by means of borehole logging. Borehole logging can be applied to establish new water recovery wells, to control the existing water producing wells and source areas and to estimate ground water quality. (EG)

  13. Artificial intelligence approach to interwell log correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong-Se [Korea Maritime University, Pusan(Korea); Kang, Joo Myung [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jung Whan [Korea National Oil Corp., Anyang(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This paper describes a new approach to automated interwell log correlation using artificial intelligence and principal component analysis. The approach to correlate wire line logging data is on the basis of a large set of subjective rules that are intended to represent human logical processes. The data processed are mainly the qualitative information such as the characteristics of the shapes extracted along log traces. The apparent geologic zones are identified by pattern recognition for the specific characteristics of log trace collected as a set of objects by object oriented programming. The correlation of zones between wells is made by rule-based inference program. The reliable correlation can be established from the first principal component logs derived from both the important information around well bore and the largest common part of variances of all available well log data. Correlation with field log data shows that this approach can make interwell log correlation more reliable and accurate. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating....... The induration degrees recorded in face logs and boreholes are compared and correlated. Distinct geophysical log markers are used to divide the limestone into three units. These marker horizons are correlated between face logs and geotechnical boreholes. A 3D model of the strength variations recorded within...

  15. Atmospheric noise of a breaking tidal bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    A tidal bore is a surge of waters propagating upstream in an estuary as the tidal flow turns to rising and the flood tide propagates into a funnel-shaped system. Large tidal bores have a marked breaking roller. The sounds generated by breaking tidal bores were herein investigated in the field (Qiantang River) and in laboratory. The sound pressure record showed two dominant periods, with some similarity with an earlier study [Chanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(6), 3561-3568]. The two distinct phases were the incoming tidal bore when the sound amplitude increased with the approaching bore, and the passage of the tidal bore in front of the microphone when loud and powerful noises were heard. The dominant frequency ranged from 57 to 131 Hz in the Qiantang River bore. A comparison between laboratory and prototype tidal bores illustrated both common features and differences. The low pitch sound of the breaking bore had a dominant frequency close to the collective oscillations of bubble clouds, which could be modeled with a bubble cloud model using a transverse dimension of the bore roller. The findings suggest that this model might be over simplistic in the case of a powerful breaking bore, like that of the Qiantang River.

  16. TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed

  17. Energy Efficiency of Tunnel Boring Machines.

    OpenAIRE

    Grishenko, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Herrenknecht AG is a German world-leading Tunnel Boring Machines manufacturer showing strong awareness and concern regarding environmental issues. The company supports research on the Energy Efficiency (EE) of their products, aimed at the development of intelligent design for a green Tunnel Boring Machine. The aim of this project is to produce a ’status quo’ report on EE of three types of Tunnel Boring Machines (Hardrock, EPB and Mixshield TBM). In the framework of this research 39 projects a...

  18. Railgun bore material test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.; Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Bloomberg, H.W.; Goldstein, S.A.; Tidman, D.A.; Winsor, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    GT-Devices, Inc. has constructed a material test facility (MTF) to study the fundamental heat transfer problem of both railgun and electrothermal guns, and to test candidate gun materials under real plasma conditions. The MTF electrothermally produces gigawatt-level plasmas with pulse lengths of 10-30 microseconds. Circular bore and non-circular bore test barrels have been successfully operated under a wide range of simulated heating environments for EM launchers. Diagnostics include piezoelectric MHz pressure probes, time-of-flight probes, and current and voltage probes. Ablation measurements are accomplished by weighing and optical inspection, including borescope, optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these measurements the ablation threshold for both the rail and insulator materials can be determined as a function of plasma heating. The MTF diagnostics are supported by an unsteady 1-D model of MTF which uses the flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm to calculate the fluid equations in conservative form. A major advantage of the FCT algorithm is that it can model gas dynamic shock behaviour without the requirement of numerical diffusion. The principle use of the code is to predict the material surface temperature ΔT/α from the unsteady heat transfer q(t)

  19. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  20. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  1. Tunnel boring waste test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, J.G.

    1984-03-01

    The test plan has been prepared in anticipation of the need to excavate certain repository openings by relying upon mechanical excavation techniques. The test plan proposes that specific technical issues can be resolved and key design parameters defined by excavating openings in basalt near the surface, utilizing a full face tunnel boring machine (TBM). The purpose and objective of this type of testing will define the overall feasibility and attributes of mechanical excavation in basalt. The test plan recognizes that although this technology is generally available for underground construction for some geologic settings, the current state of technology for excavation in basalt is limited and the potential for improvement is considerable. The test plan recommends that it is economically advantageous to conduct additional testing in the laboratory to allow refinement of this plan based on the laboratory results. Thus, this test plan is considered preliminary in nature, with respect to detailed testing recommendations. However, the gross design attributes and resource requirements of a near-surface TBM demonstration are considered to be valid. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Tunnel Boring Machine Performance Study. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Full face tunnel boring machine "TBM" performance during the excavation of 6 tunnels in sedimentary rock is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rates and cutter wear. The construction records are analyzed and the results are used to inves...

  3. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T.

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.)

  4. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.).

  5. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable latch, an actuator and locking devices. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  6. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable actuator and a latch which engages the tubular opening. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  7. Comparative analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance well logging and nuclear magnetic resonance mud logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zugui

    2008-01-01

    The hydrogen atoms in oil and water are able to resonate and generate signals in the magnetic field, which is used by the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technology in petroleum engineering to research and evaluate rock characteristics. NMR well logging was used to measure the physical property parameters of the strata in well bore, whereas NMR mud logging was used to analyze (while drilling) the physical property parameters of cores, cuttings and sidewall coring samples on surface (drilling site). Based on the comparative analysis of the porosity and permeability parameters obtained by NMR well logging and those from analysis of the cores, cuttings and sidewall coring samples by NMR mud logging in the same depth of 13 wells, these two methods are of certain difference, but their integral tendency is relatively good. (authors)

  8. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. In-bore instrumentation/diagnostics for large-bore EMLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.J.; Ager, S.A.; Hudson, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a flying laboratory technique of in-bore diagnostics for large-bore electromagnetic launchers (EMLs). The high pressure, heat, and magnetic flux environment of the EML and its containment structures do not allow easy implementation of conventional diagnostic techniques. Researchers have relied on remote sensing methods, such as B probes (isolated from the bore), for data. The accuracy and relevance of such discrete, remote measurement is somewhat questionable. An in-house program has been initiated to determine the feasibility of making measurement of EML parameters on board a projectile. This technique utilizes off-the-shelf components in a configuration that has been proven effective in measuring projectile acceleration in the bore of propellant driven guns

  10. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...... design methods. The methods proposed by Fleming et al. and Reese & O’Neill seem to produce the best match with the test results....

  11. Encyclopedia of well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbrandes, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 16 chapters of this book aim to provide students, trainees and engineers with a manual covering all well-logging measurements ranging from drilling to productions, from oil to minerals going by way of geothermal energy. Each chapter is a summary but a bibliography is given at the end of each chapter. Well-logging during drilling, wireline logging equipment and techniques, petroleum logging, data processing of borehole data, interpretation of well-logging, sampling tools, completion and production logging, logging in relief wells to kill off uncontrolled blowouts, techniques for high temperature geothermal energy, small-scale mining and hydrology, logging with oil-base mud and finally recommended logging programs are all topics covered. There is one chapter on nuclear well-logging which is indexed separately. (UK)

  12. Integrated test plan for directional boring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    This integrated test plan describes the field testing of the DITCH WITCH Directional Boring System. DITCH WITCH is a registered trademark of The Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, Oklahoma. The test is being conducted as a coordinated effort between Charles Machine Works (CMW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Funding for the WHC portion of the project is through the Volatile Organic Compound-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The purpose of the test is to evaluate the performance of the directional boring system for possible future use on environmental restoration projects at Hanford and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The test will be conducted near the 200 Areas Fire Station located between the 200 East and 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The directional boring system will be used to drill and complete (with fiberglass casing) two horizontal boreholes. A third borehole will be drilled to test sampling equipment but will not be completed with casing

  13. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  14. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron; Broyage de bore element et dosage de carbure de bore dans le bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F M; Finck, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 {mu}. Grain sizes smaller than 1{mu} are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [French] Il est possible de pulveriser finement du bore element au moyen de mortier et pilon en carbure de bore fritte, le taux de carbure de bore introduit etant inferieur a 1 pour cent. Le bore element dont nous disposons est constitue de petits grains brun fonce, a aretes vives, de dimension moyenne superieure a 5 {mu}. L'application de ce bore en couches minces demande des grains de dimensions inferieures a 1 {mu}. (aute0008.

  15. Simulation of bearing capacity of bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how one can possibly predict the ultimate load for the piles that did not reach failure. This challenge was acquired through Chin- Konder method by which, the estimated settlement that correspond to failure load is well defined. Hence, this research aims to make a comparative study between the results of pile load tests carried out in Al-Basrah sewage treatment plant project, and those results induced from the numerical analysis in term of ultimate pile capacity. Consequently, it may give a clear idea on the ability of numerical simulation in getting close to the actual behavior of piles. In the current study, a numerical study using Plaxis 3D Foundation program has been performed on bored piles by the assistance of site investigations of soil. Mohr- Coulomb and linear elastic models were adopted in the simulation for soil and pile respectively. Ten bored piles were used in this analysis under different values of loading. The diameter and length of pile are 0.6m and 24m respectively. The test results indicate that, an excellent agreement has been found as a response of pile capacity between the field and numerical studies. Also, ideal load- settlement curves were created using Chin- Konder method to predict the failure load of bored piles. Also, the results have demonstrated that, the pile capacity obtained from the simulation process is larger about 51% than that design load estimated before the design of piles. This may present a priority to use the finite element method to be accounted as an effective approach in the primary analysis.

  16. A Computer-Controlled Laser Bore Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles C.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of a laser scanning system for production applications. The laser scanning techniques, the timing control, the logic design of the pattern recognition subsystem, the digital computer servo control for the loading and un-loading of parts, and the laser probe rotation and its synchronization will be discussed. The laser inspection machine is designed to automatically inspect the surface of precision-bored holes, such as those in automobile master cylinders, without contacting the machined surface. Although the controls are relatively sophisticated, operation of the laser inspection machine is simple. A laser light beam from a commercially available gas laser, directed through a probe, scans the entire surface of the bore. Reflected light, picked up through optics by photoelectric sensors, generates signals that are fed to a mini-computer for processing. A pattern recognition techniques program in the computer determines acceptance or rejection of the part being inspected. The system's acceptance specifications are adjustable and are set to the user's established tolerances. However, the computer-controlled laser system is capable of defining from 10 to 75 rms surface finish, and voids or flaws from 0.0005 to 0.020 inch. Following the successful demonstration with an engineering prototype, the described laser machine has proved its capability to consistently ensure high-quality master brake cylinders. It thus provides a safety improvement for the automotive braking system. Flawless, smooth cylinder bores eliminate premature wearing of the rubber seals, resulting in a longer-lasting master brake cylinder and a safer and more reliable automobile. The results obtained from use of this system, which has been in operation about a year for replacement of a tedious, manual operation on one of the high-volume lines at the Bendix Hydraulics Division, have been very satisfactory.

  17. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  18. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  19. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  20. The Bored Self in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    of the bored self as a combination of unfilled aspirations and the sense of stagnation, leading to an arrested identity. Our contribution is to expand extant conceptualizations of employee interactions with identity regulation, in particular relating to identity work and identification. The findings provide......This article draws attention to reported experiences of boredom in knowledge work. Drawing on extensive qualitative data gathered at two management consultancy firms, we analyze these experiences as a particular interaction with identity regulation and work experiences. We conceptualize the reports...

  1. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  2. The Meaning of Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Massacci, Fabio; Yautsiukhin, Artsiom

    2007-01-01

    While logging events is becoming increasingly common in computing, in communication and in collaborative work, log systems need to satisfy increasingly challenging (if not conflicting) requirements.Despite the growing pervasiveness of log systems, to date there is no high-level framework which

  3. The Meaning of Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Massacci, Fabio; Yautsiukhin, Artsiom; Lambrinoudakis, Costas; Pernul, Günther; Tjoa, A Min

    While logging events is becoming increasingly common in computing, in communication and in collaborative environments, log systems need to satisfy increasingly challenging (if not conflicting) requirements. In this paper we propose a high-level framework for modeling log systems, and reasoning about

  4. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  5. LogScope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  6. Automating horizontal boring and milling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.R.; Mahmood, T.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of modification for many old import machine tools in industry, the schemes suited to the renovation are presented in this paper. A horizontal boring and milling machine (HBM) involved in machining of tank Al-Khalid has been modified using Mitsubishi FX-1N and FX-2N PLC. The developed software is for control of all the functions of the said machine. These functions include power on/off oil pump, spindle rotation and machine movement in all axes. All the decisions required by the machine for actuation of instructions are based on the data acquired from the control panel, timers and limit switches. Also the developed software minimize the down time, safety of operator and error free actuation of instructions. (author)

  7. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  9. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  10. Power to the logs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; MACMAHON, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Are you tired of using grep, vi and emacs to read your logs? Do you feel like you’re missing the big picture? Does the word "statistics" put a smile on your face? Then it’s time to give power to the logs!

  11. Revisiting resolution in hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography: tubing bore effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, A; Faure, K

    2015-04-17

    A major challenge in countercurrent chromatography (CCC), the technique that works with a support-free biphasic liquid system, is to retain the liquid stationary phase inside the CCC column (Sf parameter). Two solutions are commercially available: the hydrostatic CCC columns, also called centrifugal partition chromatographs (CPC), with disks of interconnected channels and rotary seals, and the hydrodynamic CCC columns with bobbins of coiled open tube and no rotary seals. It was demonstrated that the amount of liquid stationary phase retained by a coiled tube was higher with larger bore tubing than with small bore tubes. At constant column volume, small bore tubing will be longer producing more efficiency than larger bore tube that will better retain the liquid stationary phase. Since the resolution equation in CCC is depending on both column efficiency and stationary phase retention ratio, the influence of the tubing bore should be studied. This theoretical work showed that there is an optimum tubing bore size depending on solute partition coefficient and mobile phase flow rate. The interesting result of the theoretical study is that larger tubing bores allow for dramatically reduced experiment durations for all solutes: in reversed phase CCC (polar mobile phase), hydrophobic solutes are usually highly retained. These apolar solutes can be separated by the same coil at high flow rates and reduced Sf with similar retention times as polar solutes separated at smaller flow rates and much higher Sf. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  13. Investigation on vibrational evaluation criteria for small-bore pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kato, Minoru; Torigoe, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    The well-known organization such as API and SwRI in USA developed criteria for piping vibrational evaluation. These criteria are targeted for main pipes, but not branch pipes with small bore. In this study, applicability of criteria of API and SwRI to branch pipes was investigated. Vibration test using piping system with small bore branch pipe was conducted and amplitudes of vibrational stress and displacement were measured for various exciting force. In comparison of the measurements with the two criteria, though the criteria of API and SwRI were applicable to small bore branch pipe, they made too conservative evaluation. (author)

  14. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  15. Bored tunnel storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penberthy, L.

    1983-01-01

    Contrary to the current emphasis on deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste, simple bored tunnels offer many advantages. Much lower cost is important in this period of severe budget crisis. Recoverability is feasible from a tunnel in a mountain, but dubious from a flooded mine 3000 ft deep. It is quite possible that the world will need the breeder energy cycle urgently 200 years from now. In the writer's opinion, it would be a sin for our generation to make so much fertile and fissile uranium fuel unavailable for future generations. Storage conditions in a near-surface repository are much better than deep because the temperature can be kept down, pressure will be atmospheric instead of potentially 1200 psi, and flooding will not occur. The so-called ''hydrothermal'' conditions are thus completely avoided. Accordingly, endless studies of hydrogeology, water pathway times, waste-host rock interactions and the like are unnecessary, and the time for action is much shorter

  16. Optimization of large bore gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiminger, S.

    1999-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with the experimental part of combustion optimization of a large bore gas engine. Nevertheless there was a very close co-operation with the simultaneous numeric simulation. The terms of reference were a systematic investigation of the optimization potential of the current combustion mode with the objective target to get a higher brake efficiency and lower NO x emissions. In a second part a new combustion mode for fuels containing H 2 , for fuels with very low heating value and for special fuels should be developed. The optimization contained all relevant components of the engine to achieve a stable and well suited combustion with short duration even with very lean mixture. After the optimization the engine was running stable with substantial lower NO x emissions. It was world-wide the first time when a gas medium-sized engine could reach a total electrical efficiency of more than 40 percent. Finally a combustion mode for gaseous fuels containing H 2 was developed. The engine is running now with direct ignition and with prechamber ignition. Both modes reach approximately the same efficiency and thermodynamic stability. (author)

  17. The necessity and application of stratigraphic borings in hydrogeologic site assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, J.

    1991-01-01

    The siting and placement of monitoring wells is one of the most critical elements in hydrogeologic assessments of contaminated sites. Monitoring wells are placed to collect hydraulic and chemical concentration data to: (1) determine potential groundwater flow paths and rates: (2) analyze the nature and extent of chemical constituents in groundwater; and (3) estimate contaminant fate and transport. In many instances monitoring wells provide inappropriate or erroneous hydraulic data, do not provide coverage of potential high permeability flow pathways (such as channel sands) or may themselves create (through improper construction) a vertical conduit for contaminant flow from low permeability to high permeability units. This problem is commonly due to installing monitoring wells before conducting essential stratigraphic analysis and formulating a depositional model for the site area. This paper presents case examples where stratigraphic borings were drilled and logged in the vicinity of proposed well locations to effectively design and install the monitoring well network. The borings were continuously sampled or geophysically logged to provide a vertical profile of the borehole. In addition, the geophysical logs provided curve signatures which allowed interpretation of depositional facies. These data were used to interpret subsurface stratigraphy and effectively position monitoring wells that achieve the above objectives and prevent problems associated with faulty well positioning. This method may cost more initially. However, these initial costs are cheaper than long-term project expenses for abandoning improperly completed wells. subsequently installing supplemental monitoring wells or modifying poorly designed treatment systems which resulted from improper or insufficient data generated from the initial monitoring network

  18. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  19. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.P.; Spurlock, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  20. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  1. Tunnel Boring Machine for nuclear waste repository research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzon, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A description is presented of a Tunnel Boring Machine and its intended use on a research project underway in Sweden for demonstrating and testing methods for rock investigation at a suitable depth for a deep repository for nuclear waste

  2. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  3. Low-cost but accurate radioactive logging for determining gas saturation in a reservior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining gas saturation in a petroleum reservoir using logging signals indirectly related to the abundances of oxygen and carbon nuclei in the reservoir rock. The first step of the invention is to record first and second logs sensitive to the abundance of oxygen and carbon nuclei, respectively, after the region surrounding the well bore is caused to have fluid saturations representative of the bulk of the reservoir. A purposeful change is then made in the fluid saturations in the region surrounding the well bore by injecting a liquid capable of displacing substantially all of the original fluids. The logs are recorded a second time. The displacing fluid is then itself displaced by brine, and a third suite of logs is recorded. The total fluid and oil saturations are then determined from the differences between respective corresponding logs and from known fractional volume oxygen and carbon contents of the reservoir brine and oil and the first injected liquid. Gas saturation is then calculated from differences between total fluid and oil saturation values. It is not necessary that the log responses be independent of the material in the borehole, the casing, the casing cement, or the reservoir rock. It is only necessary that changes in formation fluids content cause proportional changes in log responses. 7 Claims, 4 Figures

  4. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  5. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  6. Removing well bore liquid blockage by gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tarek

    2000-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs have long presented production problems when the pressure around the well bore drops below the dew point pressure. The formation of the condensate around the well bore can be thought of as an additional 'skin' that causes a reduction in the gas flow rates. Many processes have been used successfully to prevent or reduce the formation of liquids within the entire reservoir, such as pressure maintenance schemes and gas cycling processes. The pressure maintenance scheme is designed to keep the reservoir pressure at or above the dew point pressure while the gas cycling process is intended to reduce the liquid dropout by vaporization.Often times the pressure in the near-well bore region of the reservoir falls below the dew point pressure, while the pressure in the reservoir remains higher than the dew point pressure. As the near-well bore pressure drops below the dew point pressure, retrograde condensation occurs leading to the formation and then the mobilization of the condensate phase towards the producing wells. The liquid phase accumulates in the near Well bore region, forming a ring, which progressively reduces the gas deliverability. This study is designed to provide an insight into the mechanism of gas injection process in reducing gas-well productivity losses due to condensate blocking in the near well bore region. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of lean gas, N 2 , and CO 2 Huff 'n' Puff injection technique in removing the liquid dropout accumulation in and around the well bore. Results of the study show the importance of selecting the optimum injection volume and pressure. (author)

  7. Mechanics of log calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, W.C.; Cram, M.E.; Hall, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    For any measurement to have meaning, it must be related to generally accepted standard units by a valid and specified system of comparison. To calibrate well-logging tools, sensing systems are designed which produce consistent and repeatable indications over the range for which the tool was intended. The basics of calibration theory, procedures, and calibration record presentations are reviewed. Calibrations for induction, electrical, radioactivity, and sonic logging tools will be discussed. The authors' intent is to provide an understanding of the sources of errors, of the way errors are minimized in the calibration process, and of the significance of changes in recorded calibration data

  8. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US?Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3%...

  9. Log of Apollo 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  10. Borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A radioactive borehole logging tool employs an epithermal neutron detector having a neutron counter surrounded by an inner thermal neutron filter and an outer thermal neutron filter. Located between the inner and outer filters is a neutron moderating material for extending the lifetime of epithermal neutrons to enhance the counting rate of such epithermal neutrons by the neutron counter

  11. Bore pile foundation tall buildings closed in the heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    Bore pile foundation for high building surroundings heritage building should be not damage. Construction proses must good, no necking, no mixed deep water, no sliding soil, nonporous concrete. Objective the execution of bore pile so that heritage buildings and neighboring buildings that are old do not experience cracks, damage and tilting. The survey methodology was observe the process of the implementation of the dominant silt, clay soil, in addition a limited space and to analyze the results of loading tests, investigations of soil and daily reports. Construction process determines the success of the structure bore pile in high building structure bearing, without damaging a heritage building. Attainment the hard soil depth, density concrete, observable clean reinforcement in the implementation. Monitoring the implementation of, among others, the face of the ground water little reduce in the area and outside the footprint of the building, no impact of vibration drilling equipment, watching the mud content on the water coming out at the time of drilling, concrete volume was monitored each 2 m bore depth of pile, The result researched heritage building was not damage. The test results bore pile axial, lateral analyzed the results have the appropriate force design required.

  12. Logging while drilling keeps horizontal well on small target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leake, J.; Shray, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurement to two resistivities of different characteristics had led to a new interpretation method for the analysis of horizontal wells. By logging deep and shallow resistivity in real-time, marker beds were identified to help maintain well bore trajectory. The resistivity measurements were split into vertical and horizontal components to provide additional information of formation evaluation. In 1945, Ark Fuel Co. discovered and began developing the Olla field on the crest of the La Salle arch in La Salle Parish, La. Oil production comes from the Wilcox formation from alluvial sand packages that range in thickness from 3 ft to 120 ft. Now operated by Oxy U.S.A. Inc., Olla field was chosen in 1990 for a horizontal well pilot project. It was hoped that a horizontal well could alleviate water coming in one of the field's more productive sand packages- the 40-ft Cruse sand

  13. A research for Class II defect Bored Pile’s Accept Criteria: A case of Penang Second Marine bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary research is to study the accept criteria of class II bored pile with subtle defect. According to a detailed comparison of the existed different standards, Chinese ones are more applicable especially for the large diameter bored piles. Through the concrete coring at pile No P25-03 of this case and the comparison to the actual calculation, the Class II pile’s defects were very minor. Comparison was also made for the effects on pile structural capacities before and after repair of the defects. the feasible repair proposal may bring forward to more defects to the piles. The Class II piles don’t need any further repairation when piles have typical of similar character and sonic logging test result with P25-03‘s one. For other Class II piles with some differences in characters, verification is needed through further concrete coring on the pile. The recommendation of this research could be adopted for the similar huge marine structures which installed large diameter bored piles.

  14. Evaluation methods of vibration stress of small bore piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Miki; Sasaki, Toru [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Fatigue fracture by vibration stress is one of the main causes of troubles which occur at small bore piping in nuclear power plants. Therefore at the plants they manage small bore piping using a method in which their vibration accelerations are measured and the vibration stresses are calculated. In this work, vibration tests for two sets of mock-ups simulating actual piping in the plants by sinusoidal oscillation and by that obtained at an actual plant were carried out, and then an evaluation method was developed to obtain proper value of vibration stress from the measured data by the vibration tests. In comparison of the vibration stress obtained from the measured acceleration with that directly measured using strain gauges, it is confirmed that accurate vibration stress can be evaluated by a formula in which the real center of gravity of small bore piping and the acceleration of main (system) piping are considered. (author)

  15. Fiscal 1982 Sunshine Project research report. Development of bore hole measurement technology; 1982 nendo koseinai sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1982 research result on development of measuring instruments for information collection in geothermal bore holes under high-temperature high-pressure conditions. In development of high-temperature well logging cable, the new TFE Teflon insulated well logging cable (3,300m) applicable up to 320 degreesC was prepared. In development of digital well logging system, the data analyzer for edition and analysis of recorded digital logging data, the depth panel with an automatic depth correction mechanism, and the fiber optics controller were prepared. Preparation of the whole digital well logging system was thus completed. Field test was made at 3 wells in 2 geothermal areas. At the test well in Nigori-Gawa area, Hokkaido, performance test was made on the digital well logging system, TFE Teflon well logging cable, and improved winch completed in this fiscal year. At the same time, the radioactive well logging test using radioactive isotope showed the satisfactory result except neutron well logging. (NEDO)

  16. Continuous measurements of in-bore projectile velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Konrad, C.H.; Hall, C.A.; Shahinpoor, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of velocity interferometry to the continuous measurement of in-bore projectile velocity in a small-bore three-stage railgun is described. These measurements are useful for determining projectile acceleration and for evaluating gun performance. The launcher employed in these studies consists of a two-stage light gas gun used to inject projectiles into a railgun for additional acceleration. Results obtained for projectile velocities to 7.4 km/s with the two-stage injector are reported and potential improvements for railgun applications are discussed

  17. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  18. Neutron--neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A borehole logging tool includes a steady-state source of fast neutrons, two epithermal neutron detectors, and two thermal neutron detectors. A count rate meter is connected to each neutron detector. A first ratio detector provides an indication of the porosity of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two epithermal neutron detectors. A second ratio detector provides an indication of both porosity and macroscopic absorption cross section of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two thermal neutron detectors. By comparing the signals of the two ratio detectors, oil bearing zones and salt water bearing zones within the formation being logged can be distinguished and the amount of oil saturation can be determined. 6 claims, 2 figures

  19. Pulsed radiation decay logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    There are provided new and improved well logging processes and systems wherein the detection of secondary radiation is accomplished during a plurality of time windows in a manner to accurately characterize the decay rate of the secondary radiation. The system comprises a well logging tool having a primary pulsed radiation source which emits repetitive time-spaced bursts of primary radiation and detector means for detecting secondary radiation resulting from the primary radiation and producing output signals in response to the detected radiation. A plurality of measuring channels are provided, each of which produces a count rate function representative of signals received from the detector means during successive time windows occurring between the primary radiation bursts. The logging system further comprises means responsive to the measuring channels for producing a plurality of functions representative of the ratios of the radiation count rates measured during adjacent pairs of the time windows. Comparator means function to compare the ratio functions and select at least one of the ratio functions to generate a signal representative of the decay rate of the secondary radiation

  20. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  1. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  2. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Johansson, Aasa

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours

  3. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Structural boring survey work and analysis report (No.B-6 - Tsujinodake area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Cuttings from bores N11-TD-2 and N11-TD-3 drilled for the purpose of confirming the existence of geothermal resources in the Tsujinodake area were examined and tested, and the results of temperature logging, electrical logging, and water injection tests carried out during the structural boring work were analyzed. Activities were conducted in the four fields of (1) test boring work, (2) survey and measurement, (3) core cutting examination, and (4) comprehensive analysis. In bore N11-TD-2 positioned in the northern part of Tsujinodake, a sharp temperature rise was detected in the clay converted alteration zone between 200m above sea level and 200m below sea level. A high temperature of 215 degrees C was recorded at 200m below sea level, and it was found that high temperature geothermal water was in reserve at the bottom of the clay converted alteration zone between 100m above sea level and 200m below sea level. In bore N11-TD-3 in the southern wall of the Ata caldera, a convection type low temperature profile was observed at a shallow level and low temperature convection of underground water was detected there. (NEDO)

  4. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  5. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  6. A finite element thermohydrodynamic analyis of profile bore bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah Nor bin Basri

    1994-01-01

    A finite element-based method is presented for analysing the thermohydrodynamic (THD) behaviour of profile bore bearing. A variational statement for the governing equation is derived and used to formulate a non-linear quadrilateral finite element of serendipity family. The predicted behaviour is compared with experimental evidence where possible and favorable correlation is obtained

  7. Shaft Boring Machine: A method of mechanized vertical shaft excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) is a vertical application of proven rock boring technology. The machine applies a rotating cutter wheel with disk cutters for shaft excavation. The wheel is thrust against the rock by hydraulic cylinders and slews about the shaft bottom as it rotates. Cuttings are removed by a clam shell device similar to conventional shaft mucking and the muck is hoisted by buckets. The entire machine moves down (and up) the shaft through the use of a system of grippers thrust against the shaft wall. These grippers and their associated cylinders also provide the means to maintain verticality and stability of the machine. The machine applies the same principles as tunnel boring machines but in a vertical mode. Other shaft construction activities such as rock bolting, utility installation and shaft concrete lining can be accomplished concurrent with shaft boring. The method is comparable in cost to conventional sinking to a depth of about 460 meters (1500 feet) beyond which the SBM has a clear host advantage. The SBM has a greater advantage in productivity in that it can excavate significantly faster than drill and blast methods

  8. Acoustic Monitoring for Tunnel Boring in Soft Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, G.

    2003-01-01

    The TBM, not a blind mole! This thesis deals with some aspects of seismic imaging of the soft soil in front of a Tunnel Boring Machine to help tunnel constructors ``see'' the subsurface they are approaching, instead of steering the TBM forward like a ``blind mole''. The Dutch shallow subsurface has

  9. Investigation of the structure of filter cakes from bore flushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Poege, S; Young, F

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the tasks and functions of the filter cake in bores, the requirements for filter cakes are explained. The aim of the investigation is finding a correlation between the filter cake structures and the prehistory of flushing. The technique of preparing the samples and previous results from investigations with electron microscopes are introduced and discussed.

  10. Procedure for seismic evaluation and design of small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanin, W.; Sills, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified methods for the seismic design of small bore piping in nuclear power plants have teen used for many years. Various number of designers have developed unique methods to treat the large number of class 2 and 3 small bore piping systems. This practice has led to a proliferation of methods which are not standardized in the industry. These methods are generally based on enveloping the results of rigorous dynamic or conservative static analysis and result in an excessive number of supports and unrealistically high support loadings. Experience and test data have become available which warranted taking another look at the present methods for analysis of small bore piping. A recently completed Electric Power Research Institute and NCIG (a utility group) activity developed a new procedure for the seismic design and evaluation of small bore piping which provides significant safety and cost benefits. The procedure streamlines the approach to inertial stresses, which is the main feature that achieves the new benefits. Criteria in the procedure for seismic anchor movement and support design are based analysis and focus the designer on credible failure mechanisms. A walkdown of the as-constructed piping system to identify and eliminate undesirable piping features such as adverse spatial interaction is required

  11. Method and apparatus for determining the spontaneous earth potential log from downhole gradient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the differential or gradient of an earth variable within a well bore (e.g., the spontaneous earth potential) and producing improved logs of this gradient or differential and its integral variable essentially free of any accumulated instrument and base line drift or error. The differential spontaneous potential of an earth formation traversed by a well bore is measured at repeated multiple depths by moving a pair of closely spaced electrodes through the well bore wherein each electrode is electrically insulated externally from the other and from a third downhole local ground (such as the well tool cable) to which each is internally resistively referenced. The measured electrical potential across the closely spaced electrodes is amplified and digitized before being transmitted to the earth's surface, whereupon an averaged value of such differential measurements within a traveling data window of predetermined length and adjacent to each successive measurement is used to adjust for base line drift, noise and instrument induced error. The resulting compensated differential logs are integrated, resulting in spontaneous potential logs of improved character

  12. Pulse neutron logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Dylyuk, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    A new method of neutron-burst logging is proposed, residing in irradiating rocks with fast neutron bursts and registering the integrated flux burst of thermal and/or epithermal neutrons, from the moment of its initiation to that of full absorption. The obtaained value is representative of the rock properties (porosity, hydrogen content). The integrated flux in a burst of thermal and epithermal neutrons can be measured both by way of activation of a reference sample of a known chemical composition during the neutron burst and by recording the radiation of induced activity of the sample within an interval between two bursts. The proposed method features high informative value, accuracy and efficiency

  13. Features of the electric discharge logging system; Hoden hoshiki jiban tansa system no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, K; Yasuda, N [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Kuniyasu, T; Kanda, K; Tanaka, T

    1997-10-22

    Logging system has been developed, which performs discharge in the water in a bore hole relatively small in diameter. The part of this system to operate in the hole consists of an oscillator that triggers off discharge in the water and an oscillation receiving set that utilizes electrostriction proper to ceramics. The groundborne part of the system is comprised of a probe lift control and logging control. The logging process is carried out by causing discharge in the water in a bore hole filled with water. The energy generated by the oscillator is far greater than that produced in the sonic logging or suspension type logging method, and the wave generated and propagated in the hole is received by the receiving set in the same hole. The result indicates that the P-wave velocity in a hard rockbed is rather high and that values obtained on the spot by this system is quite similar to those obtained from the core sample from the hole. In the case of a rock bed abundant in cracks, thanks to the high S/N ratio such a bed presents and the merits of digital recording, investigations can be minutely conducted. The merit of this system is found in that it can damp the amplitude in dealing with the data collected on the spot. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Analysis of Driven Pile Capacity within Pre-Bored Soil : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Pre-boring is a method used to facilitate large displacement pile driving in hard/dense soils (see Figure 1). By pre-boring a pilot hole, the end bearing and side friction within the pre-bored zone are reduced, thus aiding pile driving installation. ...

  15. Nova Event Logging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliger, R.J.; Suski, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nova is a 200 terawatt, 10-beam High Energy Glass Laser currently under construction at LLNL. This facility, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of laser driven inertial confinement fusion, contains over 5000 elements requiring coordinated control, data acquisition, and analysis functions. The large amounts of data that will be generated must be maintained over the life of the facility. Often the most useful but inaccessible data is that related to time dependent events associated with, for example, operator actions or experiment activity. We have developed an Event Logging System to synchronously record, maintain, and analyze, in part, this data. We see the system as being particularly useful to the physics and engineering staffs of medium and large facilities in that it is entirely separate from experimental apparatus and control devices. The design criteria, implementation, use, and benefits of such a system will be discussed

  16. Querying Workflow Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A business process or workflow is an assembly of tasks that accomplishes a business goal. Business process management is the study of the design, configuration/implementation, enactment and monitoring, analysis, and re-design of workflows. The traditional methodology for the re-design and improvement of workflows relies on the well-known sequence of extract, transform, and load (ETL, data/process warehousing, and online analytical processing (OLAP tools. In this paper, we study the ad hoc queryiny of process enactments for (data-centric business processes, bypassing the traditional methodology for more flexibility in querying. We develop an algebraic query language based on “incident patterns” with four operators inspired from Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN representation, allowing the user to formulate ad hoc queries directly over workflow logs. A formal semantics of this query language, a preliminary query evaluation algorithm, and a group of elementary properties of the operators are provided.

  17. Interpretation of horizontal well production logs: influence of logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Sarica, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Haci, M. [Drilling Measurements, Inc (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of a production-logging tool on wellbore flow rate and pressure measurements was investigated, focusing on the disturbence caused by the production-logging tool and the coiled tubing on the original flow conditions in the wellbore. The investigation was carried out using an analytical model and single-phase liquid flow was assumed. Results showed that the production-logging tool influenced the measurements as shown by the deviation of the original flow-rate, pressure profiles and low-conductivity wellbores. High production rates increase the effect of the production-logging tool. Recovering or inferring the original flow conditions in the wellbore from the production-logging data is a very complex process which cannot be solved easily. For this reason, the conditions under which the information obtained by production-logging is meaningful is of considerable practical interest. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. Evaluation of an advanced rotor bore examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations of in-service turbine-generator rotor forgings are often based on an ultrasonic examination of the near-bore region. A portable rotor bore examination system has been developed that provides discontinuity characterization required for a thorough rotor evaluation. This automated system, its procedures and operations personnel have now been qualified for full-scale field application. System development has benefited from merging several technologies with new methods for precise alignment of the drive unit, calibration block and rotor. The system runs a custom interactive software package that allows for flexible calibration and motion control as well as data acquisition and manipulation. A comprehensive evaluation procedure was developed for system qualification using test specimens with natural and artificial reflectors, including a unique fatigue-crack block. Following a discussion of the system features, this paper discusses the system evaluation based on this procedure

  19. Turbulent mixing and wave radiation in non-Boussinesq internal bores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borden, Zac; Koblitz, Tilman; Meiburg, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Bores, or hydraulic jumps, appear in many natural settings and are useful in many industrial applications. If the densities of the two fluids between which a bore propagates are very different (i.e., water and air), the less dense fluid can be neglected when modeling a bore analytically-a single...... ratio, defined as the ratio of the density of the lighter fluid to the heavier fluid, is greater than approximately one half. For smaller density ratios, undular waves generated at the bore's front dominate over the effects of turbulent mixing, and the expanding layer loses energy across the bore. Based...

  20. External Microflora of a Marine Wood-Boring Isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Paul J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the marine wood-boring isopod Limnoria lignorum were enumerated by acridine orange epifluorescence microscopy and by plate counts on several media; the plate-viable bacteria were isolated and identified. Similar procedures were followed to enumerate and identify bacteria associated with the wood substrate from which the isopods were collected and with the surrounding water from the isopod habitat. Approximately 1.4 × 107 bacterial cells were associated with each indiv...

  1. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  2. Four-layer, two-inch bore, superconducting dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Peters, C.; Gilbert, W.; Taylor, C.; Meuser, R.

    1982-11-01

    Superconductors provide the accelerator designer with a unique opportunity to construct machines that can achieve high particle energies and yet have low operating costs. This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of a 4 layer, 50 mm bore superconducting dipole magnet, D-9A. The magnet reached short sample, 5.8 T at 4.4 K and 8.0 T and 1.8 K, with little training, and exhibited low losses and low ramp rate sensitivity

  3. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-03-31

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  4. Bore erosion due to plasma armatures in EM launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, R.F.; Brown, J.L.; Jensen, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Bore erosion, both to insulators and rails, has been a major concern in the EM Launcher community. Plasma armatures have generally produced both melting and ablation from the rails, with the result that the surface texture of the rails is course and uneven upon resolidification. Ablation evidence for insulators varies with material but mass lose by decomposition appears prevalent. Theoretical models for EML performance, both one and two dimensional, have a strong dependence on armature mass, which is turn is influenced by rail and insulator ablation. Ablation models are strongly dependent on the armature plasma temperature. In order to test the accuracy of models detailed information is needed on the time dependence of the in-bore plasma parameters such as pressure, temperature, and electron density. Previously reported experimental data indicated that mechanisms other than plasma radiation are involved in the ablation process. New experiments have been conducted using a small, square bore (1 cm) facility, 60 cm in length, to quantify the erosions and to relate this to conditions within the armature and possible plasma chemistry processes at the rails and insulators. Mass loss has been measured as a function of position on both the rails and insulators. These have been correlated with the time history of the gas dynamic pressure at that location. In addition, the armature current time history has been correlated with the pressure

  5. Cutting tool for removing materials from well bore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynde, G.D.; Harvey, H.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a cutting tool adapted to be positioned downhole in a well bore for removing a metal member from the well bore; a tool body adapted to be received within said well bore and to be supported at its upper end for rotation about a longitudinal axis; blades at spaced intervals on the body and extending outwardly therefrom, each of the blades having a base with a leading surface relative to the direction of rotation; closely spaced cutting elements of hard cutting material secured to said leading surface of the base in a plurality of transversely extending rows, each cutting element being of a predetermined size and shape and arranged in a predetermined generally symmetrical pattern on the base relative to the other elements, each of said cutting elements having an exposed from cutting face forming a cutting surface, a rear face secured to the leading surface of said base, a peripheral surface extending between said faces, and a relatively sharp edge formed at the juncture of the front face and peripheral surface; the front cutting face of each cutting element being arranged and constructed for directing an extending end portion of a turning cut form said member to effect a breaking of said turning from the member being cut in a predetermined manner to minimize interesting of the turning

  6. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  7. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  8. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-17

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  9. Neutron characteristic and spectroscopy logging methods and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antkiw, S.

    1977-01-01

    Earth formations surrounding a well bore are irradiated with pulses of fast neutrons, and gamma rays resulting from the ensuring thermal neutron capture interactions with nuclei of the formations are detected, from which measurements of the thermal neutron decay times characterizing the respective formations are derived. The gamma ray energy spectra of the respective formations are analyzed. Gating of the gamma ray detection periods is automatically controlled, both for the decay time and the spectroscopy functions, in accrdance with the measured values of the decay times. The duration and repetition rate of the neutron pulses are also controlled as a function of the measured decay times to provide an overall optimized decay time-spectroscopy operating cycle. spectroscopy outputs representative of formation lithology, salinity, porosity and shaliness are developed to supplement and improve decay time log interpretation

  10. Generic methods for design of small-bore pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Large numbers of supports for small-bore, low-temperature pipe are utilized in nuclear power plants. These supports often must meet ASME code and project seismic design requirements. Detailed analysis for each support is time consuming and costly. This paper describes some economical generic methods developed to design and qualify supports for two-inch and smaller pipe operating at temperatures less than 300 0 F (185 0 C), on the Fast Flux Test Facility. Use of standard designs, standard support spacing tables, anchor bolt and baseplate considerations, and field qualification methods are discussed

  11. Grouting guidelines for Hanford Tanks Initiative cone penetrometer borings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatate, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting of an open cone penetrometer (CP) borehole is done to construct a barrier that prevents the vertical migration of fluids and contaminants between geologic units and aquifers intersected by the boring. Whether to grout, the types of grout, and the method of deployment are functions of the site-specific conditions. This report recommends the strategy that should be followed both before and during HTI [Hanford Tanks Initiative] CP deployment to decide specific borehole grouting needs at Hanford SST farms. Topics discussed in this report that bear on this strategy include: Regulatory guidance, hydrogeologic conditions, operational factors, specific CP grouting deployment recommendations

  12. System safety analysis of the Yucca Mountain tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.G.; Booth, L.; Eisler, L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine to be used at Yucca Mountain. This analysis required three steps to complete the risk evaluation: hazard/scenario identification, consequence assessment, and frequency assessment. The result was a 'risk evaluation' of the scenarios identified in this analysis in accordance with MIL-STD-882C. The risk assessment in this analysis characterized the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and included recommendations for mitigating all identified risks

  13. Twin header bore welded steam generator for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.J.; Hirst, B.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator concept, several examples of which have been in service for up to fourteen years. Details are given of the highly successful service record of this equipment and the features which have been incorporated to minimize corrosion and deposition pockets. The design employs a vertical U tube bundle carried off two horizontal headers to which the tubes are welded by the Foster Wheeler Power Products (FWPP) bore welding process. The factors to be considered in uprating the design to meet the current operating conditions for a 1000 MW unit are discussed. (author)

  14. Engineering aspects of radiometric logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Engineering problems encountered in the development of nuclear borehole logging techniques are discussed. Spectrometric techniques require electronic stability of the equipment. In addition the electronics must be capable of handling high count rates of randomly distributed pulses of fast rise time from the detector and the systems must be designed so that precise calibration is possible under field operating conditions. Components of a logging system are discussed in detail. They include the logging probe (electronics, detector, high voltage supply, preamplifier), electronic instrumentation for data collection and processing and auxiliary equipment

  15. Log-balanced combinatorial sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Došlic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider log-convex sequences that satisfy an additional constraint imposed on their rate of growth. We call such sequences log-balanced. It is shown that all such sequences satisfy a pair of double inequalities. Sufficient conditions for log-balancedness are given for the case when the sequence satisfies a two- (or more- term linear recurrence. It is shown that many combinatorially interesting sequences belong to this class, and, as a consequence, that the above-mentioned double inequalities are valid for all of them.

  16. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  17. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  18. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  19. VT Route Log Points 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data layer is used with VTrans' Integrated Route Log System (IRA). It is also used to calibrate the linear referencing systems, including the End-to-End and...

  20. New materials for fireplace logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  1. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  2. Log quality enhancement: A systematic assessment of logging company wellsite performance and log quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnan, R.A.; Mc Hattie, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    To improve the monitoring of logging company performance, computer programs were developed to assess information en masse from log quality check lists completed on wellsite by the service company engineer and Phillips representative. A study of all logging jobs performed by different service companies for Phillips in Oklahoma (panhandle excepted) during 1982 enabled several pertinent and beneficial interpretations to be made. Company A provided the best tool and crew service. Company B incurred an excessive amount of lost time related to tool failure, in particular the neutron-density tool combination. Company C, although used only three times, incurred no lost time. With a reasonable data base valid conclusions were made pertaining, for example, to repeated tool malfunctions. The actual logs were then assessed for quality

  3. Natural gas in 1951: Petroleum in 1951: Logs of wells for 1951. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1954-12-31

    The first part of this report summarises natural gas exploration activity, well drilling, infrastructure changes and improvements, production, distribution, consumption, and leakage during transmission or distribution of natural gas in Ontario. Includes lists of operators licensed to lease, prospect, drill or bore for, produce, and distribute natural gas in the province. The second part summarises oil industry activities, oil production, well drilling, petroleum and refined products imports, and petroleum refining operations. Relevant statistics are provided throughout both parts of the report. Also includes drillers` logs for oil and gas wells completed during the year.

  4. Ion acceleration by laser hole-boring into plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Dover, N. P.; Babzien, M.; Bell, A. R.; Dangor, A. E.; Horbury, T.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Polyanskiy, M.; Schreiber, J.; Schwartz, S.; Shkolnikov, P.; Yakimenko, V.; Najmudin, Z.

    2012-01-01

    By experiment and simulations, we study the interaction of an intense CO 2 laser pulse with slightly overcritical plasmas of fully ionized helium gas. Transverse optical probing is used to show a recession of the front plasma surface with an initial velocity >10 6 m/s driven by hole-boring by the laser pulse and the resulting radiation pressure driven electrostatic shocks. The collisionless shock propagates through the plasma, dissipates into an ion-acoustic solitary wave, and eventually becomes collisional as it slows further. These observations are supported by PIC simulations which prove the conclusion that monoenergetic protons observed in our earlier reported experiment with a hydrogen jet result from ion trapping and reflection from a shock wave driven through the plasma.

  5. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibideau, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 10 6 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  6. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Tsunami Wave Propagation for double layer state in Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, V.; Rajasekaran, S.; Nagarajan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Tsunami wave enters into the river bore in the landslide. Tsunami wave propagation are described in two-layer states. The velocity and amplitude of the tsunami wave propagation are calculated using the double layer. The numerical and analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear equation of motion of the wave propagation in a bore.

  7. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  8. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  9. Looking ahead of a tunnel boring machine with 2-D SH full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisupati, P.B.; Mulder, W.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Reijnen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the near-surface with unconsolidated soils, shear properties can be well imaged, sometimes better than P-wave properties. To facilitate ground prediction ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM), active ‘surveys’ with shear-wave vibrators are carried out during boring. In such surveys, only a few

  10. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for...

  11. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands : Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  12. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal chest drain size: the rise of the small-bore pleural catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Edward T H; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2010-12-01

    Drainage of the pleural space is not a modern concept, but the optimal size of chest drains to use remains debated. Conventional teaching advocates blunt dissection and large-bore tubes; but in recent years, small-bore catheters have gained popularity. In the absence of high-quality randomized data, this review summarizes the available literature on the choice of chest drains. The objective data supporting the use of large-bore tubes is scarce in most pleural diseases. Increasing evidence shows that small-bore catheters induce less pain and are of comparable efficacy to large-bore tubes, including in the management of pleural infection, malignant effusion, and pneumothoraces. The onus now is on those who favor large tubes to produce clinical data to justify the more invasive approach. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  14. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  15. The log S -log N distribution of gamma ray brust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takamasa; Nishimura, Jun; Fujii, Masami

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the size S and the frequency N of gamma ray burst has been studied. This relation may be determined from the celestial distribution of gamma ray burst sources. The present analysis gives that the log S - log N relation for any direction is determined by the celestial distribution of gamma ray burst sources. The observed bursts were analyzed. The celestial distribution of gamma ray burst sources was observed by the satellites of USSR. The results showed that the distribution seemed to be isotropic. However, the calculated log S - log N relation based on the isotropic distribution wasF in disagreement with the observed ones. As the result of analysis, it was found that the observed bursts missed low energy part because of the threshold of detectors. The levels of discrimination of detection were not clear. When a proper threshold level is set for each type of burst, and the size of bursts is determined, the above mentioned discrepancy will be deleted regardless of luminosity and the spatial distribution of bursts. (Kato, T.)

  16. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  17. Borehole logging for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The present text has been prepared taking into account the requirements of both developing countries, which might be at an incipient stage of uranium exploration, and industrialized countries, where more advanced exploration and resource evaluation techniques are commonly in use. While it was felt necessary to include some discussion of exploration concepts and fundamental physical principles underlying various logging methods, it was not the intention of the consultants to provide a thorough, detailed explanation of the various techniques, or even to give a comprehensive listing thereof. However, a list of references has been included, and it is strongly recommended that the serious student of mineral logging consult this list for further guidance

  18. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  19. Logging Work Injuries in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1978-01-01

    Logging accidents are costly. They may bring pain to injured workers, hardship to their families, and higher insurance premiums and lower productivity to their employers. Our analysis of 1,172 injuries in central Appalachia reveals that nearly half of all time lost-and almost all fatalities-resulted from accidents during felling and unloading. The largest proportion of...

  20. Log files for testing usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Teeselink, G.; Siepe, A.H.M.; Pijper, de J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the usefulness of log file analysis as a method to evaluate the usability of individual interface components and their influence on the usability of the overall user interface. We selected a music player as application, with four different interfaces and

  1. Electrical and gamma-ray logging in Gondwana and Tertiary coal fields of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayal, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical and gamma-ray logging have been very useful for identification and accurate determination of depth and thickness of coal seams in Gondwana and Tertiary coal fields of India. The characteristic resistance/resistivity peaks of coal seams in a particular area have been correlated, thus providing a picture of the subsurface structure. Physico-chemical properties of layers or sections of coal seams are responsive to electrical logs. Gamma-ray logs are found to be very useful for correlation and have sometimes been the only logs used in cased and dry boreholes for detection of coal seams. Under favourable conditions a single-point resistance log reveals a detailed picture of the formations and picks up thin coal seams as well as thin shale bands within the coal seam. But in some cases it fails to differentiate between coal and sandstone beds in spite of high contrast in true resistivities. Multi-electrode long-normal and lateral logs are found to be more useful in differentiating such formations because of higher penetration in this system. Long-normal and lateral curves can also be used to determine true resisvity of the formation. But long normal logs cannot pick up thin coal bands and/or thin shale partings within the coal seam because of the 'adjacent bed effect'. Gamma-ray logging can be done in both cased and uncased bore-holes or even in a dry borehole but its resolution for shaly coal or thin coal is not sufficient. Combined study has been found to yield the best results. (Auth.)

  2. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  3. Unsupervised signature extraction from forensic logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, S.M.; Menkovski, V.; Petkovic, M.; Altun, Y.; Das, K.; Mielikäinen, T.; Malerba, D.; Stefanowski, J.; Read, J.; Žitnik, M.; Ceci, M.

    2017-01-01

    Signature extraction is a key part of forensic log analysis. It involves recognizing patterns in log lines such that log lines that originated from the same line of code are grouped together. A log signature consists of immutable parts and mutable parts. The immutable parts define the signature, and

  4. A method of estimating log weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles N. Mann; Hilton H. Lysons

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method of estimating the weights of logs before they are yarded. Knowledge of log weights is required to achieve optimum loading of modern yarding equipment. Truckloads of logs are weighed and measured to obtain a local density index (pounds per cubic foot) for a species of logs. The density index is then used to estimate the weights of...

  5. Nondestructive evaluation for sorting red maple logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2000-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  6. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  7. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  8. Nuclear well logging in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The optimum development of regional and local groundwater resources requires a quantitative evaluation of its aquifers and aquicludes, and of the physical and chemical properties relevant to the recharge to and withdrawal of water from them. If an understanding of the groundwater regime is to be obtained, geological observations at outcrop must be augmented by subsurface measurements of the strata and the waters they contain. Measurements of many hydrological and geological parameters can be made in situ by nuclear geophysical well-logging methods. Very simply, well logging consists of lowering a measuring probe into a well and making a continuous record of the variations of a particular parameter with depth. In most circumstances, repetition of the measurements under differing hydrodynamic conditions results in a better definition of the flow regime in the aquifer. Nuclear well-logging techniques have for some years been capable of solving a number of the sub-surface measurement problems faced by hydrogeologists. However, the present usage of these methods varies from country to country and the literature concerning applications is scattered in the professional journals of several disciplines. The objective of this report is to include in a single reference volume descriptions of the physical principles of nuclear logging methods, their applications to hydrogeological problems and their limitations on a level suitable for the practising hydrologists with a limited knowledge of nuclear physics. The Working Group responsible for compiling the report recommended that it should cover a broad spectrum of hydrogeological investigations and problems. For example, it saw no valid reason to distinguish for the purposes of the report between well-logging applications for water-supply purposes and for water-flooding studies in the petroleum industry. Neutron measurements made for soil-moisture determinations in the unsaturated zone have been specifically omitted, however, as

  9. Simulation of Single Reed Instruments Oscillations Based on Modal Decomposition of Bore and Reed Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fabrice; Debut, Vincent; Kergomard, Jean; Vergez, Christophe; Deblevid, Aude; Guillemain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the sound production in a system made of a bore coupled with a reed valve. Extending previous work (Debut, 2004), the input impedance of the bore is projected on the modes of the air column. The acoustic pressure is therefore calculated as the sum of modal components. The airrrflow blown into the bore is modulated by reed motion, assuming the reed to be a single degree of freedom oscillator. Calculation of self-sustained oscillations controlled by time-varyi...

  10. Persistence motives in irrational decisions to complete a boring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Rise, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    We explored a novel task paradigm where participants from the online work marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk were given the choice to quit or continue an unfinished boring task for identical economic rewards. In Studies 1a and 1b, about half the participants chose to continue (corresponding to an average of 55 and 35 cents in foregone earnings). Participants' self-reported reasons for continuing involved various types of persistence motives, reflecting a desire to persist or complete per se. Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c ruled out the possibility that people continued because they enjoyed the task or believed there were additional rewards for continuing. Study 4 showed that the choice to quit/continue was associated with the manner in which the choice was presented (persistence test vs. decision-making test) and individual differences in dispositional persistence motives. The present data indicate that motivational forces independent of the focal reward may affect intertemporal decisions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Load-deflection characteristics of small bore insulated pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    High temperature LMFBR piping is subject to rapid temperature changes during transient events. Typically, this pipe is supported by specially designed insulated pipe clamps to prevent excessive thermal stress from developing during these transients. The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  12. Uranium logging in earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is provided for assaying the formations surrounding a borehole for uranium. A borehole logging tool cyclically irradiates the formations with neutrons and responds to neutron fluxes produced during the period of time that prompt neutrons are being produced by the neutron fission of uranium in the formations. A borehole calibration tool employs a steady-state (continuous output) neutron source, firstly, to produce a response to neutron fluxes in models having known concentrations of uranium and, secondly, to to produce a response to neutron fluxes in the formations surrounding the borehole. The neutron flux responses of the borehole calibration tool in both the model and the formations surrounding the borehole are utilized to correct the neutron flux response of the borehole logging tool for the effects of epithermal/thermal neutron moderation, scattering, and absorption within the borehole itself

  13. Logística empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Feres Sahid

    1987-01-01

    RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  14. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  15. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  16. Logística empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Sahid

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  17. Neutron capture in borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The use is described of a pulsed source of fast neutrons and a radiation detector to measure the thermal neutron population decay rate in a well logging instrument. The macroscopic neutron absorption cross-section is calculated by taking the natural logarithm of the ratio of the detected radiation counts occurring within two measurement intervals of fixed duration and starting at a fixed time after a neutron burst. (U.K.)

  18. Borehole logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of exploration by drilling as far as Atomic Minerals Division is concerned is to locate the ore zone in the subsurface, draw samples and analyze them for their metal content. The presence of the ore zone is also indicated by gamma-ray logging of the borehole. A gamma-ray detector is lowered in the borehole and precise depth and grade of the ore zone is established. This helps the geologist in correlating the ore horizon with the surface outcrop or the ore zone intercepted in adjoining boreholes and in deciding about further drilling and location of boreholes. Most commonly, total gamma measurements are made although some units capable of measuring the gamma-ray spectrum are also in use. It is possible to know if the mineralization is due to uranium without waiting for the laboratory results. The present write up gives a brief account of the principles, equipment and methods of borehole gamma-ray logging including density and self-potential logging. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  19. THE EFFECT OF WELL-BORE REVERSE FLOW OF FLUID ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... ABSTRACT. Well-bore storage may dominate the bottom-hole pressure profile of ... Type- curve matching is however only accurate when the storage factor .... numerical integration technique ... existence of a measure of well-.

  20. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time......, and various queries about the convex hull in optimal O(log n) worst-case time. The data structure requires O(n) space. Applications of the new dynamic convex hull data structure are improved deterministic algorithms for the k-level problem and the red-blue segment intersection problem where all red and all...

  1. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Jerome Michael

    2012-12-04

    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  2. Seismic response and damping tests of small bore LMFBR piping and supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, D.A.; Anderson, M.J.; Severud, L.K.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Seismic testing and analysis of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small bore piping system is described. Measured responses to simulated seismic excitations are compared with analytical predictions based on NRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and measured system damping values. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers and pipe clamps

  3. Techniques for Interventional MRI Guidance in Closed-Bore Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Efficient image guidance is the basis for minimally invasive interventions. In comparison with X-ray, computed tomography (CT), or ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue contrast without ionizing radiation and is therefore predestined for procedural control. But MRI is also characterized by spatial constraints, electromagnetic interactions, long imaging times, and resulting workflow issues. Although many technical requirements have been met over the years-most notably magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of tools, interventional pulse sequences, and powerful processing hardware and software-there is still a large variety of stand-alone devices and systems for specific procedures only.Stereotactic guidance with the table outside the magnet is common and relies on proper registration of the guiding grids or manipulators to the MR images. Instrument tracking, often by optical sensing, can be added to provide the physicians with proper eye-hand coordination during their navigated approach. Only in very short wide-bore systems, needles can be advanced at the extended arm under near real-time imaging. In standard magnets, control and workflow may be improved by remote operation using robotic or manual driving elements.This work highlights a number of devices and techniques for different interventional settings with a focus on percutaneous, interstitial procedures in different organ regions. The goal is to identify technical and procedural elements that might be relevant for interventional guidance in a broader context, independent of the clinical application given here. Key challenges remain the seamless integration into the interventional workflow, safe clinical translation, and proper cost effectiveness.

  4. Seismic source characterisation of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Brückl, Ewald; Radinger, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method aims at predicting continuously the geological situation ahead of the tunnel without disturbing the construction work. Thereby the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) itself is used as seismic source. The cutting process generates seismic waves radiating into the rock mass and vibrations propagating to the main bearing of the cutter head. These vibrations are monitored and used as pilot signal. For the processing and interpretation it was hypothesized so far that the TBM acts like a single force. To prove this assumption the radiation pattern of several TBM's under construction were investigated. Therefore 3-components geophones were installed at the surface, which were situated directly above the tunnel axes and also with lateral offset. Additional, borehole geophones were placed in the wall of one tube of a two-tube tunnel. The geophones collected the forward and backward radiated wave field, as the TBM, operating in the other tube, passed their positions. The obtained seismic data contains continuous records over a range of 600 m of the TBM position. The offsets vary from 25 m to 400 m and the frequency ranges from 20-250 Hertz. The polarisation of the p-wave and the s-wave and their amplitude ratio were determined and compared with modelled seismograms with different source mechanism. The results show that the description of the source mechanism by a single force can be used as a first order approximation. More complex radiation pattern including tensile forces and several source locations like the transmission of reaction forces over the gripper to the tunnel wall are further tested and addressed.

  5. Cryostat for an well logging probe using a semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapphorn, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    This invention proposes to construct an well logging tool of the type comprising a semiconductor radiation detector devoid of the defects usually observed. This aim is attained by means of a cryostat to cool a semiconductor radiation detector in a restricted space where the temperature is high. It includes a long box dimensioned to pass through a bore hole, a cryogenic chamber housed in the box, a vacuum chamber thermally insulating the cryogenic chamber and placed around it, a semiconductor radiation detector housed in the vacuum chamber in thermal contact with the cryogenic chamber and an active vacuum pump fitted in the box and connected to the vacuum chamber to maintain a vacuum in it. In an improved version, the vacuum pump is fitted outside the cryostat so that it operates independently of the temperature conditions in the cryostat. If the pump needs to be cooled to reduce the gas discharge, it can be fitted inside the cryostat and connected to the cryogenic chamber or a second cryostat can also be provided to cool the pump. The vacuum pump is designed to maintain the vacuum in the thermal insulation vacuum chamber at a desired figure, preferably 10 -4 Torr or under, in order to preserve the integrity of the thermal insulation layer around the cryogenic chamber and thereby extending the efficient operating period of the detector. The cryogenic material used is preferably of fusion resistant type such as Freon 22 [fr

  6. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  7. Neutron borehole logging correction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for logging earth formations traversed by a borehole in which an earth formation is irradiated with neutrons and gamma radiation produced thereby in the formation and in the borehole is detected. A sleeve or shield for capturing neutrons from the borehole and producing gamma radiation characteristic of that capture is provided to give an indication of the contribution of borehole capture events to the total detected gamma radiation. It is then possible to correct from those borehole effects the total detected gamma radiation and any earth formation parameters determined therefrom

  8. Benchmark neutron porosity log calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Michael, M.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations have been made for a benchmark neutron porosity log problem with the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP and the specific purpose Monte Carlo code McDNL. For accuracy and timing comparison purposes the CRAY XMP and MicroVax II computers have been used with these codes. The CRAY has been used for an analog version of the MCNP code while the MicroVax II has been used for the optimized variance reduction versions of both codes. Results indicate that the two codes give the same results within calculated standard deviations. Comparisons are given and discussed for accuracy (precision) and computation times for the two codes

  9. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in..., the employer shall ensure that employees remain clear of areas where logs being dumped could strike...

  10. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity

  11. Liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex on 70-cm wide-bore and 60-cm conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hashido, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the uniformity of fat suppression and image quality between liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex (LAVA-Flex) and LAVA on 60-cm conventional-bore and 70-cm wide-bore 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The uniformity of fat suppression by LAVA-Flex and LAVA was assessed as the efficiency of suppression of superficial fat at the levels of the liver dome, porta, and renal hilum. Percentage standard deviation (%SD) was calculated using the following equation: %SD (%) = 100 × SD of the regions of interest (ROIs)/mean value of the signal intensity (SI) in the ROIs. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast ratio (CR) were calculated. In the LAVA sequence, the %SD in all slices on wide-bore 3.0-T MRI was significantly higher than that on conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI (P 3.0-T MRI.

  12. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  13. Linking log quality with product performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; Robert Ross

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, log grading procedures use visual assessment of defects, in relation to the log scaling diameter, to estimate the yield of lumber that maybe expected from the log. This procedure was satisfactory when structural grades were based only on defect size and location. In recent years, however, structural products have increasingly been graded using a...

  14. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Marco Lentini; Frank Merry; Souza Jr. Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common high-impact conventional and often illegal logging...

  15. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  16. Well logging radioactive detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a well logging instrument of the type having a radioactive logging sub having a sealed chamber and have a radioactive source for emitting radioactive energy into the well formation, the instrument having a radioactive energy detector for detecting gamma rays resulting from the emission of the radioactive energy into the well formation, and means for pressing the sub against the well of the well, an improved Dewar flask for the detector. It comprises: an inner housing formed of titanium and containing the detector; an outer housing formed of titanium, having a cylindrical side wall surrounding the inner housing and separated by a clearance which is evacuated, the outer housing being located within the sealed chamber in the sub of the instrument; a window section formed in the side wall of the outer housing adjacent the detector and on a side of the side wall closest to the wall of the well when the sub is pressed against the wall of the well; and wherein the inner housing has a cylindrical side wall that is of lesser wall thickness than the wall thickness of the side wall of the outer housing other than in the window section

  17. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey report. Structural boring survey work and analysis (No. B-5 - Musadake region); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho - No. B-5 Musadake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    For geothermal development in the Musadake region, Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido, structural boring was carried out and boreholes were inspected. In the structural boring survey, borehole N11-MD-3 was drilled as deep as 2,001.18 m, and borehole N11-MD-4 2001.44 m. Performed or tested for each of the two boreholes were temperature logging, electrical logging, temperature recovery, reinjection, core cutting examination, and so forth. The result of the temperature logging shows that temperature rise is slower at levels deeper than 1280 m in borehole N11-MD-3, with the maximum temperature marking 274 degrees C, and, in borehole N11-MD-4, the maximum temperature is 198 degrees C. No reinjection test is carried out because the ground pressure is too high to allow the replacement of the borehole content with fresh water. Analysis results lead to a conclusion that the hot fluid in this region originates in fossil seawater and in meteoric water, the latter arriving after a long-term permeation process, heated by thermal conduction to 270 degrees C or higher. It is inferred that the geothermal fluid flows in a fissure in the vicinity of the Musadake/Mt. Shitabanupuri fault and a fault orthogonally crossing the said fault for the formation of a high-temperature geothermal storage. (NEDO)

  18. Semi-automatic logarithmic converter of logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dman, Z.A.; Bondar's, V.V.

    1974-01-01

    Semi-automatic logarithmic converter of logging charts. An original semi-automatic converter was developed for use in converting BK resistance logging charts and the time interval, ΔT, of acoustic logs from a linear to a logarithmic scale with a specific ratio for subsequent combining of them with neutron-gamma logging charts in operative interpretation of logging materials by a normalization method. The converter can be used to increase productivity by giving curves different from those obtained in manual, pointwise processing. The equipment operates reliably and is simple in use. (author)

  19. A Universal Logging System for LHCb Online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Fotis; Brarda, Loic; Garnier, Jean-Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-01-01

    A log is recording of system's activity, aimed to help system administrator to traceback an attack, find the causes of a malfunction and generally with troubleshooting. The fact that logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, makes logging system a crucial part of an IT infrastructure. In large scale infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, where quite a few GB of logs are produced daily, it is impossible for a human to review all of these logs. Moreover, a great percentage of them as just n oise . That makes clear that a more automated and sophisticated approach is needed. In this paper, we present a low-cost centralized logging system which allow us to do in-depth analysis of every log.

  20. A neutron well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed neutron well logging system using a sealed off neutron generator tube is provided with a programmable digital neutron output control system. The control system monitors the target beam current and compares a function of this current with a pre-programmed control function to develop a control signal for the neutron generator. The control signal is used in a series regulator to control the average replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. The programmable digital control system of the invention also provides digital control signals as a function of time to provide ion source voltages. This arrangement may be utilized to control neutron pulses durations and repetition rates or to produce other modulated wave forms for intensity modulating the output of the neutron generator as a function of time. (Auth.)

  1. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...... The present paper considers discrete probability models with exact computational properties. In relation to contingency tables this means closed form expressions of the maksimum likelihood estimate and its distribution. The model class includes what is known as decomposable graphicalmodels, which......-hierarchical models, models with structural zeroes, models described by quasi independence and models for level merging. Also, they have a very natural interpretation as they may be formulated by a structured set of conditional independencies between two events given some other event. In relation to contingency...

  2. Well logging, atom and geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, O.

    1994-01-01

    Well logging techniques exploit interactions of gamma photons and neutrons with atoms. Interactions of neutrons of different energies with atoms allow the detection and evaluation of the weight percentage of several elements composing the rocks (C, O, Si, Ca, Fe, S); spectrometry of gamma rays produced by thermal neutron absorption allows for the weight percentage determination of Si, Ca, Fe, S, Cl, H, Ti and Gd, etc. High resolution detectors (germanium doped by Li, at liquid nitrogen temperature) allow the recognition of more elements. Other techniques involving neutrons consist in determining the population in epithermal neutrons at a certain distance of the neutron source (measurement of the hydrogen index). By analyzing the intensity of the gamma flux produced by Compton scattering, the electronic and bulk densities of the rocks are measured. All these data lead to the detection and evaluation of ore deposits (uranium and potassium) and coal, and determination of the lithology, the main minerals composing the rocks, petrophysical properties... 1 fig

  3. Intense Undular Bores on the Autumn Pycnocline of Shelf Waters of the Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, G. I.; Novotryasov, V. V.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.; Permyakov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of field observations of an internal undular bore that were performed in a coastal zone of constant depth in the Sea of Japan are presented. A hydrodynamic model of undular bores is discussed according to which the recorded disturbances of the water medium are an experimental prototype of strongly nonlinear (intense) internal undular bores on the pycnocline of shelf waters of Peter the Great Bay with an intensity close to the limit.

  4. Improvement of the center boring device for the irradiated fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Koji; Onozawa, Atsushi; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Sakuraba, Naotoshi; Shiina, Hidenori; Harada, Akito; Nakata, Masahito [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The power ramp tests performed at JMTR in Oarai R and D Center are objected to study the safety margin of the high burnup fuels. One of the important parameters measured during this test is the center temperature of the fuel pellet. For this measurement, a thermocouple is installed into the hole bored at the pellet center by the center boring device, which can fix the fuel pellet with the frozen CO{sub 2} gas during its boring process. At the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Tokai R and D Center, several improvements were applied for the previous boring device to gain its performance and reliability. The major improvements are the change of the drill bit, modification of the boring process and the optimization of the remote operability. The mock-up test will be performed with the irradiated fuel pellet to confirm the benefit of improvement. This study was conducted under a contract with the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  5. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight

  6. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  7. Straddle packer system design and operation for vertical characterization of open bore holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Bore holes open to large intervals provide groundwater samples and test results which represent an unknown integration of properties throughout the depth of the hole. The State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program is utilizing a custom straddle-packer system to develop a vertical characterization of water chemistry and hydrology in selected open bore holes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report describes the design and operation for bore hole zone isolation, water sampling, and hydrologic testing. To reduce potential influences on in situ water chemistry, the system utilizes chemically inert components to the extent possible. Straddle packer systems are effective in producing representative water samples from isolated formations. Hydrologic testing is limited by the ability to produce a measurable stress on the aquifer in individual formations, and head measurement sensitivity. 4 figs

  8. Development of a screening procedure for vibrational fatigue in small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.K.; Riccardella, P.C.; Gosselin, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the documented fatigue failures in nuclear power plants are caused by high cycle vibrational fatigue. These failures typically occur in socket welded pipe fittings in small bore piping (2 in. nominal diameter and smaller). These failures have been unexpected, and have caused costly, unscheduled outages in some cases. In order to reduce the number of vibrational fatigue failures in operating nuclear power plants, a vibrational fatigue screening procedure has been developed under Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsorship. The purpose of this paper is to describe this procedure, and to discuss topics related to vibrational fatigue failures. These topics include sources of vibration in nuclear power plants, the effect of socket welds on vibrational fatigue failures, vibrational fatigue screening criteria for small bore piping systems, and good design practices for reducing the number of vibrational fatigue failures in small bore piping

  9. California-Nevada uranium logging. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to obtain geophysical logs of industry drill holes to assess the uranium resource potential of geologic formations of interest. The work was part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. The principal objective of the logging program was to determine radioelement grade of formations through natural gamma ray detectors. Supplementary information was obtained from resistivity (R), self-potential (SP), point resistance (RE), and neutron density (NN) logs for formation interpretation. Additional data for log interpretation was obtained from caliper logs, casing schedules, and downhole temperature. This data was obtained from well operators when available, with new logs obtained where not formerly available. This report contains a summary of the project and data obtained to date

  10. Integrity and As-built capacity of bored pile group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.; Huemmer, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of statistical methods to the reliability evaluation of cast-in-place concrete piles. The difficulties associated with pile construction can lead to larger uncertainties than would be associated with normal reinforced concrete structures both due to uncertainty in concrete quality and end bearing capacity. These uncertainties can be dealt with through the use of statistical methods. A statistical model of an individual pile is formulated along with a methodology for determining necessary statistical parameters from results of concrete batch tests, core strength tests and visual logs, sonic geophysical testing methods, and proof tests. Strength models for both static vertical and seismic horizontal loadings are discussed. The overall safety of a pile foundation is dependent upon the distribution of individual pile strength as well as the additional reliability due to the use of a large number of parallel load paths provided by a pile group foundation. The paper presents a mechanical model of global pile behavior which accounts for individual pile ductility along with the possibility of redistribution of loads from weaker to stronger piles. The use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the overall reliability of the pile foundation is discussed. Numerical results for both individual pile behavior as well as overall foundation behavior are presented. (orig.)

  11. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Iordachita, Iulian; Lasso, Andras

    2012-01-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right–left (RP) and anterior–posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior–inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. (paper)

  12. Tunnel boring an alternative method in construction of spent fuel repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Jukka

    1984-05-01

    In projecting of the final disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations a great importance should be paid to the selection of the tunneling method. The environment of the chosen repository area should not be exposed to any but as minor disturbances as possible by the excavation method applied. This study approaches full face tunneling methods as an alternative to conventional drill-and-blast methods in the construction of spent fuel repository tunnels. According to experiences up till now it is obvious, that tunnelboring today is fully capable technically competing with conventional tunneling methods, even in the hardest granitic rocks. The most important advantages, it provides for the construction of repositories, are: The methods does not produce any damage in the surrounding rock. Possibility to use placement techniques, which do not require preparing of additive repository holes for the fuel elements. Saving in the use of expensive filling material. The fact, that tunnel boring in hard rock is an expensive alternative, is still valid. Constuction of straight lined tunnels in unfractured rocks by tunnel boring would cost about 30-40% more than by conventional methods. The lay out arrangement of bored tunnels still have a great influence on tunnel boring machine's economy. Due to this it would be round 40-70% more expensive method in the construction of spent fuel repositories. However intensive development w is being carried out to eliminate these limitations and to make machines more flexible. Future trends in tunnel boring look good at the moment. The number of sold units has been increasing and new applications have widen out during last ten years. Harder and more abrasive rocks can now be bored than ever before and the trend seems to continue. It also looks like the cost difference in the hardest rocks is firmly getting smaller and smaller all the time. (author)

  13. Pembangkitan Data dari Distribusi Log-logistik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aceng Komarudin Mutaqin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Distribusi log-logistik merupakan salah satu distribusi yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk data mutu lingkungan. Makalah ini membahas pembangkitan data dari distribusi log-logistik mulai dari pembangunan algoritme sampai pembuatan program komputer pada perangkat lunak MATLAB. Metode pembangkitan datanya menggunakan metode inverse transform. Ada dua jenis data yang dibangkitkan, yaitu data lengkap dan data tersensor kiri. Dalam makalah ini diberikan contoh data yang dibangkitkan dari distribusi log-logistik.

  14. Separation of amino acids and antibiotics by narrow-bore and normal-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, H P; Plaga, A

    1987-01-16

    The selectivity, efficiency and lifetime of normal- and narrow-bore columns for high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated for the separation and quantification of amino acids and the amino acid-like antibiotics phosphinothricin and phosphinothricylalanylalanine in biological samples. These compounds were determined by an automated pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol reagent and UV detection at 338 nm.

  15. Analysis on pile testing results of post-grouting bored pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    Based on static load test results, the bearing capacity of bored piles with pile-toe and pile-shaft post-grouting has been analyzed. The analysis reveals that: with post-grouting, the interface between pile and surrounding soil are strengthened and the relative sliding displacement in between is reduced; end resistance of pile is enhanced and can be mobilized at earlier stage with smaller sliding displacement. As a result, the performance of bored pile is improved with increased bearing capacity and reduced settlement.

  16. Study on tsunami damage mechanism in Fukushima Prefecture focusing on the generation of bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Shohei; Sato, Shinji; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Sanuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Destruction mechanisms of coastal structures due to the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami were investigated on the basis of field surveys in Fukushima Prefecture. Severe destruction appeared to be developed by the action of breaking bores. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the angle of the tsunami front was an essential parameter for the generation of breaking bores. Larger wave force was observed as the angle of the tsunami front became steeper. Numerical simulation revealed that such a steep tsunami was developed in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture, where the reflection of the preceding tsunami by coastal cliff enhanced the steepness of the largest tsunami. (author)

  17. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  18. Edwin G. Boring: The Historian's Path in the Pages of The American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shawn R

    2017-01-01

    Although he is best known for his classic textbook, A History of Experimental Psychology, Edwin Garrigues Boring published dozens of articles in The American Journal of Psychology and used its various formats to guide the discipline in the early 20th century. This report reviews a small sample of his publications, including obituaries, notes, and experimental articles, and presents them in historical and biographical context. A central objective is to show how Boring shared the values of his structuralist training with the emerging American schools and how time allowed him to reconsider his approach to history and the legacy of his iconic mentor, Edward Bradford Titchener.

  19. SNG-logs at the Bagsvaerd Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsbech, U.

    1992-11-01

    Spectral Natural Gamma-logs (SNG) were taken in old boreholes around Bagsvaerd Lake (Zealand). The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the geologic/lithologic conditions in this region and the potential risks of waste penetration into ground water. Relationship curves for thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations are given. Some special logs which can be useful for evaluating concentration variations or transition forms among various lithological layers are collected. Appendices contain technical information on the boreholes and discussion of differences between results of SNG-logging and the conventional gamma-logging. (EG)

  20. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment...

  1. Simpevarp site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in borehole KSH01A, HSH01, HSH02 and HSH03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Per; Gustafsson, Christer

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the surveys is to both receive information of the borehole itself, and from the rock mass around the borehole. Bore hole radar was used to investigate the nature and the structure of the rock mass located around the boreholes, and BIPS for geological surveying and fracture mapping and orientation. Geophysical logging was used to measure changes in physical properties in the borehole fluid and the bedrock surrounding the boreholes. This field report describes the equipment used as well the measurement procedures. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. Radar data is presented in radargrams and identified reflectors in each borehole are listed in tables. Geophysical logging data is presented in graphs as a function of depth

  2. Simpevarp site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in borehole KSH01A, HSH01, HSH02 and HSH03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Per; Gustafsson, Christer [RAYCON, Malaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the surveys is to both receive information of the borehole itself, and from the rock mass around the borehole. Bore hole radar was used to investigate the nature and the structure of the rock mass located around the boreholes, and BIPS for geological surveying and fracture mapping and orientation. Geophysical logging was used to measure changes in physical properties in the borehole fluid and the bedrock surrounding the boreholes. This field report describes the equipment used as well the measurement procedures. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. Radar data is presented in radargrams and identified reflectors in each borehole are listed in tables. Geophysical logging data is presented in graphs as a function of depth.

  3. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Kusunose, K; Cho, A; Tosha, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T; Yamada, F [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo. Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  5. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David; Matuszyk, Paweł Jerzy; Torres-Verdí n, Carlos; Mora Cordova, Angel; Muga, Ignacio; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method

  6. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  7. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  8. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang

    2008-01-01

    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  9. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  10. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  11. LHCb Online Log Analysis and Maintenance System

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, J-C

    2011-01-01

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. ...

  12. The nuclear magnetic resonance well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumin; Shen Huitang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of the nuclear magnetic resonance logging is described at first. Then its development and its principle is presented. Compared with the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, the magnet techniques is the first question that we must solve in the manufacture of the NMR well logging

  13. A semantic perspective on query log analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; de Rijke, M.; Huurnink, B.; Meij, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present our views on the CLEF log file analysis task. We argue for a task definition that focuses on the semantic enrichment of query logs. In addition, we discuss how additional information about the context in which queries are being made could further our understanding of users’ information

  14. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  15. Data logging system upgrade for Indus accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Merh, B.N.; Agrawal, R.K.; Fatnani, P.; Navathe, C.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accelerator has various subsystems like Magnet Power Supply, Beam Diagnostics and Vacuum etc. which are required to work in a stable manner to ensure required machine performance. Logging of system parameters at a faster rate plays a crucial role in analysing and understanding machine behaviour. Logging all the machine parameters consistently at the rate of typically more than 1 Hz has been the aim of a recent data logging system upgrade. Nearly ten thousand parameters are being logged at varying intervals of one second to one minute in Indus accelerator complex. The present logging scheme is augmented to log all these parameters at a rate equal to or more than 1 Hz. The database schema is designed according to the data type of the parameter. The data is distributed into historical table and intermediate table which comprises of recent data. Machine control applications read the parameter values from the control system and store them into the text files of finite time duration for each sub-system. The logging application of each sub-system passes these text files to database for bulk insertion. The detail design of database, logging scheme and its architecture is presented in the paper. (author)

  16. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  17. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates in general to neutron logging of earth formations, and in particular, to novel apparatus and procedures for determining the validity, or reliability, of data derived at least in part by logging neutron characteristics of earth formations and, if desired, for affording verifiably accurate indications of such data

  18. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates in general to neutron logging of earth formations, and in particular, to novel apparatus and procedures for determining the validity, or reliability, of data derived at least in part by logging neutron characteristics of earth formations and, if desired, for affording verifiably accurate indications of such data. (author)

  19. Logging methods and peeling of Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Schantz-Hansen

    1948-01-01

    The logging of forest products is influenced by many factors, including the size of the trees, density of the stand, the soundness of the trees, size of the area logged, topography and soil, weather conditions, the degree of utilization, the skill of the logger and the equipment used, the distance from market, etc. Each of these factors influences not only the method...

  20. Log Analysis Using Splunk Hadoop Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    23 A. INPUT SELECTION ...Conversion Resource Consumption .............................................. 28 Figure 8. Distribution of Events in Years...running a logging service puts a performance tax on the system and may cause the degradation of performance. More thorough 8 logging will cause a

  1. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  2. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  3. Model wells for nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations needed in the design and construction of model wells for nuclear log calibration are covered, with special attention to neutron porosity logging and total γ-ray logging. Pulsed neutron decay-time and spectral γ-ray logging are discussed briefly. The American Petroleum Institute calibration facility for nuclear logs is a good starting point for similar or expanded facilities. A few of its shortcomings are mentioned; they are minor. The problem of fluid saturation is emphasized. Attention is given to models made of consolidated rock and those containing unconsolidated material such as Ottawa sand. Needed precautions are listed. A similarity method is presented for estimating the porosity index of formations that are not fully saturated. (author)

  4. Processing of gamma-ray spectrometric logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Dumesnil, P.

    1984-10-01

    CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developped a gamma-ray spectrometric tool, containing an analog-to-digital converter. This new tool permits to perform very precise uranium logs (natural gamma-ray spectrometry), neutron activation logs and litho-density logs (gamma-gamma spectrometric logs). Specific processing methods were developped to treate the particular problems of down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Extraction of the characteristic gamma-ray peak, even if they are superposed on the background radiation of very high intensity, is possible. This processing methode enables also to obtain geological informations contained in the continuous background of the spectrum. Computer programs are written in high level language for SIRIUS (VICTOR) and APOLLO computers. Exemples of uranium and neutron activation logs treatment are presented [fr

  5. Frictional effects between Overton sand and a simulated casing for a bore hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were run to simulate the frictional effects between Overton sand and the casing for a bore hole for an underground nuclear test. The objective was to find a description for this frictional interaction which can be applied to an analysis of stemming materials under field conditions

  6. A bayesian nework based risk model for volume loss in soft soils in mechanized bored tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Volume loss is one of the most important risks when boring a tunnel. This is particularly true when a tunnel is being constructed in soft soils. The risk of excessive volume loss, if materialised can lead to large consequences such as damage in buildings on the surface. This paper describes the

  7. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  8. Ultra narrow bore thick film capillaries for microcolumn separations. Part 1. GC experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenackers, D.; Sandra, P.J.F.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1993-01-01

    Ultra narrow bore (50 mum 1.0.) fused silica columns were statically coated with apolar stationary phases to obtain beta values ranging from 6.25 to 50 (filmthickness 2 to 0.25 mum). Performance of the 1 and 2 mum columns in Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC) is highlighted.

  9. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  10. Tunnelling in Soft Soil : Tunnel Boring Machine Operation and Soil Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.; Broere, W.; Bosch, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructing tunnels in soft soil with the use of Tunnel Boring Machines may induce settlements including soil movements ahead of the face, soil relaxation into the tail void, possible heave due to grouting, long lasting consolidation processes, and potentially several other mechanisms. A

  11. Recent development in the design of hard rock tunnel boring machines for the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, L.L.; Williams, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Underground development for nuclear waste storage will possibly require tunnels to be excavated in a variety of rock conditions and configurations. Recent innovations in Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) design have allowed for an evolved style of TBM which has distinct advantages over the standard machines. Present day conventional hard rock TBM's were developed primarily for the long, relatively straight tunnels of the civil construction industry, thereby making them for the most part, unsuitable for the sharp curves, turnouts, declines, inclines and ramps required in many underground environments. The five foot to 36 foot (1.52 to 11 m) diameter machines are capable of boring tunnels with curve radiuses as small as 40 to 90 feet (12.2 to 27.5 m) depending on size. These short turning radiuses can be accomplished while gripping the tunnel walls horizontally in the traditional manner or vertically as required when intersecting existing tunnels, or making turnouts from the tunnel that the machine has just bored. The machine's length is approximately half of a traditional machine's length while still employing a full measure of thrust, horsepower and rock cutting ability. The machine's short length, combined with a patented machine structure allows it to steer while boring without causing harmful eccentric loads on the cutterhead and main bearing assembly. The machine configuration is versatile and can be easily modified to operate in a wide variety of conditions

  12. On the Interaction between a Tunnel Boring Machine and the Surrounding Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis investigates the mechanical equilibrium of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) driving in soft soil. The interaction between the TBM-shield and the soil is also investigated. The analysis is based on monitoring data gathered during the construction of the Hubertus tunnel in The Hague,

  13. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  14. A Shear-Wave Seismic System to Look Ahead of a Tunnel Boring Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Mulder, W.A.; Tscharner, Thomas; Jenneskens, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s properties, composition and structure ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) should be mapped for hazard assessment during excavation. We study the use of seismic-exploration techniques for this purpose. We focus on a seismic system for soft soils, where shear waves are better and easier

  15. Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    properties of the gun bore materials. Ideally, well validated interior ballistics modeling has been carried out (typically with NOVA) to provide time...03002, February 2003. 5. J. Warrender, C. Mulligan, and J. Underwood , “Analysis of thermo-mechanical cracking in refractory coatings using variable pulse duration laser pulse heating,” Wear 263 1540 (2007).

  16. An Account on marine wood-boring organisms of offshore waters of Bombay High, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Raveendran, T.V.

    An incidence of wood-boring organisms in a water column of 75 meters depth, 160 km off the Bombay coast is reported. The destruction of untreated panels of mango wood exposed for periods varying from 1-12 months was caused by eight species...

  17. Stakeout electronic total station construction layout boring of the experience and precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Electronic total station can simultaneously measure angle and distance, together with the appropriate calculation methods and operating skills, able to efficiently complete the survey work, this paper based on practical experience, theoretical analysis, based on total station introduced in setting out a few boring in the skills and the measurement of total station in the construction layout for accuracy. (authors)

  18. Mechanics of Cutting and Boring. Part 7. Dynamics and Energetics of Axial Rotation Machines,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    systematic analytical scheme that can be used to facilitate future work on the mechanics of cutting and boring machines. In the industrial sector, rock...Proceedings. Chapter 66, p. 1149-1158. Mellor, M. and I. Hawkes (1972) How to rate a hard-rock borer. World Construction, Sept, p. 21-23. (Also in Ingenieria

  19. Evidence of cellulose digestion in the wood boring isopod Sphaeroma terebrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori K. Benson; Stanley A. Rice; Bruce R. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Sphaeroma terebrans Bate is a widespread estuarine, wood-boring, isopod found in red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) forests of tropical and subtropical estuarine waters. Because it causes extensive damage to man-made structures in marine coastal zones and is resistant to common methods of wood preservation it is important to understand fully how S. terebrans uses the...

  20. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling : The Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  1. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantera K, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief escription of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  2. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...

  3. Processing well logging data, for example for verification and calibration of well logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suau, J.; Boutemy, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of machine processing well logging data derived from borehole exploring devices which investigate earth formations traversed by boreholes. The method can be used for verifying and recalibrating logs, reconstructing missing logs and combining the data to form a statistical model of the traversed earth formations. (U.K.)

  4. Feasibility studies of a carbon/oxygen logging tool for evaluating the CO2 content of the medium in nuclear device containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Glasgow, J.E.

    1983-12-01

    The feasibility of using oil-well bore-hole logging techniques for assaying the carbonate content of a potential shot site has been investigated. The procedure makes use of the detection of the 4439-keV γ ray of carbon and the 6130-keV γ ray of oxygen produced by the inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in the bore-hole medium. For the needs of the containment program, a sensitivity of detection of CO 2 to less than or equal to 0.02 weight fraction must be achieved. Laboratory measurements indicate that only with considerable development effort could a tool be made that would come close to achieving this goal

  5. Empyema and Effusion: Outcome of Image-Guided Small-Bore Catheter Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, A. N.; Leong, S.; Logan, P. M.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Empyema and complicated pleural effusion represent common medical problems. Current treatment options are multiple. The purpose of this study was to access the outcome of image-guided, small-bore catheter drainage of empyema and effusion. We evaluated 93 small-bore catheters in 82 patients with pleural effusion (n = 30) or empyema (n = 52), over a 2-year period. Image guidance was with ultrasound (US; n = 56) and CT (n = 37). All patients were followed clinically, with catheter dwell times, catheter outcome, pleural fluid outcome, reinsertion rates, and need for urokinase or surgery recorded. Ninety-three small-bore chest drains (mean=10.2 Fr; range, 8.2-12.2 Fr) were inserted, with an average dwell time of 7.81 days for empyemas and 7.14 days for effusions (p > 0.05). Elective removal rates (73% empyema vs 86% effusions) and dislodgement rates (12% empyema vs 13% effusions) were similar for both groups. Eight percent of catheters became blocked and 17% necessitated reinsertion in empyemas, with no catheters blocked or requiring reinsertion in effusions (p < 0.05). Thirty-two patients (51%) required urokinase in the empyema group, versus 2 patients (6%) in the effusion group (p < 0.05). All treatment failures, requiring surgery, occurred in the empyema group (19%; n = 12; p < 0.05). In conclusion, noninfected pleural collections are adequately treated with small-bore catheters, however, empyemas have a failure rate of 19%. The threshold for using urokinase and larger-bore catheters should be low in empyema

  6. Preliminary Study for Development of Welds Integrity Verification Equipment for the Small Bore Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Geun Suk; Lee, Jong Eun; Ryu, Jung Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Youn; Sohn, Myoung Sung; Lee, Sanghoon; Sung, Gi Ho; Cho, Hong Seok

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported leakage accident of small-bore piping in Korea. Leakage accident of small-bore pipes are those that will increase due to the aging of the nuclear power plant. And if leakage of the pipe is repaired by using the clamping device when it occur accident, it is economically benefits. The clamping device is a fastening device used to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. However, when the accident occurs, it can't immediately respond because maintenance and repairing technology are not institutionalized in KEPIC. Thus it appears an economic loss. The technology for corresponding thereto is necessary for the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. The purpose of this research is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe in the nuclear power plant. Specifically, detailed studies are as follows : • Development of weld overlay method of safety class socket welded connections • Development of Mechanical Clamping Devices for Safety Class 2, 3 small-bore pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe, resulting in degraded plant systems. And it is necessary to institutionalize the technology. The fatigue crack testing of socket welded overlay will be performed and fatigue life evaluation method will be developed in second year. Also prototype fabrication of mechanical clamping device will be completed. Base on final goal, the intent is to propose practical evaluation tools, design and fabrication methods for socket welded connection integrity. And result of this study is to development of KEPIC code case approved technology for on-line repairing system of socket welded connection and fabrication of mechanical clamping device

  7. Development of Inspection Technique for Socket Weld of Small Bore Piping in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byungsik; Kim, Yongsik; Lee, Jeongseok

    2013-01-01

    The losses incurred by unplanned shutdowns are significant; consequently, early crack initiation and crack detection, including the detection of fillet weld manufacturing defects, is of the utmost importance. Current inspection techniques are not capable of reliably inspecting socket welds; therefore, new approaches are needed. The new technique must be sensitive to socket weld cracking, which usually initiates from the root, in order to detect the cracking during the early failure phase. In 2008, Kori unit 3 experienced leakage from the drain line socket weld of a steam generator. From this experience, KHNP enforced a management program to focus on enhancing the reliability of small bore socket weld piping inspections. Currently, conventional manual ultrasonic inspection techniques are used to detect service induced fatigue cracks. But there was uncertainty on manual ultrasonic inspection because of limited access to the welds and difficulties with contact between the ultrasonic probe and the OD surface of small bore piping. In this study, phased array ultrasonic inspection techniques are applied to increase inspection speed and reliability. Additionally a manually encoded scanner has been developed to enhance contact conditions and maintain constant signal quality. A phased array UT technique and system was developed to inspect small bore socket welds. The experimental results show all artificial flaws in the specimen were detected and measured. These experimental results show, that the newly developed inspection system, has improved the reliability and speed of small bore socket weld inspection. Based on these results, future works shall focus on additional experiments, with more realistic flaw responses. By applying this technique to the field, we expect that it can improve the integrity of small bore piping in nuclear power plants

  8. Navigated MRI-guided liver biopsies in a closed-bore scanner: experience in 52 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Michael; Heinig, Susann; Garnov, Nikita; Fuchs, Jochen; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Seider, Daniel; Brandmaier, Philipp; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate clinical effectiveness and diagnostic efficiency of a navigation device for MR-guided biopsies of focal liver lesions in a closed-bore scanner. In 52 patients, 55 biopsies were performed. An add-on MR navigation system with optical instrument tracking was used for image guidance and biopsy device insertion outside the bore. Fast control imaging allowed visualization of the true needle position at any time. The biopsy workflow and procedure duration were recorded. Histological analysis and clinical course/outcome were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. Fifty-four of 55 liver biopsies were performed successfully with the system. No major and four minor complications occurred. Mean tumour size was 23 ± 14 mm and the skin-to-target length ranged from 22 to 177 mm. In 39 cases, access path was double oblique. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 88 %, 100 % and 92 %, respectively. The mean procedure time was 51 ± 12 min, whereas the puncture itself lasted 16 ± 6 min. On average, four control scans were taken. Using this navigation device, biopsies of poorly visible and difficult accessible liver lesions could be performed safely and reliably in a closed-bore MRI scanner. The system can be easily implemented in clinical routine workflow. • Targeted liver biopsies could be reliably performed in a closed-bore MRI. • The navigation system allows for image guidance outside of the scanner bore. • Assisted MRI-guided biopsies are helpful for focal lesions with a difficult access. • Successful integration of the method in clinical workflow was shown. • Subsequent system installation in an existing MRI environment is feasible.

  9. Flow and turbulence structure in a hypertidal estuary with the world's biggest tidal bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junbiao; Fan, Daidu

    2017-04-01

    Turbulent and flow structure associated with breaking tidal bores are deliberately investigated on the basis of field measurements. High-resolution velocity and hydrographic data are collected in the middle Qiantang Estuary by a vertical array of acoustic Doppler velocimeters and optical backscatter sensors, collaborated with a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. Besides obvious variations in diurnal and spring-neap tidal cycles, the estuarine dynamics is featured by extreme asymmetry in flood and ebb tides. The flood tide is abnormally accelerated to generate tidal bores at the first 10 min or more, with breaking or undular configurations at the front. The occurrence of peak flow velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) is definitely associated with breaking bores, with their values several times to 2 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding secondary peak values during the maximum ebb flows. Flow and turbulence dynamics are significantly affected by the tidal-bore Froude number. A sandwich ɛ structure is clear exhibited with the maximum value at the surface, secondary maximum near the bed, and the minimum at the intermediate. Dual TKE sources are indicated by an approximate local balance between shear production and dissipation near the bottom, and a top-down TKE dissipation using the modified Froude scaling in the vertical water column. The highly elevated dissipation by breaking bores is comparable to that by intense breaking waves in the surf zone, and the former potentially penetrates the entire water column to produce extreme sediment-resuspension events in combination with intense bottom shear stress.

  10. Logística del transporte

    OpenAIRE

    Robusté Antón, Francesc

    2005-01-01

    La logística se ha conformado como un proceso estratégico para organizar las actividades de producción y de distribución de las empresas. El concepto de sistema logístico ha incluido un amplio espectro de operaciones que condicionan la eficiencia y la competitividad empresarial en el actual contexto de globalización de la economía. En este sentido, este libro afronta y analiza los distintos aspectos que inciden en los procesos de planificación y gestión de los procesos logísticos relacionados...

  11. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  12. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  13. Drilling and logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews drilling and logging practices in exploration of uranium ores and summarizes the papers presented in the panel meeting. Recommendations for further research and development are given

  14. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for verifying the validity of data derived at least in part by neutron logging of earth formations, and, where indicated, for affording neutron diffusion-corrected values of such data, are disclosed. (WHK)

  15. Nuclear log interpretation by first principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-07-01

    A weakness connected to the present interpretation of nuclear borehole logs is that the interdependence of the various logs and physical effects of importance for the tools are not always taken into account in a correct way. Therefore a new approach to the interpretation of nuclear borehole logs is considered. It is based on the logs obtained with the natural gamma, the neutron porosity, the gamma density, and the pulsed neutron tools. For each of these tools a model, taking into account the important physical effects, is established. These models are incorporated into a computer programme which from the tool signals calculates, by use of iteration, a consistent set of the corresponding formation properties. In the paper the models developed for the four tools and the interpretation programme are briefly described. An example of the use of the interpretation programme is given and compared with a conventional interpretation. (author)

  16. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  17. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  18. Well Logging Equipment Updated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lili

    1996-01-01

    @@ As one of the ten principal disciplines in the petroleum industry, well logging has been developed for about 55years in China and is playing an increasingly important role in the country's oil and gas exploration and development.

  19. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  20. Nuclear borehole logging for oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor physics can be applied to the logging of boreholes for the exploration of oil and gas and the results obtained can be interpreted more correctly by use of reactor physics models, e.g. one-dimensional multi-group diffusion theory adapted for gamma quanta. The standard nuclear logging tools are: natural gamma, gamma density, neutron porosity and the pulsed-neutron tool. The models and interpretation procedures are discussed. 1 fig

  1. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  2. Defect core detection in radiata pine logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Internal defect cores in Pinus radiata logs arise primarily from the practice in New Zealand of pruning trees to increase the amount of clear wood. Realising the benefits of this practice when milling the logs is hampered by the lack of a practical method for detecting the defect cores. This report attempts to establish industry requirements for detections and examine techniques which may be suitable. Some trials of a novel technique are described. (author) 19 refs.; 11 figs

  3. Modeling Precipitation Extremes using Log-Histospline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. K.; Nychka, D. W.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    One of the commonly used approaches to modeling univariate extremes is the peaks-overthreshold (POT) method. The POT method models exceedances over a (sufficiently high/low) threshold as a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD). To apply this method, a threshold has to be chosen and the estimates might be sensitive to the chosen threshold. Here we propose an alternative, the "Log-Histospline", to explore modeling the tail behavior and the remainder of the density in one step using the full range of the data. Log-Histospline applies a smoothing spline model on a finely binned histogram of the log transformed data to estimate its log density. By construction, we are able to preserve the polynomial upper tail behavior, a feature commonly observed in geophysical observations. The Log-Histospline can be extended to the spatial setting by treating the marginal (log) density at each location as spatially indexed functional data, and perform a dimension reduction and spatial smoothing. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing precipitation data from regional climate model output (North American Regional Climate Change and Assessment Program (NARCCAP)).

  4. On the derivation of a creep law from isothermal bore hole convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Mengelers, J.H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some analytical as well as numerical aspects relevant to the creep behaviour of cavity-like structures in salt domes are presented. Two finite element models are presented for the modelling of the bore hole configuration, both dealing with the problem of a correct choice of the amount of salts which must be taken into account. A numerical procedure is suggested to derive a material creep law from measured bore hole convergence. This procedure is applied on convergence measurement in the ASSE mine (Germany) leading to a secondary creep law (depsilon/dt)sup(c)=8.8x10 -11 sigmasup(5.5) (sigma in MPa, (depsilon/dt)sup(c) in days -1 ) which describes the transient convergence behaviour correctly. Some questions concerning the uniqueness of the derived creep law are discussed

  5. A study of the complications of small bore 'Seldinger' intercostal chest drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen E; Merchant, Shairoz; McGown, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Use of small bore chest drains (drainage over a 12-month period. One hundred consecutive small bore Seldinger (12F) chest drain insertions were evaluated. Few serious complications occurred. However, 21% of the chest drains were displaced ('fell out') and 9% of the drains became blocked. This contributed to high morbidity rates, with 13% of patients requiring repeat pleural procedures. The frequency of drain blockage in pleural effusion was reduced by administration of regular normal saline drain flushes (odds ratio for blockage in flushed drains compared with non-flushed drains 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.37, P < 0.001). Regular chest drain flushes are advocated in order to reduce rates of drain blockage, and further studies are needed to determine optimal fixation strategies that may reduce associated patient morbidity.

  6. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  7. In-Bore MR-Guided Biopsy Systems and Utility of PI-RADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald; Yakar, Derya

    2016-06-01

    A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and patients with at least 1 negative biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilized for tumor detection and subsequent targeting. Several commercial devices are now available for targeted prostate biopsy ranging from transrectal ultrasound-MR fusion biopsy to in bore MR-guided biopsy. In this review, we will give an update on the current status of in-bore MRI-guided biopsy systems and discuss value of prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PIRADS).

  8. Retained foreign body following pleural drainage with a small-bore catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddle, Alenka; Elahi, Maqsood; Newcomb, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Small-bore radiopaque drains can be used to drain pleural effusions. They offer reliable drainage of simple pleural effusions and provide a safe, less-invasive, more comfortable alternative to the standard tube thoracostomy. Importantly, removal of such drains does not require purse-string sutures and hence can be removed without assistance. We report here the cautionary tale of a retained foreign body related to drainage of a pleural effusion with a Pleurocath in a patient following cardiac surgery to raise awareness of this potential complication. Emphasized is the need for all staff to be familiar with the normal appearance of equipment being utilized in the ward and to report when incomplete removal of drain equipment is suspected. In addition, amendments to insertion techniques for such small-bore drains are proposed to avoid similar undue complications.

  9. Seismic damping factors of small-bore piping as influenced by insulation and support elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic damping tests of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small-bore piping system is described, and measured transient responses to pulse excitations are reported. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small-bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test fame by prototypic dead-weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and pipe clamps. Various support configurations were tested to assess the reponse sensitivity to insulation and use of mechanical snubbers. Factors much higher than the magnitudes currently allowed in design, by the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61, were found. This verified the design values but also pointed out the possibility of undue conservatism and costly overdesign resulting from use of the present design values

  10. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Changhai; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Aihua, E-mail: aihuadeng1985@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liu, Jiansheng, E-mail: michaeljs-liu@siom.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  11. Tubular bending and pull-out forces in high-curvature well bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dareing, D.W.; Ahlers, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with drag forces developed on tubulars in high-curvature well bores typically found in drainhole and horizontal drilling. The dog-leg severity of these types of boreholes are considerably higher than those typically found in conventional directional drilling. The objective of the study was to determine the significance of bending stiffness on drag forces in the pull-out mode. The method of analysis treats the tubular as a multi-spanned curved beam under tension and solves for radial displacements, slope, shear and bending moment over each span. Calculations show that bending stiffness is a minor factor provided there are no locally severe dog legs superimposed in the high-curvature well bore

  12. Compact and air-transportable ultrasonic turbine disc bore inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.E.; Leon-Salamanca, T.

    1990-01-01

    A compact, lightweight, air-transportable ultrasonic inspection system for bore and keyway regions of shrunk-on turbine discs has been developed. The system utilizes a proprietary ultrasound liquid coupling technique in conjunction with a single pair of gimballed search units to achieve rapid and thorough coverage of bores and keyways in both heavy nuclear and standard fossil discs of nearly any size and having any conceivable web surface contour. Search unit positioning and angulation parameter settings are established in near real-time through a computation algorithm based on a compact vector ray tracing protocol. Modular construction and the use of lightweight, stiff materials throughout facilitates air shipment of the system and its rapid deployment at continental and overseas field sites. Mechanical and ultrasonic features of the system are described. Development and application of the computation algorithm to the ultrasonic inspection of heavy discs at an overseas power station is discussed

  13. Seismic damping factors of small bore piping as influenced by insulation and support elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic damping tests of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small bore piping system is described, and measured transient responses to pulse excitations are reported. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and pipe clamps. Various support configurations were tested to assess the response sensitivity to insulation and other nonlinear support characteristics. Damping factors increased significantly due to the insulation and use of mechanical snubbers. Factors much higher than the magnitudes currently allowed in design by the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61, were found. This verified the design values, and it also pointed out the possibility of undue conservatism and costly overdesign resulting from use of the present design values

  14. Seismic damping factors of small bore piping as influenced by insulation and support elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Barta, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic damping tests of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small bore piping system is described, and measured transient responses to pulse excitations are reported. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and pipe clamps. Various support configurations were tested to assess the response sensitivity to insulation and other nonlinear support characteristics. Damping factors increased significantly due to the insulation and use of mechanical snubbers. Factors much higher than the magnitudes currently allowed in design, by the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61, were found. This verified the design values but also pointed out the possibility of undue conservatism and costly overdesign resulting from use of the present design values

  15. Catastrophic failure of a raise boring machine during underground reaming operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, A

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available rights reserved. 1. INTRODUCTION The process of raise boring (or back reaming) has been in use for over 30 years, and has proved to be a very successful technique in underground mining operations. Its primary use... the overhaul, the equipment was moved from its underground location to the surface. All the drive head bolts were replaced. A cutaway diagram of the drive head installation, showing the relative positions of the cover, drive...

  16. Prechamber ignition concepts for stationary large bore gas engines; Vorkammerzuendkonzepte fuer stationaer betriebene Grossgasmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Christoph [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany); Kammerstaetter, Stefan; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2012-01-15

    A testing facility for the optical investigation of ignition and combustion in large bore gas engines is described. The test rig was developed at the Institute of Thermodynamics at Technical University of Munich. Core element of the setup is an optically accessible high pressure combustion cell which can be charged, ignited, and discharged repeatedly according to the cycle times of a real engine. Until now the apparatus was used for the investigation of two different prechamber concepts. (orig.)

  17. On the testing fast response NPP's valves of large nominal bores and high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorov, A.P.; Ostretsov, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Investigation technique for valves of large norminal bores and high parameters which is based on application of simulation effect for operation and accident loadings during movement of valve lock at bench tests with medium flow rate by 100-1000 times less than during operation is given. Loading simulation technique is provided using simulator of lock loading. Investigation results are essential to make decision concerning advisability of serial production of fittings without full-scale test conducting

  18. Development of Managing Program for Small Bore Piping Socket Weld on the Secondary System of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Min; Ryu, Jong Myeong; Cho, Hong Seok; Cho, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Hoon; Kim, Man Hee

    2011-01-01

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at steam generator drain line socket weld on June 6th, 2008. The cause of socket weld damage was known as welding defect and fatigue by vibration under normal operation. With above reason, the government has been required developing management program for small bore piping socket weld. Therefore, we have developed the socket weld management program to secure reliability and soundness of socket welds which are located at all domestic NPPs

  19. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  20. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. An innovative jet boring mining method available for the high grade uranium ore underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcy, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An innovative mining method, based on the capability of a high pressure water jet to desaggregate rock, has been conceived and tested with success at the highest grade uranium ore deposit in the world, the Cigar Lake deposit in Saskatchewan, Canada. 113 tonnes of ore at 13% U were mined out by a new jet-boring mining method operated on a semi-industrial basis, in 1992 during the test mining program of Cigar Lake Project. (author). 9 figs

  2. High Frequency Field Measurements of an Undular Bore Using a 2D LiDAR Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary wave field associated with undular tidal bores (known as whelps has been barely studied in field conditions: the wave field can be strongly non-hydrostatic, and the turbidity is generally high. In situ measurements based on pressure or acoustic signals can therefore be limited or inadequate. The intermittent nature of this process in the field and the complications encountered in the downscaling to laboratory conditions also render its study difficult. Here, we present a new methodology based on LiDAR technology to provide high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of the free surface of an undular tidal bore. A wave-by-wave analysis is performed on the whelps, and comparisons between LiDAR, acoustic and pressure-derived measurements are used to quantify the non-hydrostatic nature of this phenomenon. A correction based on linear wave theory applied on individual wave properties improves the results from the pressure transducer (Root mean square error, R M S E of 0 . 19 m against 0 . 38 m; however, more robust data is obtained from an upwards-looking acoustic sensor despite high turbidity during the passage of the whelps ( R M S E of 0 . 05 m. Finally, the LiDAR scanner provides the unique possibility to study the wave geometry: the distribution of measured wave height, period, celerity, steepness and wavelength are presented. It is found that the highest wave from the whelps can be steeper than the bore front, explaining why breaking events are sometimes observed in the secondary wave field of undular tidal bores.

  3. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of boring cores obtained from regional hydrological study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ken

    2010-02-01

    We measured the magnetic susceptibility of boring cores obtained from the Regional Hydrological Study Project to interpret the aeromagnetic survey data which was carried out in Tono area with about 40km square surrounding Tono Geoscience Center. The result of measurements indicates that the magnetic susceptibility of the Toki Granite is not distributed uniformly and the maximum value becomes two orders in magnitude larger than its minimum value. (author)

  4. Estimation of strength parameters of small-bore metal-polymer pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaydakov, V. V.; Chernova, K. V.; Penzin, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents results from a set of laboratory studies of strength parameters of small-bore metal-polymer pipes of type TG-5/15. A wave method was used to estimate the provisional modulus of elasticity of the metal-polymer material of the pipes. Longitudinal deformation, transverse deformation and leak-off pressure were determined experimentally, with considerations for mechanical damage and pipe bend.

  5. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  6. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia; Zuo, Jian; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  7. Chatter reduction in boring process by using piezoelectric shunt damping with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ufuk; Cigeroglu, Ender; Budak, Erhan

    2017-09-01

    Chatter is a self-excited type of vibration that develops during machining due to process-structure dynamic interactions resulting in modulated chip thickness. Chatter is an important problem as it results in poor surface quality, reduced productivity and tool life. The stability of a cutting process is strongly influenced by the frequency response function (FRF) at the cutting point. In this study, the effect of piezoelectric shunt damping on chatter vibrations in a boring process is studied. In piezoelectric shunt damping method, an electrical impedance is connected to a piezoelectric transducer which is bonded on cutting tool. Electrical impedance of the circuit consisting of piezoceramic transducer and passive shunt is tuned to the desired natural frequency of the cutting tool in order to maximize damping. The optimum damping is achieved in analytical and finite element models (FEM) by using a genetic algorithm focusing on the real part of the tool point FRF rather than the amplitude. Later, a practical boring bar is considered where the optimum circuit parameters are obtained by the FEM. Afterwards, the effect of the optimized piezoelectric shunt damping on the dynamic rigidity and absolute stability limit of the cutting process are investigated experimentally by modal analysis and cutting tests. It is both theoretically and experimentally shown that application of piezoelectric shunt damping results in a significant increase in the absolute stability limit in boring operations.

  8. A Dual Operational Refrigerator/Flow Cryostat with Wide Bore Medium Field Magnet for Application Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Yang, Y.; Chappell, S.; Twin, A.

    Since stand alone cryocooler systems have become more widely available, there has been increased commercial interest in superconductor applications in the temperature range intermediate to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. There are however few facilities that have large in-field bore size with variable temperatures. A large bore system can reduce costs associated with full scale demonstration magnets by testing smaller coils and qualify medium length (up to meters) conductors. A 5 T, wide bore, (170 mm) Nb3Sn Oxford Instrument magnet has been integrated into a custom built dual mode refrigerator/helium flow cryostat with 600A HTS current leads. In one mode the system can be used with zero field without cost of liquid helium relying for cooling on a Sumitomo GM cryocooler with 1.5W at 4.2K: (no He) this can be used either as the sole characterisation method, or as a preliminary check before more expensive and extensive measurements are taken. The first measurements using MgB2 wire from 10 to 20K were made using a transient current step of ∼5s duration, as opposed to a DC measurement. This has the advantage of not requiring thermal equilibrium to be achieved at nominal current. The feasibility of this technique for determining critical transport properties is discussed.

  9. Chemical and mechanical bioerosion of boring sponges from Mexican Pacific coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Carballo, José Luis

    2008-09-01

    Species richness (S) and frequency of invasion (IF) by boring sponges on living colonies of Pocillopora spp. from National Park Isla Isabel (México, East Pacific Ocean) are presented. Twelve species belonging to the genera Aka, Cliona, Pione, Thoosa and Spheciospongia were found, and 56% of coral colonies were invaded by boring sponges, with Cliona vermifera Hancock 1867 being the most abundant species (30%). Carbonate dissolution rate and sediment production were quantified for C. vermifera and Cliona flavifodina Rützler 1974. Both species exhibited similar rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution (1.2+/-0.4 and 0.5+/-0.2 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively, mean +/- s.e.m.), and sediment production (3.3+/-0.6 and 4.6+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1)), resulting in mean bioerosion rates of 4.5+/-0.9 and 5.1+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively. These bioerosion rates are close to previous records of coral calcification per unit of area, suggesting that sponge bioerosion alone can promote disequilibrium in the reef accretion/destruction ratio in localities that are heavily invaded by boring sponges. The proportion of dissolved material by C. vermifera and C. flavifodina (27 and 10.2%, respectively) confirms that chemical bioerosion plays an important role in sponge bioerosion and in the CaCO3 cycle in coral reefs.

  10. West Germany's super-deep boring project KTB. To make thw world deepest dream come true

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, Tetsuro [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, (Japan)

    1989-07-01

    West Germany has started a project of the world deepest boring of 14km depth which requires more than 10 years and as much as 40 billion yen. This is a national project of scientific research called Continental Deep Boring Project(abbreviated as KTB). This project was proposed by the West German Research Association about 10 years ago, and pre-investigation, technical investigation and selection of proper field were started in 1981. The project was approved by the Federal Research Technology Ministry in 1985 and was started with the overall budget(upper limit) of 450 million Deutchemarks. At present, a 5,000m deep well for the investigation of the shallow part is being drilled, and mud analysis and core analysis are being carried out. Super deep drilling is comprehensive system engineering that includes the robotizing of lifts, the development of drill pipe material which is strong and light enough not to be torn by its own weight, the improvement of the turbo drill bit, and the development of heat resisting and pressure-tight semiconductor for in-the-bore-measuring instruments. In West Germany, the official, civil and academic circles participate in this project. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia

    2016-04-26

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  12. Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Rößler, Ronny; Ślipiński, Adam; Labandeira, Conrad

    2017-09-15

    Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis. This earliest evidence for a component community of several trophically interacting taxa is frozen in time by exceptional preservation. The combination of an entry tunnel through bark, a cambium mother gallery, and up to 11 eggs placed in lateral niches-from which emerge multi-instar larval tunnels that consume cambium, wood and bark-is ecologically convergent with Early Cretaceous bark-beetle borings 120 million-years later.Numerous gaps remain in our knowledge of how groups of organisms interacted in ancient ecosystems. Here, Feng and colleagues describe a late Permian fossil wood-boring beetle microcosm, with the oldest known example of complex tunnel geometry, host tissue response, and the presence of fungi within.

  13. Deposition of high-level radioactive waste products in bore-holes with buffer substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, A.; Pusch, R.

    1977-05-01

    The present investigation comprised a compilation of available literature data concerning the possible use of clayey masses as buffer substances in bore-holes (in rock) with canisters containing radioactive waste products. The aim was to find a suitable composition of the buffer mass and to recommend a suitable storing technique. The criteria concerning the function of the buffer substance were: Sufficient mechanical supporting power, suitable mechanical properties, prevention of free circulation of ground water, ion-adsorption ability, sufficiently good heat conduction properties. These criteria suggest that a buffer substance containing Na-montmorillonite would be suitable. Literature studies and own experience show that montmorillonite is permanently stable at 100 degrees C temperature and 5 MPa pressure when pH is within the range of 6.5-10 while quartz is stable at pH <9. The authors conclude that the suggested principle of storing the canisters in sealed bore-holes filled with a 10 percent bentonite/90 percent quartz (silt, sand) mass is suitable provided that the tunnel system, from which the holes are bored, is sealed with a dense buffer mass consisting of quartz (silt, sand) and 20-50 percent bentonite powder. (author)

  14. La logística integral como ventaja competitiva y sistema logístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Anselmo Martínez gallardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la logística integral como una ventaja competitiva y el sistema logístico. Es opinión de los autores que la logística integral es esencial para el intercambio de mercancías, toda vez que reduce costos y hace más ágil la actividad comercial. La utilización de esta logística representa una ventaja competitiva con respecto de otras empresas por la optimización del capital y ahorro de tiempo.

  15. Design of a machine to bore and line a long horizontal hole in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, J.E.; Dowden, P.B.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes an engineering design for equipment capable of simultaneously drilling and lining deep horizontal bore holes. The ultimate use of the equipment is to bore up to 600 ft long, 3 ft diameter emplacement holes for a nuclear waste repository. The specific system designed is referred to as a Development Prototype Boring Machine (DPBM) which will be used to demonstrate the drilling/lining capability in field development tests. The system utilizes as in-hole electric drive and a vacuum chip removal and handling system. The drilling unit is capable of active directional control and uses laser-type alignment equipment. The system combines the features of a small steerable tunnel boring machine, combined with a horizontally-oriented raise drill, thereby utilizing current technology. All elements of the system are compact and mobile as required for a shaft entry, underground mining environment. 3 refs., 35 figs., 1 tab

  16. Environmental impact of a flocculant used to enhance solids transport during well bore clean-up operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.N.M.; Procyk, A.D.; Malbrel, C.A.; Ling, K.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates particle flocculation as a mechanism to remove residual contaminants in well bores during completion operations. Laboratory tests and field trials were conducted demonstrating the ability of flocculating polymer sweeps to improve well bore cleaning efficiency. This process reduces the volume of fluid accumulated in the well bore that is discharged to the environment and minimizes the risk of formation damage by residuals left in the well bore. In addition, a comprehensive environmental impact study was performed on the flocculating polymers which included 72 hrs-EC50, 48 hrs-LC50, 10 day- LC50 tests on a variety of marine organisms, and bioaccumulation and biodegradability tests. In all cases, the flocculating polymers were shown to be environmentally safe at the recommended concentrations

  17. Well logging with natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    An invention is described for use in natural gamma radiation well logging in which measurements taken in a borehole are used in the search for valuable underground resources such as oil or gas. The invention comprises deriving a log of natural gamma radiation detected in selected energy windows for a selected borehole depth interval and converting it into a log of the selected subsurface materials, e.g. Th, U, K. This log is corrected for the effects of 1) either a gamma ray emitter in the borehole fluid, e.g. potassium salts and/or 2) a gamma ray attenuator in the borehole fluid, e.g. a strong attenuator such as barite and/or hematite. The Th, U, K log is particularly useful in the exploration of oil and gas resources since the Th, U, K concentrations are a good indication as to the presence, type and volume of shale and clay in the formations surrounding the borehole. (U.K.)

  18. AML (Advanced Mud Logging: First Among Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Loermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years an enormous development in mud logging technology has been made. Traditional mud logging was only qualitative in nature, and mudlogs could not be used for the petrophysical well evaluations which form the basis for all subsequent activities on wells and fields. AML however can provide quantitative information, logs with a reliability, trueness and precision like LWD and WLL. Hence for well evaluation programmes there are now three different logging methods available, each with its own pros and cons on specific aspects: AML, LWD and WLL. The largest improvements have been made in mud gas analysis and elemental analysis of cuttings. Mud gas analysis can yield hydrocarbon fluid composition for some components with a quality like PVT analysis, hence not only revolutionising the sampling programme so far done with only LWD/WLL, but also making it possible to geosteer on fluid properties. Elemental analysis of cuttings, e.g. with XRF, with an ability well beyond the capabilities of the spectroscopy measurements possible earlier with LWD/WLL tools, is opening up improved ways to evaluate formations, especially of course where the traditional methods are falling short of requirements, such as in unconventional reservoirs. An overview and specific examples of these AML logs is given, from which it may be concluded that AML now ought to be considered as “first among its equals”.

  19. Small-bore chest tubes seem to perform better than larger tubes in treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ......The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ...

  20. Fracture diagnostics with tube wave reflection logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Tube Wave Reflection Log (TWRL) which is acoustic logging method which provides information about the height, location and conductivity of hydraulically induced fractures behind perforated casing. The TWRL tool consists of a transmitter and closely spaced receiver. The transmitter is driven with a short, low frequency tone burst to generate long wavelength tube waves which are little attenuated in unperforated casing. They are partially reflected when they pass perforated intervals communicating with a hydraulically induced fracture. The tool listens for such reflections for 0.1 seconds following each excitation burst. As the tool is moved uphole at logging speed, the transmitter is excited at each foot of depth. VDL displays of the TWRL records provide reflection traces whose projections define the uppermost and lower-most perforations communicating with the fracture. The strength of the reflections depends on the ease of fluid flow into the fracture and thus, is an indicator of fracture conductivity

  1. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate......Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...... serve as cues to instigate discussion and reflection as well as act as resources for contextualizing and organizing related empirical material. In the discussion, the advantages of a qualitative perspective for research designs are assessed in relation to issues of validity. Further perspectives...

  2. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  3. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  4. New portable neutron generator for well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicanov, A.E.; Gromov, E. V.; Gulko, V. M.; Izmailov, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The information about the design, investigation and testing of new well neutron generator for the pulse neutron logging (PNL) is given in this paper. The main physical characteristics of new PNL apparatus are: Neutron flux 2.10 sup 8 n/s ; Pulse frequency>=400 Hz; Diameter= 90 mm; Logging velocity >200 m/h; Number of probes = 2; Resource > 300 h. The generator were provided by gas-filled neutron accelerative tube named NTF-2. The perspective of application and optimization shown PNL apparatus are considered. (author)

  5. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  6. Kaizen aplicado à logística

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Catarina Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe alcançar um aumento de produtividade e consequente redução de custos e desperdícios ajudando o departamento logístico da Empresa Revigrés – Industria de Revestimentos de Grés, Lda, a tornar-se mais eficiente, através da aplicação da filosofia kaizen que propõe melhorias no desempenho por implementação de pequenas ações. O objetivo deste projeto é a melhoria do departamento logístico globalmente, para isso houve o recurso a pesquisas e levantamento ...

  7. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  8. CS model coil experimental log book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  9. Perfil logístico de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Maglioni, María Victoria; Lozano Suarez, María Goretty

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Colombia con la finalidad de dar a conocer el estado de arte de las ciudades, puertos e infraestructura principal para facilitar la toma de decisiones de los empresarios. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se determinaron a partir de un análisis competitivo del país; las principales ciudades y puertos; logrando establecer un inventario de maquinaria y equipo e infraestructura logística; enmarcados en retos ya establecidos en las ...

  10. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  11. Extracting useful knowledge from event logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djenouri, Youcef; Belhadi, Asma; Fournier-Viger, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Business process analysis is a key activity that aims at increasing the efficiency of business operations. In recent years, several data mining based methods have been designed for discovering interesting patterns in event logs. A popular type of methods consists of applying frequent itemset mini...

  12. Potential for shared log transport services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald; Steve Taylor; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    A simulation model of a log transport logistics network was developed. The model could be structured to either share truck capacity among a group of loggers, or to assign a fixed number of trucks to individual loggers. Another variation of the model allowed the use of a staging yard to set out loaded trailers and deliver them to destinations using dedicated shuttle...

  13. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  14. Narrating Illegal Logging Across the Globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Georg; Leipold, Sina; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic deb...

  15. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  16. ADN* Density log estimation Using Rockcell*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, C.; Iloghalu, Emeka. M.; Omotayo, O.

    2003-01-01

    This work is intended to inform on the possibilities of estimating good density data in zones associated with sliding in a reservoir with ADN* tool with or without ADOS in string in cases where repeat sections were not done, possibly due to hole stability or directional concerns. This procedure has been equally used to obtain a better density data in corkscrew holes. Density data (ROBB) was recomputed using neural network in RockCell* to estimate the density over zones of interest. RockCell* is a Schlumberger software that has neural network functionally which can be used to estimate missing logs using the combination of the responses of other log curves and intervals that are not affected by sliding. In this work, an interval was selected and within this interval twelve litho zones were defined using the unsupervised neural network. From this a training set was selected based on intervals of very good log responses outside the sliding zones. This training set was used to train and run the neural network for a specific lithostratigraphic interval. The results matched the known good density curve. Then after this, an estimation of the density curve was done using the supervised neural network. The output from this estimation matched very closely in the good portions of the log, thus providing some density measurements in the sliding zone. This methodology provides a scientific solution to missing data during the process of Formation evaluation

  17. Changes in the Logging Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf; Jean W. Nolley

    1977-01-01

    Employment in the logging industry dropped 28 percent between 1950 and 1970, while output of industrial roundwood increased 31 percent. Today's loggers are older, better educated, and more skilled. A large proportion are self-employed, many work less than a full year, and a substantial number have incomes below the poverty level. Mechanization of timber harvesting...

  18. Alaska midgrade logs: supply and offshore demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGinnis

    1989-01-01

    The outlook for shipments and prices of export logs from Alaska differs significantly by grade (quality class). For the majority lying in the middle of the value range, the trend of prices is projected to increase $200 per thousand board feet, or about 55 percent, by 2000. Shipments are expected to rise about 30 percent by 1995 and then subside about 10 percent. These...

  19. Analyzing Grid Log Data with Affinity Propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modena, G.; van Someren, M.W.; Ali, M; Bosse, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Jonker, C.M; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised learning approach to detect meaningful job traffic patterns in Grid log data. Manual anomaly detection on modern Grid environments is troublesome given their increasing complexity, the distributed, dynamic topology of the network and heterogeneity of the jobs

  20. Exploration and grade control neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques used in neutron logging in boreholes are discussed. They include the application of neutron probes to porosity measurements, to lithological determinations based on macroscopic cross-section measurements and measurements of the concentration of chemical constituents in rocks and ores

  1. Explorations in statistics: the log transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This thirteenth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the log transformation, an established technique that rescales the actual observations from an experiment so that the assumptions of some statistical analysis are better met. A general assumption in statistics is that the variability of some response Y is homogeneous across groups or across some predictor variable X. If the variability-the standard deviation-varies in rough proportion to the mean value of Y, a log transformation can equalize the standard deviations. Moreover, if the actual observations from an experiment conform to a skewed distribution, then a log transformation can make the theoretical distribution of the sample mean more consistent with a normal distribution. This is important: the results of a one-sample t test are meaningful only if the theoretical distribution of the sample mean is roughly normal. If we log-transform our observations, then we want to confirm the transformation was useful. We can do this if we use the Box-Cox method, if we bootstrap the sample mean and the statistic t itself, and if we assess the residual plots from the statistical model of the actual and transformed sample observations.

  2. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Subas

    2013-01-01

    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  3. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primary office or available to the Commission via secured access to the licensee's Internet web site. Logs..., together with the time of such observation or occurrence and the position of the ship or other mobile unit... devices which do not have integral navigation receivers, including: VHF DSC, MF DSC, satellite EPIRB and...

  4. Geophysical logging for mineral exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouffe, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    It is possible to retrieve from small-diameter holes geophysical data for qualitative interpretation in exploration and quantitative interpretation in the development of orebodies. The primary objectives in the exploration stage are to identify where, within a hole, economic minerals are, and to help in lithological interpretations. Other aspects, which are more quantitative, are the interpretation of downhole logs for parameters which can be used in surface geophysical methods (i.e. density for gravity surveys, acoustic velocities for seismic surveys, and magnetic susceptibility for airborne and ground magnetic surveys). Recent advances in equipment design, portability and durability have made downhole logging in exploration more inexpensive and reliable. This new equipment is being used to generate very precise quantitative results. This is especially true on uranium development projects. The interpretation of gamma logs for eU 3 O 8 values has finally become precise enough that they have begun to replace chemical values in reserve calculations. Another part of development data is density and equilibrium information, which, with today's technology, is being derived from downhole probing. In the years to come, the trends for many metals are toward neutron activation techniques, or in-situ assaying, and the use of multiple logs for better lithological and physical rock property determinations. (auth)

  5. Information needs for increasing log transport efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. McDonald; Steven E. Taylor; Robert B. Rummer; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    Three methods of dispatching trucks to loggers were tested using a log transport simulation model: random allocation, fixed assignment of trucks to loggers, and dispatch based on knowledge of the current status of trucks and loggers within the system. This 'informed' dispatch algorithm attempted to minimize the difference in time between when a logger would...

  6. Root cause analysis with enriched process logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Ouyang, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    n the field of process mining, the use of event logs for the purpose of root cause analysis is increasingly studied. In such an analysis, the availability of attributes/features that may explain the root cause of some phenomena is crucial. Currently, the process of obtaining these attributes from

  7. Mining process performance from event logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriansyah, A.; Buijs, J.C.A.M.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    In systems where process executions are not strictly enforced by a predefined process model, obtaining reliable performance information is not trivial. In this paper, we analyzed an event log of a real-life process, taken from a Dutch financial institute, using process mining techniques. In

  8. Lianas and logging in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parren, M.P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in

  9. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  10. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  11. Using Web Server Logs in Evaluating Instructional Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Albert L.

    2000-01-01

    Web server logs contain a great deal of information about who uses a Web site and how they use it. This article discusses the analysis of Web logs for instructional Web sites; reviews the data stored in most Web server logs; demonstrates what further information can be gleaned from the logs; and discusses analyzing that information for the…

  12. Stress wave sorting of red maple logs for structural quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Brian Brashaw; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2004-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  13. Tradeoffs and interdependence in the Alaska cant and log markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Flora; Una Woller; Michael. Neergaard

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, log exports from Alaska have risen while cant (lumber) exports have declined. Eight explanations for the difference between cant and log market behavior are explored. It seems that declining demand for wood products in Japan and a surge of private-sector log harvests in Alaska are enough to account for the apparent substitution of logs for cants. It...

  14. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  15. Advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sichun; Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Yang Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper discuses principle of X-ray fluorescence logging, and introduces advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China. By 2009, third generation XRF logging instrument has been developed in China, and good logging result has been obtained in Lala copper mine. (authors)

  16. Logging utilization in Idaho: Current and past trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Steven W. Hayes; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Idaho was conducted during 2008 and 2011 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and changes from previous Idaho logging utilization studies. A two-stage simple random sampling design was used to select sites and felled trees for measurement within active logging sites. Thirty-three logging...

  17. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Investigative construction and analysis for structural boring (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shitsui chosakoji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, the paper carried out the drilling of structural boring exploration wells, N6-HN-1 (1,605m) and N6-HN-2 (1,402m), and the well exploration. In the well exploration, the following were conducted: measurement of earth temperature, temperature recovery test, electrical log, simple water injection test, core/cutting observation, core test, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, physical property test, measurement of homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion, etc. In the temperature log and temperature recovery test, the terminal temperature at a 1,600m depth of N6-HN-1 well and at a 1,400m depth of N6-HN-2 well was 139.6 degrees C and 26.2 degrees C, respectively. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion was relatively higher, +70 degrees C to +100 degrees C, than that in the results of the temperature log, but was on the side of lower temperature, -30 degrees C to -100 degrees C, in a comparison with the saturated boiling curve of the earth surface and ground water level. Namely, it was thought that around the N6-HN-1 well, there used to exist the high temperature fluid of 250 degrees C or higher at the peak period of geothermal activities, but there only existed the geothermal water of approximately 140 degrees C at the present time. (NEDO)

  18. An MRI-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the MRI Scanner Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J.; Watkins, Ronald D.; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Guttman, Michael A.; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within an MRI scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, prior to delivery of CPR and defibrillation, potentially increasing risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute-ischemic, acute-stroke) patients from undergoing MRI imaging and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the MRI seconds after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. Methods and Results A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by addition of novel Radio-Frequency (RF) filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface-pads. The RF filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner, and prevented cable/surface-pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator’s monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high Specific-Absorption-Rate sequences to validate MRI image quality (IQ) and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (N=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI IQ was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface-pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6mm below the skin surface. RF heating was within FDA guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. Conclusions A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading image quality, or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. PMID:27729363

  19. Estimation of Tsunami Bore Forces on a Coastal Bridge Using an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mazinani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure to estimate tsunami wave forces on coastal bridges through a novel method based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and laboratory experiments. This research included three water depths, ten wave heights, and four bridge models with a variety of girders providing a total of 120 cases. The research was designed and adapted to estimate tsunami bore forces including horizontal force, vertical uplift and overturning moment on a coastal bridge. The experiments were carried out on 1:40 scaled concrete bridge models in a wave flume with dimensions of 24 m × 1.5 m × 2 m. Two six-axis load cells and four pressure sensors were installed to the base plate to measure forces. In the numerical procedure, estimation and prediction results of the ELM model were compared with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models. The experimental results showed an improvement in predictive accuracy, and capability of generalization could be achieved by the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. Moreover, results indicated that the ELM models developed could be used with confidence for further work on formulating novel model predictive strategy for tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge. The experimental results indicated that the new algorithm could produce good generalization performance in most cases and could learn thousands of times faster than conventional popular learning algorithms. Therefore, it can be conclusively obtained that utilization of ELM is certainly developing as an alternative approach to estimate the tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge.

  20. Non-contact and contact measurement system for detecting projectile position in electromagnetic launch bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Yuan, Weiqun; Xu, Rong; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Wenping; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Ying; Yan, Ping

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement system for measuring the position of a projectile within a rapid fire electromagnetic launching system. The measurement system contains both non-contact laser shading and metal fiber contact measurement devices. Two projectiles are placed in the rapid fire electromagnetic launch bore, one in the main accelerating segment and the other in the pre-loading segment. The projectile placed in the main accelerating segment should be shot first, and then the other is loaded into the main segment from the pre-loading segment. The main driving current (I-main) can only be discharged again when the second projectile has arrived at the key position (the projectile position corresponds to the discharging time) in the main accelerating segment. So, it is important to be able to detect when the second projectile arrives at the key position in the main accelerating segment. The B-dot probe is the most widely used system for detecting the position of the projectile in the electromagnetic launch bore. However, the B-dot signal is affected by the driving current amplitude and the projectile velocity. There is no current in the main accelerating segment when the second projectile moves into this segment in rapid fire mode, so the B-dot signal for detecting the key position is invalid. Due to the presence of a high-intensity magnetic field, a high current, a high-temperature aluminum attachment, smoke and strong vibrations, it is very difficult to detect the projectile position in the bore accurately. So, other measurements need to be researched and developed in order to achieve high reliability. A measurement system based on a laser (non-contact) and metal fibers (contact) has been designed, and the integrated output signal based on this detector is described in the following paper.

  1. Correction of magnetization sextupole and decapole in a 5 centimeter bore SSC dipole using passive superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs

  2. Some conclusions about the concrete strength of the bored piles of Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, E.C.S.; Joia, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The concrete of the bored piles of Angra 2 was submitted to a deep control, so more than five thousand core samples were analyzed to verify the quality of the concrete. Based on these samples and using statistics regression theory some conclusions could be done. It was analyzed the dependence of the concrete strength upon the depth of the pile. Also based on these samples some probability distribution functions that could simulate the concrete strength were studied applying the Kolmogorov - Smirnov fitness test. Finally, a method for evaluating a confidence interval of one of the probability function (Weibull distribution) was developed adopting the Monte Carlo simulation technique. (Author) [pt

  3. A 120 mm Bore Quadrupole for the Phase 1 LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Borgnolutti, F; Regis, F; Richter, D; Todesco, E

    2010-01-01

    The phase I LHC upgrade foresees the installation of a new final focusing for the high luminosity experiences in order to be able to focus the beams in the interaction points to b*~ 0.25 cm. Key element of this upgrade is a large bore (120 mm) superconducting quadrupole. This article proposes a magnet design that will make use of the LHC main dipole superconducting cable. Due to the schedule constraints and to the budget restrictions, it is mandatory to integrate in the design the maximum number of features successfully used during the LHC construction. This paper presents this design option and the rationales behind the several technical choices.

  4. Simple method for the generation of multiple homogeneous field volumes inside the bore of superconducting magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ching-Yu; Ferrage, Fabien; Aubert, Guy; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-07-17

    Standard Magnetic Resonance magnets produce a single homogeneous field volume, where the analysis is performed. Nonetheless, several modern applications could benefit from the generation of multiple homogeneous field volumes along the axis and inside the bore of the magnet. In this communication, we propose a straightforward method using a combination of ring structures of permanent magnets in order to cancel the gradient of the stray field in a series of distinct volumes. These concepts were demonstrated numerically on an experimentally measured magnetic field profile. We discuss advantages and limitations of our method and present the key steps required for an experimental validation.

  5. Estimation of the equilibrium formation temperature in the presence of bore fluid invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    2012-01-01

    from BHT measurements in the presence of bore fluid invasion. The scheme is based on finite element analysis in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion. The axisymmetric forward model assumes a cylindrical source of finite radius and contrasting thermal parameters, which includes...... by correction schemes based on purely conductive models. The influence of the borehole radius and fluid invasion on the temperature measured at the borehole axis attenuates over time. It is further demonstrated that the invasion radius and the matrix thermal conductivity cannot be estimated simultaneously...

  6. Geological mappability of bored versus drill and blast excavations for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B.; Ozdemir, L.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of accurate geological mappability has been subject of intense debate in the selection of bored versus drill and blast excavation for radioactive waste repositories. This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the problems usually encountered in mappability on the basis of field experience from a large number of completed tunnels, mainly as part of the Norwegian hydropower projects. The main conclusion is that mapping in a mechanically excavated underground opening, with very few exceptions, reflects the in-situ conditions more accurately than mapping in a drill and blast tunnel. This is due to the overbreak effects of drill and blast excavation, primarily

  7. Limitations and developing directions of pulsed neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wensheng; Xiao Lizhi

    2007-01-01

    The paper explains briefly the principle of pulsed neutron logging method, summarizes the system and uses of the method in petroleum logging. The paper points out the limitations of pulsed neutron logging such as low precise measurements, low logging speed, plenty of influence factors, low vertical resolution, bad adaptability, difficult logging interpretation and so on, and expounds its developing directions in hardware, software, method and principle. (authors)

  8. Theoretical and Numerical Study of Seismoelectric Logs for Logging While Drilling (LWD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the acoustic field propagates in the porous medium, the electromagnetic wave can be induced by the seismoelectric effects which can be used in the logging. This paper studies the seismoelectric wave field and deduces the formulations of the acoustic and electromagnetic field of the liquid in the well, and gives the acoustic and electromagnetic boundary conditions between the driller collar and the log liquid, when the driller collar is added. We also do the numerical simulation of the seismoelectric wave field excited by monopole source, study the velocity dispersion characteristics of the acoustic and electromagnetic field, and investigate the detective depth of the seismoelectric logs. Through the simulation we know the seismoelectric logs can avoid the interference of drill collar wave. This paper also provides theoretical guidance for the design of receiving antenna.

  9. Development of self-boring type pressuremeter and proposal of empirical formula to estimate mechanical properties of gravelly soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motonobu; Kokusho, Takaji

    1990-01-01

    Diluvial gravelly grounds seem to have the great potential as the foundation ground for constructing nuclear power plants. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry develops the in-situ testing method to evaluate the settlement and the stability of the foundations of important nuclear power plant structures against earthquakes. As a part of the development, the CRIEPI has developed a new self boring type pressure meter which enables a probe to penetrate into gravelly deposit with minimum disturbance. This equipment can impose static or dynamic repeated pressure on bore walls. In this report, the test results of this equipment used in five gravelly grounds in Japan are described. The test results were compared with those obtained by other methods, and the efficiency of this in situ method was demonstrated. The bore wall pressurizing tester which can be inserted simultaneously with boring was developed, and its features are the effects of stress release and bore wall disturbance are little. Consequently, the accurate data on ground stability can be obtained. (K.I.)

  10. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  11. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions

  12. Well logging system with linearity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for controlling the gain of a nuclear well logging system comprising: (1) means for measuring the energy spectrum of gamma rays produced by earth formation materials surrounding a well borehole; (2) means for measuring the number of counts of a gamma rays having an energy falling within each of at least two predetermined energy band portions of the gamma ray energy spectrum; (3) means for generating a signal proportional to the ratio of the gamma ray counts and for comparing the ratio signal with at least one constant ratio calibration signal; (4) means for generating an error signal representative of the difference of the ratio signal and the constant ratio calibration signal; and (5) means for using the error signal to control the linearity of the well logging system. (author)

  13. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles, A.; Pérez, Y.; Duménigo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice. [es

  14. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2010-03-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.

  15. Modelo de custos logísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vanderlei Silva Borba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Em contexto de globalização, a distância física entre produtores de bens e de serviços e consumidores deixa de ser relevante. Isso determina que o gerenciamento de custos logísticos venha agregar valor relevante aos produtos comercializados, pois procura identificar e determinar a eficácia dos recursos consumidos internamente pela empresa e, externamente, procura fazer a análise da cadeia de valor. Nessa perspectiva, a definição das variáveis de custos está além de seus muros. Este trabalho propõe um modelo de apuração de custos logísticos, que atenda, simultaneamente, os custos de suprimentos e os custos de distribuição, com impactos sobre o processo de tomada de decisão.

  16. Development of a digital log ratemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienikan, Claudio; Brito, Andreia; Toledo, Fabio de; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2011-01-01

    A compact log ratemeter that measures and displays an average count rate through a microcomputer is presented. This ratemeter was developed to be used to monitor a laboratory of production of radioactive samples and also for teaching purposes. The main features are log measurement range from .1 to 1.000 counts/sec and adjustable level alarm. The electronic circuit uses a Geiger tube LND7224, and the processed signal is applied to a National Instruments Multifunction I/O USB-6008 connected to a PC through USB input. A program developed in LabView allows storage of data and real-time observation of the rate of radiation evolution. This ratemeter was designed and constructed in the IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  17. Glass scintillator pair for compensation neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Li Xuezhi; Yiu Guangduo

    1985-01-01

    Glass scintillator pair types ST 1604 and ST 1605 for compensation of neutron logging is developed. The neutron sensitive material used is multistick lithium glass scintillators 3 and 4 mm in diameter respectively. Thermoneutron detection efficiencies are 50-60% and 100% respectively. The detection efficiency for 60 Co γ ray is lower than 0.3%. The type ST 1604 and ST 1605 may also be used as high sensitive neutron detectors in an intensive γ ray field

  18. Log Gaussian Cox processes on the sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Francisco Andrés Cuevas; Møller, Jesper

    We define and study the existence of log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) for the description of inhomogeneous and aggregated/clustered point patterns on the d-dimensional sphere, with d = 2 of primary interest. Useful theoretical properties of LGCPs are studied and applied for the description of sky...... positions of galaxies, in comparison with previous analysis using a Thomas process. We focus on simple estimation procedures and model checking based on functional summary statistics and the global envelope test....

  19. Log-Concavity Properties of Minkowski Valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Astrid; Parapatits, Lukas; Schuster, Franz E.; Weberndorfer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    New Orlicz Brunn-Minkowski inequalities are established for rigid motion compatible Minkowski valuations of arbitrary degree. These extend classical log-concavity properties of intrinsic volumes and generalize seminal results of Lutwak and others. Two different approaches which refine previously employed techniques are explored. It is shown that both lead to the same class of Minkowski valuations for which these inequalities hold. An appendix by Semyon Alesker contains the proof of a new clas...

  20. Methods for calibrating radioactivity well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, J.A.; Turcotte, R.E.; Hunt-Grubbe, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Field-calibrating of well-logging tools is achieved by means of a sleeve, which has radioactive material distributed therein, and which envelopes the portion of the tool housing containing the detector. Accurate calibration can be performed and the source can be made considerably weaker than those now in use as it can be brought very close to the detector thus lessening errors. (U.K.)

  1. SDSS Log Viewer: visual exploratory analysis of large-volume SQL log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chaomei; Vogeley, Michael S.; Pan, Danny; Thakar, Ani; Raddick, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    User-generated Structured Query Language (SQL) queries are a rich source of information for database analysts, information scientists, and the end users of databases. In this study a group of scientists in astronomy and computer and information scientists work together to analyze a large volume of SQL log data generated by users of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data archive in order to better understand users' data seeking behavior. While statistical analysis of such logs is useful at aggregated levels, efficiently exploring specific patterns of queries is often a challenging task due to the typically large volume of the data, multivariate features, and data requirements specified in SQL queries. To enable and facilitate effective and efficient exploration of the SDSS log data, we designed an interactive visualization tool, called the SDSS Log Viewer, which integrates time series visualization, text visualization, and dynamic query techniques. We describe two analysis scenarios of visual exploration of SDSS log data, including understanding unusually high daily query traffic and modeling the types of data seeking behaviors of massive query generators. The two scenarios demonstrate that the SDSS Log Viewer provides a novel and potentially valuable approach to support these targeted tasks.

  2. Estimation of the non records logs from existing logs using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad Salehi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding the information of the hydrocarbon reservoirs from well logs is one of the main objectives of the engineers. But, missing the log records (due to many reasons such as broken instruments, unsuitable borehole and etc. is a major challenge to achieve it. Prediction of the density and resistivity logs (Rt, DT and LLS from the conventional wire-line logs in one of the Iranian southwest oil fields is the main purpose of this study. Multilayer neural network was applied to develop an intelligent predictive model for prediction of the logs. A total of 3000 data sets from 3 wells (A, B and C of the studied field were used. Among them, the data of A, B and C wells were used to constructing and testing the model, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean square error (MSE and correlation coefficient (R2 in the test data were calculated. A comparison between the MSE of the proposed model and recently intelligent models shows that the proposed model is more accurate than others. Acceptable accuracy and using conventional well logging data are the highlight advantages of the proposed intelligent model.

  3. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  4. Gerencia logística y global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cesar Ocampo Vélez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La logística es una filosofía que se encarga de aplicar las buenas pá¡cticas en los macroprocesos, procesos, procedimientos, tareas y productos dentro de una organización, con el fin de satisfacer las necesidades del cliente, quien es la razón de ser de la empresa. Existen entes internacionales que velan porque las compañias en todo el mundo utilicen y difundan las diferentes disciplinas logísticas en toda la red de valor y tengan un mismo enfoque estratégico.El objetivo de este artículo es explicar la existencia de procesos y macroprocesos de clase mundial en la logística, gracias a los cuales hay una gran oportunidad de mejora para los empresarios colombianos, con el fin de reestructurar los procesos estratégicos, tácticos y operacionales de cada Unidad de Negocio, para que sean organizaciones más competitivas, que puedan enfrentar los tratados de libre comercio, brindando mayor sostenibilidad y óptimo nivel de servicio.

  5. Analysis of in-situ renewal technology for the backhoe bucket bores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torims, Toms; Ratkus, Andris; Vilcans, Janis; Zarins, Marcis; Rusa, Aldis [Department of Material Processing Technology Faculty of Transport and Mechanical Engineering Riga Technical University, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim of this article is to outline the progress of the research on how to develop an economically and scientifically justified backhoe buckets boreholes renewal technology by using mobile on-site technological equipment. Today the new mobile (in-situ) repair technologies are extensively used for the specialized equipment and machinery repairs. This repair technology is deployed directly on the damaged product: repair equipment is installed by using specialized centering devices. The bucket bores central axes are used as a reference base and damaged layer of material is removed mechanically applying turning operation. Subsequently the renewable surface is covered by new material layer by means of regular MIG/MAG welding. The last technological operation is final turning to the nominal diameter. Outlined renewal technology should meet high expectations – this necessitates in-depth and systematic study of pins and bores which are the most repaired objects of shovel bucket excavators. Therefore, research on established accuracy and technical requirements, both for the repaired unit and technological equipment in line with in-situ repair technology specifics, has been done. It was supported by impact analysis of the technological regimes to surface integrity with ambition to provide practical recommendations for the optimal choice of the technological regimes. Key words: in-situ repair technology, surface integrity, technological parameters.

  6. Aspiration of Breast Abscess through Wide Bore 14-Gauge Intravenous Cannula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, S. P.; Alam, S. N.; Ainuddin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To aspirate breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) intravenous (I/V) cannula and determine its efficacy in terms of the number of recurrences and number of aspirations. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital and Bantva Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients with breast abscesses confirmed on ultrasound without skin ulceration were selected. The soft area of breast abscess with positive fluctuation was marked and fixed with index finger and thumb. A 14-gauge cannula was inserted. Pus was aspirated through a 50 cc syringe, repeated till no aspirate could be obtained. All patients were followed weekly for 4 weeks, clinically for size of lump, local tenderness and temperature, while complete resolution was confirmed on ultrasound, as resolution of the lesion. Results: A total of 55 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 29 +- 5.58 years while ranging from 20 - 40 years. Complete resolution of abscess was seen in 31 (56.4%) cases by single aspiration. Second aspiration was required in 24 (43.6%) patients and third aspiration in single setting was required in one case only. Recurrence after the second aspiration occurred in 08 (14.5%). Incision drainage was required in 7 (12.7%) patients. Conclusion: Percutaneous aspiration of breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) I/V cannula is a simple alternative to incision and drainage. (author)

  7. Aspiration of breast abscess through wide bore 14-gauge intravenous cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Shahida Parveen; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Ainuddin, Saman

    2014-10-01

    To aspirate breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) intravenous (I/V) cannula and determine its efficacy in terms of the number of recurrences and number of aspirations. Case series. Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital and Bantva Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2011. Patients with breast abscesses confirmed on ultrasound without skin ulceration were selected. The soft area of breast abscess with positive fluctuation was marked and fixed with index finger and thumb. A 14-gauge cannula was inserted. Pus was aspirated through a 50 cc syringe, repeated till no aspirate could be obtained. All patients were followed weekly for 4 weeks, clinically for size of lump, local tenderness and temperature, while complete resolution was confirmed on ultrasound, as resolution of the lesion. A total of 55 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 29 ± 5.58 years while ranging from 20 - 40 years. Complete resolution of abscess was seen in 31 (56.4%) cases by single aspiration. Second aspiration was required in 24 (43.6%) patients and third aspiration in single setting was required in one case only. Recurrence after the second aspiration occurred in 08 (14.5%). Incision drainage was required in 7 (12.7%) patients. Percutaneous aspiration of breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) I/V cannula is a simple alternative to incision and drainage.

  8. Detailed design of the large-bore 8 T superconducting magnet for the NAFASSY test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato, V.; Affinito, L.; Anemona, A.; Besi Vetrella, U.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Freda, R.; Messina, G.; Muzzi, L.; Perrella, M.; Reccia, L.; Tomassetti, G.; Turtù, S.; della Corte, A.

    2015-03-01

    The ‘NAFASSY’ (NAtional FAcility for Superconducting SYstems) facility is designed to test wound conductor samples under high-field conditions at variable temperatures. Due to its unique features, it is reasonable to assume that in the near future NAFASSY will have a preeminent role at the international level in the qualification of long coiled cables in operative conditions. The magnetic system consists of a large warm bore background solenoid, made up of three series-connected grading sections obtained by winding three different Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. Thanks to the financial support of the Italian Ministry for University and Research the low-field coil is currently under production. The design has been properly modified to allow the system to operate also as a stand-alone facility, with an inner bore diameter of 1144 mm. This magnet is able to provide about 7 T on its axis and about 8 T close to the insert inner radius, giving the possibility of performing a test relevant for large-sized NbTi or medium-field Nb3Sn conductors. The detailed design of the 8 T magnet, including the electro-magnetic, structural and thermo-hydraulic analysis, is here reported, as well as the production status.

  9. Boring but important: a self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S; Henderson, Marlone D; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M; D'Mello, Sidney; Spitzer, Brian J; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2014-10-01

    Many important learning tasks feel uninteresting and tedious to learners. This research proposed that promoting a prosocial, self-transcendent purpose could improve academic self-regulation on such tasks. This proposal was supported in 4 studies with over 2,000 adolescents and young adults. Study 1 documented a correlation between a self-transcendent purpose for learning and self-reported trait measures of academic self-regulation. Those with more of a purpose for learning also persisted longer on a boring task rather than giving in to a tempting alternative and, many months later, were less likely to drop out of college. Study 2 addressed causality. It showed that a brief, one-time psychological intervention promoting a self-transcendent purpose for learning could improve high school science and math grade point average (GPA) over several months. Studies 3 and 4 were short-term experiments that explored possible mechanisms. They showed that the self-transcendent purpose manipulation could increase deeper learning behavior on tedious test review materials (Study 3), and sustain self-regulation over the course of an increasingly boring task (Study 4). More self-oriented motives for learning--such as the desire to have an interesting or enjoyable career--did not, on their own, consistently produce these benefits (Studies 1 and 4). 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Carlucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20% and 40% of the mean values of FMY.

  11. Outcome of ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage in exudative pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranantawat, Nantaka; Sungsiri, Jitpreedee; Geater, Sarayut L

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the outcome and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of exudative pleural effusion. The present study was a retrospective analysis of 412 pleural effusions from 373 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage in exudative pleural effusions between 2004 and 2009. The two most common causes for drainage were parapneumonic effusion or empyema (52.2%) and malignant effusion (30.3%), while the remains were trauma, iatrogenic, and others. Overall clinical success rate was 76.5%. The success rate was lower among malignant pleural effusion (p = 0.003). Causes of effusion were the only independent predictors related to success. Only five (1.2%) patients developed complication during the procedure. Seventy-five of 412 effusions (15.8%) developed complication during the period of drainage; the majority were drain blockage (9%) and accidental dislodgment (4.1%). Ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage was a safe and efficient procedure for exudative pleural effusions.

  12. Safety precautions of Dover Channel Tunnel boring machine; Kaitei tonneru kussakuki to anzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Y.; Fujioka, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    In May 6th 1994, the Dover Channel Tunnel referred to the largest project in this century has been opened for traffic. France and England, which have been separated by the strait with a width of about 38 km, have been connected through the submarine railway tunnel and became to be a land continuation. Since Napoleon the first, who conquested European Continent, has made a tunnel construction plan towards England, in really 27th planning, the Eurotunnel, which has been a dream in Europe for 200 years, was realized. A position of this tunnel is at a depth of 100 m under marine surface, and a geology of the strait part is a chalk layer with a calcium carbonate as a main component. For a tunnel excavation, 6 units in England side, and 5 units in France side, and therefore total 11 units of tunnel boring machines were used. Out of them, in 2 tunnels for train from France side, 2 units of tunnel boring machine (TBM) made in Japan were used. In this paper a structure and excavation method of TBM was explained, and a safety countermeasure of TBM adopted in this project was outlined. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  13. D Modelling of Tunnel Excavation Using Pressurized Tunnel Boring Machine in Overconsolidated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demagh, Rafik; Emeriault, Fabrice

    2013-06-01

    The construction of shallow tunnels in urban areas requires a prior assessment of their effects on the existing structures. In the case of shield tunnel boring machines (TBM), the various construction stages carried out constitute a highly three-dimensional problem of soil/structure interaction and are not easy to represent in a complete numerical simulation. Consequently, the tunnelling- induced soil movements are quite difficult to evaluate. A 3D simulation procedure, using a finite differences code, namely FLAC3D, taking into account, in an explicit manner, the main sources of movements in the soil mass is proposed in this paper. It is illustrated by the particular case of Toulouse Subway Line B for which experimental data are available and where the soil is saturated and highly overconsolidated. A comparison made between the numerical simulation results and the insitu measurements shows that the 3D procedure of simulation proposed is relevant, in particular regarding the adopted representation of the different operations performed by the tunnel boring machine (excavation, confining pressure, shield advancement, installation of the tunnel lining, grouting of the annular void, etc). Furthermore, a parametric study enabled a better understanding of the singular behaviour origin observed on the ground surface and within the solid soil mass, till now not mentioned in the literature.

  14. Fragmentation Energy-Saving Theory of Full Face Rock Tunnel Boring Machine Disc Cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Huang; Gong, Guo-Fang; Gao, Qing-Feng; Sun, Fei

    2017-07-01

    Attempts to minimize energy consumption of a tunnel boring machine disc cutter during the process of fragmentation have largely focused on optimizing disc-cutter spacing, as determined by the minimum specific energy required for fragmentation; however, indentation tests showed that rock deforms plastically beneath the cutters. Equations for thrust were developed for both the traditional, popularly employed disc cutter and anew design based on three-dimensional theory. The respective energy consumption for penetration, rolling, and side-slip fragmentations were obtained. A change in disc-cutter fragmentation angles resulted in a change in the nature of the interaction between the cutter and rock, which lowered the specific energy of fragmentation. During actual field excavations to the same penetration length, the combined energy consumption for fragmentation using the newly designed cutters was 15% lower than that when using the traditional design. This paper presents a theory for energy saving in tunnel boring machines. Investigation results showed that the disc cutters designed using this theory were more durable than traditional designs, and effectively lowered the energy consumption.

  15. Imaging system models for small-bore DOI-PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Suga, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) information, which improves resolution uniformity in the field of view (FOV), is expected to lead to high-sensitivity PET scanners with small-bore detector rings. We are developing small-bore PET scanners with DOI detectors arranged in hexagonal or overlapped tetragonal patterns for small animal imaging or mammography. It is necessary to optimize the imaging system model because these scanners exhibit irregular detector sampling. In this work, we compared two imaging system models: (a) a parallel sub-LOR model in which the detector response functions (DRFs) are assumed to be uniform along the line of responses (LORs) and (b) a sub-crystal model in which each crystal is divided into a set of smaller volumes. These two models were applied to the overlapped tetragonal scanner (FOV 38.1 mm in diameter) and the hexagonal scanner (FOV 85.2 mm in diameter) simulated by GATE. We showed that the resolution non-uniformity of system model (b) was improved by 40% compared with that of system model (a) in the overlapped tetragonal scanner and that the resolution non-uniformity of system model (a) was improved by 18% compared with that of system model (b) in the hexagonal scanner. These results indicate that system model (b) should be applied to the overlapped tetragonal scanner and system model (a) should be applied to the hexagonal scanner. (author)

  16. Enhanced Automated Guidance System for Horizontal Auger Boring Based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Wen, Guojun; Wang, Yudan; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-02-15

    Horizontal auger boring (HAB) is a widely used trenchless technology for the high-accuracy installation of gravity or pressure pipelines on line and grade. Differing from other pipeline installations, HAB requires a more precise and automated guidance system for use in a practical project. This paper proposes an economic and enhanced automated optical guidance system, based on optimization research of light-emitting diode (LED) light target and five automated image processing bore-path deviation algorithms. An LED light target was optimized for many qualities, including light color, filter plate color, luminous intensity, and LED layout. The image preprocessing algorithm, direction location algorithm, angle measurement algorithm, deflection detection algorithm, and auto-focus algorithm, compiled in MATLAB, are used to automate image processing for deflection computing and judging. After multiple indoor experiments, this guidance system is applied in a project of hot water pipeline installation, with accuracy controlled within 2 mm in 48-m distance, providing accurate line and grade controls and verifying the feasibility and reliability of the guidance system.

  17. Optical probe for porosity defect detection on inner diameter surfaces of machined bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ojas P.; Islam, Mohammed N.; Terry, Fred L.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical probe for detection of porosity inside spool bores of a transmission valve body with diameters down to 5 mm. The probe consists of a graded-index relay rod that focuses a laser beam spot onto the inner surface of the bore. Detectors, placed in the specular and grazing directions with respect to the incident beam, measure the change in scattered intensity when a surface defect is encountered. Based on the scattering signatures in the two directions, the system can also validate the depth of the defect and distinguish porosity from bump-type defects coming out of the metal surface. The system can detect porosity down to a 50-μm lateral dimension and ~40 μm in depth with >3-dB contrast over the background intensity fluctuations. Porosity detection systems currently use manual inspection techniques on the plant floor, and the demonstrated probe provides a noncontact technique that can help automotive manufacturers meet high-quality standards during production.

  18. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    The nuclear applications of boron-10 justify the study of a method of measurement of its isotopic abundance as well as of very small traces of boron in different materials. A systematic study of thermionic emission of BO{sub 2}Na{sub 2}{sup +} has been carried out. In the presence of a slight excess of alkalis, the thermionic emission is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the addition of a mixture of sodium hydroxide-glycerol (or mannitol) to borax permits to obtain an intense and stable beam. These results have permitted to establish an operative method for the analysis of traces of boron by isotopic dilution. In other respects, the needs of boron-10 in nuclear industry Justify the study of procedures of separation of isotopes of boron. A considerable isotopic effect has been exhibited in the chemical exchange reaction between methyl borate and borate salt in solution. In the case of exchange between methyl borate and sodium borate, the elementary separation factor {alpha} is: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. The high value of this elementary effect has been multiplied in a distillation column in which the problem of regeneration of the reactive has been resolved. An alternative procedure replacing the alkali borate by a borate of volatile base, for example diethylamine, has also been studied ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} in medium hydro-methanolic with 2,2 per cent water). (author) [French] Les applications nucleaires du bore 10 justifient l'etude d'une methode de mesure de son abondance isotopique dans divers materiaux ainsi que le dosage de tres faibles traces de bore. Une etude systematique de l'emission thermoionique de BO{sub 2} Na{sub 2}{sup +} a ete effectuee. En presence d'un leger exces d'alcalins, l'emission thermoionique est considerablement reduite. Par contre l'addition au borax d'un melange soude-glycerol (ou mannitol) permet d'obtenir un faisceau stable et intense. Ces resultats ont permis d'etablir un mode

  19. A history of nuclear well logging in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by an interest in logging through steel casing γ-ray logging began in the late 1930s followed soon by neutron logging for porosity. These were the first two nuclear well logs. Gamma-gamma density logging was developed during the 1950s. Pulsed neutron lifetime logging appeared in the 1960s; the slim tools came in the early 1970s. Developments since then have included dual detector devices of several types which offered improved measurements or interpretation, γ-ray spectrometry logging (natural and neutron-induced) which identifies certain chemical elements, induced radioactivity logging, and the photoelectric absorption log, which, combined with the density log in a single tool, is known as litho-density logging. A combination of several γ-ray spectrometers in one tool, designed to determine 10 formation elements, was recently introduced, and a new neutron porosity tool measuring epithermal neutron die-away time has been developed. Digital transmission of logging data was a step forward in about 1975. Also, log interpretation techniques have greatly expanded since the advent of digital computers, and the microcomputer has had a distinct impact. It is now practical and economical to do iterative analysis on a suite of logs to obtain an optimum overall interpretation. (author)

  20. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2002-10-01

    pore water resistivity. Therefore the approximation was made that the pore water is in equilibrium with free groundwater at a corresponding depth. The electrical conductivity of groundwater flowing from isolated fractures was measured with the Posiva difference flow meter. In order to test the proposed methodology all necessary logs were obtained by SKB from the 1.7 km deep borehole KLX02 in Laxemar, Sweden. The report contains many examples of these logs and also describes the tools. From the logs a step by step procedure how to obtain a formation factor log is shown. In order to verify that the obtained in-situ formation factor log was quantitative a great number samples were taken from the borehole core. The formation factor of these bore core samples was measured in the laboratory with electrical methods. The comparison between the in-situ and laboratory formation factor logs was encouraging. Both logs clearly displayed the same geological features in a similar manner. The in-situ formation factors were on average about 1/3 of the laboratory formation factors, which is consistent with earlier work on rock stress effects on cores

  1. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2002-10-01

    pore water resistivity. Therefore the approximation was made that the pore water is in equilibrium with free groundwater at a corresponding depth. The electrical conductivity of groundwater flowing from isolated fractures was measured with the Posiva difference flow meter. In order to test the proposed methodology all necessary logs were obtained by SKB from the 1.7 km deep borehole KLX02 in Laxemar, Sweden. The report contains many examples of these logs and also describes the tools. From the logs a step by step procedure how to obtain a formation factor log is shown. In order to verify that the obtained in-situ formation factor log was quantitative a great number samples were taken from the borehole core. The formation factor of these bore core samples was measured in the laboratory with electrical methods. The comparison between the in-situ and laboratory formation factor logs was encouraging. Both logs clearly displayed the same geological features in a similar manner. The in-situ formation factors were on average about 1/3 of the laboratory formation factors, which is consistent with earlier work on rock stress effects on cores.

  2. Ultra-intense laser pulse propagation in plasmas: from classic hole-boring to incomplete hole-boring with relativistic transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S M; Murakami, M; Mulser, P; Sheng, Z M

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic laser pulse propagation into homogeneous plasmas has been investigated as a function of plasma density. At first, the propagation features are compared systematically between relativistic transparency (RT) and hole-boring (HB). Paramountly, a considerably broad intermediate regime, namely the incomplete HB regime, has been found between the RT regime and the HB regime for an extremely intense circularly polarized (CP) pulse. In this regime HB proceeds in collaboration with RT, resulting in a much faster propagation speed and a higher cut-off energy of fast ions than in the classic HB regime. Similarly to the classic HB regime, formulae are presented to model the laser propagation and the ion acceleration according to the modified momentum flux balance in this incomplete HB regime. The simulations give the density boundary between this incomplete HB regime and the classic HB regime for CP pulses, which is crucial for estimating the maximum mean ion energy and the maximum conversion efficiency that can be achieved by the classic HB acceleration at a given laser intensity. For linear polarization (LP) the propagation mechanism apparently undergoes a transition in time between these two regimes. A detailed comparison between LP and circular polarization is made for these phenomena. (paper)

  3. Unification of acoustic drillhole logging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, I.; Palmen, J.; Heikkinen, E.

    2009-04-01

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The site characterization at Olkiluoto has included comprehensive geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. One of key techniques in geophysical drillhole surveys has been acoustic full waveform logging, which has been implemented since 1994. Various tools have been used in acquisition of acoustic data and several processing techniques have been applied. The logging work and processing to P and S wave velocities has been previously carried out on single drillhole basis. Comparisons to actual values and levels have not been made, and the results have not been calibrated. Therefore results for different drillholes have not been comparable. Resolution of the P and S wave velocity has been rather coarse, and depth correlation to the core data has been on tentative level. As the investigation data has been accumulating, it has become possible to correlate the results to geological and laboratory control data and to calibrate the results of separate measurement campaigns and different drillholes together onto same reference level and resolution. The presented technique has been applied for drillhole OL-KR29 onwards and has set the processing standard, settings and reference levels for later surveys. This approach will further assist the application of the method for mapping and numerical description of lithology variation and possible effect of alteration and deformation on it. Further on, the P and S wave velocity data together with density can be used in computing of dynamic in situ rock mechanical parameters, and possibly in correlating rock strength laboratory data to P and S wave velocity logging data. The acoustic logging data from drillholes OL-KR1

  4. Plasma immersion ion implantation of the interior surface of a large cylindrical bore using an auxiliary electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.C.; Kwok, T.K.; Liu, A.G.; Chu, P.K.; Tang, B.Y.

    1998-01-01

    A model utilizing cold, unmagnetized, and collisionless fluid ions as well as Boltzmann electrons is used to comprehensively investigate the sheath expansion into a translationally invariant large bore in the presence of an auxiliary electrode during plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a cylindrical bore sample. The governing equation of ion continuity, ion motion, and Poisson close-quote s equation are solved by using a numerical finite difference method for different cylindrical bore radii, auxiliary electrode radii, and voltage rise times. The ion density and ion impact energy at the cylindrical inner surface, as well as the ion energy distribution, maximum ion impact energy, and average ion impact energy for the various cases are obtained. Our results show a dramatic improvement in the impact energy when an auxiliary electrode is used and the recommended normalized auxiliary electrode radius is in the range of 0.1 endash 0.3. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Space-borne observation of mesospheric bore by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Hosokawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mesospheric bores were observed by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the ISS-IMAP mission (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere and Plasmasphere mapping mission from the International Space Station) in O2 airglow at 762 nm wavelength. The mesospheric bore is moving front of sharp jump followed by undulations or turbulence in the mesopause region. Since previous studies of mesospheric bore were mainly based on ground-based airglow imaging that is limited in field-of-view and observing site, little is known about its horizontal extent and global behavior. Space-borne imaging by ISS-IMAP/VISI provides an opportunity to study the mesospheric bore with a wide field-of-view and global coverage. A mesospheric bore was captured by VISI in two consecutive paths on 9 July 2015 over the south of African continent (48ºS - 54ºS and 15ºE). The wave front aligned with south-north direction and propagated to west. The phase velocity and wave length of the following undulation were estimated to 100 m/s and 30 km, respectively. Those parameters are similar to those reported by previous studies. 30º anti-clockwise rotation of the wave front was recognized in 100 min. Another mesospheric bore was captured on 9 May 2013 over the south Atlantic ocean (35ºS - 43ºS and 24ºW - 1ºE) with more than 2,200 km horizontal extent of wave front. The wave front aligned with southeast-northwest direction. Because the following undulation is recognized in the southwest side of the wave front, it is estimated to propagate to northeast direction. The wave front was modulated with 1,000 km wave length. This modulation implies inhomogeneity of the phase velocity.

  6. Incident wave, infragravity wave, and non-linear low-frequency bore evolution across fringing coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Griffioen, D.; Cheriton, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Coral reefs have been shown to significantly attenuate incident wave energy and thus provide protection for 100s of millions of people globally. To better constrain wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels over fringing coral reefs, a 4-month deployment of wave and tide gauges was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island and two transects on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. At all locations, although incident wave (periods 250 s) heights on the outer reef flat just inshore of the zone of wave breaking, the infragravity wave heights generally equaled the incident wave heights by the middle of the reef flat and exceeded the incident wave heights on the inner reef flat by the shoreline. The infragravity waves generally were asymmetric, positively skewed, bore-like forms with incident-band waves riding the infragravity wave crest at the head of the bore; these wave packets have similar structure to high-frequency internal waves on an internal wave bore. Bore height was shown to scale with water depth, offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. For a given tidal elevation, with increasing offshore wave heights, such bores occurred more frequently on the middle reef flat, whereas they occurred less frequently on the inner reef flat. Skewed, asymmetric waves are known to drive large gradients in velocity and shear stress that can transport material onshore. Thus, a better understanding of these low-frequency, energetic bores on reef flats is critical to forecasting how coral reef-lined coasts may respond to sea-level rise and climate change.

  7. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  8. Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum Diagnosed by Boring Biopsy in Combination with Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Hirata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man with severe back pain visited our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive bone metastasis and rectal wall thickness. Colonoscopy revealed circumferential stenosis with edematous mucosa, suggesting colon cancer. However, histological findings of biopsy specimens revealed inflammatory cells but no malignant cells. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound, which demonstrated edematous wall thickness without destruction of the normal layer structure. After unsuccessful detection of neoplastic cells by boring biopsies, we performed endoscopic mucosal resection followed by boring biopsies that finally revealed signet ring cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a case and provide a review of the literature.

  9. Measurements of cutter forces and cutter temperature of boring machine in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Kou, S.Q.; Lindqvist, P.-A. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    This report presents both the testing methods used and the testing results obtained for cutter forces and cutter temperature during field boring in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In order to estimate the strains induced by cutter forces in the cutter shaft and choose proper transducers, first a numerical simulation was performed. The simulation results indicated that the cutter forces should be measurable by ordinary strain gauges. Furthermore, an independent three-direction loading system for laboratory calibration was set up to solve force-coupling problems appearing in field measurements. By means of the established measuring system, which was proved successfully in the laboratory, the normal forces, tangential forces, and side forces of two button cutters in the boring machine were measured in the field. In addition, the temperature in the shaft of the front cutter was measured. After the measurements of the cutter forces and cutter temperature, rock core samples were taken from the bottom and the wall of the testing borehole. Then the samples were cut, polished, and examined by means of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). After that, the lengths of major cracks induced by the cutters in the rock samples were measured, and an approximate relationship between the length of the medium cracks and the relevant cutter forces was obtained. This relationship was compared with the theoretical relationship established before. Finally, according to the measured results, the cracked zones around the borehole were described. The results show that: (1) there are two kinds of cracked zones: one in the borehole wall and the other in the bottom of the borehole. The depth of the cracked zone in the borehole bottom is much larger than that in the borehole wall because the maximum normal force of the front cutter is always much larger than that of the gauge cutter. (2) Each cracked zone includes a densely cracked zone and all the longest medium cracks caused by mechanical

  10. Generalized localization for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in L log +L log + log +L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloshanskaya, S K; Bloshanskii, I L; Roslova, T Y

    1998-01-01

    For an arbitrary open set Ω subset of I 2 =[0,1) 2 and an arbitrary function f element of L log + L log + log + L(I 2 ) such that f=0 on Ω the double Fourier series of f with respect to the trigonometric system Ψ=E and the Walsh-Paley system Ψ=W is shown to converge to zero (over rectangles) almost everywhere on Ω. Thus, it is proved that generalized localization almost everywhere holds on arbitrary open subsets of the square I 2 for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in the class L log + L log + log + L (in the case of summation over rectangles). It is also established that such localization breaks down on arbitrary sets that are not dense in I 2 , in the classes Φ Ψ (L)(I 2 ) for the orthonormal system Ψ=E and an arbitrary function such that Φ E (u)=o(u log + log + u) as u→∞ or for Φ W (u)=u( log + log + u) 1-ε , 0<ε<1

  11. Permeability log using new lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Boyd, J.F.; Fuchs, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative measurements of thermal neutron decay time are obtained for a formation after irradiation with a pulsed neutron source. Chloride ions in formation fluids are concentrated by the electrosmosis effect using charged poles on a well logging sonde. The formation is irradiated with fast neutrons and a first comparative measure of the thermal neutron decay time or neutron lifetime is taken. The chloride ions are then dispersed by acoustic pumping with a magnetostrictive transducer. The formation is then again irradiated with fast neutrons and a comparative measure of neutron lifetime is taken. The comparison is a function of the variation in chloride concentration between the two measurements which is related to formation permeability

  12. Pulsed neutron source well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillingham, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A pulsed neutron source arrangement is provided in which a sealed cylindrical chamber encloses a rotatable rotor member carrying a plurality of elongated target strips of material which emits neutrons when bombarded with alpha particles emitted by the plurality of source material strips. The rotor may be locked in a so-called ON position by an electromagnetic clutch drive mechanism controllable from the earth's surface so as to permit the making of various types of logs utilizing a continuously emitting neutron source. (Patent Office Record)

  13. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147 ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs- Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  14. New radio meteor detecting and logging software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    A new piece of software ``Meteor Logger'' for the radio observation of meteors is described. It analyses an incoming audio stream in the frequency domain to detect a radio meteor signal on the basis of its signature, instead of applying an amplitude threshold. For that reason the distribution of the three frequencies with the highest spectral power are considered over the time (3f method). An auto notch algorithm is developed to prevent the radio meteor signal detection from being jammed by a present interference line. The results of an exemplary logging session are discussed.

  15. Zope based electronic operation log system - Zlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, K.; Satoh, Y.; Kitabayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Since January 2004, the Zope based electronic operation logging system, named Zlog, has been running at the KEKB and AR accelerator facilities. Since Zope is the python based open source web application server software and python language is familiar for the members in the KEKB accelerator control group, we have developed the Zlog system rapidly. In this paper, we report the development history and the present status of Zlog system. Also we show some general plug-in components, called Zope products, have been useful for our Zlog development. (author)

  16. Well logging. Acquisition and applications; Diagraphies. Acquisition et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, O.; Serra, L.

    2001-07-01

    This reference book on wire-line and LWD well logging covers all geophysical methods of underground survey in a synthetic, visual and dynamical way. It treats of: the physical principle of well logging measurements, the different types of existing probes, the factors that can influence the measurements, and the applications of these measurements. The following well-logging methods are reviewed: resistivity; electromagnetic wave propagation; magnetic susceptibility and magnetic field; spontaneous potential; nuclear logging: natural gamma radioactivity, density logging, photoelectric index, neutron emission probes, hydrogen index or neutron porosity, neutron induced gamma spectroscopy, neutron relaxation time, NMR; acoustic measurements: sonic logging, seismic profiles; texture, structure and stratigraphy data acquisition; borehole diameter measurement; temperature measurement; wire sampling methods; place and role of well-logging in petroleum exploration; well-logging programs. (J.S.)

  17. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  18. Log and tree sawing times for hardwood mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast

    1974-01-01

    Data on 6,850 logs and 1,181 trees were analyzed to predict sawing times. For both logs and trees, regression equations were derived that express (in minutes) sawing time per log or tree and per Mbf. For trees, merchantable height is expressed in number of logs as well as in feet. One of the major uses for the tables of average sawing times is as a bench mark against...

  19. Minimal analytical model for undular tidal bore profile; quantum and Hawking effect analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Waves travelling up-river, driven by high tides, often consist of a smooth front followed by a series of undulations. A simple approximate theory gives the rigidly travelling profile of such ‘undular hydraulic jumps’, up to scaling, as the integral of the Airy function; applying self-consistency fixes the scaling. The theory combines the standard hydraulic jump with ideas borrowed from quantum physics: Hamiltonian operators and zero-energy eigenfunctions. There is an analogy between undular bores and the Hawking effect in relativity: both concern waves associated with horizons. ‘Physics is not just Concerning the Nature of Things, but Concerning the Interconnectedness of all the Natures of Things’(Sir Charles Frank, retirement speech 1976).

  20. Load-deflection characteristics of small-bore insulated-pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1981-12-01

    The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  1. Performance of Small Bore 60NiTi Hybrid Ball Bearings: Preliminary Life Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small bore (R8 size) hybrid ball bearings made with 60NiTi races and silicon nitride balls are under development for highly corrosive aerospace applications that are also exposed to heavy static (shock) loads. The target application is the vacuum pump used inside the wastewater recycling system on the International Space Station. To verify bearing longevity, life tests are run at 2000rpm for time periods up to 5000 hours. Accelerometers with data tracking are used to monitor operation and the bearings are disassembled and inspected at intervals to assess wear. Preliminary tests show that bearings made from 60NiTi are feasible for this aerospace and potentially other industrial applications that must endure similar operating environments.

  2. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y.; Murai, K.; Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of μm in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10 20 - 10 22 cm -3 with the XRL-GIR and for 10 19 - 10 20 cm -3 from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Diagnostic Evaluation of the Knee in the Office Setting Using Small-Bore Needle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karan A; Hartigan, David E; Makovicka, Justin L; Dulle, Donald L; Chhabra, Anikar

    2018-01-01

    Arthroscopy is currently the gold standard for diagnosing intra-articular knee pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a clinical adjunct for diagnosis; however, it is not without its shortcomings. Although highly accurate, even advanced imaging misdiagnoses the condition in 1 in 14 patients with regard to anterior cruciate ligament pathology. Previous studies have indicated that MRI fails to identify meniscal pathology when one exists in 1 of every 10 cases, and diagnoses pathology when pathology truly does not exist in 1 of every 5 patients. In-office arthroscopy offers an alternative to formal diagnostic arthroscopy, with reduced cost and risk of complications. This is a technique article that discusses the use of small-bore needle arthroscopy in the office setting.

  4. Drilling Load Model of an Inchworm Boring Robot for Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the wireline robot has received increasing attention due to the advantages of light weight, low cost, and flexibility compared to the traditional drilling instruments in space missions. For the lunar subsurface in situ exploration mission, we proposed a type of wireline robot named IBR (Inchworm Boring Robot drawing inspiration from the inchworm. Two auger tools are utilized to remove chips for IBR, which directly interacted with the lunar regolith in the drilling process. Therefore, for obtaining the tools drilling characteristics, the chips removal principle of IBR is analyzed and its drilling load model is further established based on the soil mechanical theory in this paper. And then the proposed theoretical drilling load model is experimentally validated. In addition, according to the theoretical drilling load model, this paper discusses the effect of the drilling parameters on the tools drilling moments and power consumption. These results imply a possible energy-efficient control strategy for IBR.

  5. Design And Construction Of A 15 T, 120 MM Bore IR Quadrupole Magnet For LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Sabbi, G.S.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Pasholk, D.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Nb 3 Sn conductor is at the present time the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. In support of the LHC Phase-II upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a large bore (120 mm) IR quadrupole (HQ) capable of reaching 15 T at its conductor peak field and a peak gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K. While exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses the 1 m long two-layer coil will demonstrate additional features such as alignment and accelerator field quality. In this paper we summarize the design and report on the magnet construction progress.

  6. Small bore pipe acceptance criteria for watts bar nuclear plant Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.S.; Lee, R.L.; Kalyanan, N.

    1991-01-01

    Small bore pipe (≤2 inches NPS) is traditionally analyzed by simplified techniques using Cook Book approach, which yield conservative results. However, reconciliation of these systems for as-built condition where the original criteria is observed to have been exceeded (or due to additions etc.) generally becomes a time consuming and expensive operation since a rigorous computer aided analysis or a detailed hand calculation becomes necessary. The acceptance criteria in this paper can be effectively used in such cases. The approach involves utilizing basic engineering principles and plant specific parameters (such as earthquake spectra) to estimate the system response such as pipe stress due to various loading conditions, piping frequency, support and anchor loads, valve acceleration etc

  7. Automation of eddy current system for in-service inspection of turbine and generator rotor bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The current project (EPRI-RP-1975-5) is a continuation of activities that began several years ago. Those results (EPRI-RP-1957-1) indicated that eddy current testing shows promise for in-service inspection. The current project investigates the degree to which eddy current testing can be used to replace bore magnetic particle testing. For this purpose, correlation studies between eddy current and magnetic particle tests are being undertaken on laboratory rotor sections and field test pieces of rotors. The eddy current data are to be gathered automatically by a combination of the Nortec-25L Eddyscope (to provide the analog eddy current signals) and the General Electric DATAQ/sup TM/ (a registered trademark of the General Electric Co.) System (to perform the automatic data acquisition). This paper describes some test results on a flaked laboratory rotor section

  8. Simultaneous in-bore rail and insulator spectra from a railgun plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.; Sedghinasah, A.; Crawford, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on absolute spectral radiance measurements obtained simultaneously at the rail and insulator surface of the UTSI 1 cm square-bore railgun. The emission spectra were obtained through the use of quartz optical fibers which penetrated both the rail and the insulator walls. The spectral characteristics of the rail and insulator emission are quite similar but differ significantly in magnitude. A detailed plasma radiation model was used to analyze these spectra. In order to obtain reasonable agreement between the model predictions and the experimental spectra, it was necessary to assume that these existed a broadband absorbing layer at the insulator surface. This result suggests a new physical model of the plasma armature in which insulator ablation leads to significant 3-dimensional flow and affects the shape of the current emission pattern on the rail surfaces

  9. Numerical simulation of two-phase filtration in the near well bore zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksat, Kalimoldayev; Kalipa, Kuspanova; Kulyash, Baisalbayeva; Orken, Mamyrbayev; Assel, Abdildayeva

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of the fundamental laws of energy conservation, nonstationary processes of filtration of two-phase liquids in multilayered reservoirs in the near well bore zone are considered. Number of reservoirs, fluid pressure in the given reservoirs, reservoir permeability, oil viscosity, etc. are taken into account upon that. Plane-parallel flow and axisymmetric cases have been studied. In the numerical solution, non-structured meshes are used. Closer to the well, the meshes thicken. The integration step over time is defined by the generalized Courant inequality. As a result, there are no large oscillations in the numerical solutions obtained. Oil production rates, Poisson's ratios, D-diameters of the well, filter height, filter permeability, and cumulative thickness of the filter cake and the area have been taken as the main inputs in numerical simulation of non-stationary processes of two-phase filtration.

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  11. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  12. Dosimetric impact of image artifact from a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Vincent; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Malhotra, Harish K.; Wang, Iris Z. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Traditional computed tomography (CT) units provide a maximum scan field-of-view (sFOV) diameter of 50 cm and a limited bore size, which cannot accommodate a large patient habitus or an extended simulation setup in radiation therapy (RT). Wide-bore CT scanners with increased bore size were developed to address these needs. Some scanners have the capacity to reconstruct the CT images at an extended FOV (eFOV), through data interpolation or extrapolation, using projection data acquired with a conventional sFOV. Objects that extend past the sFOV for eFOV reconstruction may generate image artifacts resulting from truncated projection data; this may distort CT numbers and structure contours in the region beyond the sFOV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of image artifacts from eFOV reconstruction with a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. Methods: Testing phantoms (i.e., a mini CT phantom with equivalent tissue inserts, a set of CT normal phantoms and anthropomorphic phantoms of the thorax and the pelvis) were used to evaluate eFOV artifacts. Reference baseline images of these phantoms were acquired with the phantom centrally positioned within the sFOV. For comparison, the phantoms were then shifted laterally and scanned partially outside the sFOV, but still within the eFOV. Treatment plans were generated for the thoracic and pelvic anthropomorphic phantoms utilizing the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) to study the potential effects of eFOV artifacts on dose calculations. All dose calculations of baseline and test treatment plans were carried out using the same MU. Results: Results show that both body contour and CT numbers are altered by image artifacts in eFOV reconstruction. CT number distortions of up to -356 HU for bone tissue and up to 323 HU for lung tissue were observed in the mini CT phantom. Results from the large body normal phantom, which is close to a clinical patient size, show

  13. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system—the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence.

  14. Data Cleaning Methods for Client and Proxy Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, H.; Obendorf, H.; Herder, E.; Edmonds, A.; Hawkey, K.; Kellar, M.; Turnbull, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences with the cleaning of Web client and proxy usage logs, based on a long-term browsing study with 25 participants. A detailed clickstream log, recorded using a Web intermediary, was combined with a second log of user interface actions, which was captured by a

  15. Sediment transport and soil disturbance after postfire logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver

    2003-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable debate on the practice of postfire logging, in which burned forests are entered soon after fire to recover commercially valuable trees. Proponents of the practice argue that postfire logging is part of a 'restoration package' that can be used to control erosion (e.g., contour logging) and can help to mitigate costs of...

  16. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  17. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  18. A survey of animal-powered logging in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Toms; Mark R. Dubois; John C. Bliss; John H. Wilhoit; Robert B. Rummer

    2001-01-01

    In a state with a very large, highly mechanized timber harvesting industry, animal-powered logging still occupies a niche in Alabama as a small-scale harvesting alternative. This article summarizes the results from a study that examined the extent of animal logging in Alabama. We investigated this topic by asking who is logging with animals, where are they working,...

  19. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  20. Financial and Economic Analysis of Reduced Impact Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Concern regarding extensive damage to tropical forests resulting from logging increased dramatically after World War II when mechanized logging systems developed in industrialized countries were deployed in the tropics. As a consequence, tropical foresters began developing logging procedures that were more environmentally benign, and by the 1990s, these practices began...

  1. Environmental effects of postfire logging: literature review and annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Lynn Starr

    2000-01-01

    The scientific literature on logging after wildfire is reviewed, with a focus on environmental effects of logging and removal of large woody structure. Rehabilitation, the practice of planting or seeding after logging, is not reviewed here. Several publications are cited that can be described as “commentaries,” intended to help frame the public debate. We review 21...

  2. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  3. Development of regional stump-to-mill logging cost estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1989-01-01

    Planning logging operations requires estimating the logging costs for the sale or tract being harvested. Decisions need to be made on equipment selection and its application to terrain. In this paper a methodology is described that has been developed and implemented to solve the problem of accurately estimating logging costs by region. The methodology blends field time...

  4. Ultrafast CT scanning of an oak log for internal defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis G. Wagner; Fred W. Taylor; Douglas S. Ladd; Charles W. McMillin; Fredrick L. Roder

    1989-01-01

    Detecting internal defects in sawlogs and veneer logs with computerized tomographic (CT) scanning is possible, but has been impractical due to the long scanning time required. This research investigated a new scanner able to acquire 34 cross-sectional log scans per second. This scanning rate translates to a linear log feed rate of 85 feet (25.91 m) per minute at one...

  5. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  6. Public PCs: Log Out or Lose Out

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you regularly use one of the public Windows or Linux terminals in the CERN library or in front of the Users' Office? Or do you often give presentations or run meetings, workshops or conferences? Did you recently attend a training session in the CERN Training Centre? If you answered at least once with “yes”, we have a plea for you: LOG OUT when done in order to protect your data!   You might recall that CERN considers that “Your Privacy is Paramount”. But this does not come for free. In the few past months, we have received several reports from vigilant people who have spotted open user sessions on public PCs at CERN. Those users simply forgot to log out once their work, training or meeting was over. Their session continued without them being present. Worse, with CERN using a central Single Sign-On (SSO) portal, their login credentials would allow a malicious person at CERN to use those credentials to access that user’s mailbox, DFS ...

  7. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  8. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Hamajima, T.; Itou, T.; Sakuraba, J.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-01-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb 3 Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x ∂Bz/∂z) of 4500 T 2 /m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb 3 Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb 3 Sn wires.

  9. In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies: Are there risk factors for complications?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael, E-mail: michael.meier@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Homsi, Rami, E-mail: rami.homsi@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Kukuk, Guido, E-mail: guido.kukuk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Wolter, Karsten, E-mail: karsten.wolter@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Decker, Georges, E-mail: georges.decker@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Fischer, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fischer@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Marx, Christian, E-mail: christian.marx@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Schmeel, Frederic Carsten, E-mail: carsten.schmeel@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Block, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.block@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Sprinkart, Alois Martin, E-mail: sprinkart@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Traeber, Frank, E-mail: frank.traeber@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Schild, Hans Heinz, E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Willinek, Winfried, E-mail: w.willinek@bk-trier.de [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, Sonography and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital of the Barmherzige Brüder Trier, Nordallee 1, 54292 Trier (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Purpose: To systematically analyze risk factors for complications of in-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies (MRGB). Materials and methods: 90 patients, who were scheduled for MRGB were included for this study. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, therapy with anticoagulant drugs, and acute infections of the urinary and the lower gastrointestinal tract. Directly after, one week and one year after the biopsy, we assessed biopsy related complications (e.g. hemorrhages or signs of prostatitis). Differences between patients with and without complications were analyzed regarding possible risk factors: age, prostate volume, number of taken samples, biopsy duration, biopsy of more than one lesion, diabetes, arterial hypertension, hemorrhoids, benign prostate hyperplasia, carcinoma or prostatitis (according to histopathological analysis), and lesion localization. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: We observed 15 grade I complications in 90 biopsies (16.7%) with slight hematuria in 9 cases (10%), minor vasovagal reactions in 4 cases (4.4%), and urinary retention and positioning-related facial dysesthesia in 1 case each (1.1%). One patient showed acute prostatitis requiring antibiotics as the only grade II complication (1.1%). There were no adverse events that occurred later than one week. Complications grade III or higher such as pelvic abscesses, urosepsis or severe hemorrhages were not seen. There were no significant associations between the assessed risk factors and biopsy-related complications. Conclusion: In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies can be considered safe procedures in the diagnosis of prostate cancer with very low complication rates. There seem to be no risk factors for complications.

  10. Improved Safety and Efficacy of Small-Bore Feeding Tube Confirmation Using an Electromagnetic Placement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jan; Luebbehusen, Michael; Aguirre, Lillian; Cluff, Julia; David, Mary Ann; Holly, Vince; Linford, Lorraine; Park, Nancy; Brunelle, Rocco

    2018-04-01

    Early enteral nutrition has been shown to decrease complications and improve patient outcomes. Post pyloric feeding is recommended for patients with gastric intolerance or at high risk for aspiration. Feeding tube placement can be challenging and pose risk of pulmonary complications. Reliance on radiographic confirmation for feeding tube placement exposes the patient to radiation. Electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) may offer a method to minimize pulmonary complications, increase successful placement, and decrease radiation exposure to the patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using EMPD verification, instead of routine abdominal radiographic confirmation, for small-bore feeding tube placement. Variables evaluated were adverse events, utilization of radiographs for confirmation, and success rate of feeding tube placement in the ordered location. Two time frames were reviewed. In a 1-year period, 3754 small-bore feeding tubes were placed using EMPD, with zero adverse events noted. Radiographic confirmation was utilized in 0%-29.2% of the EMPD placed tubes. Successful placement of feeding tubes using EMPD ranged from 94%-99.6%. During a 5-year period, 7081 EMPD feeding tubes were evaluated. One adverse event, pneumothorax, occurred during the placement of these 7081 tubes, for a rate of 0.014%. Feeding tube placement confirmation is safe and efficacious via EMPD providing an effective method of feeding tube placement with a success rate >94% into the desired location. EMPD is an accurate verification method of distal tip location, eliminating the need for routine abdominal radiographic confirmation. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Feasibility study and technical proposal for seismic monitoring of tunnel boring machine in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A. (AF-Consult Ltd, Vantaa (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are described. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. The presented technical proposal for seismic monitoring of TBM in Olkiluoto is capable to detect and locate TBM coming outside the ONKALO area about two months before it would reach the ONKALO. (orig.)

  12. Feasibility study and technical proposal for seismic monitoring of tunnel boring machine in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are described. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. The presented technical proposal for seismic monitoring of TBM in Olkiluoto is capable to detect and locate TBM coming outside the ONKALO area about two months before it would reach the ONKALO. (orig.)

  13. Efficacy and safety in performing of large bore percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilov, N.; Mlachkova, D.; Rizov, A.; Lozev, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the success rate, complications and the outcomes from large-bore percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance performed to 178 cases with another 54 when nephrostomy under x-ray control was performed. We have performed 178 large-bore percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance and another 54 percutaneous nephrostomy under x-ray guidance to patients diagnosed with obstructive uropathy resulting from benign or malignant supravesical obstruction. We have performed successful nephrostomy in 93,8% of the cases under ultrasound guidance and 100% successful nephrostomy in the cases under x-ray control. In 2,8% of patients under ultrasound guidance the nephrostomy was performed using 4 additional punctures of the pyelocaliceal system and artificially caused hydronephrosis via infiltration of normal saline; and in the remaining 1,7% it was successful at the second attempt after 24 hours. It was not necessary to perform open surgery nephrostomy in any of the cases. The performance of percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance has a success rate similar to the one done under x-ray guidance and with commensurable frequency and severity of complications, however without the patient and the operator being exposed to x-ray radiation. In general, the percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance is performed without difficulties in the cases of third or fourth degree hydronephrosis. The lateral decubital patient position, the appropriate place for the puncture, the usage of Color Doppler imaging when the puncture is performed and the continuos ultrasound guidance during dilatation and placement of the nephrostomy tube should ensure the successful performance of the procedure in the case of first or second degree hydronephrosis. When hydronephrosis is absent, the nephrostomy should be performed under x-ray guidance. In emergency cases the application of ultrasound guidance allows the nephrostomy to be performed along the

  14. Electronically rotated and translated field-free line generation for open bore magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Can Barış; Ilbey, Serhat; Güven, Hüseyin Emre

    2017-12-01

    We propose a coil arrangement for open bore field-free line (FFL) magnetic particle imaging (MPI) system, which is suitable for accessing the subject from the sides. The purpose of this study is twofold, to show that the FFL can be rotated and translated electronically in a volume of interest with this arrangement and to analyze the current, voltage and power requirements for a 1 T/m gradient human sized scanner for a 200 mm diameter × 200 mm height cylindrical field of view (FOV). We used split coils side by side with alternating current directions to generate a field-free line. Employing two of these coil groups, one of which is rotated 90 degrees with respect to the other, a rotating FFL was generated. We conducted numerical simulations to show the feasibility of this arrangement for three-dimensional (3D) electronical scan of the FFL. Using simulations, we obtained images of a two-dimensional (2D) in silico dot phantom for a human size scanner with system matrix-based reconstruction. Simulations showed that the FFL can be generated and rotated in one plane and can be translated in two axes, allowing for 3D imaging of a large subject with the proposed arrangement. Human sized scanner required 63-215 kW power for the selection field coils to scan the focus inside the FOV. The proposed setup is suitable for FFL MPI imaging with an open bore configuration without the need for mechanical rotation, which is preferable for clinical usage in terms of imaging time and patient access. Further studies are necessary to determine the limitations imposed by peripheral nerve stimulation, and to optimize the system parameters and the sequence design. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

  16. In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies: Are there risk factors for complications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Homsi, Rami; Kukuk, Guido; Wolter, Karsten; Decker, Georges; Fischer, Stefan; Marx, Christian; Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Block, Wolfgang; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically analyze risk factors for complications of in-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies (MRGB). Materials and methods: 90 patients, who were scheduled for MRGB were included for this study. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, therapy with anticoagulant drugs, and acute infections of the urinary and the lower gastrointestinal tract. Directly after, one week and one year after the biopsy, we assessed biopsy related complications (e.g. hemorrhages or signs of prostatitis). Differences between patients with and without complications were analyzed regarding possible risk factors: age, prostate volume, number of taken samples, biopsy duration, biopsy of more than one lesion, diabetes, arterial hypertension, hemorrhoids, benign prostate hyperplasia, carcinoma or prostatitis (according to histopathological analysis), and lesion localization. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: We observed 15 grade I complications in 90 biopsies (16.7%) with slight hematuria in 9 cases (10%), minor vasovagal reactions in 4 cases (4.4%), and urinary retention and positioning-related facial dysesthesia in 1 case each (1.1%). One patient showed acute prostatitis requiring antibiotics as the only grade II complication (1.1%). There were no adverse events that occurred later than one week. Complications grade III or higher such as pelvic abscesses, urosepsis or severe hemorrhages were not seen. There were no significant associations between the assessed risk factors and biopsy-related complications. Conclusion: In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies can be considered safe procedures in the diagnosis of prostate cancer with very low complication rates. There seem to be no risk factors for complications.

  17. Influence of friction on buckling of a drill string in the circular channel of a bore hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gulyayev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore hole is one of the most important problems of the current petroleum industry. Not infrequently, the drilling of these bore holes is attended by occurrence of extraordinary situations associated with technical accidents. Among these is the Eulerian loss of stability of a drill string in the channel of a curvilinear bore hole. Methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role in prediction of these states. In this paper, a new statement of the problem of critical buckling of the drill strings in 3D curvilinear bore holes is proposed. It is based on combined use of the theory of curvilinear elastic rods, Eulerian theory of stability, theory of channel surfaces, and methods of classical mechanics of systems with nonlinear constraints. It is noted that the stated problem is singularly perturbed and its solutions have the shapes of localized harmonic wavelets. The calculation results showed that the friction effects lead to essential redistribution of internal axial forces, as well as changing the eigenmode shapes and sites of their localization. These features make the buckling phenomena less predictable and raise the role of computer simulation of these effects.

  18. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred

  19. Bivalve wood borings of the ichnogenus Teredolites Leymerie from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, J.; Mikuláš, Radek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2006), s. 159-174 ISSN 1042-0940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Borings * Mollusca * sedimentary environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://rzblx1.uni-regensburg.de/ezeit/detail.phtml?bibid=CASCR& colors =7&lang=en&jour_id=41560

  20. Development of the teneral adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): time to initiate and completely bore out of maple wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Sanchez; M.A. Keena

    2013-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an introduced invasive pest with the potential to devastate hardwood forests in North America. Using artificial pupal chambers, we documented the time required by teneral adults at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C), 60-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h to initiate boring after eclosion...

  1. Large-diameter boring of rock bed by a reveres circulation drill; Ribasu sakyureshon doriru ni yoru daikokei ganban sakko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakae, S.; Torii, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, S.; Motoyama, M.

    1995-09-25

    The Itojima Large Bridge is a road bridge of 675 m in the total length connecting together the Nagashima Island and the Itojima Island in the northwest district of Kagoshima Prefecture, having a central span of 260 m and comprising a 5-span-continuous PC cable stayed bridges and PC box girder bridges. The foundation of this bridge employs a multi-pillar type pile structure. The piling work was started in July, 1991 by a hole inset method in a severe working environment where the depth of water is 20 m, the range of the tides is 4 m, the speed of tidal current is 2 kt, the rock bed structure is complicated and the steep seabed is steeply inclined. This report describes the results of the execution of the reverse circulation drilling, which has a high general versatility in rock bed boring, using self-lifting barges and large working boats during the rock bed boring for the foundation piling for the construction of the Itojima Large Bridge. The report, especially, also introduces the details of the work that casing pipes were driven into a stable rock bed by a vibrojet method for the measure against the collapse of a bore wall which occurred during the boring work. 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Wagenbrenner; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control)...

  4. Use of pulsed neutron logging to evaluate perforation washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of pulsed neutron logging techniques before and after perforation washing operations are performed to evaluate the degree of success of the perforation washing operations. Well logging operations of a type designed to respond to the difference between a formation immediately behind the well sheath and voids in the formation are performed both before and after the perforation washing operation. differences between the two resulting logs are then indicative of voids created by perforation washing. In a preferred embodiment, pulsed neutron logging is used as the logging technique, while a weighted brine having a high absorption cross section to pulsed neutrons is used as the perforation washing fluid

  5. Study of the reservoirs of Jurassic and Cretaceous periods in the south-cast slope of Central Kara-Kum vault using combination of acoustic logging, neutron-gamma logging, gamma logging, and electrical logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredov, T.M.; Baranov, M.I.

    1978-01-01

    Considered is the possibility of application of the combination of neutron-gamma logging, gamma logging al partitioncoustic logging and electrical logging to lithologica of sections, discovery reservoir layers in carbonate and terrigeneous sections as well as quantitative estimation of the porosity coefficients values at prospecting areas in the south-east slope of Central Kara-Kum vault. Neutron-gamma logging mostly makes it possible to partition carbonate rocks into limestones, dolomites and their interstitial variaties and to indicate sand stone layers with different degree of carbonate content

  6. KFM 01A. Q-logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Nick

    2003-03-01

    The first Forsmark potential repository site borehole KFM 01A provided core from 101.8 to 1000.7 m depth. This was independently Q-logged during a two-day period (19th-20th February, 2003), without access to BORMAP results or regional jointing frequencies or orientations. The Q-logging was intended to be an independent check for subsequent BORMAP-derived Q-parameter estimation. The Q-logging was accomplished using the manually-recorded 'histogram method' which allows the logger to enter Q-parameter ranges and depths directly into the appropriate histograms, which facilitates subsequent data processing using Excel spreadsheets. Successive pairs of core boxes, which contain an average of 11 meters of core in ten rows, were the source of ten opinions of each of the six Q-parameters, giving a total of 4920 recordings of Q-parameter values for the 164 core boxes. Data processing was divided into several parts, with successively increasing detail. The report therefore contains Q-histograms for the whole core, for four identified fracture(d) zones combined as if one unit, and then for the whole core minus these fracture(d) zones. This background rock mass quality is subsequently divided into nine depth zones or slices, and trends of variation with depth are tabulated. The four identified fracture(d) zones, which are actually of reasonable quality, are also analysed separately, and similarities and subtle differences are discerned between them. The overall quality of this first core is very good to excellent, with Q(mean) of 48.4, and a most frequent Q-value of 100. The range of quality is from 2.1 to 2130, which is the complete upper half of the six order of magnitude Q scale. Even the relatively fracture(d) zones, representing some 13% of the 900 m cored, have a combined Q(mean) of 13.9 and a range of quality of 2.1 to 150

  7. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  8. DOE-Grand Junction logging model data synopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, M.A.; Koizumi, C.J.; Evans, H.B.

    1978-05-01

    This synopsis provides the available data concerning the logging models at the DoE-Grand Junction facility, to date (1976). Because gamma-ray logs are used in uranium exploration to estimate the grade (percent U 3 O 8 ) and the thickness of uranium ore zones in exploration drill holes, logging models are required to calibrate the gamma-ray logging equipment in order to obtain accuracy, uniformity, standardization, and repeatability during logging. This quality control is essential for accurate ore reserve calculations and for estimates of ore potential. The logging models at the DoE-Grand Junction facility are available for use by private industry in calibrating their gamma-ray logging equipment. 21 figures, 26 tables

  9. Applicability estimation of flowmeter logging for detecting hydraulic pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kimio; Tanaka, Yasuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic pass governing hydrogeological structure contributes significantly to the siting HLW repository. Flowmeter logging can detect hydraulic passes by measuring vertical flow velocity of groundwater in the borehole. We reviewed application of this logging in situ. The hydraulic pass was detected with combination of ambient flow logging, with pumping and/or injecting induced flow logging. This application showed that the flowmeter logging detected hydraulic passes conveniently and accurately compared with other hydraulic tests. Hydraulic conductivity by using flowmeter logging was assessed above 10 -6 m/sec and within one order from comparison with injection packer tests. We suggest that appropriate application of the flowmeter logging for the siting is conducted before hydraulic tests because test sections and monitoring sections are decided rationally for procurement of quantitative hydraulic data. (author)

  10. Acoustic--nuclear permeability logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Arnold, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A down hole logging tool featuring a neutron generator, an acoustic disturbance generator, and a radiation detection system is described. An array of acoustic magnetostriction transducers is arranged about the target of a neutron accelerator. Two gamma ray sensors are separated from the accelerator target by shielding. According to the method of the invention, the underground fluid at the level of a formation is bombarded by neutrons which react with oxygen in the fluid to produce unstable nitrogen 16 particles according to the reaction 16 O(n,p) 16 N. Acoustic pulses are communicated to the fluid, and are incident on the boundary of the borehole at the formation. The resulting net flow of fluid across the boundary is determined from radiation detection measurements of the decaying 16 N particles in the fluid. A measure of the permeability of the formation is obtained from the determination of net fluid flow across the boundary

  11. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) pressure test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirud, Aase P.

    2003-07-01

    Statoil and Halliburton have completed a successful test of a new ground-breaking formation evaluation technology on the Norwegian shelf. An LWD formation tester, the GeoTapTM sensor, was used to quantify formation pressure during drilling operations. The inaugural job was completed by Halliburton's Sperry-Sun product service line onboard the Bideford Dolphin at the Borg Field while drilling a horizontal production well in the Vigdis Extension development. The GeoTap tool, part of Sperry-Sun's StellarTM MWD/LWT suite, was run in combination with a complete logging-while-drilling sensor package and the Geo-Pilot rotary steerable drilling system. Repeat formation pressures were taken and successfully transmitted to surface. This is the first time this type of technology has been successfully applied on the Norwegian shelf.

  12. Neutron die-away well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron die-away well logging is extensively used for the location and monitoring of hydrocarbon zones in cased wells. Casing prohibits the use of conventional open-hole electrical resistivity methods. Through an appropriate interpretation of the measured capture cross-section, it is possible to determine the fractional hydrocarbon content of the rock pore volume, provided that the interstitial water is moderately saline (Σ/sub w/ greater than or equal to .035 cm -1 ). Special sealed D-T accelerator tubes and high voltage supplies have been developed for this purpose. They must fit into a 25 mm design circle and operate at 175 0 C, producing approximately 10 8 neutron/sec average in repetitive bursts. In the Schlumberger method an electronic servo-system adjusts burst and measure-gate timing to minimize statistical uncertainty regardless of die-away time

  13. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  14. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  15. Specific features of well logging of boreholes drilled on electrical nonconducting solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchkin, A.F.; Fomenko, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for identification of permeable strata and determination of their porosity and oil-gas saturation using standard combination of geophysical investigations in the boreholes drilled with nonaqueous and inert drilling fluids are considered. Geophysical combination consists of the methods indications of which are independent on electrical conductivity of drilling fluids. They are all modifications of radioactivity logging (gamma logging, neutron logging, neutron-gamma logging, gamma-gamma logging, pulsed neutron logging, nuclear-magnetic logging), acoustic logging and thermal logging

  16. Implementation of virtual simulation with a wide-bore multislice helcalct scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.; Kenny, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Multislice large-bore CT scanners specifically designed for radiotherapy have very recently become available. The issues relating to these type of scanners in radiotherapy and the implementation of virtual simulation are therefore of much current interest. A GE LightSpeed RT 4-slice helical CT scanner with a 80 cm bore size was installed in the radiation oncology department of the Newcastle Mater Hospital. This replaced our only simulator, a conventional unit. Specific issues relating to the imaging performance, and virtual simulation process with the large-bore multislice scanner were studied to ensure an accurate radiotherapy process. The detector array fully samples a 50 cm diameter scan circle. The reconstructed diameter can be increased to 65 cm with partial sampling of the extra volume. The GE Advantage Sim (ASim) virtual simulation software was commissioned, with transfer of CT images and DICOM RT plans to the Pinnacle radiotherapy planning system (RTPS) for dose calculation. Some specific issues investigated were: 1) The image quality performance for image reconstruction with the 65 cm area compared to 50 cm was measured with a line-pair phantom. 2) The accuracy of CT numbers with lateral position was assessed with a commercial electron density phantom. 3) Couch lateral movement and sag during acquisition were measured with the couch weighted with 86 kg. 4) The accuracy of the transfer of plans from ASim to Pinnacle was verified with known plan geometries. Image resolution throughout the entire CT image was found to be significantly lower when scan reconstruction was performed with 65 cm scan circle compared to 50 cm. The 0.3, 0.38 and 0.5 1p/mm bars were clearly distinguishable with the 50 cm reconstruction compared to only the 0.3 1p/mm bars in the 65 cm reconstruction. 2) CT numbers varied significantly outside the 50 cm reconstructed area. 3) Couch lateral movement during scanning was within 1 mm. Couch sag was 4 mm at the imaging plane

  17. Development of an Intelligent System to Synthesize Petrophysical Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nouri Taleghani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Porosity is one of the fundamental petrophysical properties that should be evaluated for hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs. It is a vital factor in precise understanding of reservoir quality in a hydrocarbon field. Log data are exceedingly crucial information in petroleum industries, for many of hydrocarbon parameters are obtained by virtue of petrophysical data. There are three main petrophysical logging tools for the determination of porosity, namely neutron, density, and sonic well logs. Porosity can be determined by the use of each of these tools; however, a precise analysis requires a complete set of these tools. Log sets are commonly either incomplete or unreliable for many reasons (i.e. incomplete logging, measurement errors, and loss of data owing to unsuitable data storage. To overcome this drawback, in this study several intelligent systems such as fuzzy logic (FL, neural network (NN, and support vector machine are used to predict synthesized petrophysical logs including neutron, density, and sonic. To accomplish this, the petrophysical well logs data were collected from a real reservoir in one of Iran southwest oil fields. The corresponding correlation was obtained through the comparison of synthesized log values with real log values. The results showed that all intelligent systems were capable of synthesizing petrophysical well logs, but SVM had better accuracy and could be used as the most reliable method compared to the other techniques.

  18. Pulsed neutron uranium borehole logging with prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, H.M.; Smith, G.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    The gross count natural gamma log normally used for uranium borehole logging is seriously affected by disequilibrium. Methods for the direct measurement of uranium, such as neutron logging, which are not affected by disequilibrium have been the object of considerable effort in recent years. This paper describes a logging system for uranium which uses a small accelerator to generate pulses of 14 MeV neutrons to detect and assay uranium by the measurement of prompt fission neutrons in the epithermal energy range. After an initial feasibility study, a prototype logging probe was built for field evaluation which began in January 1976. Physical and operational characteristics of the prototype probe, the neutron tube-transformer assembly, and the neutron tube are described. In logging operations, only the epithermal prompt fission neutrons detected between 250 microseconds to 2500 microseconds following the excitation neutron pulse are counted. Comparison of corrected neutron logs with the conventional gross count natural gamma logs and the chemical assays of cores from boreholes are shown. The results obtained with this neutron probe clearly demonstrate its advantages over the gross count natural gamma log, although at this time the accuracy of the neutron log assay is not satisfactory under some conditions. The necessary correction factors for various borehole and formation parameters are being determined and, when applied, should improve the assay accuracy

  19. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, M Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Alizadeh, Pooya Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs

  20. One less trip : logging with less tripping, more protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2005-12-15

    New logging technology by Datalog Technology Inc. was described. Logging-while-tripping (LWT) technology uses a slim petrophysical sensor package that is moved to the targeted geological formation through a drill pipe, which reduces the exposure to vibration and shock involved in logging-while-drilling (LWD). The equipment features standard components in a patented configuration and comes in 2 segments: the receiver sub and the sensor package electronics. A receiver sub is inserted into the bottomhole assembly at the end of the drill string. Drilling progresses with the LWT sub in the bottomhole assembly until the borehole approaches the logging depth. The sensor package and electronics are then lowered into the drill string. If the well is horizontal, rig pumps push the package into the drill string until it lands in the LWT sub. Drill pipes are moved across the zone of interest and logs are recorded on downhole memory contained within the LWT package. As the logging operation progresses, a depth recorder at the surface records depth information along with the downhole recorders. When logging is completed, downhole tools are retrieved, and data downloaded from the LWT onboard memory is merged with the surface depth information to generate well logs. Retrieval via the drill string greatly reduces the risk of losing the logging gear, which contains radioactive material. Federal officials now routinely insist on extensive fishing operations to retrieve lost tools. If a well gets a gas kick while logging is in progress, the operator can still pump down mud or close the blowout preventer rams if necessary, and save time in determining where to perforate shallow gas wells. Compensated neutron logs, gamma rays, spectrum gamma rays, and induction have been tested with the LWT system. It was concluded that Petro-Canada has deployed the logs recently and has achieved results that compared satisfactorily with conventional logs. 2 figs.

  1. Water saturation in shaly sands: logging parameters from log-derived values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyairi, M.; Itoh, T.; Okabe, F.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are presented for determining the relation of porosity to formation factor and that of true resistivity of formation to water saturation, which were investigated through the log interpretation of one of the oil and gas fields of northern Japan Sea. The values of the coefficients ''a'' and ''m'' in porosity-formation factor relation are derived from cross-plot of porosity and resistivity of formation corrected by clay content. The saturation exponent ''n'' is determined from cross-plot of porosity and resistivity index on the assumption that the product of porosity and irreducible water saturation is constant. The relation of porosity to irreducible water saturation is also investigated from core analysis. The new logging parameters determined from the methods, a = 1, m = 2, n = 1.4, improved the values of water saturation by 6 percent in average, and made it easy to distinguish the points which belong to the productive zone and ones belonging to the nonproductive zone

  2. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control) forests burned at high severity in northern Montana, eastern Washington, and southern British Columbia to quantify rill overland flow and sediment production rates (fluxes) after ground-based salvage logging. We tested different types of logging equipment-feller-bunchers, tracked and wheeled skidders, and wheeled forwarders-as well as traffic levels and the addition of slash to skid trails as a best management practice. Rill experiments were done at each location in the first year after the fire and repeated in subsequent years. Logging was completed in the first or second post-fire year. We found that ground-based logging using heavy equipment compacted soil, reduced soil water repellency, and reduced vegetation cover. Vegetation recovery rates were slower in most logged areas than the controls. Runoff rates were higher in the skidder and forwarder plots than their respective controls in the Montana and Washington sites in the year that logging occurred, and the difference in runoff between the skidder and control plots at the British Columbia site was nearly significant (p = 0.089). Most of the significant increases in runoff in the logged plots persisted for subsequent years. The type of skidder, the addition of slash, and the amount of forwarder traffic did not significantly affect the runoff rates. Across the three sites, rill sediment fluxes were 5-1900% greater in logged plots than the controls in the year of logging, and the increases were significant for all logging treatments except the low use forwarder trails. There was no difference in the first-year sediment fluxes between the feller

  3. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimschal, U.; Nelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. The authors show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  6. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  7. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  8. Acoustic and Optical Televiewer Borehole Logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Zaidi Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; Azmi Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This review paper is focused on Borehole Televiewer. Borehole Televiewer or (BHTV) was used to obtain high-resolution acoustical images from the borehole wall. A probe with a high resolution downward looking camera is used. The camera has specific optics (a conical mirror with a ring of bulbs) with just one shot needed to capture the entire borehole circumference as a 360 panoramic view. Settings similar to traditional cameras (exposure, quality, light, frame rate and resolution) make it effective in almost any type of borehole fluid. After each shot, a series of horizontal pixel strings are acquired, giving a rasterized RGB picture in real-time which is transmitted to the console and finally to a monitor. The orientation device embedded in the tool, which is made of 3 inclinometers and 3 magnetometers, allows the inclination and azimuth of the probe to be computed in real-time, correctly orienting the borehole images. Besides, Acoustic and Optical Televiewer has been introduced as its advanced in technological research. Its logging has been successfully applied to geotechnical investigations and mineral exploration (Schepers et al., 2001) due to advances in beam focusing, increased dynamic range, digital recording techniques, and digital data processing (Schepers, 1991). Thus, this paper will go through to the basic principle of (BHTV) as one type of data collection today. (author)

  9. MCNP capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. This paper discusses how the general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo neutron photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data

  10. Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.

    2018-01-01

    We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.

  11. Automatic detection of ''bore slug'' in tubes; Detection automatique des manques de metal internes sur tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisiaux, B.; Deutsch, S.; Tailleux, O.; Mette, F. [CEV Vallourec, Aulnoye (France)

    2001-07-01

    During the tube manufacturing for the petroleum industry, the lacks of internal metal (called Bore Slug) can be created during the hot rolling. These large defects are not good detected by the classic UT and by the wall thickness measurement. That's why VALLOUREC developed an automatic UT device which works by transmission. Nevertheless, this system is too little selective and can cause no doubtful pipes (tubes good detected bad). We adapted a Bore Slug control system on the VMOG UK RP20 at the end of August. The results are rather good and showed a good detection of the Bore Slug and very little no doubtful pipes. (authors)

  12. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  13. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the MandO is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment

  14. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  15. An in vivo wide bore NMR spectrometer at 2 T for human metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh, S.; Jehenson, P.; Chalot, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A wide bore (53 cm diameter) superconducting magnet operating at 2 T was built by the Service des Techniques Instrumentales des Particules Elementaires at C.E.N.-Saclay (Institut de Recherche Fondamentale of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) for NMR spectroscopic studies in humans. The magnet consists of two main components: a magnetic circuit and a cryostat. The magnetic circuit is made of a main coil (four solenoids with 23 km of niobium-titanium superconductor) and its superconducting shim coils (correcting for nine terms: Z, Z 2 , Z 3 , X, Y, XY, XZ, YZ, X 2 -Y 2 ). The current in the main coil is 200 A and the maximum current in each shim coil is 20A. The magnetic field homogeneity is about 4.10 -8 in a 20 mm diameter sphere and its time drift is less than 10 -8 /hour. The whole NMR spectrometer, including the superconducting magnet and a Bruker CXP-90 console associated with an Aspect 2000 calculator was recently installed in the Service Hospitalier Frederic-Joliot, Biology Department of the C.E.A. Preliminary results obtained by 31 P-NMR in humans using surface coils of various diameters (3,5 and 10 cm) are also presented [fr

  16. Particularies of recultivation of bore muds on oil-gas fields of Tyumen region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petuhova, V. S.; Skipin, L. N.; Skipin, D. L.; Gaevaya, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article reflects negative physical and chemical properties of the bore muds in respect to Tyumen region (high dispersion, swelling ability, ash structure, crust formation, low filterability, a high degree of salinization, alkalinity and toxicity). Indicated properties are mainly stipulated by the increased content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex and by the presence of soda in aqueous solution. The source of absorbed sodium and soda in water extract is the use of caustic soda in the drilling mixture. It was found out that these negative properties are illuminated using coagulant in a form of phosphogypsum - waste of chemical industry. Necessity in the nitrogen for the bean cultures-phytomeliorants is provided at the expense of legume bacteria in a form of the rizotorphin formulation. It is worth noting that growing of legume bacteria in extremely salted breeding ground on the leguminous agar has allowed choosing the most salt resistant species among the numerous strains of Melilotus officinalis and medicago. The presence of phosphorus in phosphogypsum positively influences the productivity of leguminous crops in the beginning of recultivation.

  17. Neutral beam energy and power requirements for expanding radius and full bore startup of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1979-09-01

    Natural beam power and energy requirements are compared for full density full bore and expanding radius startup scenarios in an elongated plasma, The Next Step (TNS), as a function of beam pulse time and plasma density. Because of the similarity of parameters, the results should also be applicable to Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) studies. A transport model consisting of neoclassical ion conduction and anomalous electron conduction and diffusion based on ALCATOR scaling leads to average densities in the range approx. 0.8 to 1.2 x 10 14 cm -3 being sufficient for ignition. Neutral deuterium beam energies in the range 120 to 180 keV are adequate for penetration, with the required power injected into the plasma decreasing with increasing beam energy. The neutral beam power decreases strongly with increasing beam pulse length b/sub b/ until t/sub b/ exceeds a few total energy confinement times, yielding b/sub b/ approx. = 4 to 6 s for the TNS plasma

  18. A Method Using Optical Contactless Displacement Sensors to Measure Vibration Stress of Small-Bore Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Noda, Michiyasu

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibration stress of piping is frequently evaluated to prevent fatigue failure. A simple and fast measurement method is attractive to evaluate many piping systems efficiently. In this study, a method to measure the vibration stress using optical contactless displacement sensors was proposed, the prototype instrument was developed, and the instrument practicality for the method was verified. In the proposed method, light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as measurement sensors and the vibration stress was estimated by measuring the deformation geometry of the piping caused by oscillation, which was measured as the piping curvature radius. The method provided fast and simple vibration estimates for small-bore piping. Its verification and practicality were confirmed by vibration tests using a test pipe and mock-up piping. The stress measured by both the proposed method and an accurate conventional method using strain gauges were in agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed method could be used for actual plant piping systems.

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  20. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  1. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  2. Dominance of hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime with thin ribbon of ionized solid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikal, J.; Matys, M.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration from novel cryogenic hydrogen target of the thickness of tens of microns irradiated by multiPW laser pulse is investigated here for relevant laser parameters accessible in near future. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of proton acceleration from relatively thick hydrogen solid ribbon largely exceeds the acceleration efficiency for a thinner ionized plastic foil, which can be explained by enhanced hole boring (HB) driven by laser ponderomotive force in the case of light ions and lower target density. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of laser pulse interaction with relatively thick hydrogen target show larger energies of protons accelerated in the target interior during the HB phase and reduced energies of protons accelerated from the rear side of the target by quasistatic electric field compared with the results obtained from two-dimensional PIC calculations. Linearly and circularly polarized multiPW laser pulses of duration exceeding 100 fs show similar performance in terms of proton acceleration from both the target interior as well as from the rear side of the target. When ultrashort pulse (∼30 fs) is assumed, the number of accelerated protons from the target interior is substantially reduced.

  3. Locating scatterers while drilling using seismic noise due to tunnel boring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmankaya, U.; Kaslilar, A.; Wapenaar, K.; Draganov, D.

    2018-05-01

    Unexpected geological structures can cause safety and economic risks during underground excavation. Therefore, predicting possible geological threats while drilling a tunnel is important for operational safety and for preventing expensive standstills. Subsurface information for tunneling is provided by exploratory wells and by surface geological and geophysical investigations, which are limited by location and resolution, respectively. For detailed information about the structures ahead of the tunnel face, geophysical methods are applied during the tunnel-drilling activity. We present a method inspired by seismic interferometry and ambient-noise correlation that can be used for detecting scatterers, such as boulders and cavities, ahead of a tunnel while drilling. A similar method has been proposed for active-source seismic data and validated using laboratory and field data. Here, we propose to utilize the seismic noise generated by a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), and recorded at the surface. We explain our method at the hand of data from finite-difference modelling of noise-source wave propagation in a medium where scatterers are present. Using the modelled noise records, we apply cross-correlation to obtain correlation gathers. After isolating the scattered arrivals in these gathers, we cross-correlate again and invert for the correlated traveltime to locate scatterers. We show the potential of the method for locating the scatterers while drilling using noise records due to TBM.

  4. High-cycle fatigue properties of small-bore socket-welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Noda, Michiyasu; Suzuki, Michiaki

    2009-01-01

    Piping and equipment in nuclear power plants are structures including many welded joints. Reliability of welded joints is one of high-priority issues to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. However, occurrence of fatigue failures in small-bore socket-welded pipe joints by high-cycle vibrations is still reported. In this study, fatigue experiments on a socket-welded joint of austenitic stainless steel pipe was conducted under excitation conditions similar to those in actual plants to investigate vibration characteristics and fatigue strength. It was found that the natural frequency of pipe with socket-welded joint gradually decreased as fatigue damage developed, according to the Miner rule for fatigue life evaluation. The results indicate that the fatigue life of the welded pipe joint could be estimated by monitoring the decreasing ratio of the natural frequency of the pipe. The evaluation of decreasing ratio of the natural frequency in addition to fatigue damage evaluation by the Miner rule could enhance the accuracy of fatigue life evaluation. (author)

  5. Hazardous situation in the MR bore: induction in ECG leads causes fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, Harald; Bremer, Christoph; Fischbach, Roman; Lenzen, Horst; Tombach, Bernd; Heindel, Walter; Pueschel, Marco; Aken, Hugo van

    2003-01-01

    There is a potential hazard during examinations of patients with attached or implanted long conductors, e.g. ECG leads: an MR exam of the lumbar spine of a patient was performed in a 1.5-T scanner under ECG monitoring using equipment marked as MR compatible. Standard cabling of 370-cm length was guided without loops from the electrodes through the caudal opening of the magnet bore. During a sagittal T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo scan suddenly a flame of approximately 3 cm arose from the patient's shirt, close to the position of the electrodes. The supervising anaesthesiologist extinguished the flames with his hands. A subsequent physical examination revealed second- to third-degree burns. The analysis of the incident revealed that high voltages can be induced in straight conductors without loops as ECG cables by coupling with the electric component of the HF field. Local heating or sparking can cause an open flame at the position of the electrodes. This danger exists even with ECG equipment that is specifically marked as MR compatible. (orig.)

  6. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  7. Structure and mineralization of the Richton Dome Caprock Boring MRIG-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.L.

    1986-08-01

    Observations of the texture, fracture fabric, and vein mineralization in the caprock core from Boring MRIG-9 were used to provide data on the origin, deformation, and alteration of the caprock at Richton Salt Dome. The anhydrite portion of the caprock was formed by accumulation of anhydrite residuum from the salt stock. Lithification appears to have occurred through pressure solution, with the compression being applied by the rising salt stock. The origin of the limestone caprock is not yet understood. The fracturing at MRIG-9 is interpreted to have been caused by the upward arching movement of the underlying salt stock. Water entered the fractures, causing anhydrite to alter to gypsum along the fracture walls. The transformation to gypsum involved a volume increase, which in turn induced additional fracturing and allowed further penetration of water into the anhydrite. Three hydrochemical events are observed in the anhydrite rock. In order of occurrence, they are (1) formation of gypsum veins, (2) slight dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of small quantities of calcite and sulfur, and (3) dissolution of both gypsum and calcite from a small fraction of the veins. The effects of all three events are limited to the fractures that are interpreted to have formed in late Oligocene

  8. Electromagnetic Design Study for a Large Bore 15T Superconducting Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, Arnaud; Henke, H

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of research and development (R&D) activities at CERN the Next European Dipole (NED) program is one which is to the development of a high-field dipole magnet using Nb_3Sn superconductors. Part of the NED activities is a design study of different possible dipole configurations which is shared amongst the collaborating institutes. This thesis covers the electromagnetic design study of an 88 mm large bore superconducting 15 T dipole magnet with a coil cross section in cos-theta-layer design. Based on analytically describable geometries the sources of multipole errors are studied and elementary estimations of the magnet are carried out, e.g., the required amount of superconductors or the influence of the iron yoke thickness on the field quality. The magnet cross section for NED is optimized by means of the CERN field computation program ROXIE. The preliminary NED design serves as starting point for the coil cross section optimization with respect to field quality and a radial positioning of th...

  9. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsley, S.; Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L.; Alheid, H.J.; Falls, S.

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations

  10. Laser welding to expand the allowable gap in bore welding for ITER blanket hydraulic connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hisashi, E-mail: tanigawa.hisashi@jaea.go.jp; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    For application to bore welding of hydraulic connection in the ITER blanket module, laser welding presents the following benefits: low weld heat input is preferred for re-welding of the irradiated material. Its contactless process can intrinsically avoid a failure mode of the tool sticking on the weld. The exact requirements for pipe alignment were assessed in comparison with the assembly tolerance. The groove geometry was modified to expand the allowable initial gap. The groove was machined to be partially thick to obviate the filler wire. First, plates with partially thick grooves were welded to elucidate the preferred groove geometry and welding conditions. With the modified groove, the plates were welded for the initial gap of 1.0 mm. Then the groove geometry and welding conditions were adjusted based on results of pipe welding tests. By application of the additional 0.5-mm-thick and 2.5-mm-wide metal in the groove, pipes with an initial gap of 0.7 mm were welded successfully.

  11. Automation of eddy current system for in-service inspection of turbine and generator bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viertl, J.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The most commonly applied inspection method for ferromagnetic turbine and generator rotor bores is the magnetic particle test technique. This method is subjective, depends on the test operator's skill and diligence in identifying test indications, and suffers from poor repeatability, especially for small indications. Automation would improve repeatability. However, magnetic particle tests are not easily automated, because the data are in the form of sketches, photographs, and written and oral descriptions of the indications. Eddy current inspection has obvious potential to replace magnetic particle methods in this application. Eddy current tests can be readily automated, as the data are in the form of voltages that can be recorded, digitized, and manipulated by a computer. The current project continues the investigation of the correlation between eddy current and magnetic particle inspection. Two systems have been combined to acquire eddy current data automatically. This combination of systems consists of the Nortec-25L Eddyscope (to provide the analog eddy current signals) and the General Electric DATAQ (TM) System (to perform the automatic data acquisition). The automation of the system is discussed

  12. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H J [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  13. Hard rock tunnel boring machine penetration test as an indicator of chipping process efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Villeneuve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from grinding to chipping can be observed in tunnel boring machine (TBM penetration test data by plotting the penetration rate (distance/revolution against the net cutter thrust (force per cutter over the full range of penetration rates in the test. Correlating penetration test data to the geological and geomechanical characteristics of rock masses through which a penetration test is conducted provides the ability to reveal the efficiency of the chipping process in response to changing geological conditions. Penetration test data can also be used to identify stress-induced tunnel face instability. This research shows that the strength of the rock is an important parameter for controlling how much net cutter thrust is required to transition from grinding to chipping. It also shows that the geological characteristics of a rock will determine how efficient chipping occurs once it has begun. In particular, geological characteristics that lead to efficient fracture propagation, such as fabric and mica contents, will lead to efficient chipping. These findings will enable a better correlation between TBM performance and geological conditions for use in TBM design, as a basis for contractual payments where penetration rate dominates the excavation cycle and in further academic investigations into the TBM excavation process.

  14. RAM analysis of earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB-TBMs are favorably applied in urban tunneling projects. Despite their numerous advantages, considerable delays and high maintenance cost are the main disadvantages these machines suffer from. Reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM analysis is a practical technique that uses failure and repair dataset obtained over a reasonable time for dealing with proper machine operation, maintenance scheduling, cost control, and improving the availability and performance of such machines. In the present study, a database of failures and repairs of an EBP-TBM was collected in line 1 of Tabriz subway project over a 26-month interval of machine operation. In order to model the reliability of the TBM, this machine was divided into five distinct subsystems including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and water systems in a series configuration. According to trend and serial correlation tests, the renewal processes were applied, for analysis of all subsystems. After calculating the reliability and maintainability functions for all subsystems, it was revealed that the mechanical subsystem with the highest failure frequency has the lowest reliability and maintainability. Similarly, estimating the availability of all subsystems indicated that the mechanical subsystem has a relatively low availability level of 52.6%, while other subsystems have acceptable availability level of 97%. Finally, the overall availability of studied machine was calculated as 48.3%.

  15. Simulation of rock fragmentation induced by a tunnel boring machine disk cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A constitutive model based on the Johnson–Cook material model and the extended Drucker–Prager strength criterion was implemented in LS-DYNA to simulate the rock failure process induced by a single disk cutter of a tunnel boring machine. The normal, rolling, and side forces were determined by numerical tests. The simulation results showed that the normal and rolling forces increased with increasing penetration while the side force changed little. The normal force also increased under the conditions of confining pressures. The damage region of rock and cutting forces were also obtained by simulation of two disk cutters acting in tandem with different cutting spacings. The optimum ratio of cutter spacing to penetration depth determined from numerical modeling agrees well with that obtained by linear cutting machine tests. The average normal and rolling forces acting on the first cutter are slightly greater than those acting on the second when the cutting disk spacing is relatively small. The numerical modeling was verified to accurately capture the fragmentation of rock induced by disk cutter.

  16. Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of Cutterhead Driving System in Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of cutterhead driving system (CDS of tunnel boring machine (TBM often occurs under shock and vibration conditions. To investigate the dynamic characteristics and reduce system vibration further, an electromechanical coupling model of CDS is established which includes the model of direct torque control (DTC system for three-phase asynchronous motor and purely torsional dynamic model of multistage gear transmission system. The proposed DTC model can provide driving torque just as the practical inverter motor operates so that the influence of motor operating behavior will not be erroneously estimated. Moreover, nonlinear gear meshing factors, such as time-variant mesh stiffness and transmission error, are involved in the dynamic model. Based on the established nonlinear model of CDS, vibration modes can be classified into three types, that is, rigid motion mode, rotational vibration mode, and planet vibration mode. Moreover, dynamic responses under actual driving torque and idealized equivalent torque are compared, which reveals that the ripple of actual driving torque would aggravate vibration of gear transmission system. Influence index of torque ripple is proposed to show that vibration of system increases with torque ripple. This study provides useful guideline for antivibration design and motor control of CDS in TBM.

  17. Research on Dynamic Models and Performances of Shield Tunnel Boring Machine Cutterhead Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A general nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model and linear time-varying (LTV dynamic model are presented for shield tunnel boring machine (TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. Different gear backlashes and mesh damped and transmission errors are considered in the NLTV dynamic model. The corresponding multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO state space models are also presented. Through analyzing the linear dynamic model, the optimal reducer ratio (ORR and optimal transmission ratio (OTR are obtained for the shield TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. The NLTV and LTV dynamic models are numerically simulated, and the effects of physical parameters under various conditions of NLTV dynamic model are analyzed. Physical parameters such as the load torque, gear backlash and transmission error, gear mesh stiffness and damped, pinions inertia and damped, large gear inertia and damped, and motor rotor inertia and damped are investigated in detail to analyze their effects on dynamic response and performances of the shield TBM cutterhead driving system. Some preliminary approaches are proposed to improve dynamic performances of the cutterhead driving system, and dynamic models will provide a foundation for shield TBM cutterhead driving system's cutterhead fault diagnosis, motion control, and torque synchronous control.

  18. Electronic motion in the pre-oscillation phase of a smooth bore magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelis, E.; Hickman, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation of the electronic motion in the pre-oscillation phase of a smooth bore magnetron is the problem of calculating the electronic motion in the region between two concentric cylinders with an applied radial electric field and a constant axial B/sub z/ magnetic field. The inner cylinder represents the electron emitting cathode and the outer cylinder represents the anode. The emission is assumed to be space charge limited. This results in an electronic cloud surrounding the cathode. The radial velocity of the electrons is limited by the space charge and in addition the axial magnetic field tends to curve the path of the electrons so that they return to the cathode. Consequently, the electronic orbit extends to some distance r 0 from the cathode and for values of the radius r > r 0 exists a charge free region. The model assumes relativistic electronic motion with self-consistent magnetic fields. The magnetic flux is assumed to be conserved; i.e., conducting cylindrical walls

  19. Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2010-10-01

    Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national "don't move firewood" campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at > dollars U.S. 98 million from 34 countries.

  20. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J; Mayer, S

    2013-01-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry. (paper)