WorldWideScience

Sample records for logging borings c4993

  1. The Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) Measurement System to Measure the Quality of Physical Model of Bored Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibit, Denniswara; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    The crosshole sonic logging measurement to measure the quality of bored piles is presented in this paper. The development of crosshole measurement system on physical bored pile modeling was carried out. The diameter of the concrete model was around 1 m and the height of the model was 1 m. In the model two holes were constructed to simulate the crosshole measurement system in the field. The two holes were filled with water and then two transducers were lowered in the holes. The transducers were built from audio speaker and microphone and they were sealed by rubber material so that the transducers were water proof. The speaker transducer acted as transmitter and the microphone transducer acted as receiver. The acoustic wave transmitted from the speaker penetrated in the concrete material and received by receiver. By analyzing the waveform arrived at the receiver by means of datalogger we determine the condition the concrete pile i.e. whether there were cavities in the concrete etc.

  2. On bore collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry H.; Ghazali, A.

    1988-06-01

    Using the laser-induced fluorescent method, the transition process from bore to runup mode, i.e., "bore collapse," is investigated experimentally. The observed process appears to be different from both previous analytical and numerical predictions. The results indicate that momentum exchange takes place between the incident bore and the quiescent water body along the shoreline. Turbulence generated in a bore nearshore is highly three-dimensional and sporadic. Very close to the shore, turbulence is advected with the bore front, and consequently, the bore collapse process involves strong turbulent action onto the dry beach bed.

  3. Bore hole image well logging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Kim, Geon Young; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Ryu, Ji Hoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon

    2009-08-15

    As one of the investigation method which the underground geological features is direct drill investigation geological features condition of underground directness it will can confirm visually there is a strong point but the drill nose in compliance with war potential or a shock from the digging through process which it knows the orientation scattering, or, the capital where the destruction action which is mechanical will accompany it will be, also to the case where the ground condition is defective the nose Oh there is a possibility of being difficult also oneself getting to the evaluation which ground is accurate with being difficult, it operated and it was come. As the method which solves like this problem drill worker image photographing which is the possibility of getting the burn was introduced in about the drill worker wall. Drill worker image photographing it will be able to classify with 3 kind of electricity, the sound wave and optical science etc. on a large scale and these people are controlled and respectively amplitude and staring reaction of electric resistivity reaction and the sound wave, in order for the pixel price which digitizes optical science photograph etc. to confront clearly in spatial location it will be able to provide information concretely about rock floor etc., discontinuity surface situation and of the public wall travelling and inclination and the clearance

  4. CNLC Provides Well-Bore Technical Services Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ BRIEF INTRODUCTION of CNLC China National Logging Corporation (CNLC), a subsidiary of CNPC Services & Engineering Ltd.,which provides well bore technical services at international market solely on behalf of CNPC, is a specialized service company mainly engaged in: 1. Wire-line logging, mud logging, well testing,well completion, perforating and other relevant engineering services.

  5. Mind where you bore!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    With renewable energies on the up and up, geothermal heating is becoming increasingly popular. An ardent supporter of sustainable development, CERN welcomes this trend, even though it has certain risks for the Laboratory.   More and more people in Switzerland and France are switching to geothermal heating, with the result that more and more bore holes are being sunk for geothermal probes. Since, on average, such bore holes go down to depths of 100 m they can have an impact on CERN’s underground facilities, which are also located at approximately that depth. In the Canton of Geneva, all bore holes, whatever their depth, are subject to planning permission. Applications for planning permission are granted – or refused – only after consultation with the Ground survey department (GESDEC). In France, only bore holes below a depth of 100 m require planning permission. In theory, bore holes to lesser depths simply need to be declared to the DREAL (Dire...

  6. Double diameter boring tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  7. SNG-logs at Skjern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Petersen, Jesper; Aage, Helle Karina

    1998-01-01

    Spectral Natural Gamma-ray logs have been run in two water supply borings at Skjern. The log data have been examined by a new technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - in order to get a detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of uranium and thorium gamma-rays from heavy...

  8. Why are some microorganisms boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Herrera, Aude

    2008-03-01

    Microorganisms from diverse environments actively bore into rocks, contributing significantly to rock weathering. Carbonates are the most common substrate into which they bore, although there are also reports of microbial borings into volcanic glass. One of the most intriguing questions in microbial evolutionary biology is why some microorganisms bore. A variety of possible selection pressures, including nutrient acquisition, protection from UV radiation and predatory grazing could promote boring. None of these pressures is mutually exclusive and many of them could have acted in concert with varying strengths in different environments to favour the development of microorganisms that bore. We suggest that microbial boring might have begun in some environments as a mechanism against entombment by mineralization.

  9. Logging as a means of characterising the water in rock formations in groundwater collection borings; Utilizacion de diagrafias para la caracterizacion del agua de la formaciones en sondeos de captacion de aguas subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Curiel, J.M.; Miguel, M.J.; Dominguez, S.; Caparrini, N

    1998-12-01

    We present an improvement of the S.P. application to obtain water conductivity and total of dissolved solids in the permeable layers passed through open hole, supposing said levels completely water saturated (under phreatic level). The optimization consists of a methodology for the treatment and interpretation of S.P. logs as well as the development of computer codes to execute the following processes. Laboratory measurements to acquire a set of key values in the interpretation processes (R{sub w}e/R{sub w} and TDS/R{sub w}). Conversion of the obtained data and selected charts, with continuous application range, to analytical curves for their automatic procedure. Algorithms development in order to carry out the automatic determination of base line and the elimination of its displacements. This system have been applied over a set of 27 logs performed by the author in the south area of the Duero basin (Spain) as an example of multi-layered detrital. We show the conductivity and TDS results in comparison with the water analysis obtained through pumping. (Author) 30 refs.

  10. Maneuvering impact boring head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  11. Photoelectric Inspecting of Artillery Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; MA Hong; BAI Su-ping; YAN Yu-feng

    2008-01-01

    A photoelectric equipment for inspecting artillery bore is composed of digital display grating sensor and data processing with computer. It can replace the traditional mechanical measurer and realize the automatic inspection of artillery bore. Introduced are briefly the working principles and analysis of this device.

  12. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  13. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  14. Can tasks be inherently boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Evan

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something that "vigilance tasks" were intentionally designed to be.

  15. Discussion boards: boring no more!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Deborah S; Nogueras, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    Creating discussion boards (DBs) that capture student imaginations and contain meaningful interactions can be a difficult process. Traditional DBs use a question-and-answer format that often is boring for both the student and instructor. The authors present creative approaches to DBs that result in lively debates and student-to-student and student-to-faculty interactions, including role playing, blogging, wikis, and the use of voice.

  16. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......" and face logs show a sub-horizontally layered structure, with alternate extremely weak to extremely strong beds of variable thickness. The rhythmicity is thought to be climatically controlled. Stronger beds represent reduced sedimentation rate related to climatic deterioration while weaker beds result from...

  17. Cam-controlled boring bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  18. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  19. Number of Producible and Service Well Bores on Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of producible well bores by state as of the end of each fiscal year. A well bore is considered producible if the well bore is...

  20. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The possible forms of bore resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balasubramanian

    1957-04-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for calculating the bore resistance of projectile by assuming as given the pressure-space curve. Applying this method to the Le Due and the isothermal systems of internal ballistics, it is shown that these systems imply certain physically in admissible features at the beginning of the motion.

  2. Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory : tunnel boring

    CERN Multimedia

    SSC Media Production

    1999-01-01

    This film will take you down into the tunnel, show you the technology involved in boring the tunnel, and show what the SSC fmeans to the U.S. in terms of scientific discovery, innovative collaborations with industry and stimulating the job base nation-wide.

  3. The Bored Self in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    of the bored self as a combination of unfilled aspirations and the sense of stagnation, leading to an arrested identity. Our contribution is to expand extant conceptualizations of employee interactions with identity regulation, in particular relating to identity work and identification. The findings provide...

  4. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...

  5. Experimental hydrodynamic study of the Qiantang River tidal bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; PAN Cun-hong; KUANG Cui-ping; ZENG Jian; CHEN Gang

    2013-01-01

    To study the hydrodynamics of tidal bore,a physical modeling study is carried out in a rectangular flume with considerations of the tidal bore heights,the propagation speeds,the tidal current velocities,the front steepness,and the bore shapes.After the validation with the field observations,the experimental results are analyzed,and it is shown that:(1) the greater initial ebb velocity or the larger initial water depth impedes the tidal bore propagation,(2) the maximum bore height appears at an initial ebb velocity in the range of 0.5 m/s-1.5 m/s,(3) when the Froude number exceeds 1.2,an undular bore appears,after it exceeds 1.3,a breaking bore occurs,and after it exceeds 1.7,the bore is broken.

  6. Biomechanics of substrate boring by fig wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Gundiah, Namrata

    2014-06-01

    Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates.

  7. Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, D.

    2014-01-01

    Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many caus

  8. Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, D.

    2014-01-01

    Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many

  9. Energy and material efficient non-circular bore Bitter magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmeteli, A

    2015-01-01

    There exist a number of experiments/applications where the second dimension of the bore of Bitter magnets is not fully utilized. Using an analytical solution for elliptical bore coils, we show that reducing one of the dimensions of the bore can lead to considerable decrease in consumed power and/or coil material.

  10. General model for boring tool optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, G. M.; rbes, M. V. Ze; Popescu, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Optimizing a tool (and therefore those for boring) consist in improving its performance through maximizing the objective functions chosen by the designer and/or by user. In order to define and to implement the proposed objective functions, contribute numerous features and performance required by tool users. Incorporation of new features makes the cutting tool to be competitive in the market and to meet user requirements.

  11. The biomechanics of burrowing and boring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M

    2015-01-15

    Burrowers and borers are ecosystem engineers that alter their physical environments through bioturbation, bioirrigation and bioerosion. The mechanisms of moving through solid substrata by burrowing or boring depend on the mechanical properties of the medium and the size and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move relative to each other, and macrofaunal burrowers use fluidization or plastic rearrangement of grains. In both sand and mud, peristaltic movements apply normal forces and reduce shear. Excavation and localized grain compaction are mechanisms that plastically deform sediments and are effective in both mud and sand, with bulk excavation being used by larger organisms and localized compaction by smaller organisms. Mechanical boring of hard substrata is an extreme form of excavation in which no compaction of burrow walls occurs and grains are abraded with rigid, hard structures. Chemical boring involves secretion to dissolve or soften generally carbonate substrata. Despite substantial differences in the mechanics of the media, similar burrowing behaviors are effective in mud and sand.

  12. Undular bore theory for the Gardner equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamchatnov, A M; Kuo, Y-H; Lin, T-C; Horng, T-L; Gou, S-C; Clift, R; El, G A; Grimshaw, R H J

    2012-09-01

    We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV-type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves, and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations.

  13. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  14. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  15. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  16. Catalog of worldwide tidal bore occurrences and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Lynch, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Documentation of tidal bore phenomena occurring throughout the world aids in defining the typical geographical setting of tidal bores and enables prediction of their occurrence in remote areas. Tidal bores are naturally occurring, tidally generated, solitary, moving water waves up to 6 meters in height that form upstream in estuaries with semidiurnal or nearly semidiurnal tide ranges exceeding 4 meters. Estuarine settings that have tidal bores typically include meandering fluvial systems with shallow gradients. Bores are well defined, having amplitudes greater than wind- or turbulence-caused waves, and may be undular or breaking. Formation of a bore is dependent on depth and velocity of the incoming tide and river outflow. Bores may occur in series (in several channels) or in succession (marking each tidal pulse). Tidal bores propagate up tidal estuaries a greater distance than the width of the estuary and most occur within 100 kilometers upstream of the estuary mouth. Because they are dynamic, bores cause difficulties in some shipping ports and are targets for eradication. Tidal bores are known to occur, or to have occurred in the recent past, in at least 67 localities in 16 countries at all latitudes, including every continent except Antarctica. Parts of Argentina, Canada, Central America, China, Mozambique, Madagascar, Northern Europe, North and South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.S.R. probably have additional undiscovered or unreported tidal bores. In Turnagain Arm estuary in Alaska, bores cause an abrupt increase in salinity, suspended sediment, surface character, and bottom pressure, a decrease in illumination of the water column, and a change in water temperature. Tidal bores occurring in Turnagain Arm, Alaska, have the

  17. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  18. Development of a Single-Borehole Radar for Well Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-ou Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An impulse-based single-borehole radar prototype has been developed for well logging. The borehole radar is comprised of subsurface sonde and surface equipment. An armored 7-conductor well logging cable is used to connect subsurface sonde and surface equipment which is well compatible with the other well logging instruments. The performance experiments of the prototype have been conducted in a test field. The results show that the prototype system is capable of detecting the target which is 8 meters away from the borehole. This radar prototype has been employed in a real oil field well with a depth of about 1600 meters. Compared with conventional resistivity well logging tools, the prototype system provides comprehensive well-bore formation analysis information.  

  19. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  20. Energetic aspects of boring tools wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of rock desintegration a boring tool is subjected to the wear. From a viewpoint of the bit wear, changes on the contact of operating tool with rock at its one-shot and rerun load or overload by external forces are technically significant. Theis change results in the degradation of bit working properties and the output of desintegration also decreases. In the major part of cases, together with the bit wear, the contact area of a tool with a rock massifs enhanced and this fact causes an increase of fines (dust creation during the desintegration. The wear is always connected with a friction, forces action, deformation, damage, and the increased mechanical work consumption. As to energetic aspects of bit wear, the wear was observed as a function of bore length and in the most of cases as a dependence of the operating time. A linear dependence between the wear intensity (bit wear per unit of bore length and the specific energy of desintegration (energy consumed per volume unit of desintegrated rock was experimentally verified. Thus, the changes of bit wear can be implicitly observed by monitoring the specific energy. At the same time, the specific energy is a function of input parameters of the desintegration process and in the field of applicable external forces it shows an extreme (minimum. Therefore, the specific energy is useful for the extreme optimisation of the rock desintegration process from the viewpoint of the bit wear. It was mathematically proven that the tool output at the desintegration exponentially decreases with the amount of work consumed in the rock desintegration. The derivation of this knowledge comes out from the Krendelev equation.

  1. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are describe...

  2. A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bing; YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore was investigated, which was combined with the merits such as anti-erosion wear, damage-repairing, and etc. It was accomplished by adhering a special rare earth nanocom posite evenly to the micro-surface of gun bore. The effectiveness of this technique was approved by the target-firing using a domestic automatic rifle with chromium-coated bore. Its characteristics were discussed based on the surface analyses of the rifle bore by secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  3. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra

    2016-01-01

    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively.

  4. Investigation of a mesospheric bore event over northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A mesospheric bore event was observed using an OH all-sky airglow imager (ASAI at Xinglong (40.2° N, 117.4° E, in northern China, on the night of 8–9 January 2011. Simultaneous observations by a Doppler meteor radar, a broadband sodium lidar, and TIMED/SABER OH intensity and temperature measurements are used to investigate the characteristics and environment of the bore propagation and the possible relations with the Na density perturbations. The bore propagated from northeast to southwest and divided the sky into bright and dark halves. The calculations show that the bore has an average phase velocity of 68 m s−1. The crests following the bore have a horizontal wavelength of ~ 22 km. These parameters are consistent with the hydraulic jump theory proposed by Dewan and Picard, as well as the previous bore reports. Simultaneous wind measurements from the Doppler meteor radar at Shisanling (40.3° N, 116.2° E and temperature data from SABER on board the TIMED satellite are used to characterize the propagating environment of the bore. The result shows that a thermal-Doppler duct exists near the OH layer that supports the horizontal propagation of the bore. Simultaneous Na lidar observations at Yanqing (40.4° N, 116.0° E suggest that there is a downward displacement of Na density during the passage of the mesospheric bore event.

  5. Size segregation in a granular bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A. N.; Vriend, N. M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of particle-size segregation in an upslope propagating granular bore. A bidisperse mixture of particles, initially normally graded, flows down an inclined chute and impacts with a closed end. This impact causes the formation of a shock in flow thickness, known as a granular bore, to travel upslope, leaving behind a thick deposit. This deposit imprints the local segregated state featuring both pure and mixed regions of particles as a function of downstream position. The particle-size distribution through the depth is characterized by a thin purely small-particle layer at the base, a significant linear transition region, and a thick constant mixed-particle layer below the surface, in contrast to previously observed S-shaped steady-state concentration profiles. The experimental observations agree with recent progress that upward and downward segregation of large and small particles respectively is asymmetric. We incorporate the three-layer, experimentally observed, size-distribution profile into a depth-averaged segregation model to modify it accordingly. Numerical solutions of this model are able to match our experimental results and therefore motivate the use of a more general particle-size distribution profile.

  6. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  7. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Liu; Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows:(i) improve-ment of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii) development of an intelligent control tech-nique, and (iii) development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  9. Nozzle assembly for an earth boring drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, J. A.

    1985-09-24

    A nozzle assembly for an earth boring drill bit of the type adapted to receive drilling fluid under pressure and having a nozzle bore in the bottom thereof positioned closely adjacent the well bore bottom when the bit is in engagement therewith with the bore having inner and outer portions. The nozzle assembly comprises a generally cylindrical nozzle member of abrasion and erosion resistant material, selected from a plurality of such members, each being of the same outer diameter but having passaging therein of different cross-sectional area. The nozzle member is adapted to be fitted in the inner portion of the nozzle bore in sealing relationship therewith for forming a first seal for the nozzle assembly. The nozzle assembly further comprises a locknut, separate from the nozzle member, for detachbably securing the nozzle member in the nozzle bore, formed at least in part of an abrasion and erosion resistant material. The locknut has a threaded side wall engageable with the outer portion of the nozzle bore, and an aperture therethrough for enabling a stream of drilling fluid from the nozzle member to flow therethrough and being so configured in section as to receive a tool for turning the lockout to install it in and remove it from the nozzle bore.

  10. CCSD Well Logging Engineering Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces briefly the tasks and characteristics of China Continent Science Drilling (CCSD) Well Logging Engineering, the logging methods measured with CCSD, the quality control of original logging information, the logging plan of CCSD, the logging engineering management of CCSD,the logging interpretation and the results and reports made with CCSD.

  11. Power to the logs!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; MACMAHON, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Are you tired of using grep, vi and emacs to read your logs? Do you feel like you’re missing the big picture? Does the word "statistics" put a smile on your face? Then it’s time to give power to the logs!

  12. Effect of centrifugal forces on dimensional error of bored shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, M.; de Lacalle, L. N. López; Lobato, R.; Urbikain, G.; Campa, F.

    2012-04-01

    Boring operations of deep holes with a slender boring bar are often hindered by the precision because of their low static stiffness and high deformations. Because of that, it is not possible to remove much larger depths of cuts than the nose radius of the tool, unlike the case of turning and face milling operations, and consequently, the relationship between the cutting force distribution, tool geometry, feed rate and depth of cut becomes non-linear and complex. This problem gets worse when working with a rotating boring head where apart from the cutting forces and the variation of the inclination angle because of shape boring, the bar and head are affected by de centrifugal forces. The centrifugal forces, and therefore the centrifugal deflection, will vary as a function of the rotating speed, boring bar mass distribution and variable radial position of the bar in shape boring. Taking in to account all this effects, a load and deformation model was created. This model has been experimentally validated to use as a corrector factor of the radial position of the U axis in the boring head.

  13. On log surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an announcement of the minimal model theory for log surfaces in all characteristics and contains some related results including a simplified proof of the Artin-Keel contraction theorem in the surface case.

  14. Well Logging Symposium News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ ‘96 International Symposium on Well Logging Techniques for Oilfield Development under Waterflood was held on 17-21 September, 1996 in Beijing. The symdrew than 160 experts and scholars in the well logging circle from Russia,The United States, France, Britain, Indonesia and China. About 80 papers were presented duringthe symposium. Mr. Zhang Yongyi,Vice President of CNPC delivered the opening remarks.

  15. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  16. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  17. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  18. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  19. Identification of rock mass characteristics using microtremor in the boring hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Ailan; Wang, Huan; Feng, Shaokong; Siguyama, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    An identification analysis method of the rock mass characteristics is proposed using microtremor measurements in the boring hole. The method is based on the assumption that the epicenter of incident waves of each observation point in the same boring hole almost agrees. And the calculations are deconvoluted by the multiple reflection theory. The procedure applicable to the identification of the average elastic characteristics of in situ rock masses is presented. It is based on the minimization of an error function representing the difference between microtremor measurements performed on the rock mass and the corresponding data obtained by a numerical analysis subjected to known external actions. The method requires the formulation of the elasticity inverse problem and is based on the least square minimization procedure. As an example the approach has been applied to the identification of the dynamic properties and the predominant characteristics of the rock mass underlying a deep excavated quarry in west of Shanghai city. The inverted rock mass characteristics are compared with the PS logs at the sites and show consistency, confirming that the proposed inversion is promising.

  20. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  1. Logging on to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  2. Small-bore hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurn, T. W.; Chapelle, S.; Lupan, S. P.; Holland, L.; Homeyer, W. G.; Rawls, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A small-bore hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher laboratory research facility has been developed which has launched a 2-g projectile to a velocity in excess of 3.5 km/sec. This turn-key laboratory includes a 1 cm, square-bore railgun with a helium gas preaccelerator; a modular 328 kJ capacitor bank; a fiber-optically linked programmable logic control system with a graphical operator interface; a data acquisition system with current, magnetic, and projectile position diagnostics; and a flight range which provides in-flight velocity measurements and safely stops and contains the projectile. The control system fires the preaccelerator and, on receipt of an optical signal, fires the capacitor bank modules simultaneously or in a staggered mode. Armature separation and stalling limit the overall performance of the system. Changes in pulse shape and bore materials significantly improved performance. Attention is given to methods used to minimize armature separation and improve performance.

  3. Design of a 20 T, 200 mm bore resistive magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, B.J.; Bird, M.D.; Bole, S.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A 20 tesla, three coil, 200 mm bore, 20 MW resistive magnet is being designed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL., USA, in cooperation with the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of Grenoble, France. The outer two coils are axially-cooled and are connected electrically in series producing a central field of 11.27 T in a 365 mm warm bore while consuming 13.5 MW of power. The 6.5 MW inner coil (insert) is a poly-Bitter design with two sub-coils connected electrically in parallel and they together are connected in series to the two outer coils. The field of the inner coil is 8.78 T resulting in a 20 T total field in a 200 mm warm bore. All four coils are made of hard copper.

  4. Pressure versus current scaling in a blocked bore rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B. D.; Eubank, Eric; Nunnally, W. C.

    1993-07-01

    The paper presents experimental results from a blocked bore plasma armature rail gun. A piezoelectric transducer mounted in the bore blocking structure recorded time-resolved pressures over a range of input currents from 50 to 150 kA. The bore block is located at four positions where peak current occurs for the four respective charging voltages to power the system. Problems associated with obtaining these measurements and the solutions employed are discussed. Average distances from the block face to the armature current centroid are estimated assuming a pressure balance between the magnetic and neutral pressures. The averages of the measured pressures were found to be proportional to the input current raised to the power of 1.655.

  5. Dimension effects in plasma immersion ion implantation of cylindrical bore

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Xiu Bo; Tong Hong Hui; Chu, P K

    2002-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is a new technique pertaining to ion implantation. Different from the case of exterior surface treatment, plasma immersion ion implantation of interior surface possesses dimension effects. Consequently it is a challenge to implant the inner wall of a cylindrical bore due to this finite dimension.The ion energy cannot be linearly changed with applied voltage and there exists a saturation value due to overlap effect of plasma sheath. The plasma in the bore may rapidly be depleted, which is attributed to finite plasma volume and plasma-sheath con-flowing effect. For instance the plasma depletion time is about 0.55 mu s when a bore with a diameter of 20 cm is treated under conditions of applied voltage of 30 kV and plasma density of 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 3. Interior plasma-source hardware may be an effective solution

  6. Physical Simulation for Large-Bore Copper Vapor Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU De-Li; WANG Run-Wen; TAO Yong-Xiang

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the electric circuit differential equations and the nonlinear partial differential equations of kinetics,a kinetic model for a series of large-bore copper-vapor lasers is carried out. Through the consistent computational results the radial kinetic parameters such as the stimulating electric field and the plasma electron temperature are presented. The factors, which evidently influence the output power and the beam quality of the large-bore copper-vapor laser, are the buffer gas pressure and the charging voltage.

  7. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  8. Melioidosis from contaminated bore water and successful UV sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Godoy, Daniel; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2013-08-01

    Two cases of melioidosis at a residence in rural northern Australia were linked to the unchlorinated domestic bore (automated well) water supply, which was found to have a high concentration of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using multilocus sequence typing, clinical B. pseudomallei isolates from both cases were identical to an isolate from the bore water supply. A simple UV sterilizer reduced B. pseudomallei from the domestic water supply to undetectable levels. We have shown that UV treatment is highly effective for remediation of water contaminated with B. pseudomallei and recommend its consideration in households where individuals may be at heightened risk of contracting melioidosis.

  9. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  10. A technique for producing an easily ignitable hearth log or flare log; Fremgangsmaate til fremstilling av en lett antennbar peis- eller fakkelkubbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koxvold, L.F.

    1997-06-16

    In this invention, a fresh wood log is cut to a length of 15-30 cm. A hole is bored centrally down the log axis until 4-7 cm above the end. The upper half of the hole is worked into a conical shape. A hole is bored from the side of the log, gently sloping down until it meets the bottom of the central hole. A wick is placed in the side hole and pushed in until it hits the opposite side of the central hole. Liquid paraffin is carefully poured in from above to fill the lower part of the central hole until it almost runs out of the side hole and then allowed to set. The log is put aside to dry, preferably by air drying, for 3-6 months. The condition that the wood should be fresh prevents the paraffin from impregnating the wood by filling its pores. Tests have shown that the flame is large and yet long-lasting and the combustion is unusually complete. Potential applications include kindling, wood for an open hearth, boiling. 2 figs.

  11. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  12. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  13. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  14. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  15. Acoustic Monitoring for Tunnel Boring in Soft Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, G.

    2003-01-01

    The TBM, not a blind mole! This thesis deals with some aspects of seismic imaging of the soft soil in front of a Tunnel Boring Machine to help tunnel constructors ``see'' the subsurface they are approaching, instead of steering the TBM forward like a ``blind mole''. The Dutch shallow subsurface has

  16. High performance projectile seal development for non perfect railgun bores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, T.R.; Vine, F.E. Le; Riedy, P.E.; Panlasigui, A. [Maxwell Labs., Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Hawke, R.S.; Susoeff, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The sealing of high pressure gas behind an accelerating projectile has been developed over centuries of use in conventional guns and cannons. The principal concern was propulsion efficiency and trajectory accuracy and repeatability. The development of guns for use as high pressure equation-of-state (EOS) research tools, increased the importance of better seals to prevent gas leakage from interfering with the experimental targets. The development of plasma driven railguns has further increased the need for higher quality seals to prevent gas and plasma blow-by. This paper summarizes more than a decade of effort to meet these increased requirements. In small bore railguns, the first improvement was prompted by the need to contain the propulsive plasma behind the projectile to avoid the initiation of current conducting paths in front of the projectile. The second major requirements arose from the development of a railgun to serve as an EOS tool where it was necessary to maintain an evacuated region in front of the projectile throughout the acceleration process. More recently, the techniques developed for the small bore guns have been applied to large bore railguns and electro-thermal chemical guns in order to maximize their propulsion efficiency. Furthermore, large bore railguns are often less rigid and less straight than conventional homogeneous material guns. Hence, techniques to maintain seals in non perfect, non homogeneous material launchers have been developed and are included in this paper.

  17. Boring and Drilling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on boring and drilling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and understand the proper use of many common awls, bits, and drilling tools. The module may contain some or all of the following: a…

  18. Research on Valve Body Design of Large Bore Sodium Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Large bore sodium valve is one kind of key equipments of China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR). It is installed in the pipeline before and behind SG units as a locking mechanism. Valve body which is used to bear pressure is the core of sodium valve design.

  19. INTERNAL TIDES, SOLITARY WAVES AND BORES IN SHALLOW SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 高天赋

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing and in situ observations of internal tides, solitary waves and bores in shallow water are briefly reviewed in this paper. The emphasis is laid on interpreting SAR images based on oceanographic measurements, and analyzing characteristics of internal waves in the China Seas. Direc-tions for future research are discussed.

  20. Rational Distribution of Heat Loss in Well Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jingqin; Chen Yanhua; Xiang Xinyao

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction It is not easy to produce viscous crude because of its heavy viscosity. At present, viscous crude is mainly recovered by thermal recovery, i.e. by steam injection. In the course of steam injection, heat loss, especially that in well bore has a direct influence on thermal productive effectiveness.

  1. Determination of Muzzle Velocity Loss by Bore Wear Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-xin; WANG Gui-yu

    2007-01-01

    A method to determine muzzle velocity loss according to the actual measured bore wear pattern is proposed.Therefore, it is unnecessary to conduct live firing and other experiments for determination of muzzle velocity loss. It has been applied to a national military standard since July 1, 2004.

  2. INTERNAL TIDES, SOLITARY WAVES AND BORES IN SHALLOW SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing and in situ observations of internal tides, solitary waves and bores in shallow water are briefly reviewed in this paper. The emphasis is laid on interpreting SAR images based on oceanographic measurements, and analyzing characteristics of internal waves in the China Seas. Directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  4. Fracture Detection: Interpretation of Well Logs to Select Packer Seats and Locate Injection Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.S.; Burns, K.L.; Chavez, P.; Dash, Z.V.; Kelkar, S.; Kolar, J.; Levy, S.S.

    1986-01-21

    A wireline and mud logging program has been conducted in conjunction with redrilling operations in well EE-3 at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site near Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The trajectory for the new bore, EE-3A, penetrated a fractured zone stimulated from adjacent well EE-2 and thereby established hydraulic communication. To test and stimulate selected zones in EE-3A inflatable open hole packers designed for high temperature service were used. Proper identification and selection of packer seats was crucial to the success of the project. The logging program successfully identified five competent packer seats in six attempts. Wireline temperature, caliper, sonic televiewer and natural gamma ray logs were used in conjunction with mud logs, drill cuttings and drilling parameter data to locate fractures, out-of-gage hole, temperature anomalies and mineralized zones which were avoided in selection of the packer seats.

  5. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time...

  6. Number of Well Bores Started (Spud) During the Fiscal Year on Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of well bores started (spudded), by state, during each fiscal year. "Spudding in," or to "spud" a well bore, means to begin...

  7. The distribution of worm borings in brachiopod shells from the Caradoc Oil Shale of Estonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vinn, Olev

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Abundant worm borings were found in some brachiopod shells (Clitambonites, Estlandia, Nicolella) from the Ordovician (Caradoc) oil shale in North Estonia. 9 of 21 brachiopod genera (43 %) have been bored. Excluding the size and thickness of valves, no common morphological feature discriminates the brachiopods with borings from those without them. The Trypanites are host-specific, and the frequency of bored valves varies from 6.5 % in Bekkerina to 51 % in Estlandia. The...

  8. Well logging utilizing superposition of step-profile responses of logging tools to improve logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmundson, H. N.

    1984-11-20

    Disclosed is a method of improving well logs, such as induction logs and laterologs, by taking into account the effect on a logs and laterologs, by taking into account the effect on a log measurement both of the particular bed in which it is taken and of one or more other beds. In one example the process starts with an original induction log and a provisional layered formation which is based thereon and is characterized by bed boundaries and constant induction log levels within a bed. A provisional reconstructed log is built up by applying the tool response to the layered formation by a new technique which makes this expedient enough to be practicable. The reconstructed log is matched against the original log, and the layered formation is refined accordingly, by adding and/or shifting boundaries and/or by changing the measurement levels within beds, until the match is satisfactory. The original log is then converted to an improved an improved log on the basis of the latest layered formation. Modifications include use of laterologs and to improve induction logs.

  9. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval...

  10. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-13 Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding... described as ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings on board vessels (excluding stainless...

  11. Interpretation of horizontal well production logs: influence of logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Sarica, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Haci, M. [Drilling Measurements, Inc (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of a production-logging tool on wellbore flow rate and pressure measurements was investigated, focusing on the disturbence caused by the production-logging tool and the coiled tubing on the original flow conditions in the wellbore. The investigation was carried out using an analytical model and single-phase liquid flow was assumed. Results showed that the production-logging tool influenced the measurements as shown by the deviation of the original flow-rate, pressure profiles and low-conductivity wellbores. High production rates increase the effect of the production-logging tool. Recovering or inferring the original flow conditions in the wellbore from the production-logging data is a very complex process which cannot be solved easily. For this reason, the conditions under which the information obtained by production-logging is meaningful is of considerable practical interest. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Well logging: utilizing superposition of step-profile responses of logging tools to improve logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour-Gayet, Ph. J.

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed is a method of improving well logs, such as induction logs and LATEROLOGS, by taking into account the effect on a log measurement both of the particular bed in which it is taken and of one or more other beds. In one example the process starts with an original induction log and a provisional layered formation which is based thereon and is characterized by bed boundaries and constant induction log levels within a bed. A provisional reconstructed log is built up by applying the tool response to the layered formation by a new technique which makes this expedient enough to be practicable. The reconstructed log is matched against the original log, and the layered formation is refined accordingly, by adding and/or shifting boundaries and/or by changing the measurement levels within beds, until the match is satisfactory. The original log is then converted to an improved log on the basis of the latest layered formation. Modifications include use of LATEROLOG measurements to improve LATEROLOGS and to improve induction logs.

  13. Well logging utilizing superposition of step-profile responses of logging tools to improve logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, J.-C.

    1984-11-13

    Disclosed is a method of improving well logs, such as induction logs and LATERLOGS, by taking into account the effect on a log measurement both of the particular bed in which it is taken and of one or more other beds. In one example the process starts with an original induction log and a provisional layered formation which is based thereon and is characterized by bed boundaries and constant induction log levels within a bed. A provisional reconstructed log is built up by applying the tool response to the layered formation by a new technique which makes this expedient enough to be practicable. The reconstructed log is matched against the original log, and the layered formation is refined accordingly, by adding and/or shifting boundaries and/or by changing the measurement levels within beds, until the match is satisfactory. The original log is then converted to an improved log on the basis of the latest layered formation. Modifications include use of LATEROLOG measurements to improve LATEROLOGS and to improve induction logs.

  14. Performance model for Micro Tunnelling Boring Machines (MTBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gallo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the last decades of the XX century, various formulae have been proposed to estimate the performance in tunnelling of disc cutters, mainly employed in Tunnelling Boring Machines (TBM. Nevertheless, their suitability has not been verified in Micro Tunnelling Boring Machines (MTBM, with smaller diameter of excavation, between 1,000 and 2,500 mm and smaller cutter tools, where parameters like joint spacing may have a different influence. This paper analyzes those models proposed for TBM. After having observed very low correlation with data obtained in 15 microtunnels, a new performance model is developed, adapted to the geomechanical data available in this type of works. Moreover, a method to calculate the total amount of hours that are necessary to carry out microtunnels, including all the tasks of the excavation cycle and installation and uninstallation.

  15. Study on influence of ground settlement in bored metro tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jiang-hua; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    At present the bored construction method is one of the main construction methods of metro and tunnel construction in China. The empirical estimated formulas of tunnel ground surface settlement using the bored construction method were obtained,combining the mechanical stimulant calculated result of tunnel model of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method and the actual measurement data of Beijing metro construction. According to the regressed analysis of calculated data, the calculated equations of ground surface settlement value and settlement range of tunnel section under the condition of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method were gained. Among them there are some empirical formulas can apply to the construction design ofmetro tunnel directly.

  16. Minimal Log Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

  17. Minimal log gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gaston; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Minimal massive gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity that, when formulated about anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes solving the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the nonlinear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called log gravity, and, despite the weakened falling off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which we compute. We also find time-dependent deformations of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli that obey Brown-Henneaux asymptotic boundary conditions. The existence of such solutions shows that the Birkhoff theorem does not hold in MMG at the chiral point. Other peculiar features of the theory at the chiral point, such as the degeneracy it exhibits in the decoupling limit, are discussed.

  18. In-Situ Test and Numerical Analysis of Bore Pressure on Sheet-Pile Groin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie; CAI Yuan-qiang; XUAN Wei-li; CHEN Hai-jun; SONG Yang

    2006-01-01

    An in-situ test of bore pressure on a sheet-pile groin is carried out to investigate the characteristics of the bore pressure of tide in the Qian-tang River. The histories of bore pressure and the rule of the distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are obtained through the test, which shows that the bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are varies with time and space. The peak value of bore pressure on sheet-pile groin at different heights occurs almost at the same time. The vertical distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin is linear above the still water level. The maximum bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin occurs at the still water level. Then a numerical method is also used to further study the characteristics of bore pressure. The standard κ-ε turbulence model and VOF (volume of fluid) method for surface tracking are used to simulate the bore against the sheet-pile groin. The numerical results show flow fields, the position of free surface and time history and spatial distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin. The numerical and test results show good agreement.

  19. Speed Regulator for Permanent Magnet DC Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a variable-speed system for a loaded permanent magnet direct current boring machine (PMDCBM) is described in details. The voltage adjustment of PMDCBM is accomplished by means of solid state switch with a high gain Darlington transistor. The device designed possesses good variable speed characteristic and Iow loss at low speed. The speed can be regulated automatically to hold at an ideal value according to the load.

  20. Bore-hole survey at Camp Century, 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gundestrup, NS.; Hansen, BL.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of the directional surveys of the Camp Century borehole from 1966, 1967, 1969 and 1989 has revealed a deformation pattern similar to that measured at Dye-3, South Greenland and Byrd Station, Antarctica showing high deformation rate for Wisconsin ice. Compared to the Dye-3 profile, t......, the deformation shows the same pattern even in details. The surface velocity obtained by integrating the bore hole deformation is in agreement with that obtained from satellite measurements Udgivelsesdato: jan...

  1. The propagation of internal undular bores over variable topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, R.; Yuan, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the coastal ocean, large amplitude, horizontally propagating internal wave trains are commonly observed. These are long nonlinear waves and can be modelled by equations of the Korteweg-de Vries type. Typically they occur in regions of variable bottom topography when the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation is an appropriate model. Of special interest is the situation when the coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term changes sign at a certain critical point. This case has been widely studied for a solitary wave, which is extinguished at the critical point and replaced by a train of solitary waves of the opposite polarity to the incident wave, riding on a pedestal of the original polarity. Here we examine the same situation for an undular bore, represented by a modulated periodic wave train. Numerical simulations and some asymptotic analysis based on Whitham modulation equations show that the leading solitary waves in the undular bore are destroyed and replaced by a developing rarefaction wave supporting emerging solitary waves of the opposite polarity. In contrast the rear of the undular bore emerges with the same shape, but with reduced wave amplitudes, a shorter overall length scale and moves more slowly.

  2. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-03-31

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  3. A Study of the Occurrence of Mesospheric Bore at the Equatorial Region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A. F.; Fechine, J.; Buriti, R. A.; Takahashi, H.; Gobbi, D.

    An all-sky CCD imager capable of measuring wave structure in the OH, O2 and OI (557.7 nm) airglow emissions was operated in the equatorial region at São João do Cariri (Cariri), Brazil, (7 S, 36 W), in collaboration with Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE). A study of the occurrence of mesospherics bores was done. This work used data from September 2000 to September 2002, also were used photometer data. It was detected 64 events like mesospheric bore during this observation period. The analyses did not show a seasonal behavior. It was analyzed as well the following aspects: multiples bore case in the same night, parameters observed of wave train of the bore. The high activity of gravity waves was observed before bore events in most of the case corroborating the generation mechanism proposed by Dewan and Picard (1998, 2001). Some nights presented more than two bore events.

  4. Turbulent mixing and wave radiation in non-Boussinesq internal bores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borden, Zac; Koblitz, Tilman; Meiburg, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Bores, or hydraulic jumps, appear in many natural settings and are useful in many industrial applications. If the densities of the two fluids between which a bore propagates are very different (i.e., water and air), the less dense fluid can be neglected when modeling a bore analytically-a single......-layer hydraulic model will accurately predict a bore's speed of propagation. A two-layer model is required, however, if the densities are more similar. Mass is conserved separately in each layer and momentum is conserved globally, but the model requires for closure an assumption about the loss of energy across...... a bore. In the Boussinesq limit, it is known that there is a decrease of the total energy flux across a bore, but in the expanding layer, turbulent mixing at the interface entrains high speed fluid from the contracting layer, resulting in an increase in the flux of kinetic energy across the expanding...

  5. Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-15003 Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials Mark E. Todaro...SUBTITLE Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...thermomechanical effects that occur at the bore of large and medium caliber guns during firing. Hence, PLH has been used not only to gain insight into the erosion

  6. Preserving Privacy in Transparency Logging

    OpenAIRE

    Pulls, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is the construction of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) for transparency logging, a technology at the intersection of privacy, transparency, and accountability. Transparency logging facilitates the transportation of data from service providers to users of services and is therefore a key enabler for ex-post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs). Ex-post transparency provides information to users about how their personal data have been processed by service pr...

  7. Successive impact of tidal bores on sedimentary processes: Arcins channel, Garonne River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reungoat, David; Leng, Xinqian; Chanson, Hubert

    2017-03-01

    A tidal bore is a hydrodynamic shock, propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising, with macro-tidal conditions in a funnel shaped system with shallow waters. The tidal bore of the Garonne River was extensively investigated in the Arcins channel between 2010 and 2013, typically over one to two days. In 2015, new field measurements were repeated systematically at the same site on 29 August-1 September 2015 and on 27 October 2015. The nature of the observations was comprehensive, encompassing hydrodynamics and turbulence, as well as sediment properties and transport. The tidal bore occurrence had a marked effect on the velocity and suspended sediment field, including a rapid flow deceleration and flow reversal during the bore passage, with very large suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) during the passage of the tidal bore front and early flood tide, as well as very large suspended sediment flux during the very early flood tide. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data indicated a gradual increase in initial mean SSC estimate prior to the bore from 29 August to 1 September 2015. A comparison between suspended sediment flux data showed very significant suspended sediment flux on the first day of tidal bore occurrence, with a decreasing magnitude over the next three days. The data suggested a two-stage bed scour process: at each tidal bore event, surface erosion occurred initially, in the form of stripping; the first stage was followed by delayed mass erosion, occurring about 5-15 min after the tidal bore.

  8. Gravity Flow in Proposed Enteral Tube Small-Bore Connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Ryan T; Epp, Lisa M; Pattinson, Adele K; Duellman, Wanda M; Corner, Stephen M; Mundi, Manpreet S

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas. Six commonly used enteral formulas in our facility with varying density and viscosity were tested in triplicate. Forty milliliters of formula was poured into a syringe connected to an ENFit or legacy (current) feeding connector attached to varying French size tubes. The time it took formula to flow through the connectors was recorded, and the test was repeated in triplicate. All formulas took significantly longer to flow through the first ENFit connector compared with the legacy connector ( P gravity flow, as ENFit tubes are being developed and adopted.

  9. A new method for boring of non-circular holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai; HU De-jin

    2006-01-01

    A revolving electromagnetic actuation mechanism composed of an electromagnetic stator and an electromagnetic rotor has been developed for boring non-circular holes.The main component of the rotor is a flexure-hinged based flexible body.There are four pole-pair coils in the stator supplying actuation currents.The micro-displacement between the stator and rotor can be controlled by changing the currents applied in the pole-pair coils.Through linearization of the actuation force near the static action point,a linear relationship between the control current and the actuation force was established,and the synchronizing control method of the electromagnetic actuation mechanism is presented here.With two-factor analysis of the linearization error of the actuation force,the influences of control current and micro-displacement to the linearization error of the actuation force were studied.Then,the principle for designing the basic parameters of the magnetic actuation mechanism is put forward.The calibration of the mechanism indicates that the relationship between the micro-displacement of the rotor and the control current has linear characteristics in the required micro-displacement range.Simulation tests show that the turning radius of the rotor changes with the control current.The proposed mechanism can feasibly supply a controllable micro displacement to the boring bar.

  10. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  11. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  12. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  13. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  14. Looking ahead of a tunnel boring machine with 2-D SH full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisupati, P.B.; Mulder, W.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Reijnen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the near-surface with unconsolidated soils, shear properties can be well imaged, sometimes better than P-wave properties. To facilitate ground prediction ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM), active ‘surveys’ with shear-wave vibrators are carried out during boring. In such surveys, only a few s

  15. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  16. Method and apparatus for completing a non-vertical portion of a subterranean well bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, J.F.; Spatz, E.C.; Salerni, J.V.; Peterson, E.R.; Weirich, J.B.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes an apparatus for completing a well bore having a deviated configuration including an essentially vertical entry portion communicating with a curved portion extending away from the top surface of the well and communicating with a generally linear bore portion traversable with a production formation. It comprises: a plurality of tubular screen elements; a plurality of tubular stabilizer housings threadably interconnecting the tubular screen elements, thereby forming a tool string; means for securing the stabilizer elements in a radially retracted position during run-in of the screen elements into the generally linear portion of the well bore; and fluid pressure means for radially expanding the stabilizer elements into engagement with the wall of the generally linear portion of the well bore, thereby centering the tubular screen elements relative to the generally linear portion of the well bore. The method of completing a deviated subterranean well bore having a generally vertical entry portion and a nonvertical bore portion traversing a production formation. It comprises the steps of: inserting in the non-vertical well portion a plurality of tubular screen elements interconnected by tubular stabilizing housings; each stabilizer housing mounting a plurality of peripherally spaced, radially shiftable stabilizer elements; and placing the stabilizer elements in a radially retracted position during run in. The stabilizer elements being movable from retracted position and movable radially outwardly to engage the well bore when the tubular screen elements are positioned in the production formation.

  17. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  18. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands: Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  19. Detecting Botnets Through Log Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hammadi, Yousof

    2010-01-01

    Botnets, which consist of thousands of compromised machines, can cause significant threats to other systems by launching Distributed Denial of Service (SSoS) attacks, keylogging, and backdoors. In response to these threats, new effective techniques are needed to detect the presence of botnets. In this paper, we have used an interception technique to monitor Windows Application Programming Interface (API) functions calls made by communication applications and store these calls with their arguments in log files. Our algorithm detects botnets based on monitoring abnormal activity by correlating the changes in log file sizes from different hosts.

  20. Persistence motives in irrational decisions to complete a boring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Rise, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    We explored a novel task paradigm where participants from the online work marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk were given the choice to quit or continue an unfinished boring task for identical economic rewards. In Studies 1a and 1b, about half the participants chose to continue (corresponding to an average of 55 and 35 cents in foregone earnings). Participants' self-reported reasons for continuing involved various types of persistence motives, reflecting a desire to persist or complete per se. Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c ruled out the possibility that people continued because they enjoyed the task or believed there were additional rewards for continuing. Study 4 showed that the choice to quit/continue was associated with the manner in which the choice was presented (persistence test vs. decision-making test) and individual differences in dispositional persistence motives. The present data indicate that motivational forces independent of the focal reward may affect intertemporal decisions.

  1. An introduction to RAM analysis of EPB tunnel boring machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB - TBMs are favorably used in construction of tunnels in urban areas. These more expensive machines with high operational costs require an exclusive study and knowledge on these machine components and subsystems and their failure and downtimes for time planning, cost control and performance prediction with a high accuracy. Thus guidelines for reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM analysis of an EPB machine are completely expressed. Gathering and recording all daily failure and repair times and other maintenance tasks, dividing the machine into subsystems (including mechanical subsystem, electrical subsystem, hydraulic subsystem, pneumatic subsystem and water subsystem, graphical tests (trend test and correlation test, statistical tests and analysis are discussed in detail.

  2. TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOR OF MUD-PRESSURE PULSE ALONG WELL BORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-shan; LI Bo; YUE Yu-quan

    2007-01-01

    In oil and gas industry, mud-pulse telemetry has been widely used to obtain directional data, drilling parameters, formation evaluation data and safety data, etc. Generally, the drilling mud in most current models was considered to be a single-phase fluid through which the mud pulses travel, despite the fact that the drilling mud is composed of two or more phases. In this article, a multiphase flow formula was proposed to calculate the mud-pulse velocity as mud solids and free-gas content change, and a mathematical model was put forward to simulate the dynamic-transmission behavior of the mud-pressure pulse or waves. Compared to conventional methods, the present model provides more accurate mud-pulse attenuation, and the dynamic-transmission behavior of drilling-mud pulses along well bores can also be easily examined. The model is valuable in improving the existing mud-pulse systems and developing new drilling-mud pulse systems.

  3. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  4. A tunnel boring system for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, S.N. [Construction & Tunneling Services, Inc., Kent, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Design of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) tunnel boring machine (TBM) and backup began in June of 1993, with fabrication, machining and light assembly proceeding through to the end of the year. The original specifications for the project were contained in the request for quote for the YMP TBM and in Construction & Tunneling Services proposal document. As with all complex custom assignments, much of the finer details of the definition of the final scope of delivery was concurrent with the design effort itself. The summation of this effort is described in this paper. The major technical scope of the machine delivery is defined by the parameters listed in TABLE 1. Within the confines of the installed power and design excavation rates, the final product has been tailored to suit the particular needs of the project.

  5. Method for completing a non-vertical portion of a subterranean well bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, J.F.; Spatz, E.C.; Salerni, J.V.; Peterson, E.R.; Weirich, J.B.

    1990-04-10

    This patent describes a method of completing a well bore having a deviated configuration including an entry portion communicating with a curved portion extending downwardly in the well from the entry portion and a generally linear end portion traversable with a production formation. It comprises: forming a conduit including well isolation means, at least one screen element and at least one stabilizer means having at least one movable stabilizer portion movable from a first retracted position to a second expanded position; running the conduit into the well bore and manipulating the conduit to facilitate passage of the conduit through the curved portion of the well bore; setting the well isolation means to position the tubular screen means approximate the linear portion of the well bore; and actuating the stabilizer members to the second expanded position to engage the adjacent wall of the well bore and position the screen means away from the adjacent wall.

  6. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution.

  7. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  8. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  10. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  11. Bi-log-concave Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümbgen, Lutz; Kolesnyk, Petro; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Nonparametric statistics for distribution functions F or densities f=F′ under qualitative shape constraints constitutes an interesting alternative to classical parametric or entirely nonparametric approaches. We contribute to this area by considering a new shape constraint: F is said to be bi......-log-concave, if both logF and log(1−F) are concave. Many commonly considered distributions are compatible with this constraint. For instance, any c.d.f. F with log-concave density f=F′ is bi-log-concave. But in contrast to log-concavity of f, bi-log-concavity of F allows for multimodal densities. We provide various...

  12. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  13. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  14. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  15. Logística empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Sahid

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  16. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Chiral Logs in Quenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, S J; Horváth, I; Lee, F X; Liu, K F; Mathur, N; Zhang, J B

    2003-01-01

    The quenched chiral logs are examined on a $16^3 \\times 28$ lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant $f_{\\pi}$ is used to set the lattice spacing, $a = 0.200(3)$ fm. With pion mass as low as $\\sim 180 {\\rm MeV}$, we see the quenched chiral logs clearly in $m_{\\pi}^2/m$ and $f_P$, the pseudoscalar decay constant. We analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT) to apply. With the constrained curve fitting, we are able to extract the quenched chiral log parameter $\\delta$ together with the chiral cutoff $\\Lambda_{\\chi}$ and other parameters. Only for $m_{\\pi} \\leq 300 {\\rm MeV}$ do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant $\\delta$ which we determine to be 0.23(2). By comparing to the $12^3 \\times 28$ lattice, we estimate the finite volume effect to be about 1.8% for the smallest pion mass. We also study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon and the $\\rho$ masses...

  18. Tidal bores, turbulence and mixing above deep-ocean slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Kraig

    2016-11-01

    A tidally driven, stably-stratified turbulent boundary layer over supercritically sloping topography is simulated numerically using a spectral LES approach (Winters, 2015, 2016). The near boundary flow is characterized by quasi-periodic, bore-like motions, whose temporal signature is compared to the high-resolution ocean mooring data of van Haren (2006). The relatively thick bottom boundary layer remains stably stratified owing to the regular cycling of unmixed ambient fluid into the turbulent boundary layer and episodic expulsion events where fluid is ejected into the stratified interior. The effective diffusivity of the flow near the boundary is estimated by means of a synthetic dye tracer experiment. The average dissipation rate within the dye cloud is computed and combined with the diffusivity estimate to yield an overall mixing efficiency of 0.15. Both the estimated diffusivity and dissipation rates are in reasonable agreement with the microstructure observations of Kunze et al. (2012) when scaled to the environmental conditions at the Monterey and Soquel Canyons and to the values estimated by van Haren and Gostiaux (2012) above the sloping bottom of the Great Meteor Seamount in the Canary Basin.

  19. Continuous circulation apparatus for air drilling well bore operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.L.

    1982-02-16

    An apparatus is disclosed for maintaining a continuous supply of air pressure downhole during a well bore drilling operation, even during the addition of a pipe section to the drill string. It consists of a housing installed at the surface of the well at the position of the drilling equipment wherein the upper end of the drill string is separated from the drive mechanism in order that a new piece of drill pipe may be added to the drill string, a flapper or closure member pivotally secured within the housing normally held in an open position by the outer periphery of the drill string and spring urged in a direction toward the open end of the sleeve through which the drive mechanism passes when the drive mechanism has been backed off or removed for the addition of a section of pipe to the drill string, and a by-pass line in communication with the interior of the housing for directing air pressure from the air supply to the housing when the flapper member is in the closed position whereby the air pressure may be circulated downwardly through the drill string for maintaining the air circulation downhole during the entire drilling operation.

  20. The Log Log Prior for the Frequency of Extraterrestrial Intelligences

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how frequently life and intelligence arise on planets. I consider a Bayesian prior for the probability P(ETI) that intelligence evolves at a suitable site, with weight distributed evenly over ln(1 - ln P(ETI)). This log log prior can handle a very wide range of P(ETI) values, from 1 to 10^(-10^122), while remaining responsive to evidence about extraterrestrial societies. It is motivated by our uncertainty in the number of conditions that must be fulfilled for intelligence to arise, and it is related to considerations of information, entropy, and state space dimensionality. After setting a lower limit to P(ETI) from the number of possible genome sequences, I calculate a Bayesian confidence of 18% that aliens exist within the observable Universe. With different assumptions about the minimum P(ETI) and the number of times intelligence can appear on a planet, this value falls between 1.4% and 47%. Overall, the prior leans towards our being isolated from extraterrestrial intelligences, but indicates ...

  1. On construction scheme of bored piles%谈灌注桩施工方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立创

    2012-01-01

    The paper points out the bored pile is the common foundation treatment,and fully introduces the craft procedure and craft methods of the bored pile construction by taking the engineering example of the bored pile construction,so as to enhance the application of the bored pile.%指出灌注桩是常用的一种地基处理方法,通过灌注桩施工的一个工程实例,较全面地介绍了灌注桩施工的工艺流程、工艺方法,从而促进灌注桩的推广应用。

  2. The influence of vibrations on surface roughness formed during precision boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Dariusz; Znojkiewicz, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis of vibrations on surface roughness generated during boring with the application of the conventional boring tool and one with the damper is presented. The experiments included the measurement of vibration accelerations carried out with the piezoelectric sensor, as well as the evaluation of surface roughness parameters after each machining pass. The obtained results reveal that in the investigated range, no stability loss was found. Furthermore, the growth of the rotational speed induces the increase of vibration level, as well as the growth of the differences between the vibration values generated during boring with the conventional tool and one equipped with damper. Vibrations have also the direct influence on the machined surface roughness. In case of the tool equipped with the damper, the tool's overhang L had more intense influence than rotational speed n. However, for the conventional boring tool this dependency was unequivocal.

  3. Estimation of the equilibrium formation temperature in the presence of bore fluid invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    2012-01-01

    Bottom hole temperatures (BHTs) measured during drilling operations are thermally disturbed by the drilling process. This paper presents a method, CSMI (Cylindrical Source Model with Invasion of bore mud filtrate), for estimating equilibrium formation temperatures with probability distributions...... from BHT measurements in the presence of bore fluid invasion. The scheme is based on finite element analysis in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion. The axisymmetric forward model assumes a cylindrical source of finite radius and contrasting thermal parameters, which includes...... the possibility of invasion (advection) of mud filtrate into the formation. In a synthetic example, it is demonstrated that given bore fluid invasion and a low and high temperature of the bore mud and formation, respectively, the equilibrium formation temperature and the uncertainty hereon is underestimated...

  4. Observation of Optical Undular Bores in Multiple Four-Wave Mixing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatome, J; Finot, C; Millot, G; Armaroli, A; Trillo, S

    2014-01-01

    ... (strong multiple four-wave mixing). In particular, by exploiting an all-optical-fiber platform, we show that input modulations propagating in standard telecom fibers in the regime of weak normal dispersion lead to the formation of undular bores...

  5. Respiratory Complications Associated with Insertion of Small-Bore Feeding Tube in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Am Ryu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-bore flexible feeding tubes decrease the risk of ulceration of the nose, pharynx, and stomach compared with large-bore and more rigid tubes. However, small-bore feeding tubes have more respiratory system complications, such as pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, and pneumonia, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to confirm the correct position of feeding tubes. Chest X-ray is the gold standard to detect tracheal malpositioning of the feeding tube. We present three cases in which intubated patients exhibited an altered mental state. An assistant guide wire was used at the insertion of small-bore feeding tubes. These conditions are thought to be potential risk factors for tracheobronchial malpositioning of feeding tubes.

  6. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A

    2013-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure...

  7. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  8. Effect of fluid viscosity on wave propagation in a cylindrical bore in micropolar elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Deswal; Sushil K Tomar; Rajneesh Kumar

    2000-10-01

    Wave propagation in a cylindrical bore filled with viscous liquid and situated in a micropolar elastic medium of infinite extent is studied. Frequency equation for surface wave propagation near the surface of the cylindrical bore is obtained and the effect of viscosity and micropolarity on dispersion curves is observed. The earlier problems of Biot and of Banerji and Sengupta have been reduced as a special case of our problem.

  9. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Jerome Michael

    2012-12-04

    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  10. The Closed Form on a Kind of Log-cosine and Log-sine Integral%一类log-cosine和log-sine积分的闭形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商妮娜; 秦惠增

    2012-01-01

    We consider some recursion formulas for the partial derivative of Beta function. Using these recursion formulas, we give the closed form of the log-cosine and log-sine integral.%考虑了Beta函数偏导数的递推公式的表示问题.利用Beta函数偏导数的递推公式,给出一类log-cosine和log-sine积分的闭形式.

  11. Modelling discontinuous well log signal to identify lithological boundaries via wavelet analysis: An example from KTB borehole data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Singh; Saumen Maiti; R K Tiwar

    2016-06-01

    Identification of sharp and discontinuous lithological boundaries from well log signal stemming fromheterogeneous subsurface structures assumes a special significance in geo-exploration studies. Well logdata acquired from various geological settings generally display nonstationary/nonlinear characteristicswith varying wavelengths and frequencies. Modelling of such complex well-log signals using the conventionalsignal processing techniques either fails to catch-up abrupt boundaries or at the best, do notprovide precise information on insidious lithological discontinuities. In this paper, we have proposed anew wavelet transform-based algorithm to model the abrupt discontinuous changes from well log databy taking care of nonstationary characteristics of the signal. Prior to applying the algorithm on thegeophysical well data, we analyzed the distribution of wavelet coefficients using synthetic signal generatedby the first order nonstationary auto-regressive model and then applied the method on actual welllog dataset obtained from the KTB bore hole, Germany. Besides identifying the formation of layeredboundaries, the underlying method also maps some additional formation boundaries, which were hithertoundetected at the KTB site. The results match well with known geological lithostratigraphy andwill be useful for constraining the future model of KTB bore hole data.

  12. Non-Linear Logging Parameters Inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear logging parameters inversion is based on the field theory, information optimization and predication theory. It uses seismic charaoters,geological model and logging data as a restriction to inverse 2D, 3D logging parameters data volume. Using this method,

  13. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  15. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  16. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  17. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  18. A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

    2005-01-01

    We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

  19. Improvement of machining accuracy in precision micro-boring system by forecasting compensatory control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the design of a micro-boring servo system. A piezoelectric actuator is employed to compensate the deflection errors of the cutter in the radial direction to reduce the force-induced errors in the workpiece. In order to bore small and deep holes, the boring bar is designed with a new structure consisting of two concentric bars, one being used for error measuring and the other for error compensation. As a result, the size of the micro-boring bar is not af fected even after the piezoelectric actuator and strain gauges have been incorporated. The outer diameter of the boring bar used is 16 mm and the length to diameter ratio is greater than 9. A Forecasting Compensatory Control (FCC) technique is adopted in this system for error prediction and error compensation. The off-line forecasting compensatory control simulation and on-line cutting results have verified that the roundness form errors in the workpiece can be re duced up to 60 percent with the developed micro-boring servo system.

  20. An undular bore solution for the higher-order Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, T R [School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, 2522, NSW (Australia); Smyth, N F [School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Undular bores describe the evolution and smoothing out of an initial step in mean height and are frequently observed in both oceanographic and meteorological applications. The undular bore solution for the higher-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived, using an asymptotic transformation which relates the KdV equation and its higher-order counterpart. The higher-order KdV equation considered includes all possible third-order correction terms (where the KdV equation retains second-order terms). The asymptotic transformation is then applied to the KdV undular bore solution to obtain the higher-order undular bore. Examples of higher-order undular bores, describing both surface and internal waves, are presented. Key properties, such as the amplitude and speed of the lead soliton and the width of the bore, are found. An excellent comparison is obtained between the analytical and numerical solutions. Also, it is illustrated how an asymptotic transformation and numerical solutions can be combined to generate hybrid asymptotic-numerical solutions, thus avoiding the severe instabilities associated with numerical schemes for the higher-order KdV equation. (letter to the editor)

  1. Seismic source characterisation of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Brückl, Ewald; Radinger, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method aims at predicting continuously the geological situation ahead of the tunnel without disturbing the construction work. Thereby the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) itself is used as seismic source. The cutting process generates seismic waves radiating into the rock mass and vibrations propagating to the main bearing of the cutter head. These vibrations are monitored and used as pilot signal. For the processing and interpretation it was hypothesized so far that the TBM acts like a single force. To prove this assumption the radiation pattern of several TBM's under construction were investigated. Therefore 3-components geophones were installed at the surface, which were situated directly above the tunnel axes and also with lateral offset. Additional, borehole geophones were placed in the wall of one tube of a two-tube tunnel. The geophones collected the forward and backward radiated wave field, as the TBM, operating in the other tube, passed their positions. The obtained seismic data contains continuous records over a range of 600 m of the TBM position. The offsets vary from 25 m to 400 m and the frequency ranges from 20-250 Hertz. The polarisation of the p-wave and the s-wave and their amplitude ratio were determined and compared with modelled seismograms with different source mechanism. The results show that the description of the source mechanism by a single force can be used as a first order approximation. More complex radiation pattern including tensile forces and several source locations like the transmission of reaction forces over the gripper to the tunnel wall are further tested and addressed.

  2. Quality control for quantitative geophysical logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Hwang, Se Ho; Hwang, Hak Soo; Park, In Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Despite the great availability of geophysical data obtained from boreholes, the interpretation is subject to significant uncertainties. More accurate data with less statistical uncertainties should require an employment of more quantitative techniques in log acquisition and interpretation technique. The long-term objective of this project is the development of techniques in both quality control of log measurement and the quantitative interpretation. In the first year, the goals of the project will include establishing the procedure of log acquisition using various tests, analysing the effect of logging velocity change on the logging data, examining the repeatability and reproducibility, analyzing of filtering effect on the log measurements, and finally the zonation and the correlation of single-and inter-well log data. For the establishment of logging procedure, we have tested the multiple factors affecting the accuracy in depth. The factors are divided into two parts: human and mechanical. These factors include the zero setting of depth, the calculation of offset for the sonde, the stretching effect of cable, and measuring wheel accuracy. We conclude that the error in depth setting results primarily from human factor, and also in part from the stretching of cable. The statistical fluctuation of log measurements increases according to increasing the logging speed for the zone of lower natural gamma. Thus, the problem related with logging speed is a trifling matter in case of the application of resources exploration, the logging speed should run more slowly to reduce the statistical fluctuation of natural gamma with lithologic correlation in mind. The repeatability and reproducibility of logging measurements are tested. The results of repeatability test for the natural gamma sonde are qualitatively acceptable in the reproducibility test, the errors occurs in logging data between two operators and successive trials. We conclude that the errors result from the

  3. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  4. Records of wells, test borings, and some measured geologic sections near the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) is a 3 ,336-acre tract of land in northern Cattaraugus County, NY, about 30 mi south of Buffalo. In 1963, 247 acres within the WNYNSC was developed for a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant and ancillary facilities, including (1) a receiving and storage facility to store fuel prior to reprocessing, (2) underground storage tanks for liquid high-level radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing, (3) a low-level wastewater treatment plant, and (4) two burial grounds for shallow burial of solid radioactive waste. A series of geologic and hydrologic investigations was done as part of the initial development and construction of the facilities by numerous agencies during 1960-62; these produced a large quantity of well data, some of which are difficult to locate or obtain. This report is a compilation of well and boring data collected during this period. The data include records of 236 wells, geologic logs of 145 wells and 167 test borings, and descriptions of 20 measured geologic sections. Two oversized maps show locations of the reported data. (USGS)

  5. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  6. LHCb: Universal Logging System for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Nikolaidis, F; Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N

    2010-01-01

    In a large-scale IT infrastructure such as the LHCb Online system many applications are running on thousands of machines producing many GBs of logs every day. Although most of the logs are just routine logs, some of them may indicate an attack, a malfunction or provide vital debugging information. Due to their volume only automatisation of the analysis of the logs can provide us with an efficient way to handle all of these logs, ensuring that even the most rare logs will be processed. We present a centralized logging system which allow us to do in-depth analysis of every log. The description of the architecture includes information from how we integrate logging from many devices to a centralized server using syslog and in particular how a correlation can indicate an attack. Special emphasis is given both to security monitoring as well as to the logs that indicate developing malfunctions. To secure our network we have deployed the most known of HIDS, NIDS , LIDS (Host , Network, Log intrusion detection). Each ...

  7. Log-ω-hyponormal Operators%Log-ω亚正规算子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张敏

    2008-01-01

    Let T be an operator on a separable Hilbert space H and T=U|T|bethe polaf decomposition.T is said to be log-ω-hyponormal if log|T|≥log|T|≥log|(T)*|In this paper we prove that the point spectrum of T is equal to its joint point spectrum if T is log-ω-hyponormal.We also prove that a log-ω-hyponormal operator is normaloid,i.e.,r(T)=‖T‖.Finally,we obtain Putnam's theorem for log-ω-hyponormal Operators.

  8. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  9. Tidal Bore detection in the Garonne River using high frequency GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, Frédéric; Roussel, Nicolas; Darrozes, José; Bonneton, Philippe; Bonneton, Natalie; Detandt, Guillaume; Perosanz, Felix; Loyer, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A tidal bore is a positive surge propagating upstream that may form when a rising tide with significant amplitude enters shallow, gently sloping and narrowing rivers. Tidal bores have a significant impact on the river ecosystem behavior, especially in terms of sediment transport. Most of the existing field studies were limited to visual observations. Only a few field experiments have been devoted to a quantitative study of the tidal bore dynamics. We carried out a field study in August, 2015, using a GNSS buoy to measure the tidal bore in the Garonne River (France) at Podensac located 140 km upstream of the estuary mouth. Precise Point Positioning and Differential GNSS techniques were used to determine the river surface height variations with a 20 Hz sampling rate. This site was selected owing to the presence of well-developed undular tidal bores and also because of the absence of any significant curvature of the river at this location, which limits the complexity of the tidal bore structure. The Gironde estuary is located in the Bay of Biscay, on the southwest coast of France, and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne. In the Gironde mouth, the mean neap tidal range and mean spring tidal range is 2.5 m and 5 m, respectively. As the tide propagates upstream a marked ebbflood asymmetry occurs in the upper reaches of the estuary and the wave is amplified. This large amplitude tidal wave propagates in the Garonne and Dordogne rivers up to 160 km from the estuary mouth. Both GNSS buoy and reference station use a Leica AR10 antenna and GR25 receiver. Both stations (reference and buoy) acquired data with a 20 Hz sampling rate. GNSS data were processed using RTKLib. Results allowed to detect the the wave train of the tidal bore that caused an elevation of the surface of around 1.5 m. Comparisons were performed using acoustic data showing a good agreement between both sources of data.

  10. logR-logT Figure and Unknown Solar System Planets%logR-logT图与太阳系未知行星

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彩娟; 王小波; 韦鸿铭

    2011-01-01

    Using logR-logT figure to research the planet-satellite system in Solar system, the moving of satellites are in accordance with the Kepler's Third Law, And there is a relationship between the mass of central celestial body and the straight line distances. The logR-logT figure of the unknown planet-satellite system, Mercury-satellite and Venus-satellite are described, we speculated the mass and the period of the unknown planet, the location and the period of the satellites of Mercury or Venus.%利用log-logT图研究太阳系的行星卫星系统,得出八大行星卫星系统都符合开普勒第三定律,推导出行星卫星系统logR-logT图线截距与中心天体质量的关系;通过描绘未知行星卫星系统、水星卫星系统和金星卫星系统的logR-logT图线,推测未知行星的质量和公转周期,以及水星和金星的未知卫星可能存在的位置与周期.

  11. Age, growth and mortality in four populations of the boring bivalve Lithophaga patagonica from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, María; Richardson, Christopher A.; Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Arribas, Lorena P.; Doldan, M. Socorro; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2013-08-01

    The boring bivalve Lithophaga patagonica (d'Orbigny, 1842) is a locally abundant inhabitant of hard substrata in the coastal waters of the Southwestern Atlantic. In this paper, we describe the growth, age and mortality of three intertidal rock-boring populations of L. patagonica and one subtidal oyster shell (Ostrea puelchana) boring population. An analysis of acetate peel replicas of shell sections showed that L. patagonica slows down its growth during autumn-winter, which leads to changes in the direction and rate of shell deposition and the formation of conspicuous annual (low temperature induced) clefts in the shell margin. Cleft counts and Von Bertalanffy growth analyses indicated that maximum age varies from 4 years in the oyster-boring population to 13 years in a rock-boring one (longevity estimates varied between 6.5 and 15 years, respectively). Maximum asymptotic length (L∞) and Von Bertalanffy growth constant (K) were also variable between populations (L∞ between 14.76 and 36.95 mm and K from 0.20 to 0.90 yr- 1 respectively). Mortality rates were higher at the two southernmost populations. Type (rock vs. oyster), composition and hardness of the substrata are likely the main factors controlling the observed differences between populations.

  12. A preliminary study of the turbulence features of the tidal bore in the Qiantang River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东风; 潘存鸿

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the turbulence characteristics of the tidal flow in the Qiantang River, China, the world-famous Qiantang bore, are studied. A detailed field observation at the Yanguan section of the Qiantang River was carried out during the spring tide in October 2010 with a continuous collection of high frequency turbulence data. The data analysis shows that the hydrodynamic processes are characterized by a strong tidal bore. Statistics of the turbulence such as the probability distributions of the turbulent components, the variance terms and the covariance terms are found consistent with those of previous studies of estuaries without the tidal bore. However, along the vertical profile, the distributions of all variables become more scattered downwards. The horizontal turbulence fluctuations are of a similar magnitude while the vertical turbulence has a fluctuation magnitude about 1/3 of that of the horizontal turbulences. The fluctuation strengths and the Reynolds stresses are much larger than those of other estuaries when the bore arrives. The bottom shear stress varies periodically with the tides, less than 0.44 N/m2 during the ebb but is increased drastically at the bore arrival, with the maximum being 0.92 N/m2. A good linear relationship is found between the bottom shear stress and the bottom suspended sediment concentration.

  13. Sediment resuspension and the generation of intermediate nepheloid layers by shoaling internal bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Arthur, Robert S.; Fringer, Oliver B.; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu

    2017-06-01

    Numerical simulations of sediment resuspension due to shoaling internal bores are performed with a nonhydrostatic model, SUNTANS. Results show strong sediment resuspension induced by internal bores and a turbidity layer intruding offshore in the interior of the water column, known as an intermediate nepheloid layer (INL). Sediment resuspension processes and INLs reproduced in the model are in good agreement with observational data from Otuschi Bay, Japan. The formation of INLs by shoaling internal waves is explained as follows: (1) strong receding currents due to a previous run-up bore cause sediment resuspension along the slope, (2) the interaction of the receding currents and a subsequent run-up bore induce horizontal flow convergence and strong upward currents, (3) the upward currents lift the suspended sediments into the interior of the water column, (4) the run-up bore intrudes below the suspended sediments and forms an INL within the pycnocline. Sediment resuspension processes are also investigated for various internal Iribarren number conditions. The internal Iribarren number represents the ratio of the topographic slope to the internal wave steepness. In low internal Iribarren number conditions, strong currents near the bottom result in sediment resuspension and INL formation. In high internal Iribarren number conditions, sediment resuspension is weak, and INLs do not form.

  14. MultiLog: a tool for the control and output merging of multiple logging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Jonathan; Alexander, Jason

    2016-12-01

    MultiLog is a logging tool that controls, gathers, and combines the output, on-the-fly, from existing research and commercial logging applications or "loggers." Loggers record a specific set of user actions on a computing device, helping researchers to better understand environments or interactions, guiding the design of new or improved interfaces and applications. MultiLog reduces researchers' required implementation effort by simplifying the set-up of multiple loggers and seamlessly combining their output. This in turn increases the availability of logging systems to non-technical experimenters for both short-term and longitudinal observation studies. MultiLog supports two operating modes: "researcher mode" where experimenters configure multiple logging systems, and "deployment mode" where the system is deployed to user-study participants' systems. Researcher mode allows researchers to install, configure log filtering and obfuscation, observe near real-time event streams, and save configuration files ready for deployment. Deployment mode simplifies data collection from multiple loggers by running in the system tray at user log-in, starting loggers, combining their output, and securely uploading the data to a web-server. It also supports real-time browsing of log data, pausing of logging, and removal of log lines. Performance evaluations show that MultiLog does not adversely affect system performance, even when simultaneously running several logging systems. Initial studies show the system runs reliably over a period of 10 weeks.

  15. Logging data representation based on XML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As an open standard of data representation, XML breathes new energy to the Web application and the network computing. The development, advantage and status of XML and some standards relating to XML are reviewed. In addition, the authors put forward a method representing logging data and using UML language to establish the conceptual and logical model of logging data; using a logging data, explain how to establish the model as well as how to use XML to display and process geology data.

  16. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  17. Drillers' logs of wells in the Hanford reservation. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.K.; Schwab, G.

    1977-01-01

    More than 3000 wells and test holes have been drilled within the Hanford Reservation. Information on these wells range from complete sample suites complemented by bore hole geophysical studies to no record at all. Often the driller's log is the only record available for a well. This report is a product of the continuing project aimed at quantifying the hydraulic parameters of the synthetic flow system of the Hanford Reservation. The subsurface geology of the Hanford Reservation must be understood before the hydrologic parameters of the rocks can be estimated with any accuracy. To refine the state of our knowledge of the hydrologic regime all available data concerning the reservation geology must be considered and evaluated. Transcriptions are presented of 417 drillers' logs. This compilation includes every original driller's report we could obtain for the 600, 1100, and 3000 areas of the Hanford Reservation, but only a few logs from each of the 100, 200, and 300 areas where holes are very close together. The standard format consists of two parts: a heading that gives the general information for the well, and the description of the material penetrated.

  18. Simpevarp site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in borehole KSH01A, HSH01, HSH02 and HSH03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Per; Gustafsson, Christer [RAYCON, Malaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the surveys is to both receive information of the borehole itself, and from the rock mass around the borehole. Bore hole radar was used to investigate the nature and the structure of the rock mass located around the boreholes, and BIPS for geological surveying and fracture mapping and orientation. Geophysical logging was used to measure changes in physical properties in the borehole fluid and the bedrock surrounding the boreholes. This field report describes the equipment used as well the measurement procedures. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. Radar data is presented in radargrams and identified reflectors in each borehole are listed in tables. Geophysical logging data is presented in graphs as a function of depth.

  19. Solitons, compactons and undular bores in Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-like systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Aparna; Talukdar, B.; Das, Umapada; Chatterjee, Supriya

    2017-02-01

    We examine the effect of dissipation on travelling waves in nonlinear dispersive systems modelled by Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM)-like equations. In the absence of dissipation, the BBM-like equations are found to support soliton and compacton /anticompacton solutions depending on whether the dispersive term is linear or nonlinear. We study the influence of increasing nonlinearity of the medium on the soliton and compacton dynamics. The dissipative effect is found to convert the solitons either to undular bores or to shock-like waves depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the equations. The anticompacton solutions are also transformed to undular bores by the effect of dissipation. But the compactons tend to vanish due to viscous effects. The local oscillatory structures behind the bores and /or shock-like waves in the case of solitons and anticompactons are found to depend sensitively both on the coefficient of viscosity and solution of the unperturbed problem.

  20. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, v_{HB}, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of CO_{2} laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the v_{HB} falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of v_{HB}, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  1. Laser-driven hole boring and gamma-ray emission in high-density plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Nerush, Evgeny

    2014-01-01

    Ion acceleration in laser-produced dense plasmas is a key topic of many recent investigations thanks to its potential applications. Besides, at forthcoming laser intensities ($I \\gtrsim 10^{23} \\text{W}\\,\\text{cm}^{-2}$) interaction of laser pulses with plasmas can be accompanied by copious gamma-ray emission. Here we demonstrate the mutual influence of gamma-ray emission and ion acceleration during relativistic hole boring in high-density plasmas with ultra-intense laser pulses. If gamma-ray emission is abundant, laser pulse reflection and hole-boring velocity are lower and gamma-ray radiation pattern is narrower than in the case of low emission. Conservation of energy and momentum allows one to elucidate the effects of gamma-ray emission which are more pronounced at higher hole-boring velocities.

  2. Solitons, compactons and undular bores in Benjamin–Bona–Mahony-like systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    APARNA SAHA; B TALUKDAR; UMAPADA DAS; SUPRIYA CHATTERJEE

    2017-02-01

    We examine the effect of dissipation on travelling waves in nonlinear dispersive systems modelled by Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM)-like equations. In the absence of dissipation, the BBM-like equations are found to support soliton and compacton/anticompacton solutions depending on whether the dispersive term islinear or nonlinear. We study the influence of increasing nonlinearity of the medium on the soliton and compacton dynamics. The dissipative effect is found to convert the solitons either to undular bores or to shock-like waves depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the equations. The anticompacton solutions are also transformed to undular bores by the effect of dissipation. But the compactons tend to vanish due to viscous effects. The local oscillatory structures behind the bores and/or shock-like waves in the case of solitons and anticompactons are found to depend sensitively both on the coefficient of viscosity and solution of the unperturbed problem.

  3. Observation of Optical Undular Bores in Multiple Four-Wave Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fatome

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that wave-breaking dramatically affects the dynamics of nonlinear frequency conversion processes that operate in the regime of high efficiency (strong multiple four-wave mixing. In particular, by exploiting an all-optical-fiber platform, we show that input modulations propagating in standard telecom fibers in the regime of weak normal dispersion lead to the formation of undular bores (dispersive shock waves that mimic the typical behavior of dispersive hydrodynamics exhibited, e.g., by gravity waves and tidal bores. Thanks to the nonpulsed nature of the beat signal employed in our experiment, we are able to clearly observe how the periodic nature of the input modulation forces adjacent undular bores to collide elastically.

  4. Observation of Optical Undular Bores in Multiple Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatome, J.; Finot, C.; Millot, G.; Armaroli, A.; Trillo, S.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that wave-breaking dramatically affects the dynamics of nonlinear frequency conversion processes that operate in the regime of high efficiency (strong multiple four-wave mixing). In particular, by exploiting an all-optical-fiber platform, we show that input modulations propagating in standard telecom fibers in the regime of weak normal dispersion lead to the formation of undular bores (dispersive shock waves) that mimic the typical behavior of dispersive hydrodynamics exhibited, e.g., by gravity waves and tidal bores. Thanks to the nonpulsed nature of the beat signal employed in our experiment, we are able to clearly observe how the periodic nature of the input modulation forces adjacent undular bores to collide elastically.

  5. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  6. In-bore setup and Software for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with Z-frame that give a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allow performance of MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning, and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP, and superior-inferior axes were 0.8 ± 1.0 degrees, 1.7 ± 1.6 degrees, and 0.0 ± 0.0 degrees respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle placement error was 3.0 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop set up and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. PMID:22951350

  7. Analysis of a Rough Elliptic Bore Journal Bearing using Expectancy Model of Roughness Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance characteristics of a rough elliptic bore journal bearing are studied. The bearing bore of isotropic roughness orientation is characterized by stochastic function and the film geometry is quantified to elliptic shape. There after the Reynolds equation and energy equation are descretized for pressure and temperature respectively. A finite difference model is developed to evaluate hydrodynamic pressure and oil temperature. Solution to this model is done using effective influence Newton-Raphson method. Performance parameters such as load bearing ability, friction, flow-in and side leakages are computed and discussed.

  8. The Effects of Guide Pads on Bore Diameter Enlargement Magnitude in Deep Hole Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep hole machining accuracy plays a crucial role in product’s quality. The results of an investigation into the machining accuracy of deep drilling holes which highlights problems of bore diameter enlargement magnitude assessment are presented in this paper. Through the study of BTA deep drilling tool properties and mechanism, as well as the formation rule of deep hole surface, clarified the burnishing mechanism of guide pad in deep hole drilling, and obtained the directly relationship between surface formation rule and the guide pad. After drilling experimentrevealed the effect of guide pad on bore diameter enlargement magnitude.

  9. Flexible small-bore hollow fibers with an inner polymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Y; Shi, Y W; Matsuura, Y; Miyagi, M

    2000-02-01

    Flexible hollow-glass fibers with small-bore diameters of 250 and 320 mum have been developed for Er:YAG laser delivery. The fibers consist of a glass capillary tube and an inner coating of silver and polymer thin films that are deposited by use of a simple liquid-phase technique. The 250-mum-bore fiber exhibits a straight loss of 0.8 dB/m and a bending loss of 1.2 dB when it is bent 180 degrees at the output end, with a bending radius of 2 cm. The maximum energy delivered by the fibers is ~100 mJ.

  10. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic...

  11. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.409 Data logging. (a) A computer or...

  12. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.412 Data logging. (a) A computer...

  13. New Achievements in Well Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Tingdong

    1996-01-01

    @@ In the first five years of 1990s, new achievements made in China's onshore well logging technology have enhanced the benefits of exploration and development for complex oil and gas reservoirs and have thus showed the trend of the development of China's well logging technology towards the end of this century.

  14. LHCb Online Log Analysis and Maintenance System

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N; Nikolaidis, F

    2011-01-01

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. ...

  15. Chernoff's density is log-concave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Wellner, Jon A

    2014-02-01

    We show that the density of Z = argmax{W (t) - t(2)}, sometimes known as Chernoff's density, is log-concave. We conjecture that Chernoff's density is strongly log-concave or "super-Gaussian", and provide evidence in support of the conjecture.

  16. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  17. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  18. Write-Combined Logging: An Optimized Logging for Consistency in NVRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzhe Zhang; Kai Lu; Mikel Luján; Xiaoping Wang; Xu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory (e.g., Phase Change Memory) blurs the boundary between memory and storage and it could greatly facilitate the construction of in-memory durable data structures. Data structures can be processed and stored directly in NVRAM. To maintain the consistency of persistent data, logging is a widely adopted mechanism. However, logging introduces write-twice overhead. This paper introduces an optimized write-combined logging to reduce the writes to NVRAM log. By leveraging the fast-r...

  19. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  20. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  1. Dynamical evolution of active detached binaries on log Jo - log M diagram and contact binary formation

    CERN Document Server

    Eker, Z; Bilir, S; Karatas, Y

    2006-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (Jo), systemic mass (M) and orbital period (P) distributions of chromospherically active binaries (CAB) and W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) systems were investigated. The diagrams of log Jo - log P, log M - log P and log Jo-log M were formed from 119 CAB and 102 W UMa stars. The log Jo-log M diagram is found to be most meaningful in demonstrating dynamical evolution of binary star orbits. A slightly curved borderline (contact border) separating the detached and the contact systems was discovered on the log Jo - log M diagram. Since orbital size (a) and period (P) of binaries are determined by their current Jo, M and mass ratio q, the rates of orbital angular momentum loss (dlog Jo/dt) and mass loss (dlog M/dt) are primary parameters to determine the direction and the speed of the dynamical evolution. A detached system becomes a contact system if its own dynamical evolution enables it to pass the contact border on the log Jo - log M diagram. Evolution of q for a mass loosing detached system is...

  2. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck- ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love’s equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, a set of equi- librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de- rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide a theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  4. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN MeiLan; GAN LiFei

    2009-01-01

    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck-ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love's equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, s set of equi-librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de-rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide s theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  5. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall.

  6. 盾构机姿态的人工测量原理%Manual measurement principle of tunnel boring machine attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小斌; 区兆铭; 张永超; 蒋样明

    2011-01-01

    The paper put forward the manual measurement principle of tunnel boring machine attitude for the oriented approach of the tunnel boring machine in Metro tunnel shield construction. It used the shield attitude solver in Excel to calculate the real-time tunnel boring machine attitude. It could be the timely guidance for correcting tunnel boring machine, and ensure the tunnel boring machine tunneling along the designed circuit.%本文针对地铁隧道盾构法施工中盾构机的导向方法,提出盾构机姿态的人工测量原理,通过在Excel中编辑的盾构掘进姿态解算程序来计算盾构机的实时掘进姿态,及时指导盾构机纠偏,确保盾构机按照设计的线路进行掘进.

  7. Construction cost management of bored pile%钻孔灌注桩施工成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小利

    2012-01-01

    分析了钻孔灌注桩施工工艺的发展现状,结合当前钻孔灌注桩工程的施工形势,阐述了钻孔灌注桩施工成本管理的重要性,介绍了成本管理的理论,总结了钻孔灌注桩成本管理的基本方法,指出降低钻孔灌注桩施工成本的基本途径。%With an analysis on the construction technology development status of bored pile, combining with contemporary construction situation of bored pile engineering, the article describes the significance of bored pile construction cost management, introduces the cost management theo- ry, summarizes the basic methods of bored pile cost management, and finally points out ways of reducing bored pile construction cost.

  8. An Account on marine wood-boring organisms of offshore waters of Bombay High, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Raveendran, T.V.

    An incidence of wood-boring organisms in a water column of 75 meters depth, 160 km off the Bombay coast is reported. The destruction of untreated panels of mango wood exposed for periods varying from 1-12 months was caused by eight species...

  9. A bayesian nework based risk model for volume loss in soft soils in mechanized bored tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Volume loss is one of the most important risks when boring a tunnel. This is particularly true when a tunnel is being constructed in soft soils. The risk of excessive volume loss, if materialised can lead to large consequences such as damage in buildings on the surface. This paper describes the

  10. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  11. A Size-Distance Scaling Demonstration Based on the Holway-Boring Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shawn P.; Hoefling, Crystal L.

    2013-01-01

    We explored size-distance scaling with a demonstration based on the classic Holway-Boring experiment. Undergraduate psychology majors estimated the sizes of two glowing paper circles under two conditions. In the first condition, the environment was dark and, with no depth cues available, participants ranked the circles according to their angular…

  12. A Size-Distance Scaling Demonstration Based on the Holway-Boring Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shawn P.; Hoefling, Crystal L.

    2013-01-01

    We explored size-distance scaling with a demonstration based on the classic Holway-Boring experiment. Undergraduate psychology majors estimated the sizes of two glowing paper circles under two conditions. In the first condition, the environment was dark and, with no depth cues available, participants ranked the circles according to their angular…

  13. Microbial control of wood-boring insects attacking forest and shade trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Leah S. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    Wood-boring insect pests that feed on the bark, phloem, or xylem (wood) of living trees pose unique management challenges because their immature stages live in cryptic, often inaccessible, habitats within host trees. The eggs of wood borers are laid in or on tree trunks, branches, terminal shoots, or roots. After the eggs hatch, neonates tunnel in and feed on internal...

  14. Progress in the development of an 88-mm bore 10 Tn3Sn dipole magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den A.; Wessel, W.A.J.; Kirby, G.A.; Taylor, T.; Siegel, N.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    A 10 T, 2-layer cos(&thetas;)-dipole model magnet with an 88 mm clear bore utilizing an advanced powder-in-tube Nb3Sn conductor is being developed for the LHC. A dedicated conductor development program has resulted in a well performing Rutherford cable containing strands that uniquely exhibit both a

  15. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Balla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firing sub-calibre and high explosive projectiles. A method for ramming device diagnostics is presented. An accurate method was proposed, determining projectile extraction force from barrel, as one of the main ramming device parameters for weapons that are used in all areas of armed forces. Results are based on experimental methods assessing the extraction forces from barrel after projectile loading. These tests were performed as a series of tests with consequent technical diagnostics according to the new Czech Defence Standards (derived from NATO standards. The results are presented as the new methodologies for diagnostics of 125 mm barrel 2A46 and ramming devices of tank T-72 for use by technical logistic units in the Czech Republic Armed Forces.

  16. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  17. Large or small bore, push or pull: a comparison of three classes of percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuo-Chen; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Stavropoulos, S William; Patel, Aalpen A; Solomon, Jeffrey A; Soulen, Michael C; Kwak, Andrew; Itkin, Maxim; Chittams, Jesse L; Trerotola, Scott O

    2008-04-01

    To compare the tube performance and complication rates of small-bore, large-bore push-type, and large-bore pull-type gastrostomy catheters. A total of 160 patients (74 men, 86 women; mean age, 66.9 years, range, 22-95 y) underwent percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy placement between January 2004 and March 2006. Choice of catheter was based on the preference of the attending radiologist. Data were collected retrospectively with institutional review board approval. Radiology reports provided information on the catheter, indication for gastrostomy, technical success, and immediate outcome. Chart review provided data on medical history, postprocedural complications, progress to feeding goal, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the three classes of gastrostomy catheters. All 160 catheters were placed successfully. Patients who received small-bore catheters (14 F; n = 88) had significantly more tube complications (17% vs 5.6%) and were less likely to meet their feeding goal (P = .035) compared with patients with large-bore catheters (20 F; n = 72). No difference was observed in terms of major or minor complications. Large-bore push-type (n = 14) and pull-type catheters (n = 58) were similar in terms of complication rates. Patients who received large-bore push-type catheters achieved their feeding goals in significantly less time than those with large-bore pull-type catheters (average, 3.8 days vs 6.0 days; P = .04). Patients who received small-bore gastrostomy catheters are significantly more prone to tube dysfunction. Large-bore catheters should be preferentially used, with push-type catheters performing better with regard to the time to achieve feeding goal.

  18. Collection, processing, and quality assurance of time-series electromagnetic-induction log datasets, 1995–2016, south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Valderrama, Robert

    2016-12-13

    Time-series electromagnetic-induction log (TSEMIL) datasets are collected from polyvinyl-chloride cased or uncased monitoring wells to evaluate changes in water conductivity over time. TSEMIL datasets consist of a series of individual electromagnetic-induction logs, generally collected at a frequency of once per month or once per year that have been compiled into a dataset by eliminating small uniform offsets in bulk conductivity between logs probably caused by minor variations in calibration. These offsets are removed by selecting a depth at which no changes are apparent from year to year, and by adjusting individual logs to the median of all logs at the selected depth. Generally, the selected depths are within the freshwater saturated part of the aquifer, well below the water table. TSEMIL datasets can be used to monitor changes in water conductivity throughout the full thickness of an aquifer, without the need for long open-interval wells which have, in some instances, allowed vertical water flow within the well bore that has biased water conductivity profiles. The TSEMIL dataset compilation process enhances the ability to identify small differences between logs that were otherwise obscured by the offsets. As a result of TSEMIL dataset compilation, the root mean squared error of the linear regression between bulk conductivity of the electromagnetic-induction log measurements and the chloride concentration of water samples decreased from 17.4 to 1.7 millisiemens per meter in well G–3611 and from 3.7 to 2.2 millisiemens per meter in well G–3609. The primary use of the TSEMIL datasets in south Florida is to detect temporal changes in bulk conductivity associated with saltwater intrusion in the aquifer; however, other commonly observed changes include (1) variations in bulk conductivity near the water table where water saturation of pore spaces might vary and water temperature might be more variable, and (2) dissipation of conductive water in high-porosity rock

  19. Computer vision technology in log volume inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Log volume inspection is very important in forestry research and paper making engineering. This paper proposed a novel approach based on computer vision technology to cope with log volume inspection. The needed hardware system was analyzed and the details of the inspection algorithms were given. A fuzzy entropy based on image enhancement algorithm was presented for enhancing the image of the cross-section of log. In many practical applications the cross-section is often partially invisible, and this is the major obstacle for correct inspection. To solve this problem, a robust Hausdorff distance method was proposed to recover the whole cross-section. Experiment results showed that this method was efficient.

  20. Slim hole logging in shallow boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Monnet

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available While well logging, a continuous recording of the physical parameters down a borehole, is employed systematically in petroleum exploration, its application in environmental prospections, such as hydrogeology or civil engeering, has been very limited. This deficiency is partly due to the fact that logging probes used in this kind of boreholes are generally not calibrated and the results are more or less qualitative. The purpose of this lecture is to show that it is possible to calibrate these tools in order to obtain quantitative results, to make available to geologists, engineers and technicians engaged in shallow exploration, the information required for effectively applying the well-logging method.

  1. Sample Log For International Mudlogging Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xinghua; Yang Haibo; Andrew Romolliwa

    2000-01-01

    Accurate sample logging is very essential part of mud logging at wellsite. During the logging work of the foreign cooperation mudlogging projects, the description of drillling cuttings (sample) required by the foreign companies is quite different from what we did at home.This paper is intended to give some ideas of description of sample at wellsite with the reference of the guidance of standards of several foreign companies and the working experiences of the author, also some problems that the geologists should pay attention to during the description of sample at wellsite.

  2. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  3. Atypical Log D profile of rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariappan T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution coefficient (log D values of rifampicin, an essential first-line antitubercular drug, at gastrointestinal pH conditions are not reported in literature. Hence determinations were made using n-octanol and buffers ranging between pH 1-7. Also, log D values were predicted using Prolog D. Both the determinations showed opposite behaviour. The atypical experimental log D profile of rifampicin could be attributed to its surface-active properties, which also explained the reported permeability behaviour of the drug in various gastrointestinal tract segments.

  4. Flow and turbulence structure in a hypertidal estuary with the world's biggest tidal bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junbiao; Fan, Daidu

    2017-04-01

    Turbulent and flow structure associated with breaking tidal bores are deliberately investigated on the basis of field measurements. High-resolution velocity and hydrographic data are collected in the middle Qiantang Estuary by a vertical array of acoustic Doppler velocimeters and optical backscatter sensors, collaborated with a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. Besides obvious variations in diurnal and spring-neap tidal cycles, the estuarine dynamics is featured by extreme asymmetry in flood and ebb tides. The flood tide is abnormally accelerated to generate tidal bores at the first 10 min or more, with breaking or undular configurations at the front. The occurrence of peak flow velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) is definitely associated with breaking bores, with their values several times to 2 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding secondary peak values during the maximum ebb flows. Flow and turbulence dynamics are significantly affected by the tidal-bore Froude number. A sandwich ɛ structure is clear exhibited with the maximum value at the surface, secondary maximum near the bed, and the minimum at the intermediate. Dual TKE sources are indicated by an approximate local balance between shear production and dissipation near the bottom, and a top-down TKE dissipation using the modified Froude scaling in the vertical water column. The highly elevated dissipation by breaking bores is comparable to that by intense breaking waves in the surf zone, and the former potentially penetrates the entire water column to produce extreme sediment-resuspension events in combination with intense bottom shear stress.

  5. The age and phylogeny of wood boring weevils and the origin of subsociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Sequeira, Andrea S; Cognato, Anthony I

    2011-06-01

    A large proportion of the hyperdiverse weevils are wood boring and many of these taxa have subsocial family structures. The origin and relationship between certain wood boring weevil taxa has been problematic to solve and hypotheses on their phylogenies change substantially between different studies. We aimed at testing the phylogenetic position and monophyly of the most prominent wood boring taxa Scolytinae, Platypodinae and Cossoninae, including a range of weevil outgroups with either the herbivorous or wood boring habit. Many putatively intergrading taxa were included in a broad phylogenetic analysis for the first time in this study, such as Schedlarius, Mecopelmus, Coptonotus, Dactylipalpus, Coptocorynus and allied Araucariini taxa, Dobionus, Psepholax, Amorphocerus-Porthetes, and some peculiar wood boring Conoderini with bark beetle behaviour. Data analyses were based on 128 morphological characters, rDNA nucleotides from the D2-D3 segment of 28S, and nucleotides and amino acids from the protein encoding gene fragments of CAD, ArgK, EF-1α and COI. Although the results varied for some of the groups between various data sets and analyses, one may conclude the following from this study: Scolytinae and Platypodinae are likely sister lineages most closely related to Coptonotus; Cossoninae is monophyletic (including Araucariini) and more distantly related to Scolytinae; Amorphocerini is not part of Cossoninae and Psepholax may belong to Cryptorhynchini. Likelihood estimation of ancestral state reconstruction of subsociality indicated five or six origins as a conservative estimate. Overall the phylogenetic results were quite dependent on morphological data and we conclude that more genetic loci must be sampled to improve phylogenetic resolution. However, some results such as the derived position of Scolytinae were consistent between morphological and molecular data. A revised time estimation of the origin of Curculionidae and various subfamily groups were made using

  6. EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR ROCK AND WELL BORE CEMENT ALTERATION WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William k. O' Connor; Gilbert E Rush

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the alteration of reservoir rock and well bore cement at their interface, under supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), was conducted at the laboratory-scale using simulated brine solutions at down-hole conditions. These studies were intended to identify potential leakage pathways for injected CO{sub 2} due to degradation of the well bore. Two distinct test series were conducted on core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin, IL, and the Grand Ronde basalt from the Pasco Basin, WA. LaFarge Class H well bore cement was used for both series. Reservoir rock/cement cores were immersed within a CO{sub 2}-saturated brine for up to 2000 hours at 35 degrees C and 100 atm CO{sub 2}. Results suggest that the impact of SCCO{sub 2} injection is reservoir-specific, being highly dependent on the reservoir brine and rock type. Brine pH can be significantly altered by CO{sub 2} injection, which in turn can dramatically impact the dissolution characteristics of the reservoir rock. Finally, well bore cement alteration was identified, particularly for fresh cast cement allowed to cure at SCCO{sub 2} conditions. However, this alteration was generally limited to an outer rind of carbonate and Ca-depleted cement which appeared to protect the majority of the cement core from further attack. These studies indicate that at the cement-rock interface, the annular space may be filled by carbonate which could act as an effective barrier against further CO{sub 2} migration along the well bore.

  7. The Story of a Boring Encounter with a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Remember the excitement three years ago before the gas cloud G2s encounter with the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, Sgr A*? Did you notice that not much was said about it after the fact? Thats because not much happened and a new study suggests that this isnt surprising.An Anticipated ApproachG2,an object initially thought to be a gas cloud, was expected to make its closest approach to the 4.6-million-solar-mass Sgr A* in 2014. At the pericenter of its orbit, G2 was predicted to pass as close as 36 light-hours from the black hole.Log-scale column density plots from one of the authors simulations, showing the cloud at a time relative to periapsis (t=0) of 5, 1, 0, 1, 5, and 10 yr (left to right, top to bottom). [Morsony et al. 2017]This close brush with such a massive black hole was predicted to tear G2 apart, causing much of its material to accrete onto Sgr A*. It was thought that this process would temporarily increase the accretion rate onto the black hole relative to its normal background accretion rate, causing Sgr A*s luminosity to increase for a time.Instead, Sgr A* showed a distinct lack of fireworks, with very minimal change to its brightness after G2s closest approach. This cosmic fizzle has raised questions about the nature of G2: was it really a gas cloud? What else might it have been instead? Now, a team of scientists led by Brian Morsony (University of Maryland and University of Wisconsin-Madison) have run a series of simulations of the encounter to try to address these questions.No FireworksMorsony and collaborators ran three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations using the FLASH code. They used a range of different simulation parameters, like cloud structure, background structure, background density, grid resolution, and accretion radius, in order to better understand how these factors might have affected the accretion rate and corresponding luminosity of Sgr A*.Accretion rate vs. time for two of the simulations, one with a wind

  8. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  9. Well Logging Equipment Updated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lili

    1996-01-01

    @@ As one of the ten principal disciplines in the petroleum industry, well logging has been developed for about 55years in China and is playing an increasingly important role in the country's oil and gas exploration and development.

  10. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Noraida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there was only harvested area having an impact with 1% significant level. This result indicates that, the harvested area become the most impact towards supply of rubber wood log either in short run or in the long run. While wages as input cost gave less impact in another word it become unburden to the producers.

  11. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  12. Slim hole logging in shallow boreholes

    OpenAIRE

    Monnet, R.; L. Baron; Chapellier, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    While well logging, a continuous recording of the physical parameters down a borehole, is employed systematically in petroleum exploration, its application in environmental prospections, such as hydrogeology or civil engeering, has been very limited. This deficiency is partly due to the fact that logging probes used in this kind of boreholes are generally not calibrated and the results are more or less qualitative. The purpose of this lecture is to show that it is possible to calibrate these ...

  13. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...array with parasitic elements, these elements are used in place of every alternate dipole, thereby eliminating the need of a twisted feed arrangement...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the

  14. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  15. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  16. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  17. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  18. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  19. Bone-boring worms: characterizing the morphology, rate, and method of bioerosion by Osedax mucofloris (Annelida, Siboglinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Nicholas D; Glover, Adrian G; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Little, Crispin T S

    2011-12-01

    Osedax worms possess unique "root" tissues that they use to bore into bones on the seafloor, but details of the boring pattern and processes are poorly understood. Here we use X-ray micro-computed tomography to investigate the borings of Osedax mucofloris in bones of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), quantitatively detailing their morphological characteristics for the first time. Comparative thin-sections of the borings reveal how the bone is eroded at the sub-millimeter level. On the basis of these results we hypothesize a model of boring that is dependent on the density and microstructure of the bone. We also present evidence of acidic mucopolysaccharides in the mucus of the root tissue, and hypothesize that this plays an important role in the boring mechanism. We discuss the utility of these new data in evaluating Osedax trace fossils and their relevance for O. mucofloris ecology. Measured rates of bone erosion (6% per year) and evidence of enhanced sulfide release from the borings indicate that Osedax worms are important habitat modifiers in whale-fall communities.

  20. A Hybrid Prediction Method of Thermal Extension Error for Boring Machine Based on PCA and LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal extension error of boring bar in z-axis is one of the key factors that have a bad influence on the machining accuracy of boring machine, so how to exactly establish the relationship between the thermal extension length and temperature and predict the changing rule of thermal error are the premise of thermal extension error compensation. In this paper, a prediction method of thermal extension length of boring bar in boring machine is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM model. In order to avoid the multiple correlation and coupling among the great amount temperature input variables, firstly, PCA is introduced to extract the principal components of temperature data samples. Then, LS-SVM is used to predict the changing tendency of the thermally induced thermal extension error of boring bar. Finally, experiments are conducted on a boring machine, the application results show that Boring bar axial thermal elongation error residual value dropped below 5 μm and minimum residual error is only 0.5 μm. This method not only effectively improve the efficiency of the temperature data acquisition and analysis, and improve the modeling accuracy and robustness.

  1. Fundamental tests and operational suitability tests in the field. Large diameter boring with water jets (2nd report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oga, Kotaro; Higuchi, Kiyoshi; Uehara, Masabumi

    1987-09-25

    The application test of large diameter boring in coal seams assisted with water jet was made and two plunger pumps were used. Maximum hydraulic pressure were 300Kg/cm/sup 2/ and 700Kg/cm/sup 2/ and maximum flow rate were 140l/min and 47l/min respectively. Jet water was injected from each nozzle through the pressure resistant hose. Basic test and application test results in Taiheiyo and Akabira mines were summarized as follows: lengths of boreholes were 38 to 78 m and bored diameters were 30 to 70cm. The bored diameter depended on the coal zone hardness and the in-situ stress and indicated similar tendency to the previous large diameter boring. Boring speed was 0.14 to 0.33m/min in case of high velocity jet stream and 0.09m/min at the large diameter boring. Two miners can set and withdraw the boring equipments including the drilling work. (7 figs, 8 tabs, 6 refs)

  2. UiLog:Improving Log-Based Fault Diagnosis by Log Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Qing Zou; Hao Qin; Hai Jin

    2016-01-01

    In modern computer systems, system event logs have always been the primary source for checking system status. As computer systems become more and more complex, the interaction between software and hardware increases frequently. The components will generate enormous log information, including running reports and fault information. The sheer quantity of data is a great challenge for analysis relying on the manual method. In this paper, we implement a management and analysis system of log information, which can assist system administrators to understand the real-time status of the entire system, classify logs into different fault types, and determine the root cause of the faults. In addition, we improve the existing fault correlation analysis method based on the results of system log classification. We apply the system in a cloud computing environment for evaluation. The results show that our system can classify fault logs automatically and effectively. With the proposed system, administrators can easily detect the root cause of faults.

  3. Reduction of claustrophobia with short-bore versus open magnetic resonance imaging: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Enders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Claustrophobia is a common problem precluding MR imaging. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether a short-bore or an open magnetic resonance (MR scanner is superior in alleviating claustrophobia. METHODS: Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained to compare short-bore versus open MR. From June 2008 to August 2009, 174 patients (139 women; mean age = 53.1 [SD 12.8] with an overall mean score of 2.4 (SD 0.7, range 0 to 4 on the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ and a clinical indication for imaging, were randomly assigned to receive evaluation by open or by short-bore MR. The primary outcomes were incomplete MR examinations due to a claustrophobic event. Follow-up was conducted 7 months after MR imaging. The primary analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat strategy. RESULTS: With 33 claustrophobic events in the short-bore group (39% [95% confidence interval [CI] 28% to 50% versus 23 in the open scanner group (26% [95% CI 18% to 37%]; P = 0.08 the difference was not significant. Patients with an event were in the examination room for 3.8 min (SD 4.4 in the short-bore and for 8.5 min (SD 7 in the open group (P = 0.004. This was due to an earlier occurrence of events in the short-bore group. The CLQ suffocation subscale was significantly associated with the occurrence of claustrophobic events (P = 0.003. New findings that explained symptoms were found in 69% of MR examinations and led to changes in medical treatment in 47% and surgery in 10% of patients. After 7 months, perceived claustrophobia increased in 32% of patients with events versus in only 11% of patients without events (P = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: Even recent MR cannot prevent claustrophobia suggesting that further developments to create a more patient-centered MR scanner environment are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00715806.

  4. Reduction of claustrophobia with short-bore versus open magnetic resonance imaging: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Judith; Zimmermann, Elke; Rief, Matthias; Martus, Peter; Klingebiel, Randolf; Asbach, Patrick; Klessen, Christian; Diederichs, Gerd; Wagner, Moritz; Teichgräber, Ulf; Bengner, Thomas; Hamm, Bernd; Dewey, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Claustrophobia is a common problem precluding MR imaging. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether a short-bore or an open magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is superior in alleviating claustrophobia. Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained to compare short-bore versus open MR. From June 2008 to August 2009, 174 patients (139 women; mean age = 53.1 [SD 12.8]) with an overall mean score of 2.4 (SD 0.7, range 0 to 4) on the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ) and a clinical indication for imaging, were randomly assigned to receive evaluation by open or by short-bore MR. The primary outcomes were incomplete MR examinations due to a claustrophobic event. Follow-up was conducted 7 months after MR imaging. The primary analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat strategy. With 33 claustrophobic events in the short-bore group (39% [95% confidence interval [CI] 28% to 50%) versus 23 in the open scanner group (26% [95% CI 18% to 37%]; P = 0.08) the difference was not significant. Patients with an event were in the examination room for 3.8 min (SD 4.4) in the short-bore and for 8.5 min (SD 7) in the open group (P = 0.004). This was due to an earlier occurrence of events in the short-bore group. The CLQ suffocation subscale was significantly associated with the occurrence of claustrophobic events (P = 0.003). New findings that explained symptoms were found in 69% of MR examinations and led to changes in medical treatment in 47% and surgery in 10% of patients. After 7 months, perceived claustrophobia increased in 32% of patients with events versus in only 11% of patients without events (P = 0.004). Even recent MR cannot prevent claustrophobia suggesting that further developments to create a more patient-centered MR scanner environment are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00715806.

  5. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...... other users may decide on all sorts of markup languages, eg HTML or LaTex. The key is that markup of Stata code and Stata output can be set by the options....

  6. Cooper River Rediversion Project. Lake Moultrie and Santee River, South Carolina. Intake and Tailrace Canals. Appendix A. Boring Logs and Laboratory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    r ivdiversion Charleston District - CLAS’StrIAT.ON F COR bOX OR $tARKS ECOV SAMPLE fl.ls,,, . . . . / . ER) NC,*O .[ tU , _ Limestone, dark gray...OR REMARKS FL AICN DE PT, EEND L-t’ ECOv - SAAMPLE T),,~,,,~,. .dp,h .1 ELY NO ’IP.f d e f - g Blow/Ft I M-Siltv Fine and Med. Sand 16 I Ylow mc16.3% 79

  7. Research on microwave processing to log with stem-boring insects%微波杀灭原木蛀干害虫的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬平; 樊培峰; 巨云为; 刘灏; 朱萍; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    Through the different temperatures of microwave treatment on the infected wood of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,the survival of Monochamus alternatus larvae and the pine wood nematode as well as the wood properties (elastic modulus and static bending strength) were studied. The results showed that when the temperature of microwave treatment was reached to 50℃ for 5 minutes, the larvae of M. alternatus were completely killed in the diseased wood. The temperature of the microwave treatment was reached to 55℃ for 5 minutes, the pine wood nematode was all dead. The temperature of microwave treatment was around 60℃, the crack, elastic modulus and static bending strength the diseased wood were not significantly different from the control and could be used normally. Comprehensively, the microwave treatment of 55℃ was an effective way to treat the woods infected with B. xylophilus.%通过不同的微波温度处理松材线虫病死木原木,观察了微波对松材线虫疫木中松墨天牛幼虫及松材线虫存活的影响,同时初步研究了微波处理后原木在材性上的变化情况.结果表明,当微波处理温度达到50℃时,保持5 min,可完全杀灭病木中的松墨天牛幼虫;当微波处理温度达到55℃时,保持5 min,松材线虫完全死亡;温度在60℃左右时,对木材的开裂、抗弯弹性、抗弯强度等材性影响不显著,经微波处理的疫木可正常利用.因此,55℃的微波处理可作为松材线虫疫木除害的有效方法.

  8. A two-compartment phantom for VOI profile measurements in small-bore 31P MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhoff, Babro; Stubgaard, Max; Stensgaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A two-compartment gel phantom for VOI profile measurements in volume-selective 31P spectroscopy in small-bore units is presented. The phantom is cylindrical with two compartments divided by a very thin (30 microm) polyethene film. This thin film permits measurements with a minimum of susceptibility...... from the two compartments was measured for each position and the data were evaluated following differentiation. We have found this phantom suitable for VOI profile measurements of ISIS in small-bore systems. The phantom forms a useful complement to recommended phantoms for small bore-spectroscopy...

  9. Functionally adapted final machining for cylinder bores made of cast iron; Funktionsgerechte Endbearbeitung von Zylinderbohrungen aus Gusseisen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, G. [Gehring GmbH und Co. KG, Ostfildern (Germany); Fachhochschule Esslingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau; Abeln, T.; Klink, U. [Gehring GmbH und Co. KG, Ostfildern (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The cylinder bore is of interest for functional and production development processes. The cylinder bore of the piston stroke engine is the place of the highest friction efficiency and its topographical design is decisive for the oil consumption and the emission of modern motor-vehicles, a challenge for engine development and production engineers. Gehring GmbH and Co. KG, Ostfildern, Germany, is an experienced partner for the realization of efficient cylinder bores. On the basis of the tribological requirements present honing variants are described. (orig.)

  10. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  11. La logística integral como ventaja competitiva y sistema logístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Anselmo Martínez gallardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la logística integral como una ventaja competitiva y el sistema logístico. Es opinión de los autores que la logística integral es esencial para el intercambio de mercancías, toda vez que reduce costos y hace más ágil la actividad comercial. La utilización de esta logística representa una ventaja competitiva con respecto de otras empresas por la optimización del capital y ahorro de tiempo.

  12. Application defects detection in the small bore pipe using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kyung Won; Kim, Dong Lyul; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In the advanced research deducted infrared thermography (IRT) test using 4 inch pipe with artificial wall thinning defect to measure on the wall thinned nuclear pipe components. This study conducted for defect detection condition of nuclear small bore pipe research using deducted condition in the advanced research. Defect process is processed by change for defect length, circumferential direction angle, wall thinning depth. In the used equipment IR camera and two halogen lamps, whose full power capacity is 1 kW, halogen lamps and Target pipe experiment performed to the distance of the changed 1 m, 1.5 m, 2 m. To analysis of the experimental results ensure for the temperature distribution data, by this data measure for defect length. Artificial defect of 4 inch pipe is high reliability in the 2 m, but small bore pipe is in the 1.5 m from defect clearly was detected.

  13. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  14. Estimation of the equilibrium formation temperature in the presence of bore fluid invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    2012-01-01

    Bottom hole temperatures (BHTs) measured during drilling operations are thermally disturbed by the drilling process. This paper presents a method, CSMI (Cylindrical Source Model with Invasion of bore mud filtrate), for estimating equilibrium formation temperatures with probability distributions...... from BHT measurements in the presence of bore fluid invasion. The scheme is based on finite element analysis in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion. The axisymmetric forward model assumes a cylindrical source of finite radius and contrasting thermal parameters, which includes...... with the CSMI scheme. The analysis of five BHT records measured onshore Denmark, for which the equilibrium formation temperature is known, shows that CSMI temperatures based on single datum records are highly uncertain because of a strong negative coupling between the temperature of the mud filtrate...

  15. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Combined Well-Bore Flow and Depth-Dependent Water Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Christensen, Allen H.; Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Crawford, Steven M.; Smith, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a combined well-bore flow and depth-dependent sample collection tool. It is suitable for use in existing production wells having limited access and clearances as small as 1 inch. The combination of well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data is especially effective in assessing changes in aquifer properties and water quality with depth. These are direct measures of changes in well yield and ground-water quality with depth under actual operating conditions. Combinations of other geophysical tools capable of making these measurements, such as vertical-axis current meters used with wire-line samplers, are commercially available but these tools are large and can not easily enter existing production wells.

  17. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, C.M., E-mail: cfrankle@lanl.gov; Dale, G.E.

    2013-09-21

    Americium–Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological ({sup 252}Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D–D and D–T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from {sup 252}Cf, D–D, D–T, filtered D–T, and T–T sources. -- Highlights: • AmBe sources are widely used for well logging purposes. • Governmental bodies would prefer to minimize AmBe use. • Other neutron sources are available, both radiological and electronic. • Tritium–tritium spectrum neutrons have similar logging tool response to AmBe. • A tritium–tritium neutron generator may be a viable AmBe replacement.

  18. Event Normalization Through Dynamic Log Format Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Meinel

    2014-01-01

    The analytical and monitoring capabilities of central event re-positories, such as log servers and intrusion detection sys-tems, are limited by the amount of structured information ex-tracted from the events they receive. Diverse networks and ap-plications log their events in many different formats, and this makes it difficult to identify the type of logs being received by the central repository. The way events are logged by IT systems is problematic for developers of host-based intrusion-detection systems (specifically, host-based systems), develop-ers of security-information systems, and developers of event-management systems. These problems preclude the develop-ment of more accurate, intrusive security solutions that obtain results from data included in the logs being processed. We propose a new method for dynamically normalizing events into a unified super-event that is loosely based on the Common Event Expression standard developed by Mitre Corporation. We explain how our solution can normalize seemingly unrelat-ed events into a single, unified format.

  19. Fractal Correction of Well Logging Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is always significant for assessing and evaluation of oil-bearing layers, especially for well logging data processing and interpretation of non-marine oil beds to get more accurate physical properties in thin and inter-thin layers. This paper presents a definition of measures and the measure presents power law relation with the corresponded scale described by fractal theory. Thus, logging curves can be reconstructed according to this power law relation. This method uses the local structure nearby concurrent points to com pensate the average effect of logging probes and measurement errors. As an example, deep and medium induced conductivity (IMPH and IDPH) curves in ODP Leg 127 Hole 797C are reconstructed or corrected. Corrected curves are with less adjacent effects through comparison of corrected curves with original one. And also, the power spectra of corrected well logging curve are abounding with more resolution components than the original one. Thus, fractal correction method makes the well logging more resoluble for thin beds.``

  20. High Frequency Field Measurements of an Undular Bore Using a 2D LiDAR Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary wave field associated with undular tidal bores (known as whelps has been barely studied in field conditions: the wave field can be strongly non-hydrostatic, and the turbidity is generally high. In situ measurements based on pressure or acoustic signals can therefore be limited or inadequate. The intermittent nature of this process in the field and the complications encountered in the downscaling to laboratory conditions also render its study difficult. Here, we present a new methodology based on LiDAR technology to provide high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of the free surface of an undular tidal bore. A wave-by-wave analysis is performed on the whelps, and comparisons between LiDAR, acoustic and pressure-derived measurements are used to quantify the non-hydrostatic nature of this phenomenon. A correction based on linear wave theory applied on individual wave properties improves the results from the pressure transducer (Root mean square error, R M S E of 0 . 19 m against 0 . 38 m; however, more robust data is obtained from an upwards-looking acoustic sensor despite high turbidity during the passage of the whelps ( R M S E of 0 . 05 m. Finally, the LiDAR scanner provides the unique possibility to study the wave geometry: the distribution of measured wave height, period, celerity, steepness and wavelength are presented. It is found that the highest wave from the whelps can be steeper than the bore front, explaining why breaking events are sometimes observed in the secondary wave field of undular tidal bores.

  1. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  2. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  3. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching is a stress response of corals induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen reefs that cover the entire distributional range of corals along the Mexican P...

  4. The Time and Cost Prediction of Tunnel Boring Machine in Tunnelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Making use of microsoft visual studio. net platform, the assistant decision-making system of tunnel boring machine in tunnelling has been built to predict the time and cost. Computation methods of the performance parameters have been discussed. New time and cost prediction models have been depicted. The multivariate linear regression has been used to make the parameters more precise, which are the key factor to affect the prediction near to the reality.

  5. Long time existence results for bore-type initial data for BBM-Boussinesq systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtea, Cosmin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we deal with the long time existence for the Cauchy problem associated to BBM-type Boussinesq systems of equations which are asymptotic models for long wave, small amplitude gravity surface water waves. As opposed to previous papers devoted to the long time existence issue, we consider initial data with nontrivial behavior at infinity which may be used to model bore propagation.

  6. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A

    2013-04-01

    Coral bleaching is a stress response of corals induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen reefs that cover the entire distributional range of corals along the Mexican Pacific coast were studied between 2005/2006, and later between 2009/2010. Most of these coral reefs were previously impacted by bleaching events, which resulted in coral mortalities. Sponge abundance and species richness was used as an indicator of bioerosion, and coral cover was used to describe the present condition of coral reefs. Coral reefs are currently highly invaded (46% of the samples examined) by a very high diversity of boring sponges (20 species); being the coral reef framework the substrate most invaded (56%) followed by the rubbles (45%), and the living colonies (36%). The results also indicated that boring sponges are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework. In summary, the eastern coral reefs affected by bleaching phenomena, mainly provoked by El Niño, present a high diversity and abundance of boring sponges, which are weakening the union of the colony with the reef framework and promoting their dislodgment. These phenomena will probably become even more intense and severe, as temperatures are projected to continue to rise under the scenarios for future climate change, which could place many eastern coral reefs beyond their survival threshold.

  7. The Effects of Guide Pads on Bore Diameter Enlargement Magnitude in Deep Hole Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Huang; Shen Xingquan; Li Yaoming; Yang Fuhe; Kwon Paul

    2016-01-01

    Deep hole machining accuracy plays a crucial role in product’s quality. The results of an investigation into the machining accuracy of deep drilling holes which highlights problems of bore diameter enlargement magnitude assessment are presented in this paper. Through the study of BTA deep drilling tool properties and mechanism, as well as the formation rule of deep hole surface, clarified the burnishing mechanism of guide pad in deep hole drilling, and obtained the directly relationship betwe...

  8. Chemical and mechanical bioerosion of boring sponges from Mexican Pacific coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Carballo, José Luis

    2008-09-01

    Species richness (S) and frequency of invasion (IF) by boring sponges on living colonies of Pocillopora spp. from National Park Isla Isabel (México, East Pacific Ocean) are presented. Twelve species belonging to the genera Aka, Cliona, Pione, Thoosa and Spheciospongia were found, and 56% of coral colonies were invaded by boring sponges, with Cliona vermifera Hancock 1867 being the most abundant species (30%). Carbonate dissolution rate and sediment production were quantified for C. vermifera and Cliona flavifodina Rützler 1974. Both species exhibited similar rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution (1.2+/-0.4 and 0.5+/-0.2 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively, mean +/- s.e.m.), and sediment production (3.3+/-0.6 and 4.6+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1)), resulting in mean bioerosion rates of 4.5+/-0.9 and 5.1+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively. These bioerosion rates are close to previous records of coral calcification per unit of area, suggesting that sponge bioerosion alone can promote disequilibrium in the reef accretion/destruction ratio in localities that are heavily invaded by boring sponges. The proportion of dissolved material by C. vermifera and C. flavifodina (27 and 10.2%, respectively) confirms that chemical bioerosion plays an important role in sponge bioerosion and in the CaCO3 cycle in coral reefs.

  9. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia

    2016-04-26

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  10. Chatter reduction in boring process by using piezoelectric shunt damping with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ufuk; Cigeroglu, Ender; Budak, Erhan

    2017-09-01

    Chatter is a self-excited type of vibration that develops during machining due to process-structure dynamic interactions resulting in modulated chip thickness. Chatter is an important problem as it results in poor surface quality, reduced productivity and tool life. The stability of a cutting process is strongly influenced by the frequency response function (FRF) at the cutting point. In this study, the effect of piezoelectric shunt damping on chatter vibrations in a boring process is studied. In piezoelectric shunt damping method, an electrical impedance is connected to a piezoelectric transducer which is bonded on cutting tool. Electrical impedance of the circuit consisting of piezoceramic transducer and passive shunt is tuned to the desired natural frequency of the cutting tool in order to maximize damping. The optimum damping is achieved in analytical and finite element models (FEM) by using a genetic algorithm focusing on the real part of the tool point FRF rather than the amplitude. Later, a practical boring bar is considered where the optimum circuit parameters are obtained by the FEM. Afterwards, the effect of the optimized piezoelectric shunt damping on the dynamic rigidity and absolute stability limit of the cutting process are investigated experimentally by modal analysis and cutting tests. It is both theoretically and experimentally shown that application of piezoelectric shunt damping results in a significant increase in the absolute stability limit in boring operations.

  11. Development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, James; Jensen, Brian

    2009-06-01

    Past fundamental work at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) U1a complex has been performed using explosively-driven flyer plates which provide high-pressure loading at the expense of some shock. In contrast, plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocity for impact experiments at NTS. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt. This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results of the qualification testing of the large-bore gun, the confinement system, and the explosively driven valve will be presented.

  12. Study of spatio-temporal dynamics of laser-hole boring in near critical plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Sergei; Gong, Chao; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy; Joshi, Chan

    2015-11-01

    At high-intensities of light, radiation pressure becomes one of the dominant mechanisms in laser-plasma interaction. The radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can steepen and push the critical density region of an overdense plasma creating a cavity or a hole. This hole boring phenomenon is of importance in fast-ignition fusion, high-gradient laser-plasma ion acceleration, and formation of collisionless shocks. Here multi-frame picosecond optical interferometry is used for the first direct measurements of space and time dynamics of the density cavity as it is pushed forward by a train of CO2 laser pulses in a helium plasma. The measured values of the hole boring velocity into an overdense plasma as a function of laser intensity are consistent with a theory based on energy and momentum balance between the heated plasma and the laser and with two-dimensional numerical simulations. We show possibility to extract a relative plasma electron temperature within the laser pulse by applying an analytical theory to the measured hole boring velocities. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-SC0010064.

  13. Hole boring velocity measurements in near critical density plasmas by a CO2 laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei; Pigeon, Jeremy; Joshi, Chan

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of plasma dynamics during the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with an above critical density plasma is important for understanding absorption, transport and particle acceleration mechanisms. An important process that affects these mechanisms is hole boring occurring at the critical density because of the radiation pressure of the laser pulse. Yet, no systematic measurements of the hole boring velocity's (vhb) dependence on laser intensity (I) have been made. In this talk, we present experimental results of vhb in near critical density plasmas produced by CO2 laser as a function of I in the range of 1*1015 to 1.6*1016 W/cm2. A novel four frame Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a 1 ps, 532 nm probe laser pulse was developed to record the evolution of the plasma density profile and the motion of the near critical density layer. Using this diagnostic, we observed the motion of the steepened plasma profile due to the incident, time-structured CO2 laser pulse. Experimental results show the hole boring velocity increases from 0.004c to 0.007c as the laser intensity is increased from 1*1015 to 1.6*1016 W/cm2. This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-92-ER40727, NSF grant PHY-0936266 at UCLA.

  14. Web Log Clustering Approaches – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sudhamathy,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As more organization rely on the Internet and the World Wide Web to conduct business, the proposed strategies and techniques for market analysis need to be revisited in this context. We therefore present a survey of the most recent work in the field of Web usage mining, focusing on three different approaches towards web logs clustering. Clustering analysis is a widely used data mining algorithm which is a process of partitioning a set of data objects into a number of object clusters, where each data object shares the high similarity with the other objects within the same cluster but is quite dissimilar to objects in other clusters. In this work we discuss three different approaches on web logs clustering, analyze their benefits and drawbacks. We finally conclude on the most efficient algorithm based on the results of experiments conducted with various web log files.

  15. The Life Between Big Data Log Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data from massive open online courses (MOOCs have enabled researchers to examine learning processes at almost infinite levels of granularity. Yet, such data sets do not track every important element in the learning process. Many strategies that MOOC learners use to overcome learning challenges are not captured in clickstream and log data. In this study, we interviewed 92 MOOC learners to better understand their worlds, investigate possible mechanisms of student attrition, and extend conversations about the use of big data in education. Findings reveal three important domains of the experience of MOOC students that are absent from MOOC tracking logs: the practices at learners’ workstations, learners’ activities online but off-platform, and the wider social context of their lives beyond the MOOC. These findings enrich our understanding of learner agency in MOOCs, clarify the spaces in-between recorded tracking log events, and challenge the view that MOOC learners are disembodied autodidacts.

  16. 牵引电机抱轴瓦镗瓦工艺及专用镗床设计%Traction Motor Bearing Hold and Boring Tile Technics and Special Boring Machine Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 孟广耀; 韩小燕; 刘松年

    2011-01-01

    The traction motor bearing boring tile hold process was studied out, and the traction motor bearings hold the content boring tile process was designed and stipulated in detail. The shaft bushing boring of special machine tools was designed and developod. A thimble used in boring motor was adopted as the main shaft bearing positioning clamp device-oriented self-positioning device,and used to increase the single-edged knife boring axial stiffness and positioning accuracy, the appropriate power head, hydraulic slide sets, and linear guide was selected to complete the boring of the feed motion.%拟定牵引电机抱轴瓦镗瓦工艺流程,并详细设计与制定牵引电机抱轴瓦镗瓦工序内容.设计开发了镗削抱轴轴瓦加工的专用机床,采用顶针作为镗削电机抱轴轴瓦的主要定位夹紧装置,导向自定位装置用来提高单刃镗刀的轴向刚度和定位精度,选取合适的动力头、液压滑台和直线导轨来完成镗削的进给运动.

  17. Response of OH, O 2 and OI5577 airglow emissions to the mesospheric bore in the equatorial region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A. F.; Fechine, J.; Buriti, R. A.; Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Gobbi, D.

    An all-sky CCD imager capable of measuring wave structure in the airglow OH, O 2 and OI (557.7 nm) emissions was operated in the equatorial region at São João do Cariri (Cariri), Brazil (7°S, 36°W), in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE). Occurrence of mesospheric bore events was studied using the data from September 2000 to September 2002. Sixty-four bore events were detected during the observation period. Most of the bores showed the complementary effects suggested by Dewan and Picard [E.M. Dewan, R.H. Picard, Mesospheric bores. Journal of Geophysical Research 103, 6295-6305, 1998], except in a few cases where the relative variations were inconsistent with this model.

  18. On construction and control over bored piles%谈钻孔灌注桩的施工与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广

    2014-01-01

    According to the construction practice of the bored piles in projects, the paper illustrates the construction controlling points for the bored piles, and researches the defects reasons for the underwater concrete bored piles, including the pipe blockage, leakage, floating of rein-forced cage, and hollowness of pile tops, and their prevention measures, so as to ensure the construction quality of the bored pile.%通过钻孔灌注桩在桥梁工程中的施工实践,阐述了钻孔灌注桩的施工控制要点,并对水下混凝土灌注桩出现的导管堵塞、漏水、钢筋笼上浮、桩顶空心等缺陷的成因及防治措施进行了研究,以确保钻孔灌注桩的施工质量。

  19. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M

    2013-10-01

    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore.

  20. Development of Neural Network Model for Predicting Peak Ground Acceleration Based on Microtremor Measurement and Soil Boring Test Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerh, T; Lin, J. S; Gunaratnam, D

    2012-01-01

    .... This paper is therefore aimed at developing a neural network model, based on available microtremor measurement and on-site soil boring test data, for predicting peak ground acceleration at a site...

  1. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  2. Arabidopsis lonely guy (LOG) multiple mutants reveal a central role of the LOG-dependent pathway in cytokinin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Hiroki; Kojima, Mikiko; Kuroha, Takeshi; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play key roles in the maintenance of stem cell activity in plants. Although alternative single-step and two-step activation pathways for cytokinin have been proposed, the significance of the single-step pathway which is catalyzed by LONELY GUY (LOG), is not fully understood. We analyzed the metabolic flow of cytokinin activation in Arabidopsis log multiple mutants using stable isotope-labeled tracers and characterized the mutants' morphological and developmental phenotypes. In tracer experiments, cytokinin activation was inhibited most pronouncedly by log7, while the other log mutations had cumulative effects. Although sextuple or lower-order mutants did not show drastic phenotypes in vegetative growth, the log1log2log3log4log5log7log8 septuple T-DNA insertion mutant in which the LOG-dependent pathway is impaired, displayed severe retardation of shoot and root growth with defects in the maintenance of the apical meristems. Detailed observation of the mutants showed that LOG7 was required for the maintenance of shoot apical meristem size. LOG7 was also suggested to play a role for normal primary root growth together with LOG3 and LOG4. These results suggest a dominant role of the single-step activation pathway mediated by LOGs for cytokinin production, and overlapping but differentiated functions of the members of the LOG gene family in growth and development.

  3. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin-guang, E-mail: wangxg@upc.edu.cn [School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nuclear Technology Application (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Liu, Dan [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zhang, Feng [School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  4. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  5. Perfil logístico de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Maglioni, María Victoria; Lozano Suarez, María Goretty

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Colombia con la finalidad de dar a conocer el estado de arte de las ciudades, puertos e infraestructura principal para facilitar la toma de decisiones de los empresarios. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se determinaron a partir de un análisis competitivo del país; las principales ciudades y puertos; logrando establecer un inventario de maquinaria y equipo e infraestructura logística; enmarcados en retos ya establecidos en las ...

  6. Kaizen aplicado à logística

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Catarina Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe alcançar um aumento de produtividade e consequente redução de custos e desperdícios ajudando o departamento logístico da Empresa Revigrés – Industria de Revestimentos de Grés, Lda, a tornar-se mais eficiente, através da aplicação da filosofia kaizen que propõe melhorias no desempenho por implementação de pequenas ações. O objetivo deste projeto é a melhoria do departamento logístico globalmente, para isso houve o recurso a pesquisas e levantamento ...

  7. Small-bore chest tubes seem to perform better than larger tubes in treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ......The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ...

  8. Solving SDD linear systems in time $\\tilde{O}(m\\log{n}\\log(1/\\epsilon))$

    CERN Document Server

    Koutis, Ioannis; Peng, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm that on input of an $n\\times n$ symmetric diagonally dominant matrix $A$ with $m$ non-zero entries constructs in time ${\\tilde O}(m\\log n)$ in the RAM model a solver which on input of a vector $b$ computes a vector ${x}$ satisfying $||{x}-A^{+}b||_A<\\epsilon ||A^{+}b||_A $ in time ${\\tilde O}(m\\log n \\log (1/\\epsilon))$ The $\\tilde{O}$ notation hides a $(\\log\\log n)^2$ factor. The new algorithm exploits previously unknown structural properties of the output of the incremental sparsification algorithm given in \\cite{KoutisMP10}. It is also based on an accelerated construction of low-stretch spanning trees in the RAM model via substituting Fibonacci heaps with RAM-based priority queues.

  9. A Numerical Feasibility Study of Three-Component Induction Logging for Three Dimensional Imaging About a Single Borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALUMBAUGH, DAVID L.; WILT, MICHAEL J.

    1999-08-01

    A theoretical analysis has been completed for a proposed induction logging tool designed to yield data which are used to generate three dimensional images of the region surrounding a well bore. The proposed tool consists of three mutually orthogonal magnetic dipole sources and multiple 3 component magnetic field receivers offset at different distances from the source. The initial study employs sensitivity functions which are derived by applying the Born Approximation to the integral equation that governs the magnetic fields generated by a magnetic dipole source located within an inhomogeneous medium. The analysis has shown that the standard coaxial configuration, where the magnetic moments of both the source and the receiver are aligned with the axis of the well bore, offers the greatest depth of sensitivity away from the borehole compared to any other source-receiver combination. In addition this configuration offers the best signal-to-noise characteristics. Due to the cylindrically symmetric nature of the tool sensitivity about the borehole, the data generated by this configuration can only be interpreted in terms of a two-dimensional cylindrical model. For a fill 3D interpretation the two radial components of the magnetic field that are orthogonal to each other must be measured. Coil configurations where both the source and receiver are perpendicular to the tool axis can also be employed to increase resolution and provide some directional information, but they offer no true 3D information.

  10. Neutron generator for the array borehole logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHong-Bo; ZhongZhen-Qian; 等

    1998-01-01

    The performance mechanism of the array neutron generator to be used to porosity logging is presented.The neutron generator utilizes a drive-in target ceramic neutron tube,which cursts nerutron with fast-slow period selectively pressure.Regulation of the neutron tube is accomplished by pulse width modulation.The high voltage power supply is poerated at optimum frequency.

  11. Precision Prediction of the Log Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Repp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    At translinear scales, the log power spectrum captures significantly more cosmological information than the standard power spectrum. At high wavenumbers $k$, the cosmological information in the standard power spectrum $P(k)$ fails to increase in proportion to $k$ due to correlations between large- and small-scale modes. As a result, $P(k)$ suffers from an information plateau on these translinear scales, so that analysis with the standard power spectrum cannot access the information contained in these small-scale modes. The log power spectrum $P_A(k)$, on the other hand, captures the majority of this otherwise lost information. Until now there has been no means of predicting the amplitude of the log power spectrum apart from cataloging the results of simulations. We here present a cosmology-independent prescription for the log power spectrum, and we find this prescription to display accuracy comparable to that of Smith et al. (2003), over a range of redshifts and smoothing scales, and for wavenumbers up to $1....

  12. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Wheelis, W.B. Jr.; Leslie, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    Simulations of cement bond logging (CBL) have shown that wellbore fluid effects can be segregated from sonic-signal response to changing cement strengths. Traditionally, the effects have been considered negligible and the CBL's have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore. However, large variations in CBL's have become apparent with the increasing number of logs run in completion fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/. To study wellbore fluid effects, physical and numerical models were developed that simulated the wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 9 5/8-in. casings for a range of wellbore fluid types and for both densities and viscosities. Parallel numerical modeling used similar parameters. Results show that bond-log amplitudes varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid acoustic impedance-i.e., there was a 70% increase in signal amplitudes for 11.5 lbm/gal (1370-kg/m/sup 3/) CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a fluid-compensated bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of various wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  13. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Subas

    2013-01-01

    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  14. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...

  15. Discovering the Local Landscape: Pioneer Log Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Bob; And Others

    Building structures made from logs appeared in the eastern United States during the late 17th century, and immigrants from Sweden, Finland, and Germany are credited with their construction. There were two types of structures: the horizontal design introduced by the Scandinavians and the German or Pennsylvania Dutch model that was used by the…

  16. CNPC makes major breakthrough in array lateral logging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On October 12, 2011, the array lateral logging tool independently developed by CNPC Well Logging Company was successfully put to use at two production wells at Changqing Oilfield, obtaining high quality logging information. CNPC becomes the second company after Schlumberger in the world to master the array lateral logging technology, which can effectively identify layers as thin as 0.3 meter.

  17. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  18. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  20. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  1. Probe for temperature logging of deep cold boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, M.; Cavagnero, G.; Rossi, A.

    2003-04-01

    A new probe has been developed for measuring some physical parameters in deep cold boreholes such as those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), which is targeted to drill two holes through the ice sheet down to the bedrock at DOME C and at Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The probe is operative in the temperature range 0 to -60^oC and for pressures up to 35 MPa, down to 3500 m depth and in the presence of aggressive fluid filling. The probe is equipped with : 1) a set of four thermometers. Three are fitted in the expandable arms of the probe, to log the temperature of the ice-wall. The fourth thermometer is fitted into a static arm in a central position, between the previous three, and logs the temperature of the borehole fluid, for comparison. Thermistor-type sensors have been selected, with a resolution of 2 mK in the interval near 0^oC. During laboratory tests a time constant of 2.7 s was obtained for the thermal sensors fitted in their protective case. After final assemblage of the probe the sensors were calibrated in the laboratory against a standard precision thermometer, over the range 0 to -60^oC; 2) a sensor for differential measurement of the pressure of the liquid column of the drill fluid, with a resolution of a few 10-6 MPa, sufficient to detect any convective cells, induced by the dishomogeneous composition of the mixing fluids; 3) a manometer (strain gauge) for measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the full range 0 to 35 MPa, from the surface to bottom hole, with a resolution better than 0.001 of the full range; 4) a vertical depth meter for direct measurement of depth on the wall of the borehole, to eliminate any uncertainties caused by variations in the length of the electro-mechanical drilling wire due to the fatigue and strain of drilling operations. The progressive depths are measured by a wheel counter and encoder on the upper arms of the probe, with an expected resolution better than 10-3; 5) a

  2. A Brief Introduction of Jianghan Well Logging Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yiliang

    1996-01-01

    @@ Jianghan Well Logging Institute(JHWLI), situated in Qianjiang city of Hubei Province and founded in 1979, is the only specialized well logging institute affiliated to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), It has a basic logging method research department, an image logging research department, a technological support department., a new-tech development & promotion department, a well logging service department and a diversification company. They are engaged in the researchs and development of well logging technology and its application in addition to in site well logging services.

  3. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  4. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-09-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

  5. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  6. Log-Determinant Divergences Revisited: Alpha-Beta and Gamma Log-Det Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cichocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews and extends a family of log-determinant (log-det divergences for symmetric positive definite (SPD matrices and discusses their fundamental properties. We show how to use parameterized Alpha-Beta (AB and Gamma log-det divergences to generate many well-known divergences; in particular, we consider the Stein’s loss, the S-divergence, also called Jensen-Bregman LogDet (JBLD divergence, Logdet Zero (Bhattacharyya divergence, Affine Invariant Riemannian Metric (AIRM, and other divergences. Moreover, we establish links and correspondences between log-det divergences and visualise them on an alpha-beta plane for various sets of parameters. We use this unifying framework to interpret and extend existing similarity measures for semidefinite covariance matrices in finite-dimensional Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS. This paper also shows how the Alpha-Beta family of log-det divergences relates to the divergences of multivariate and multilinear normal distributions. Closed form formulas are derived for Gamma divergences of two multivariate Gaussian densities; the special cases of the Kullback-Leibler, Bhattacharyya, Rényi, and Cauchy-Schwartz divergences are discussed. Symmetrized versions of log-det divergences are also considered and briefly reviewed. Finally, a class of divergences is extended to multiway divergences for separable covariance (or precision matrices.

  7. Monte Carlo Numerical Models for Nuclear Logging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fusheng Li; Xiaogang Han

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear logging is one of most important logging services provided by many oil service companies. The main parameters of interest are formation porosity, bulk density, and natural radiation. Other services are also provided from using complex nuclear logging tools, such as formation lithology/mineralogy, etc. Some parameters can be measured by using neutron logging tools and some can only be measured by using a gamma ray tool. To understand the response of nuclear logging tools, the neutron t...

  8. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not

  9. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-08-10

    "Lonely guy" (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a "PGGXGTXXE" motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms.

  10. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  11. An Approach to Log Management: Prototyping a Design of Agent for Log Harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Reinaldo, Mayol Arnao; Antonio, Lobo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a work in progress implementing a solution for harvesting and transporting information logs from network devices in a e-science environment. The system is composed for servers, agents, active devices and a transporting protocol. This document describes the state of development of agents. Agents capture logs from devices, normalize, reduce and cataloged them by using metadata. Once all these processes are done, they transmit the cataloged data by using Transportation Protocol to a warehouse server. Also an agent use orchestration parameters to transmit modified logs to a data warehouse server. These parameters can be received from orchestration applications such as Taverna. The operation of the agents and the communication protocol solve some of the deficiencies of traditional logs management protocols. Finally, we show some test realized over the new prototype.

  12. Estimation of Tsunami Bore Forces on a Coastal Bridge Using an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mazinani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure to estimate tsunami wave forces on coastal bridges through a novel method based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and laboratory experiments. This research included three water depths, ten wave heights, and four bridge models with a variety of girders providing a total of 120 cases. The research was designed and adapted to estimate tsunami bore forces including horizontal force, vertical uplift and overturning moment on a coastal bridge. The experiments were carried out on 1:40 scaled concrete bridge models in a wave flume with dimensions of 24 m × 1.5 m × 2 m. Two six-axis load cells and four pressure sensors were installed to the base plate to measure forces. In the numerical procedure, estimation and prediction results of the ELM model were compared with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models. The experimental results showed an improvement in predictive accuracy, and capability of generalization could be achieved by the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. Moreover, results indicated that the ELM models developed could be used with confidence for further work on formulating novel model predictive strategy for tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge. The experimental results indicated that the new algorithm could produce good generalization performance in most cases and could learn thousands of times faster than conventional popular learning algorithms. Therefore, it can be conclusively obtained that utilization of ELM is certainly developing as an alternative approach to estimate the tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge.

  13. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  14. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  15. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  16. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  17. SNG-log in borehole Ermelund-208

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A Spectral Natural Gamma-ray log has been run in a borehole in Ermelunden. The vertical distribution of Th, U, and K is similar to that observed in neighbouring boreholes. A new measuring and data processing technique was used and the probes own background signal was determined. Surprisingly a si......-rays are emitted and detected by the probe. The intensity of cosmic radiation varies with depth, and, therefore, slightly influences the accuracy of the thorium concentration determination.......A Spectral Natural Gamma-ray log has been run in a borehole in Ermelunden. The vertical distribution of Th, U, and K is similar to that observed in neighbouring boreholes. A new measuring and data processing technique was used and the probes own background signal was determined. Surprisingly...

  18. MANTA, a novel plug-based vascular closure device for large bore arteriotomies: technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Lennart; Daemen, Joost; Walters, Greg; Sorzano, Todd; Grintz, Todd; Nardone, Sam; Lenzen, Mattie; De Jaegere, Peter P T; Roubin, Gary; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M

    2016-09-18

    Catheter-based interventions have become a less invasive alternative to conventional surgical techniques for a wide array of cardiovascular diseases but often create large arteriotomies. A completely percutaneous technique is attractive as it may reduce the overall complication rate and procedure time. Currently, large bore arteriotomy closure relies on suture-based techniques. Access-site complications are not uncommon and often seem related to closure device failure. The MANTA VCD is a novel collagen-based closure device that specifically targets arteriotomies between 10 and 22 Fr. This technical report discusses the MANTA design concept, practical instructions for use and preliminary clinical experience.

  19. Development of a Small-Bore, High-Efficiency, Helical Coil Electromagnetic Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    larger than a conventional railgun at 45 µH/m. The HCEL derives powered from a capacitor -based PFN which typically provides 11 kA current at a charge...gradient of the HCEL is more than a factor of 100 times larger than a conventional railgun at 45 mH/m. The HCEL derives powered from a capacitor -based...DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALL-BORE, HIGH-EFFICIENCY, HELICAL COIL ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCHER∗ T.G. Engelξ, W.C. Nunnally University of Missouri

  20. Bore formation, evolution and disintegration into solitons in shallow inhomogeneous channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-G. Caputo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of nonlinear surface waves in channels of smoothly variable in space cross section is studied theoretically and by means of numerical computations. The mathematical model describing wave evolution is based on the generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with additional terms due to spatial inhomogeneity and energy dissipation. Specifically we consider channels of variable depth and width. The breaking of Riemann waves and the disintegration of hydraulic jumps into trains of solitons have been examined. The results obtained can be useful in particular for the understanding some peculiarities of bore (mascaret formation, viscous evolution and disintegration into solitons in inhomogeneous channels or rivers.

  1. RESEARCH ON THE DYNAMIC PROPERTY OF PIEZOELECTRIC MICRO DISPLACEMENT ACTUATOR FOR BORING ERROR COMPENSATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic property of piezoelectric micro displacement actuator (PMDA) is analyzed, especially the mechanical characteristic, lag phase property and hysteresis phenomenon. The influence factors of static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and the lag phase property are analyzed systematically. Three main influence factors of lag phase property are discovered. With comparison to mechanical Coulomb friction, a generalized model of nonlinear hysteresis of PMDA is advanced, based on the essential analysis of nonlinear phenomenon. Finally the application of PMDA in error compensation control system of boring is introduced. A good compensation result is achieved.

  2. A new species of seagrass-boring Limnoria (Limnoriidae, Isopoda, Crustacea) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroki; Watabe, Hikari; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2017-02-15

    The marine seagrass-boring isopod, Limnoria rhombipunctata sp. nov. (Limnoriidae) is described from the rhizome of Phyllospadix iwatensis seagrass, in shallow coastal waters off Chiba Prefecture, Japan. L. rhombipunctata sp. nov. is distinguished from other Limnoria species by the unique carinae of pleonite 5 and pleotelson, two branched lacinia mobilis of the right mandible, 3 flagellar articles of antenna 1, and triangular epipod of the maxilliped. Specimens of L. magadanensis, a species similar to L. rhombipunctata sp. nov., are re-examined and compared with L. rhombipunctata sp. nov.

  3. Zone electrophoresis in an inner-cooling wide-bore electrophoresis system with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yugao; Liu, Danning; Wang, Huaifeng; Yuan, Ruijuan; Bao, James Jianmin

    2008-08-01

    A novel, high-performance wide-bore electrophoresis (WE) system with inner-cooling has been developed. By introducing the mode of a shell and tube heat exchanger into this system to remove Joule heat generated during electrophoresis, it is feasible to extend electrophoresis from the conventional capillary (i.d. tube (i.d. >1000 microm). The wide tube allows the loading of over 1.0 microL of the sample with an LOD of 3.0 x 10(-4) mg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio, 3:1). Satisfactory separations of model compounds have been achieved on the WE system.

  4. Measurements of an ion beam diameter extracted into air through a large-bore metal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y.; Umigishi, M. [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    To extract an ion beam into air, the technique using a single macro-capillary has been paid attention. We have expanded the bore of the metal capillary up to 500 μm∅ inlet diameter to increase the beam intensity and have measured the intensity distributions of the extracted 3 MeV proton beam. Furthermore, we have tilted the capillary angle and measured the intensity distributions of the ion beam. In this article, we will present the experimental results together with the simulation which takes the tilt angles of the capillary into account.

  5. A case study of a mesospheric bore event observed with an all-sky airglow imager at Tirunelveli (8.7°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V. Lakshmi; Gurubaran, S.; Emperumal, K.

    2009-04-01

    A prominent front separating bright and dark regions of all-sky airglow images was recorded on the night of 22/23 March 2007, at the low-latitude Indian station Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E) and is attributed to a mesospheric bore. With the help of complementary wind information from the colocated MF radar and temperature and density data from the SABER instrument onboard TIMED mission, the parameters of the bore are calculated and discussed. Because the observed wind at the emission altitude was orthogonal to the direction of bore propagation, Doppler ducting was not likely to support the bore. The analysis that makes use of the square of buoyancy frequency profiles reveals a thermal duct that would provide favorable conditions for the propagation of the bore. This is the first report of a mesospheric bore event from the Indian sector.

  6. Effects of Selection Logging on Rainforest Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vanclay, Jerome K.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of data from 212 permanent sample plots provided no evidence of any decline in rainforest productivity after three cycles of selection logging in the tropical rainforests of north Queensland. Relative productivity was determined as the difference between observed diameter increments and increments predicted from a diameter increment function which incorporated tree size, stand density and site quality. Analyses of variance and regression analyses revealed no significant decline in...

  7. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  8. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2002-10-01

    pore water resistivity. Therefore the approximation was made that the pore water is in equilibrium with free groundwater at a corresponding depth. The electrical conductivity of groundwater flowing from isolated fractures was measured with the Posiva difference flow meter. In order to test the proposed methodology all necessary logs were obtained by SKB from the 1.7 km deep borehole KLX02 in Laxemar, Sweden. The report contains many examples of these logs and also describes the tools. From the logs a step by step procedure how to obtain a formation factor log is shown. In order to verify that the obtained in-situ formation factor log was quantitative a great number samples were taken from the borehole core. The formation factor of these bore core samples was measured in the laboratory with electrical methods. The comparison between the in-situ and laboratory formation factor logs was encouraging. Both logs clearly displayed the same geological features in a similar manner. The in-situ formation factors were on average about 1/3 of the laboratory formation factors, which is consistent with earlier work on rock stress effects on cores.

  9. Application of well log normalization in coalfield seismic inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Xi LIN; Su-Zhen SHI; Shan-Shan LI; Li LUO; Juan LI; Zi-Liang YU

    2013-01-01

    During the process of coal prospecting and exploration,different measurement time,different logging instruments and series can lead to systematic errors in well logs.Accordingly,all logging curves need to be normalized in the mining area.By studying well-logging normalization methods,and focusing on the characteristics of the coalfield,the frequency histogram method was used in accordance with the condition of the Guqiao Coal Mine.In this way,the density and sonic velocity at marker bed in the non-key well were made to close to those in the key well,and were eventually equal.Well log normalization was completed when this method was applied to the entire logging curves.The results show that the scales of logging data were unified by normalizing coal logging curves,and the logging data were consistent with wave impedance inversion data.A satisfactory inversion effect was obtained.

  10. Log-scaling magnitude modulated watermarking scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING HeFei; YUAN WuGang; ZOU FuHao; LU ZhengDing

    2007-01-01

    A real-time watermarking scheme with high robustness and security has been proposed based on modulating the log-scaling magnitudes of DCT coefficients,which is most suitable for JPEG images and MPEG streams. The watermark bit is encoded as the sign of the difference between the individual log-scaling magnitude of a group-region and the average one of all group-regions. The log-scaling magnitude can be modulated by modifying the low and middle frequency DCT coefficients imperceptibly. The robustness of scheme is not only dependent on those largest coefficients, but also on the other coefficients with the same proportion. It can embed 512 bits into an image with a size of 512×512, which can satisfy the payload requirement of most video watermarking applications. Moreover, the watermark embedding process only requires one-sixth of the time consumed during normal playing of video, and the watermark detection only requires one-twelfth of that, which can meet the real-time requirements of most video watermarking applications. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the presented scheme is transparent and robust to significant valumetric distortions (including additive noise, low-pass filtering, lossy compression and valumetric scaling) and a part of geometric distortions. It performs much better than the EMW algorithm in resisting all kinds of distortions except Gaussian noise with a larger deviation.

  11. Gerencia logística y global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cesar Ocampo Vélez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La logística es una filosofía que se encarga de aplicar las buenas pá¡cticas en los macroprocesos, procesos, procedimientos, tareas y productos dentro de una organización, con el fin de satisfacer las necesidades del cliente, quien es la razón de ser de la empresa. Existen entes internacionales que velan porque las compañias en todo el mundo utilicen y difundan las diferentes disciplinas logísticas en toda la red de valor y tengan un mismo enfoque estratégico.El objetivo de este artículo es explicar la existencia de procesos y macroprocesos de clase mundial en la logística, gracias a los cuales hay una gran oportunidad de mejora para los empresarios colombianos, con el fin de reestructurar los procesos estratégicos, tácticos y operacionales de cada Unidad de Negocio, para que sean organizaciones más competitivas, que puedan enfrentar los tratados de libre comercio, brindando mayor sostenibilidad y óptimo nivel de servicio.

  12. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  13. Analysis of Web Logs And Web User In Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Joshila Grace

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Log files contain information about User Name, IP Address, Time Stamp, Access Request, number of Bytes Transferred, Result Status, URL that Referred and User Agent. The log files are maintained by the web servers. By analysing these log files gives a neat idea about the user. This paper gives a detailed discussion about these log files, their formats, their creation, access procedures, their uses, various algorithms used and the additional parameters that can be used in the log files which in turn gives way to an effective mining. It also provides the idea of creating an extended log file and learning the user behaviour.

  14. Analysis of Web Logs and Web User in Web Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Grace, L K Joshila; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan

    2011-01-01

    Log files contain information about User Name, IP Address, Time Stamp, Access Request, number of Bytes Transferred, Result Status, URL that Referred and User Agent. The log files are maintained by the web servers. By analysing these log files gives a neat idea about the user. This paper gives a detailed discussion about these log files, their formats, their creation, access procedures, their uses, various algorithms used and the additional parameters that can be used in the log files which in turn gives way to an effective mining. It also provides the idea of creating an extended log file and learning the user behaviour.

  15. Unification of acoustic drillhole logging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, I.; Palmen, J.; Heikkinen, E. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The site characterization at Olkiluoto has included comprehensive geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. One of key techniques in geophysical drillhole surveys has been acoustic full waveform logging, which has been implemented since 1994. Various tools have been used in acquisition of acoustic data and several processing techniques have been applied. The logging work and processing to P and S wave velocities has been previously carried out on single drillhole basis. Comparisons to actual values and levels have not been made, and the results have not been calibrated. Therefore results for different drillholes have not been comparable. Resolution of the P and S wave velocity has been rather coarse, and depth correlation to the core data has been on tentative level. As the investigation data has been accumulating, it has become possible to correlate the results to geological and laboratory control data and to calibrate the results of separate measurement campaigns and different drillholes together onto same reference level and resolution. The presented technique has been applied for drillhole OL-KR29 onwards and has set the processing standard, settings and reference levels for later surveys. This approach will further assist the application of the method for mapping and numerical description of lithology variation and possible effect of alteration and deformation on it. Further on, the P and S wave velocity data together with density can be used in computing of dynamic in situ rock mechanical parameters, and possibly in correlating rock strength laboratory data to P and S wave velocity logging data. The acoustic logging data from drillholes OL-KR1

  16. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  17. Gun Bore Panoramic Image Detection and Fusion%火炮内膛全景图像检测与融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾惠芹; 张茹

    2013-01-01

      火炮内膛检测是火炮使用维修过程中的一项重要内容,关系到火炮的射击精度和使用安全性。分析了通过自聚焦透镜阵列所获取的火炮内膛图像的特点,提出了一种基于相位相关法和对数极坐标法相结合的火炮内膛局部图像快速无缝拼接算法。相位相关法可以实现对存在平移的图像进行拼接,而不具有尺度和旋转不变性,对数极坐标法可将图像笛卡尔坐标系下的尺度和旋转变化变换为对数极坐标系的平移运动,利用该组合方法可得出归一化相位相关度的峰值,利用峰值点坐标可求得两幅相邻图像的旋转和缩放参数值,根据此参数进行多方位图像的拼接,然后采用像素最大值法得到内膛全景图像。实验结果表明,该方法可获得无缝、清晰和完整的火炮内膛图像。%The cannon chamber detection is an important task in the gun bore maintenance process, and it has direct relationship with the firing accuracy and security. The features of cannon chamber images obtained from grin lens array are analyzed, and an algorithm based on the phase-correlation and log polar is presented, which can realize mosaic image fast and seamlessly. Phase correlation algorithm can only match the images with shift invariability, and would face difficulty when dealing with motion model,where either scaling or rotation of the matched images is presented. Log-polar image transform can convert the scale and rotation changes in Descartes coordinate to shift changes in log-polar coordinate. This method calculates the normalized peak of phase correlation of cross-power spectrum, and gets the rotation and scale between the two conjoint images using the peak coordination. Images are matched based on these parameters, and then chamber panoramic images are obtained by using method of pixels maximum value. Experimental results show that the proposed method can get seamless, clear and full

  18. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  19. Asymmetric gradient coil design for use in a short, open bore magnetic resonance imaging scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Liu, Feng; Li, Yu; Tang, Fangfang; Crozier, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    A conventional cylindrical whole-body MRI scanner has a long bore that may cause claustrophobia for some patients in addition to being inconvenient for healthcare workers accessing the patient. A short-bore scanner usually offers a small sized imaging area, which is impractical for imaging some body parts, such as the torso. This work proposes a novel asymmetric gradient coil design that offers a full-sized imaging area close to one end of the coil. In the new design, the primary and shielding coils are connected at one end whilst separated at the other, allowing the installation of the cooling system and shim trays. The proposed coils have a larger wire gap, higher efficiency, lower inductance, less resistance and a higher figure of merit than the non-connected coils. This half-connected coil structure not only improves the coils' electromagnetic performance, but also slightly attenuates acoustic radiation at most frequencies when compared to a non-connected gradient coil. It is also quieter in some frequency bands than a conventional symmetric gradient coil.

  20. Linking Planktonic Larval Abundance to Internal Bores at the Head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J.; Walter, R. K.; Steinbeck, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in the physical coastal environment can play an important role in determining the spatio-temporal variation in abundance of planktonic organisms. Combining planktonic larval abundance estimates over the course of a year with concurrent temperature and current data, this study provides empirical data linking a locally predominant internal tidal feature to patterns of biological abundance in the very nearshore environment at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. The physical observations indicate the presence of seasonally-variable semidiurnal internal bores that result in the pumping of cold (subthermocline) waters onto the adjacent shelf. Analysis of the larval abundance data indicates an assemblage shift from a relatively abundant shelf assemblage of larval fishes to a reduced abundance assemblage that is concurrent with the semidiurnal cold water intrusions driven by the tidal pumping. Results suggest that the tidal period pumping of subthermocline waters by internal bores dilutes or displaces shelf waters and their associated planktonic larval community. This could have important ecological implications at these scales and may also be of interest when siting industrial facilities that require seawater for cooling or desalination, as it would potentially reduce their impact on regional planktonic communities by diluting their rates of entrainment.

  1. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs: one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach.

  2. Design of a Large Bore 60-T Pulse Magnet for Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESCH,B.; LI,L.; PERNAMBUCO-WISE,P.; ROVANG,DEAN C.; SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU,H.J.

    1999-09-23

    The design of a new pulsed magnet system for the generation of intense electron beams is presented. Determined by the required magnetic field profile along the axis, the magnet system consists of two coils (Coil No.1 and No.2) separated by a 32-mm axial gap. Each coil is energized independently. Both coils are internally reinforced with HIM Zylon fiber/epoxy composite. Coil No.1 made with AI-15 Glidcop wire has a bore of 110-mm diameter and is 200-mm long; it is energized by a 1.3-MJ, 13-kV capacitor bank. The magnetic field at the center of this coil is 30 T. Coil No.2 made with CuNb wire has a bore of 45 mm diameter, generates 60 T with a pulse duration of 60 ms, and is powered by a 4.0-MJ, 17.7-kV capacitor bank. We present design criteria, the coupling of the magnets, and the normal and the fault conditions during operation.

  3. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Carlucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20% and 40% of the mean values of FMY.

  4. Analysis of Nonlinear Discrete Time Active Control System with Boring Chatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the design and analysis for nonlinear discrete time active control system with boring charter. It is shown that most analysis result for continuous time nonlinear system can be extended to the discrete time case. In previous studies, a method of nonlinear Model Following Control System (MFCS was proposed by Okubo (1985. In this study, the method of nonlinear MFCS will be extended to nonlinear discrete time system with boring charter. Nonlinear systems which are dealt in this study have the property of norm constraints ║ƒ (v (k║&le&alpha+&betaβ║v (k║&gamma, where &alpha&ge0, &beta&ge0, 0&le&gamma&le1. When 0&le&gamma&le1. It is easy to extend the method to discrete time systems. But in the case &gamma = 1 discrete time systems, the proof becomes difficult. In this case, a new criterion is proposed to ensure that internal states are stable. We expect that this method will provide a useful tool in areas related to stability analysis and design for nonlinear discrete time systems as well.

  5. Boring but important: a self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S; Henderson, Marlone D; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M; D'Mello, Sidney; Spitzer, Brian J; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2014-10-01

    Many important learning tasks feel uninteresting and tedious to learners. This research proposed that promoting a prosocial, self-transcendent purpose could improve academic self-regulation on such tasks. This proposal was supported in 4 studies with over 2,000 adolescents and young adults. Study 1 documented a correlation between a self-transcendent purpose for learning and self-reported trait measures of academic self-regulation. Those with more of a purpose for learning also persisted longer on a boring task rather than giving in to a tempting alternative and, many months later, were less likely to drop out of college. Study 2 addressed causality. It showed that a brief, one-time psychological intervention promoting a self-transcendent purpose for learning could improve high school science and math grade point average (GPA) over several months. Studies 3 and 4 were short-term experiments that explored possible mechanisms. They showed that the self-transcendent purpose manipulation could increase deeper learning behavior on tedious test review materials (Study 3), and sustain self-regulation over the course of an increasingly boring task (Study 4). More self-oriented motives for learning--such as the desire to have an interesting or enjoyable career--did not, on their own, consistently produce these benefits (Studies 1 and 4).

  6. Developing of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esparza, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5-inches or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  7. Boring but Important: A Self-Transcendent Purpose for Learning Fosters Academic Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S.; Henderson, Marlone D.; D’Mello, Sidney; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Brian J.; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2015-01-01

    Many important learning tasks feel uninteresting and tedious to learners. This research proposed that promoting a prosocial, self-transcendent purpose could improve academic self-regulation on such tasks. This proposal was supported in four studies with over 2,000 adolescents and young adults. Study 1 documented a correlation between a self-transcendent purpose for learning and self-reported trait measures of academic self-regulation. Those with more of a purpose for learning also persisted longer on a boring task rather than giving in to a tempting alternative, and, many months later, were less likely to drop out of college. Study 2 addressed causality. It showed that a brief, one-time psychological intervention promoting a self-transcendent purpose for learning could improve high school science and math GPA over several months. Studies 3 and 4 were short-term experiments that explored possible mechanisms. They showed that the self-transcendent purpose manipulation could increase deeper learning behavior on tedious test review materials (Study 3), and sustain self-regulation over the course of an increasingly-boring task (Study 4). More self-oriented motives for learning—such as the desire to have an interesting or enjoyable career—did not, on their own, consistently produce these benefits (Studies 1 and 4). PMID:25222648

  8. Internal bores and gravity currents in a two-fluid system

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a unified theory of internal bores and gravity currents is presented within the framework of the one-dimensional two-layer shallow-water equations. The equations represent four basic physical laws: the theory is developed on the basis of these laws. Though the first three of the four basic laws are apparent, the forth basic law has been uncertain. This paper shows first that this forth basic law can be deduced from the law which is called in this paper the conservation law of circulation. It is then demonstrated that, within the framework of the equations, an internal bore is represented by a shock satisfying the shock conditions that follow from the four basic laws. A gravity current can also be treated within the framework of the equations if the front conditions, i.e. the boundary conditions to be imposed at the front of the current, are known. Basically, the front conditions for a gravity current also follow from the four basic laws. When the gravity current is advancing along a no-slip bou...

  9. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald E. CARLUCCI; Ryan DECKER; Julio VEGA; Douglas RAY

    2016-01-01

    In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY) were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20%and 40%of the mean values of FMY.

  10. Can electron multipacting explain the pressure rise in a cold bore superconducting undulator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies performed with the cold bore superconducting undulator installed in the ANKA (Angstrom source Karlsruhe storage ring suggest that the beam heat load is mainly due to the electron wall bombardment. Electron bombardment can both heat the cold vacuum chamber and induce an increase in the pressure because of gas desorption. In this contribution we compare the measurements of the pressure in a cold bore performed in the electron storage ring ANKA with the predictions obtained using the equations of gas dynamic balance in a cold vacuum chamber exposed to synchrotron radiation and electron bombardment. The balance results from two competing effects: the photon and electron stimulated desorption of the gas contained in the surface layer of the chamber wall and of the gas cryosorbed, and the cryopumping by the cold surface. We show that photodesorption alone cannot explain the experimental results and that electron multipacting is needed to reproduce the observed pressure rise. Electron bombardment can at the same time explain the observed beam heat load.

  11. Report on the development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.J. Jensen

    2009-03-01

    Experiments are needed to locate phase boundaries and to provide both Hugoniot data and off-Hugoniot data (such as principle isentrope, refreezing, dynamic strength, etc.) achieved through complex loading paths. The objective of the current work was to de- velop a large bore (3.5 inch or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities exceeding 2 km/s for impact experiments. A total of 24 ex- periments were performed to measure the projectile velocity, breech strain, and projectile tilt to demonstrate the performance of the gun up to the maximum breech capacity of 16 pounds of propellant. Physics experiments using a multislug method were performed to obtain sound speed and Hugoniot for shocked cerium metal and to demonstrate the ability of the large bore gun to conduct well-defined, plate-impact experiments. In addition, six experiments were performed on the prototype containment system to examine the ability of the launcher and containment system to withstand the impact event and contain the propellant gases and impact debris postshot. The data presented here were essential for qualification of the launcher for experiments to be conducted at the U1a complex of the Nevada Test Site.

  12. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation.

  13. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    The nuclear applications of boron-10 justify the study of a method of measurement of its isotopic abundance as well as of very small traces of boron in different materials. A systematic study of thermionic emission of BO{sub 2}Na{sub 2}{sup +} has been carried out. In the presence of a slight excess of alkalis, the thermionic emission is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the addition of a mixture of sodium hydroxide-glycerol (or mannitol) to borax permits to obtain an intense and stable beam. These results have permitted to establish an operative method for the analysis of traces of boron by isotopic dilution. In other respects, the needs of boron-10 in nuclear industry Justify the study of procedures of separation of isotopes of boron. A considerable isotopic effect has been exhibited in the chemical exchange reaction between methyl borate and borate salt in solution. In the case of exchange between methyl borate and sodium borate, the elementary separation factor {alpha} is: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. The high value of this elementary effect has been multiplied in a distillation column in which the problem of regeneration of the reactive has been resolved. An alternative procedure replacing the alkali borate by a borate of volatile base, for example diethylamine, has also been studied ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} in medium hydro-methanolic with 2,2 per cent water). (author) [French] Les applications nucleaires du bore 10 justifient l'etude d'une methode de mesure de son abondance isotopique dans divers materiaux ainsi que le dosage de tres faibles traces de bore. Une etude systematique de l'emission thermoionique de BO{sub 2} Na{sub 2}{sup +} a ete effectuee. En presence d'un leger exces d'alcalins, l'emission thermoionique est considerablement reduite. Par contre l'addition au borax d'un melange soude-glycerol (ou mannitol) permet d'obtenir un faisceau stable et intense

  14. Etudes sur la phase carbure de bore. Corrélations propriétés-composition

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    No english abstract; La connaissance du diagramme de phases bore-carbone, des propriétés physico chimiques et la structure du carbure de bore ont été approfondies. Dans ce but, nous avons mis en œuvre principalement deux méthodes de préparation de nos échantillons : ¤ la fusion au canon à électrons, ¤ la compression à chaud. Il faut noter que nous avons considérablement amélioré cette dernière méthode pour la rendre apte à la préparation en particulier d'échantillons constitués de bore pur ou...

  15. Phase contrast imaging of high-intensity laser hole boring of solid-density wires at LCLS-MEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, W.; Brown, S.; Curry, C.; Gauthier, M.; Gamboa, E.; Goede, S.; Fletcher, L.; Kim, J.; MacDonald, M.; Mishra, R.; Roedel, C.; Glenzer, S.; Fiuza, F.; Granados, E.; Nagler, B.; Zhou, Z.; MacKinnon, A.; Obst, L.; Ziel, K.; Pak, A.; Williams, G.; Fajardo, M.

    2016-10-01

    High-intensity, relativistic (a0 > 1) laser plasma interactions on solid surfaces produce a rich mix of dynamics on the laser timescale (Weibel instabilities, surface effects, sheath formation, etc.) and hydrodynamic timescale (hole-boring, shocks, etc.). Probing these interactions optically is difficult due to critical density layer obscuring the surface of the target, whereas probing with hard X-rays from K-alpha sources does not sufficiently resolve these interactions temporally as they are typically many ps in duration. Presented here are the first experimental measurements of laser hole-boring on a carbon wire surfaces performed at the LCLS-MEC facility. With laser intensities of up to 1019 W / cm2 , we observe the dissociation of micron-sized wires over 100 ps timescale with peak hole boring velocities up to 0.001 c using phase-contrast imaging. This work was funded by DOE FES under FWP #100182.

  16. A new method for the determination of geophysical parameters by radon concentration measurements in bore-hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, B; Deák, F; Horváth, A; Kiss, A; Rajnai, G; Szabó, Cs

    2008-11-01

    We propose a new method to measure the (222)Rn concentration in a closed bore-hole and to use the results for estimation of the diffusion parameter and the average radium content of the surrounding geological formations. In a closed bore-hole, only several meters from the surface, the radon concentration is rather constant (in the +/-15% range) under different meteorological conditions. The inflow of radon gas, after removing the radon from the bore-hole by dry nitrogen, shows characteristic time-dependence, which is determined by the diffusion parameter for radon in the surrounding environment. The experimental data were well described by a straightforward model calculation. From the results estimate can be given for the diffusion parameter and for the average radium content of the surrounding geological formation.

  17. Study on Influensive Factors on Surface Quality and Edges of Through- Holes Bored in Particleboard and MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Khazaian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effects of different factors in the CNC machine through- Hole boring of MDF and particleboard were investigated. Variables in boring were selected bit diameter in 3 levels 5,10 and 15 mm, feed speed in 2 levels 0.3 m/min and 0.6 m/min and rotary speed of machine axis in 3 levels 300,1500 and 3000 rmp. The goal of this study was to measure effects of mentioned factors on edge- quality of through- holes made in particle- board and MDF. Results have shown that with all bit diameters used, increasing rotary speed of bit improves smoothness of holes in both sides and boring dusts turned to finer sizes. Increasing feed speed did show positive effect on edge surface quality and lowered burr formation.

  18. STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF DRILL STRINGS WITH INTERNAL FLOWS OF LIQUIDS IN THE CHANNELS OF HORIZONTAL BORE-HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusenko E.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with elaboration of new technologies of hydrocarbons extraction from shales, in the oil and gas industry, the great attention is payed to the problems of drilling inclined and horizontal bore-holes. The peculiarities of these bore-hole drivage consist in essential influence of friction and contact forces on proceeding of drilling processes. In this paper, the problem about bifurcational buckling and small bending vibration of a rotating drill string lying in the channel of a horizontal bore-hole is stated. With allowance made for friction forces and additional constraint reactions, differential equations are deduced, their eigen-value solutions describing stability and vibration of the drill string of finite and infinite lengths are received.

  19. The Research of Through-casing Resistivity Logging Logging Calibration System Leakage Current Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jiatian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the logging principle of through-casing resistivity logging technology, finds a phenomenon that the leakage current measurements are susceptible to sufferring interferences. The through-casing resistivity logging technology in Russia and that of Schlumberger are studied, and the system of through-casing resistivity logging is established to improve the accuracy of calibrating, testing and measuring of the instrument. In this paper, distribution parameters of the form is replaced by the lumped parameter, and precision resistor array simulation in formation leakage current and scale pool simulation in different resistivity of formation are conducted, which make the dynamic range of the simulation in formation resistivity of the medium increase to 1- 300 Ω·m and meet the requirement of through-casing resistivity logging technology measurement range, 1 Ω·m ~ 100 Ω·m. Since the measuring signals of calibration acquisition and processing systems are extremely weak and calculation signals need to tell the nV (nanovolts level, the high accurate data acquisition system of 24 digits is applied.

  20. CNPC Sees Rapid Growth in Overseas Oil Logging Service Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ CNPC Logging Technology Service Co Ltd has made breakthrough in market development in the first two months of this year by signing the logging technological service contract with Repsol in Libya, creating a good start for 2004.

  1. Wide, short bore magnetic resonance at 1.5 t: reducing the failure rate in claustrophobic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C H; Wood, C P; Lane, J I; Bolster, B D; Bernstein, M A; Witte, R J

    2011-09-01

    Claustrophobic reactions in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have a significant impact on the workflow, patient acceptance and ultimately the costs involved in obtaining a diagnostic scan. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a wide, short bore MRI scanner could reduce the need for general anesthesia assistance in these cases. Between September 2006 and March 2008, all patients for whom MRI examinations of the head and/or spine were canceled or prematurely terminated due to claustrophobia on a standard 60 cm bore, 1.5 T scanner were scheduled to be re-scanned on a 70 cm wide bore, 1.25 m long 1.5 T scanner. This re-scanning attempt was made 2 or more days prior to a scheduled anesthesia-assisted MRI appointment. If the patient successfully completed the wide bore MRI examination then the anesthesia-assisted MRI appointment was canceled. A total of 56 patients were included in this study. The examinations included individual body regions as well as combination examinations (head and cervical spine, entire spine etc.). A total of 72 body regions were examined in 56 patients. Of these regions, 65 (90%) were completed successfully, 50 patients (89%) successfully completed a diagnostic examination on the 70 cm scanner and 6 patients (11%), all of whom were scheduled for examinations which included the head, were unable to complete the examination on the wide bore scanner. A 1.5 T wide short bore scanner increases the examination success rate in patients with claustrophobia and substantially reduces the need for anesthesia-assisted MRI examinations even when claustrophobia is severe.

  2. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  3. Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

  4. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  5. Reducing ion energy spread in hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by using two-ion-species targets

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, S M; Sheng, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The generation of fast ion beams in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by intense laser pulses has been studied for targets with different ion components. We find that the oscillation of the longitudinal electric field for accelerating ions can be effectively suppressed by using a two-ion-species target, because fast ions from a two-ion-species target are distributed into more bunches and each bunch bears less charge. Consequently, the energy spread of ion beams generated in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration can be greatly reduced down to 3.7% according to our numerical simulation.

  6. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayalee Narkhede

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes of log data in a day.These datasets are huge. In order to analyze such large datasets we need parallel processing system andreliable data storage mechanism. Virtual database system is an effective solution for integrating the databut it becomes inefficient for large datasets. The Hadoop framework provides reliable data storage byHadoop Distributed File System and MapReduce programming model which is a parallel processingsystem for large datasets. Hadoop distributed file system breaks up input data and sends fractions of theoriginal data to several machines in hadoop cluster to hold blocks of data. This mechanism helps toprocess log data in parallel using all the machines in the hadoop cluster and computes result efficiently.The dominant approach provided by hadoop to “Store first query later”, loads the data to the HadoopDistributed File System and then executes queries written in Pig Latin. This approach reduces the responsetime as well as the load on to the end system. This paper proposes a log analysis system using HadoopMapReduce which will provide accurate results in minimum response time.

  7. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an application for a specific license for the...

  8. Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine, Warren J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

  9. Data Cleaning Methods for Client and Proxy Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, H.; Obendorf, H.; Herder, E.; Edmonds, A.; Hawkey, K.; Kellar, M.; Turnbull, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences with the cleaning of Web client and proxy usage logs, based on a long-term browsing study with 25 participants. A detailed clickstream log, recorded using a Web intermediary, was combined with a second log of user interface actions, which was captured by a mo

  10. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  11. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs....

  13. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  14. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  15. The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Beverley

    1997-01-01

    Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

  16. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  17. A survey of animal-powered logging in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Toms; Mark R. Dubois; John C. Bliss; John H. Wilhoit; Robert B. Rummer

    2001-01-01

    In a state with a very large, highly mechanized timber harvesting industry, animal-powered logging still occupies a niche in Alabama as a small-scale harvesting alternative. This article summarizes the results from a study that examined the extent of animal logging in Alabama. We investigated this topic by asking who is logging with animals, where are they working,...

  18. RT-PLG: Real Time Process Log Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, Bernardo Nugroho; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Choi, Woosik;

    2016-01-01

    . This paper aims to develop a real time process log generator for the usage of streaming process mining tool. The real time process log generator (RT-PLG) is constructed in an independent tool. Afterward, the RT-PLG is utilized to generate a synthetic log for streaming process mining. The tool has been...... evaluated using an existing simulation model....

  19. U.S. Hardwood Sawmill Log Procurement Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienn Andersch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill industry with raw material. To meet this objective, a mail survey on hardwood log procurement practices in the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry was conducted. Survey respondents highlighted several factors that had major effects on their businesses, including “Increasing fuel and trucking cost,” “High logging cost,” “Unpredictable log supply,” “Log shortages,” “Logger shortages,” and “Low log quality,” among others. Results showed that large sawmills tend to rely more on gatewood from loggers and stumpage harvested by company contract loggers than do small- and medium-sized sawmills. This study failed to find an increase in the role of log brokers as an intermediary between landowners and hardwood sawmills during the last decade. Moreover, sawmills indicated only a limited demand for log broker services, with log delivery and the procurement of specialty logs identified as being the most highly demanded broker services.

  20. Selected borehole geophysical logs and drillers' logs, northern coastal plain of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, J.E.; Birkelo, B.A.; Pucci, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents lithologic data compiled during the initial phase of a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resources to assess the hydrogeology of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The report includes 109 geophysical logs and 328 drillers ' logs that were selected as representative of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. A description of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system also is give. (USGS)

  1. Logging Data High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongqi; Xie Yinfu; Sun Zhongchun; Luo Xingping

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and contrast of bed sets in parasequence is difficult in terrestrial basin high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. This study puts forward new methods for the boundary identification and contrast of bed sets on the basis of manifold logging data. The formation of calcareous interbeds, shale resistivity differences and the relation of reservoir resistivity to altitude are considered on the basis of log curve morphological characteristics, core observation, cast thin section, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the thickness of calcareous interbeds is between 0.5 m and 2 m, increasing on weathering crusts and faults. Calcareous interbeds occur at the bottom of Reservoir resistivity increases with altitude. Calcareous interbeds may be a symbol of recognition for the boundary of bed sets and isochronous contrast bed sets, and shale resistivity differences may confirm the stack relation and connectivity of bed sets. Based on this, a high-rcsolution chronostratigraphic framework of Xi-1 segment in Shinan area, Junggar basin is presented, and the connectivity of bed sets and oil-water contact is confirmed. In this chronostratigraphic framework, the growth order, stack mode and space shape of bed sets are qualitatively and quantitatively described.

  2. Public PCs: Log Out or Lose Out

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you regularly use one of the public Windows or Linux terminals in the CERN library or in front of the Users' Office? Or do you often give presentations or run meetings, workshops or conferences? Did you recently attend a training session in the CERN Training Centre? If you answered at least once with “yes”, we have a plea for you: LOG OUT when done in order to protect your data!   You might recall that CERN considers that “Your Privacy is Paramount”. But this does not come for free. In the few past months, we have received several reports from vigilant people who have spotted open user sessions on public PCs at CERN. Those users simply forgot to log out once their work, training or meeting was over. Their session continued without them being present. Worse, with CERN using a central Single Sign-On (SSO) portal, their login credentials would allow a malicious person at CERN to use those credentials to access that user’s mailbox, DFS ...

  3. Development of an electromagnetic imaging system for well bore integrity inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Wheeler, Frederick W.; Mandal, Sudeep; Climent, Helene C.; Kasten, A. Matthias; Ross, William

    2017-02-01

    State-of-the-art imaging technologies for monitoring the integrity of oil and gas well bores are typically limited to the inspection of metal casings and cement bond interfaces close to the first casing region. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a novel well-integrity inspection system that is capable of providing enhanced information about the flaw structure and topology of hydrocarbon producing well bores. In order to achieve this, we propose the development of a multi-element electromagnetic (EM) inspection tool that can provide information about material loss in the first and second casing structure as well as information about eccentricity between multiple casing strings. Furthermore, the information gathered from the EM inspection tool will be combined with other imaging modalities (e.g. data from an x-ray backscatter imaging device). The independently acquired data are then fused to achieve a comprehensive assessment of integrity with greater accuracy. A test rig composed of several concentric metal casings with various defect structures was assembled and imaged. Initial test results were obtained with a scanning system design that includes a single transmitting coil and several receiving coils mounted on a single rod. A mechanical linear translation stage was used to move the EM sensors in the axial direction during data acquisition. For simplicity, a single receiving coil and repetitive scans were employed to simulate performance of the designed receiving sensor array system. The resulting electromagnetic images enable the detection of the metal defects in the steel pipes. Responses from several sensors were used to assess the location and amount of material loss in the first and second metal pipe as well as the relative eccentric position between these two pipes. The results from EM measurements and x-ray backscatter simulations demonstrate that data fusion from several sensing modalities can provide an enhanced assessment of flaw

  4. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  5. Min-cuts and Shortest Cycles in Planar Graphs in O(n log log n) Time

    CERN Document Server

    \\L\\kacki, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    We present a deterministic O(n log log n) time algorithm for finding shortest cycles and minimum cuts in planar graphs. The algorithm improves the previously known fastest algorithm by Italiano et al. in STOC'11 by a factor of log n. This speedup is obtained through the use of dense distance graphs combined with a divide-and-conquer approach.

  6. First record of a pontoniine shrimp (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in association with a boring bivalve of the genus Spengleria (Bivalvia, Euheterodonta, Gastrochaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.; Meij, van der S.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    During fieldwork in Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia, in 2007, a pontoniine shrimp, most likely belonging to the genus Anchistus, was collected from a coral boring bivalve of the genus Spengleria. This is the first record of a pontoniine shrimp living in association with a boring bivalve. As it pro

  7. Coal log pipeline for twenty-first century coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    During the first years of the 21st century coal log pipeline (CLP) technology will be available for long-distance coal transportation. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log pipeline technology. Some recent developments are as follows: optimization of coal log compaction procedures, construction of a unique coal log prototype manufacturing machine, and its testing. Coal log abrasion while transported in water-filled pipelines is also discussed. A CLP pilot plant is currently under construction at the University of Missouri. For certain routes in the US a CLP system appears to be cost-competitive.

  8. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  9. 3D Finite Element Simulation of Tunnel Boring Machine Construction Processes in Deep Water Conveyance Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Denghua; TONG Dawei

    2009-01-01

    Applying stiffness migration method, a 3D finite element mechanical model is established to simulate the excavation and advance processes. By using 3D nonlinear finite element method, the tunnel boring machine (TBM) excavation process is dynamically simulated to analyze the stress and strain field status of surrounding rock and segment. The maximum tensile stress of segment ring caused by tunnel construction mainly lies in arch bottom and presents zonal distribution. The stress increases slightly and limitedly in the course of excavation. The maxi-mum and minimum displacements of segment, manifesting as zonal distribution, distribute in arch bottom and vault respectively. The displacements slightly increase with the advance of TBM and gradually tend to stability.

  10. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Murai, K. [DMP, ONRI, Ikeda, Osaka 563 (Japan); Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of {mu}m in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10{sup 20}{endash}10{sup 22}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} with the XRL-GIR and for 10{sup 19}{endash}10{sup 20}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalbergen, Els; Helwerda, Renate; Schelfhorst, Rense; Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kundrata, Robin; Welter-Schultes, Francisco W; Giokas, Sinos; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies.

  12. Hole boring in a DT Pellet and Fast-Ion Ignition with Ultraintense Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, N; Schlegel, T; Tikhonchuk, V T; Labaune, C; Sokolov, I V; Mourou, G

    2009-01-16

    Recently achieved high intensities of short laser pulses open new prospects in their application to hole boring in inhomogeneous overdense plasmas and for ignition in precompressed DT fusion targets. A simple analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate that pulses with intensities exceeding 10;{22} W/cm;{2} may penetrate deeply into the plasma as a result of efficient ponderomotive acceleration of ions in the forward direction. The penetration depth as big as hundreds of microns depends on the laser fluence, which has to exceed a few tens of GJ/cm;{2}. The fast ions, accelerated at the bottom of the channel with an efficiency of more than 20%, show a high directionality and may heat the precompressed target core to fusion conditions.

  13. Cylindricity Error Measuring and Evaluating for Engine Cylinder Bore in Manufacturing Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line measuring device of cylindricity error is designed based on two-point method error separation technique (EST, which can separate spindle rotation error from measuring error. According to the principle of measuring device, the mathematical model of the minimum zone method for cylindricity error evaluating is established. Optimized parameters of objective function decrease to four from six by assuming that c is equal to zero and h is equal to one. Initial values of optimized parameters are obtained from least square method and final values are acquired by the genetic algorithm. The ideal axis of cylinder is fitted in MATLAB. Compared to the error results of the least square method, the minimum circumscribed cylinder method, and the maximum inscribed cylinder method, the error result of the minimum zone method conforms to the theory of error evaluation. The results indicate that the method can meet the requirement of engine cylinder bore cylindricity error measuring and evaluating.

  14. Prediction of Surface Roughness Based on Machining Condition and Tool Condition in Boring EN31 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohanaraman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of Surface roughness plays a vital role in manufacturing process. In manufacturing industries, productions of metallic materials require high surface finish in various components. In the present work, the effect of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and flank wear of the tool on the surface roughness has been studied. Carbide tipped insert was used for boring operation. Experiments were conducted in CNC lathe. The experimental setup was prepared with sixteen levels of cutting parameters and was conducted with two tool tip conditions in dry machining. A piezoelectric accelerometer was used to measure the vibrational signals while machining. The data acquisition card which connected between accelerometer and lab-view software to record the signals. Simple linear and least median regression models were used for prediction of surface roughness. The models were developed by weka analysis software. The best suitable regression model is implemented based on maximum correlation coefficient and the minimum error values.

  15. Dosimetric impact of image artifact from a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Vincent; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Malhotra, Harish K.; Wang, Iris Z. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Traditional computed tomography (CT) units provide a maximum scan field-of-view (sFOV) diameter of 50 cm and a limited bore size, which cannot accommodate a large patient habitus or an extended simulation setup in radiation therapy (RT). Wide-bore CT scanners with increased bore size were developed to address these needs. Some scanners have the capacity to reconstruct the CT images at an extended FOV (eFOV), through data interpolation or extrapolation, using projection data acquired with a conventional sFOV. Objects that extend past the sFOV for eFOV reconstruction may generate image artifacts resulting from truncated projection data; this may distort CT numbers and structure contours in the region beyond the sFOV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of image artifacts from eFOV reconstruction with a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. Methods: Testing phantoms (i.e., a mini CT phantom with equivalent tissue inserts, a set of CT normal phantoms and anthropomorphic phantoms of the thorax and the pelvis) were used to evaluate eFOV artifacts. Reference baseline images of these phantoms were acquired with the phantom centrally positioned within the sFOV. For comparison, the phantoms were then shifted laterally and scanned partially outside the sFOV, but still within the eFOV. Treatment plans were generated for the thoracic and pelvic anthropomorphic phantoms utilizing the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) to study the potential effects of eFOV artifacts on dose calculations. All dose calculations of baseline and test treatment plans were carried out using the same MU. Results: Results show that both body contour and CT numbers are altered by image artifacts in eFOV reconstruction. CT number distortions of up to -356 HU for bone tissue and up to 323 HU for lung tissue were observed in the mini CT phantom. Results from the large body normal phantom, which is close to a clinical patient size, show

  16. Ecology of the Wood-boring Bivalve Martesia striata (Pholadidae) in Indian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennawar, P. L.; Thakur, N. L.; Anil, A. C.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A. B.

    1999-08-01

    Martesia striata (Linnaeus) is one of the dominant wood-boring organisms found in Indian waters. Incidence of this organism in the Zuari estuary (Goa) was evaluated by exposing wooden panels (Mangifera indica) to the marine environment between January 1996 and January 1997. Effects of salinity variation on embryonic and larval development were evaluated (salinity 0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 50, temperature 25 °C) and maximum metamorphic success was observed at 30 salinity. Results of the rearing experiments, destruction pattern of wood in the environment and reproductive biology indicate that although recruitment is halted during the monsoon, adults survive and become reproductively mature in the following post-monsoon, leading to increased recruitment during pre-monsoon months.

  17. Talc Pleurodesis Through Very-Small-Bore Catheters in Patients with Recurrent Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Özgen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a frequent and disturbing complication of metastatic disease. Talc pleurodesis via percutaneosly placed 12–18F catheters is an effective procedure to treat recurrent MPE. We aimed to determine the efficiency of talc pleurodesis through very-small-bore catheters in the treatment of recurrent malignant pleural effusion. Methods: We performed 13 talc pleurodesis procedures in 10 patients with recurrent MPE via pre-existing 7F (6 patients and 8F (4 patients pig-tail catheters. We analyzed technical and clinical success of the procedure. Results: All procedures were performed successfully. Complete or partial clinical success was achieved in 8 out of 10 patients. No major complication was observed. Conclusion: Talc pleurodesis through 7F or 8F catheters may be performed in selected patients with reduced patient discomfort, and similar success rates that was obtained using higher caliber catheters in the treatment of recurrent MPE.

  18. Write-Combined Logging: An Optimized Logging for Consistency in NVRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonvolatile memory (e.g., Phase Change Memory blurs the boundary between memory and storage and it could greatly facilitate the construction of in-memory durable data structures. Data structures can be processed and stored directly in NVRAM. To maintain the consistency of persistent data, logging is a widely adopted mechanism. However, logging introduces write-twice overhead. This paper introduces an optimized write-combined logging to reduce the writes to NVRAM log. By leveraging the fast-read and byte-addressable features of NVRAM, we can perform a read-and-compare operation before writes and thus issue writes in a finer-grained way. We tested our system on the benchmark suit STAMP which contains real-world applications. Experiment results show that our system can reduce the writes to NVRAM by 33%–34%, which can help extend the lifetime of NVRAM and improve performance. Averagely our system can improve performance by 7%–11%.

  19. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Load-sharing characteristic of multiple pinions driving in tunneling boring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Sun, Qinchao; Sun, Wei; Ding, Xin; Tu, Wenping; Wang, Qingguo

    2013-05-01

    The failure of the key parts, such as gears, in cutter head driving system of tunneling boring machine has not been properly solved under the interaction of driving motors asynchronously and wave tunneling torque load. A dynamic model of multi-gear driving system is established considering the inertia effects of driving mechanism and cutter head as well as the bending-torsional coupling. By taking into account the nonlinear coupling factors between ring gear and multiple pinions, the influence for meshing angle by bending-torsional coupling and the dynamic load-sharing characteristic of multiple pinions driving are analyzed. Load-sharing coefficients at different rotating cutter head speeds and input torques are presented. Numerical results indicate that the load-sharing coefficients can reach up to 1.2-1.3. A simulated experimental platform of the multiple pinions driving is carried out and the torque distributions under the step load in driving shaft of pinions are measured. The imbalance of torque distribution of pinions is verified and the load-sharing coefficients in each pinion can reach 1.262. The results of simulation and test are similar, which shows the correctness of theoretical model. A loop coupling control method is put forward based on current torque master slave control method. The imbalance of the multiple pinions driving in cutter head driving system of tunneling boring machine can be greatly decreased and the load-sharing coefficients can be reduced to 1.051 by using the loop coupling control method. The proposed research provides an effective solution to the imbalance of torque distribution and synchronous control method for multiple pinions driving of TBM.

  2. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) established in European coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M S; Merckelbach, Lucas M; Cragg, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Muzzle Flow Field Based on Calculation of Combustion Productions in Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang∗,Houqian Xu,Wei Wu; Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of numerical simulation of muzzle chemical flow field, and study the gunpowder combustion productions, the muzzle flow field is simulated coupled with the calculation of combustion productions in bore. The calculation in bore uses the gibbs free⁃energy minimization method and the classical interior ballistics model. The simulation of the muzzle flow field employs the multi⁃component ALE ( Arbitrary Lagrange⁃Euler ) equations. Computations are performed for a 12�7 mm gun. From 2�48 ms to 3�14 ms, the projectile moves in the gun barrel. CO and H2 O masses decrease by 3�37% and 6�51%, and H2 and CO2 masses increase by 11�11% and 10�58%. The changes conform to the fact that the water⁃gas equilibrium reaction of all reactions plays a dominant role in this phase. After the projectile leaves the barrel, the masses of H2 and CO decrease, and the masses of H2 O and CO2 increase. When it moves to 80d away from the muzzle, the decreases are 12�75% and 8�05%, and the increases are 12�76% and 36�26%, which tallies with the existence of muzzle flame. Further, CO and H2 burn more and more fiercely with the muzzle pressure pg increasing, and burn more and more weakly with the altitude rising. When two projectiles launch in series, the combustion of the second projectile muzzle flow field is fiercer than the first projectile. Analysis results have shown that the proposed method is effective for simulating the muzzle flow filed.

  4. CFD Modelling of Bore Erosion in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    A well-validated quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of the internal ballistics of two-stage light gas guns is modified to explicitly calculate the ablation of steel from the gun bore and the incorporation of the ablated wall material into the hydrogen working cas. The modified code is used to model 45 shots made with the NASA Ames 0.5 inch light gas gun over an extremely wide variety of gun operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical piston velocities (maximum errors of +/-2% to +/-6%) and maximum powder pressures (maximum errors of +/-10% with good igniters). Overall, the agreement between the experimental and numerically calculated gun erosion values (within a factor of 2) was judged to be reasonably good, considering the complexity of the processes modelled. Experimental muzzle velocities agree very well (maximum errors of 0.5-0.7 km/sec) with theoretical muzzle velocities calculated with loading of the hydrogen gas with the ablated barrel wall material. Comparison of results for pump tube volumes of 100%, 60% and 40% of an initial benchmark value show that, at the higher muzzle velocities, operation at 40% pump tube volume produces much lower hydrogen loading and gun erosion and substantially lower maximum pressures in the gun. Large muzzle velocity gains (2.4-5.4 km/sec) are predicted upon driving the gun harder (that is, upon using, higher powder loads and/or lower hydrogen fill pressures) when hydrogen loading is neglected; much smaller muzzle velocity gains (1.1-2.2 km/sec) are predicted when hydrogen loading is taken into account. These smaller predicted velocity gains agree well with those achieved in practice. CFD snapshots of the hydrogen mass fraction, density and pressure of the in-bore medium are presented for a very erosive shot.

  5. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, M., E-mail: Mas_Ishizuka@shi.co.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Research and Development Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima-chou, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Hamajima, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Itou, T. [Ehime Works, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 5-2 Soubiraki-cho, Niihama, Ehime 792-8588 (Japan); Sakuraba, J. [Research and Development Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima-chou, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb{sub 3}Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x {partial_derivative}Bz/{partial_derivative}z) of 4500 T{sup 2}/m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb{sub 3}Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb{sub 3}Sn wires.

  6. Study on the response of the full-bore conductance sensor for water cut measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ronghua; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai; Dai, Xuefei; Shan, Fujun; Xu, Wenfeng

    2009-02-01

    This paper has proposed a new structure of full-bore conductance sensor, which is designed for measuring water cut of the oil-water two-phase flow. The structure of the full-bore conductance sensor and the measurement principle are introduced in the paper. The mental ring-shaped electrode is mounted on the outside wall of the cylindrical insulation body. When the electrode is provided with constant current, according to the electrical theory, the electrode generates a voltage, the value of which is inversely proportional to the conductivity of fluid flowing between the sensor and the casing. The electrostatic field simulations of the sensor are accomplished by using ANSYS software. The results of the potential distribution simulation show that the potential decays quickly from the electrode along r direction (radial) and z direction (axial)to both sides, and the potential only distributes in a very narrow area near the electrode. A series of static experiments on the sensor are carried out in laboratory. The experiment results agree with the simulation results. In radial direction, the closer the rod is to the sensor, the more sensitive the sensor becomes and the greater the relative response becomes. In axial direction, the electrode only responds in a certain region on both sides of the electrode and decays rapidly from the electrode to both sides. And the salinity experiment is conducted in salt solution (3000 ppm), which shows that within the allowable range of experiment error, there is no effect of salinity on the sensor response. response.

  7. Bored pile construction%冲孔灌注桩施工要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明晓; 洪小灵

    2012-01-01

    Bored pile foundation as a mature technology,because of its simple installation,construction machinery import and the convenience,fast pile forming speed,quality and reliable,widely used.The bored pile construction process may produce problems in detail,for coastal mud layer too thick,too many boulder distribution of geological environment,the old city construction site is small,it may encounter problems,especially the pile press machine,the punching process emerged in the mud circulation plugging,probe stone underwater concrete,quality control,reasonable solutions and preventive measures.%冲孔灌注桩作为一种成熟的桩基工艺,因其施工机械安装简单、进出场地方便,成桩速度快、桩身质量可靠,得到广泛的应用。本文对冲孔灌注桩施工过程中可能产生的问题进行详细阐述,针对沿海淤泥层过厚,孤石分布偏多的地质环境,老城区施工场地偏小,就可能遇到的问题,特别是桩机走机、冲孔过程中出现的泥浆循环堵管、探头石、水下混凝土质量控制,提出合理的解决方法及预防措施。

  8. KFM 01A. Q-logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Nick [Nick Barton and Associates (Norway)

    2003-03-01

    The first Forsmark potential repository site borehole KFM 01A provided core from 101.8 to 1000.7 m depth. This was independently Q-logged during a two-day period (19th-20th February, 2003), without access to BORMAP results or regional jointing frequencies or orientations. The Q-logging was intended to be an independent check for subsequent BORMAP-derived Q-parameter estimation. The Q-logging was accomplished using the manually-recorded 'histogram method' which allows the logger to enter Q-parameter ranges and depths directly into the appropriate histograms, which facilitates subsequent data processing using Excel spreadsheets. Successive pairs of core boxes, which contain an average of 11 meters of core in ten rows, were the source of ten opinions of each of the six Q-parameters, giving a total of 4920 recordings of Q-parameter values for the 164 core boxes. Data processing was divided into several parts, with successively increasing detail. The report therefore contains Q-histograms for the whole core, for four identified fracture(d) zones combined as if one unit, and then for the whole core minus these fracture(d) zones. This background rock mass quality is subsequently divided into nine depth zones or slices, and trends of variation with depth are tabulated. The four identified fracture(d) zones, which are actually of reasonable quality, are also analysed separately, and similarities and subtle differences are discerned between them. The overall quality of this first core is very good to excellent, with Q(mean) of 48.4, and a most frequent Q-value of 100. The range of quality is from 2.1 to 2130, which is the complete upper half of the six order of magnitude Q scale. Even the relatively fracture(d) zones, representing some 13% of the 900 m cored, have a combined Q(mean) of 13.9 and a range of quality of 2.1 to 150.

  9. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  10. Pre-treatment assemblages of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) of the hardwood ecosystem experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Holland; John T. Shukle; Hossam Eldien M. Abdel Moniem; Thomas W. Mager; Kapil R. Raje; Kyle Schnepp; Shulin. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Longhorned beetles are a diverse and important group of insects in forest ecosystems; several species attack weakened or stressed trees, relatively few attack healthy trees, and most species use only dead and decomposing wood. We surveyed longhorned beetles and metallic wood-boring beetles using four different types of traps at 36 Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (Indiana...

  11. Influence of friction on buckling of a drill string in the circular channel of a bore hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gulyayev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore hole is one of the most important problems of the current petroleum industry. Not infrequently, the drilling of these bore holes is attended by occurrence of extraordinary situations associated with technical accidents. Among these is the Eulerian loss of stability of a drill string in the channel of a curvilinear bore hole. Methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role in prediction of these states. In this paper, a new statement of the problem of critical buckling of the drill strings in 3D curvilinear bore holes is proposed. It is based on combined use of the theory of curvilinear elastic rods, Eulerian theory of stability, theory of channel surfaces, and methods of classical mechanics of systems with nonlinear constraints. It is noted that the stated problem is singularly perturbed and its solutions have the shapes of localized harmonic wavelets. The calculation results showed that the friction effects lead to essential redistribution of internal axial forces, as well as changing the eigenmode shapes and sites of their localization. These features make the buckling phenomena less predictable and raise the role of computer simulation of these effects.

  12. Genome Sequence of Fusarium Isolate MYA-4552 from the Midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Invasive, Wood-Boring Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Joshua R; Scully, Erin D; Geib, Scott M; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E; Geiser, David M

    2016-07-21

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal, and insect associates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis.

  13. Genome sequence of Fusarium isolate MYA-4552 from the midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an invasive, wood-boring beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal and insect associates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplopho...

  14. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  15. Finite element methods in resistivity logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, J. R.

    1993-09-01

    Resistivity measurements are used in geophysical logging to help determine hydrocarbon reserves. The derivation of formation parameters from resistivity measurements is a complicated nonlinear procedure often requiring additional geological information. This requires an excellent understanding of tool physics, both to design new tools and interpret the measurements of existing tools. The Laterolog measurements in particular are difficult to interpret because the response is very nonlinear as a function of electrical conductivity, unlike Induction measurements. Forward modeling of the Laterolog is almost invariably done with finite element codes which require the inversion of large sparse matrices. Modern techniques can be used to accelerate this inversion. Moreover, an understanding of the tool physics can help refine these numerical techniques.

  16. Leading Log Solution for Inflationary Yukawa

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, S P; Miao, Shun-Pei

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Starobinskii's stochastic technique to the theory of a massless, minimally coupled scalar interacting with a massless fermion in a locally de Sitter geometry. The scalar is an ``active'' field that can engender infrared logarithms. The fermion is a ``passive'' field that cannot cause infrared logarithms but which can carry them, and which can also induce new interactions between the active fields. The procedure for dealing with passive fields is to integrate them out, then stochastically simplify the resulting effective action following Starobinski\\u{\\i}. Because Yukawa theory is quadratic in the fermion this can be done explicitly using the classic solution of Candelas and Raine. We check the resulting stochastic formulation against an explicit two loop computation. We also derive a nonperturbative, leading log result for the stress tensor. Because the scalar effective potential induced by fermions is unbounded below, back-reaction from this model might dynamically cancel an arbitrarily large c...

  17. Families of Log Canonically Polarized Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Dundon, Ariana

    2011-01-01

    Determining the number of singular fibers in a family of varieties over a curve is a generalization of Shafarevich's Conjecture and has implications for the types of subvarieties that can appear in the corresponding moduli stack. We consider families of log canonically polarized varieties over $\\P^1$, i.e. families $g:(Y,D)\\to \\P^1$ where $D$ is an effective snc divisor and the sheaf $\\omega_{Y/\\P^1}(D)$ is $g$-ample. After first defining what it means for fibers of such a family to be singular, we show that with the addition of certain mild hypotheses (the fibers have finite automorphism group, $\\sO_Y(D)$ is semi-ample, and the components of $D$ must avoid the singular locus of the fibers and intersect the fibers transversely), such a family must either be isotrivial or contain at least 3 singular fibers.

  18. Stratigraphy of a proposed wind farm site southeast of Block Island: Utilization of borehole samples, downhole logging, and seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Dane P. H.

    Seismic stratigraphy, sedimentology, lithostratigraphy, downhole geophysical logging, mineralogy, and palynology were used to study and interpret the upper 70 meters of the inner continental shelf sediments within a proposed wind farm site located approximately two to three nautical miles to the southeast of Block Island, Rhode Island. Core samples and downhole logging collected from borings drilled for geotechnical purposes at proposed wind turbine sites along with seismic surveys in the surrounding area provide the data for this study. Cretaceous coastal plain sediments that consist of non-marine to marine sand, silt, and clay are found overlying bedrock at a contact depth beyond the sampling depth of this study. The upper Cretaceous sediments sampled in borings are correlated with the Magothy/Matawan formations described regionally from New Jersey to Nantucket. An unconformity formed through sub-aerial, fluvial, marine, and glacial erosion marks the upper strata of the Cretaceous sediments separating them from the overlying deposits. The majority of Quaternary deposits overlying the unconformity represent the advance, pulsing, and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet that reached its southern terminus in the area of Block Island approximately 25,000 to 21,000 years before present. The sequence consists of a basal glacial till overlain by sediments deposited by meltwater environments ranging from deltaic to proglacial lakefloor. A late Pleistocene to early Holocene unconformity marks the top of the glacial sequence and was formed after glacial retreat through fluvial and subaerial erosion/deposition. Overlying the glacial sequence are sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene and Holocene consisting of interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Sampling of these sediments was limited and surficial reflectors in seismic profiles were masked due to a hard bottom return. However, two depositional periods are interpreted as representing fluvial and estuarine

  19. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control) forests burned at high severity in northern Montana, eastern Washington, and southern British Columbia to quantify rill overland flow and sediment production rates (fluxes) after ground-based salvage logging. We tested different types of logging equipment-feller-bunchers, tracked and wheeled skidders, and wheeled forwarders-as well as traffic levels and the addition of slash to skid trails as a best management practice. Rill experiments were done at each location in the first year after the fire and repeated in subsequent years. Logging was completed in the first or second post-fire year. We found that ground-based logging using heavy equipment compacted soil, reduced soil water repellency, and reduced vegetation cover. Vegetation recovery rates were slower in most logged areas than the controls. Runoff rates were higher in the skidder and forwarder plots than their respective controls in the Montana and Washington sites in the year that logging occurred, and the difference in runoff between the skidder and control plots at the British Columbia site was nearly significant (p = 0.089). Most of the significant increases in runoff in the logged plots persisted for subsequent years. The type of skidder, the addition of slash, and the amount of forwarder traffic did not significantly affect the runoff rates. Across the three sites, rill sediment fluxes were 5-1900% greater in logged plots than the controls in the year of logging, and the increases were significant for all logging treatments except the low use forwarder trails. There was no difference in the first-year sediment fluxes between the feller

  20. Log rank检验的功效%The Power of Log Rank Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 王曙炎; 赵国龙

    2006-01-01

    目的:Log rank检验是生存资料比较的标准方法,但无与之匹配的样本量测定方法.论述了这种检验的功效,为样本量研究提供依据.方法:由Lachin-Foulkes法计算期望功效作为参照,回顾Log rank检验的3种形式,按Monte Carlo方法分别计算其观测功效,然后作对比分析.结果:所得观测功效在多数试验集均低于期望功效.与上半部相比,寿命表下半部期望和观测功效均较低.所得观测功效在不同终检水平或不同生存分布各不相同.结论:Lachin-Foulkes法产生的样本量偏小,不能满足Log rank检验的预定功效.Log rank检验所需样本量因终检水平、生存时间或生存分布而异,Lachin-Foulkes法无视这些事实,无法作出切合实际的测定.因此必须寻求与这种检验匹配的样本量测定方法.

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  2. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  3. Development of a Single-Borehole Radar for Well Logging

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-ou Zhou; Qing Zhao; Haining Yang; Tingjun Li

    2012-01-01

    An impulse-based single-borehole radar prototype has been developed for well logging. The borehole radar is comprised of subsurface sonde and surface equipment. An armored 7-conductor well logging cable is used to connect subsurface sonde and surface equipment which is well compatible with the other well logging instruments. The performance experiments of the prototype have been conducted in a test field. The results show that the prototype system is capable of detecting the target which is 8...

  4. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  5. Mining Interesting Knowledge from Web-Log

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-fang; FENG Bo-qin; HEI Xin-hong; LU Lin-tao

    2004-01-01

    Web-log contains a lot of information related with user activities on the Internet.How to mine user browsing interest patterns effectively is an important and challengeable research topic.On the analysis of the present algorithm's advantages and disadvantages, we propose a new concept: support-interest.Its key insight is that visitor will backtrack if they do not find the information where they expect.And the point from where they backtrack is the expected location for the page.We present User Access Matrix and the corresponding algorithm for discovering such expected locations that can handle page caching by the browser.Since the URL-URL matrix is a sparse matrix which can be represented by List of 3-tuples, we can mine user preferred sub-paths from the computation of this matrix.Accordingly, all the sub-paths are merged, and user preferred paths are formed.Experiments showed that it was accurate and scalable.It's suitable for website based application, such as to optimize website's topological structure or to design personalized services.

  6. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  7. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  8. Rock mass characterization for Copenhagen Metro using face logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Louise; Galsgaard, Jens; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    of relevant rock mass properties for tunnelling in Danian limestone has previously been difficult, as core logging shows a high degree of induced fracturing and core loss due to drilling disturbance, with an underestimation of the RQD values, and other rock mass properties, compared to face logging. However......, describing rock mass characteristics using detailed face logging with geological description and recording of induration and fracturing, giving a field RQD value during excavation, combined with televiewer logs, when available, has shown to be a valuable tool for rock mass characterization compared...

  9. Core-log integration for a Saudi Arabian sandstone reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.; Al-Kaabi, A.U.; Amabeoku, M.O.; Al-Fossail, K.

    1995-10-01

    For a detailed characterization of a reservoir, core-log integration is essential. In this paper, data integration from logs and cores of a Saudi Arabian sandstone reservoir is discussed with particular attention to effects of clay on resistivity logs and water saturation. There are four sources of data, namely, core resistivity measurement, clay study from cores (XRD, CEC), spectral core gamma ray, and well logs. In order to generate continuous cation exchange capacity (CEC) with depth, spectral gamma ray measurements (both from core and downhole log) and CEC from cores and correlated. Q{sub v} (CEC per unit pore volume) values are calculated utilizing only well logs by applying Waxman-Smits equation in water bearing zone. Log derived Q{sub v} values from water zone were then correlated with porosity to generate Q{sub v} values in the oil column and compared with core derived Z{sub v}. Finally, data from well logs (porosity, resistivity and Q{sub v}) and cores (resistivity parameters m, n, and Q{sub v}) were integrated for more accurate water saturation calculation. The core-log correlation can be applied to other wells avoiding expensive core analysis, and the technique developed in this project can be used in other sandstone reservoirs.

  10. 双模式全断面掘进机探讨%Discussion on Dual-mode Full-face Tunnel Boring Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁川; 李光

    2013-01-01

    为适应地质的复杂性以及中国国情,探讨双模式全断面掘进机的未来发展趋势,并举例说明双模式全断面掘进机的设计理念,详述其主要结构及适用范围.与单模式掘进机相比,双模式全断面掘进机地质适应性广、设备利用率高、施工成本低,是隧道掘进设备技术发展的主要方向之一,具有良好的发展前景.%The development trend of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is discussed,the design concept of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is presented and the main structure and applicability scope of dual-mode fullface tunnel boring machines are described in detail.The study shows that,compared to single-mode tunnel boring machines,the applicability scope of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is more extensive,the availability of dualmode full-face tunnel boring machines is higher and the tunneling cost of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is lower.Conclusion is drawn that the dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machine,which is the main development trend of tunnel boring machines,has a splendid future.

  11. 1 MA Breech Upgrade for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Rectangular 22- x-44-mm In-bore Cross Section Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    1 MA Breech Upgrade for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Rectangular 22- × 44-mm In-bore Cross Section Railgun by Miguel A. Del...Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Rectangular 22- × 44-mm In-bore Cross Section Railgun Miguel A. Del Güercio and Alexander Michlin Weapons and Materials Research...bore Cross Section Railgun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Miguel A. Del Güercio and Alexander

  12. Wushuihe Bridge Large Diameter Bored Pile Construction in Water%舞水河大桥水中大直径钻孔桩施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维远

    2015-01-01

    This article introduced the construction process of the large diameter bored pile of Wushuige Bridge, summarized the construction technology of large diameter bored pile, and discussed the troubleshooting process for bored pile construction.%本文通过舞水河特大桥大口径钻孔桩的施工过程的介绍,对大口径钻孔桩的施工工艺进行了总结,并对钻孔桩施工过程的故障处理进行了探讨。

  13. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  14. Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of Cutterhead Driving System in Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of cutterhead driving system (CDS of tunnel boring machine (TBM often occurs under shock and vibration conditions. To investigate the dynamic characteristics and reduce system vibration further, an electromechanical coupling model of CDS is established which includes the model of direct torque control (DTC system for three-phase asynchronous motor and purely torsional dynamic model of multistage gear transmission system. The proposed DTC model can provide driving torque just as the practical inverter motor operates so that the influence of motor operating behavior will not be erroneously estimated. Moreover, nonlinear gear meshing factors, such as time-variant mesh stiffness and transmission error, are involved in the dynamic model. Based on the established nonlinear model of CDS, vibration modes can be classified into three types, that is, rigid motion mode, rotational vibration mode, and planet vibration mode. Moreover, dynamic responses under actual driving torque and idealized equivalent torque are compared, which reveals that the ripple of actual driving torque would aggravate vibration of gear transmission system. Influence index of torque ripple is proposed to show that vibration of system increases with torque ripple. This study provides useful guideline for antivibration design and motor control of CDS in TBM.

  15. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  16. A Method Using Optical Contactless Displacement Sensors to Measure Vibration Stress of Small-Bore Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Noda, Michiyasu

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibration stress of piping is frequently evaluated to prevent fatigue failure. A simple and fast measurement method is attractive to evaluate many piping systems efficiently. In this study, a method to measure the vibration stress using optical contactless displacement sensors was proposed, the prototype instrument was developed, and the instrument practicality for the method was verified. In the proposed method, light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as measurement sensors and the vibration stress was estimated by measuring the deformation geometry of the piping caused by oscillation, which was measured as the piping curvature radius. The method provided fast and simple vibration estimates for small-bore piping. Its verification and practicality were confirmed by vibration tests using a test pipe and mock-up piping. The stress measured by both the proposed method and an accurate conventional method using strain gauges were in agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed method could be used for actual plant piping systems.

  17. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J.; Mayer, S.

    2013-04-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

  18. Supersonic Virtual Valve Design for Numerical Simulation of a Large-Bore Natural Gas Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.-H.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Mitchell, C.

    2007-10-01

    In many applications of supersonic injection devices, three-dimensional computation that can model a complex supersonic jet has become critical. However, in spite of its increasing necessity, it is computationally costly to capture the details of supersonic structures in intricate three-dimensional geometries with moving boundaries. In large-bore stationary natural gas fueled engine research, one of the most promising mixing enhancement technologies currently used for natural gas engines is high-pressure fuel injection. Consequently, this creates considerable interest in three-dimensional computational simulations that can examine the entire injection and mixing process in engines using high-pressure injection and can determine the impact of injector design on engine performance. However, the cost of three-dimensional engine simulations-including a moving piston and the kinetics of combustion and pollutant production quickly becomes considerable in terms of simulation time requirements. One limiting factor is the modeling of the small length scales of the poppet valve flow. Such length scales can be three orders of magnitude smaller than cylinder length scales. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a methodology for the design of a simple geometry supersonic virtual valve that can be substituted in three-dimensional numerical models for the complex shrouded poppet valve injection system actually installed in the engine to be simulated.

  19. Arrival of the Robbins machine in LSS1 after completing the boring of the SPS tunnel.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic eq...

  20. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  1. Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Baalbergen

    Full Text Available Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies.

  2. Simulation of rock fragmentation induced by a tunnel boring machine disk cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A constitutive model based on the Johnson–Cook material model and the extended Drucker–Prager strength criterion was implemented in LS-DYNA to simulate the rock failure process induced by a single disk cutter of a tunnel boring machine. The normal, rolling, and side forces were determined by numerical tests. The simulation results showed that the normal and rolling forces increased with increasing penetration while the side force changed little. The normal force also increased under the conditions of confining pressures. The damage region of rock and cutting forces were also obtained by simulation of two disk cutters acting in tandem with different cutting spacings. The optimum ratio of cutter spacing to penetration depth determined from numerical modeling agrees well with that obtained by linear cutting machine tests. The average normal and rolling forces acting on the first cutter are slightly greater than those acting on the second when the cutting disk spacing is relatively small. The numerical modeling was verified to accurately capture the fragmentation of rock induced by disk cutter.

  3. Down-bore two-laser heterodyne velocimetry of an implosion-driven hypervelocity launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Myles; Huneault, Justin; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The implosion-driven launcher uses explosives to shock-compress helium, driving well-characterized projectiles to velocities exceeding 10 km/s. The masses of projectiles range between 0.1 - 15 g, and the design shows excellent scalability, reaching similar velocities across different projectile sizes. In the past, velocity measurements have been limited to muzzle velocity obtained via a high-speed videography upon the projectile exiting the launch tube. Recently, Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has demonstrated the ability to continuously measure in-bore velocity, even in the presence of significant blow-by of high temperature helium propellant past the projectile. While a single laser system sampled at 40 GS/s with a 13 GHz detector/scope bandwidth is limited to 8 km/s, a two-laser PDV system is developed that uses two lasers operating near 1550 nm to provide velocity measurement capabilities up to 16 km/s with the same bandwidth and sampling rate. The two-laser PDV system is used to obtain a continuous velocity history of the projectile throughout the entire launch cycle. These internal ballistics trajectories are used to compare different advanced concepts aimed at increasing the projectile velocity to well beyond 10 km/s.

  4. Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2010-10-01

    Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national "don't move firewood" campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at > dollars U.S. 98 million from 34 countries.

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  6. Numerical and experimental analysis of middle-bore copper-vapor laser discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deli; Tao, Yongxiang; Yin, Xianhua; Chen, Lin; Yang, Yan; Li, Hailan; Wang, Runwen

    1998-08-01

    A single simulation model describing the discharge circuitry is introduced. First the differential equations are presented. In order to calculate the laser head discharge current, the thyratron resistance with a switching time coefficient (tau) s is investigated. The plasma conductivity used in these models is estimated using the available data on plasma parameters. Here 0.6 eV of the average electron temperature and 80 nH of thyratron inductance are assumed according to our previous model. The laser head discharge current of the differential equations is calculated with the method of Runge- Kutta. The discharge current profiles of the simulation are found to be in close agreement with the experimental data which come from 4.8-cm-diameter and 6.5-cm-diameter middle- bore Copper-Vapor Laser. In this way, the factors which effect the short rise time to increase lasing ability in the CVL (Copper-Vapor Laser) are studied on the bases of studying the storage capacitor's and the peaking capacitor's effect. As a calculation result, the inductance of the laser head takes an inferior effect to the thyratron circuit inductance on the discharge current rise time. Very good agreement exists between the calculated and measured results. This is a successful single discharge model.

  7. A Superconducting Magnet with Center Field of 10 T and φ100 mm Warm Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋良; 严陆光; 赵宝志; 宋守森

    2006-01-01

    A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet with central field of 10T and warm bore of 100 mm was designed based on a Nb3Sn and two NbTi superconducting coils. At the first stage, the NbTi coils have been fabricated and tested. A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler with the second-stage power in 1W, 4.2K is used to cool the magnet from room temperature to 4 K. The superconducting magnet with the same power supply has the operating current of 116A. The magnet can be rotated with a support frame to be operated with either horizontal or vertical position. A pair of Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting current leads was employed to reduce heat leakage into 4.2K level. The NbTi coils reachto the operating current of 120A without training effect to be observed during charging of the magnet during 40 minutes charging time and generate the center field of 6.5T. The training effect in the NbTi magnet directly cool-down by cryocooler and inter-winding support structure in magnet can be remarkably improved. The superconducting magnet has been stably operated for more than 275 hours with 6.5T. In this paper, the detailed design, fabrication, stress analysis and quench protection characteristics are presented.

  8. Safety assessment of a bored pile diaphragm in a medium-height dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of embankment dams of a new type: a rockfill dam with a clay-cement concrete diaphragm built by bored-pile method. The authors give the results of numerical modeling of a stress-strain state of 69 m high dam, where a diaphragm in the form of a slurry trench cutoff wall cuts the whole dam body and a23 m deep gravel-pebble foundation. The co-authors describe a dam design where the diaphragm is constructed in three lifts. The diaphragm lifts are connected by slabs made of clay-cement concrete or clay. Numerical modeling was carried out with the use of the author’s computer program with consideration of non-linearity of soils deformation. Analyses showed that clay-cement concrete of a slurry trench cutoff wall is in a favorable stress state, as clay-cement concrete by its deformation characteristics (E = 100 МPа is close to gravel-pebble soil. The diaphragm deflections turned to be small; therefore, tensile stresses will not occur in it. In the diaphragm the clay-cement concrete is in a state of triaxial compression, therefore, its strength will be higher than unconfined compression strength (1-2 МPа. It may be expected that its strength will be provided. The nodes of connection of the slurry trench cutoff wall lifts also demonstrate safe operation.

  9. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli, N.M. Srivatsa

    2016-04-26

    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  10. Research on Dynamic Models and Performances of Shield Tunnel Boring Machine Cutterhead Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A general nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model and linear time-varying (LTV dynamic model are presented for shield tunnel boring machine (TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. Different gear backlashes and mesh damped and transmission errors are considered in the NLTV dynamic model. The corresponding multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO state space models are also presented. Through analyzing the linear dynamic model, the optimal reducer ratio (ORR and optimal transmission ratio (OTR are obtained for the shield TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. The NLTV and LTV dynamic models are numerically simulated, and the effects of physical parameters under various conditions of NLTV dynamic model are analyzed. Physical parameters such as the load torque, gear backlash and transmission error, gear mesh stiffness and damped, pinions inertia and damped, large gear inertia and damped, and motor rotor inertia and damped are investigated in detail to analyze their effects on dynamic response and performances of the shield TBM cutterhead driving system. Some preliminary approaches are proposed to improve dynamic performances of the cutterhead driving system, and dynamic models will provide a foundation for shield TBM cutterhead driving system's cutterhead fault diagnosis, motion control, and torque synchronous control.

  11. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  12. Regressive approach for predicting bearing capacity of bored piles from cone penetration test data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad S. Alkroosh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the least square support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm was applied to predicting the bearing capacity of bored piles embedded in sand and mixed soils. Pile geometry and cone penetration test (CPT results were used as input variables for prediction of pile bearing capacity. The data used were collected from the existing literature and consisted of 50 case records. The application of LSSVM was carried out by dividing the data into three sets: a training set for learning the problem and obtaining a relationship between input variables and pile bearing capacity, and testing and validation sets for evaluation of the predictive and generalization ability of the obtained relationship. The predictions of pile bearing capacity by LSSVM were evaluated by comparing with experimental data and with those by traditional CPT-based methods and the gene expression programming (GEP model. It was found that the LSSVM performs well with coefficient of determination, mean, and standard deviation equivalent to 0.99, 1.03, and 0.08, respectively, for the testing set, and 1, 1.04, and 0.11, respectively, for the validation set. The low values of the calculated mean squared error and mean absolute error indicated that the LSSVM was accurate in predicting the pile bearing capacity. The results of comparison also showed that the proposed algorithm predicted the pile bearing capacity more accurately than the traditional methods including the GEP model.

  13. Preliminary studies of a novel multifunctional wide-bore electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Xin; Dan, Yong-Bo; Fang, Xin; Bao, James Jianmin

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a novel multifunctional analysis platform established on the basis of wide-bore electrophoresis (WBE) and CE. The WBE–CE system integrated various analytical steps including separation, transfer, reaction, detection, and storage into a single system. During the WBE–CE process, a distinct three-electrode format was adopted to continuously separate and transfer samples between WBE and CE without the interruption of switching on-and-off the power suppliers. This continuous mode of operation also helped to eliminate the need for exactly timing the transfer of specific samples zone from WBE to CE and avoided the danger of missing specific samples. Samples representing mixtures of acids, bases, or proteins were analyzed on this system for evaluating its feasibility and applicability. The results indicated that the resolution achieved on this WBE–CE system was better than either the WBE or the CE alone. Further, samples transferred out of the WBE system could participate in online reaction, such as enzymatic reaction in the CE. Alternatively, samples from the WBE system could be transferred out and stored offline in a vial for post-transfer reaction. The results demonstrated that this WBE–CE system has the potential to be a multifunctional platform for a range of applications.

  14. Hard rock tunnel boring machine penetration test as an indicator of chipping process efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Villeneuve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from grinding to chipping can be observed in tunnel boring machine (TBM penetration test data by plotting the penetration rate (distance/revolution against the net cutter thrust (force per cutter over the full range of penetration rates in the test. Correlating penetration test data to the geological and geomechanical characteristics of rock masses through which a penetration test is conducted provides the ability to reveal the efficiency of the chipping process in response to changing geological conditions. Penetration test data can also be used to identify stress-induced tunnel face instability. This research shows that the strength of the rock is an important parameter for controlling how much net cutter thrust is required to transition from grinding to chipping. It also shows that the geological characteristics of a rock will determine how efficient chipping occurs once it has begun. In particular, geological characteristics that lead to efficient fracture propagation, such as fabric and mica contents, will lead to efficient chipping. These findings will enable a better correlation between TBM performance and geological conditions for use in TBM design, as a basis for contractual payments where penetration rate dominates the excavation cycle and in further academic investigations into the TBM excavation process.

  15. Generation of undular bores in the shelves of slowly-varying solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, G. A.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.

    2002-12-01

    We study the long-time evolution of the trailing shelves that form behind solitary waves moving through an inhomogeneous medium, within the framework of the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. We show that the nonlinear evolution of the shelf leads typically to the generation of an undular bore and an expansion fan, which form apart but start to overlap and nonlinearly interact after a certain time interval. The interaction zone expands with time and asymptotically as time goes to infinity occupies the whole perturbed region. Its oscillatory structure strongly depends on the sign of the inhomogeneity gradient of the variable background medium. We describe the nonlinear evolution of the shelves in terms of exact solutions to the KdV-Whitham equations with natural boundary conditions for the Riemann invariants. These analytic solutions, in particular, describe the generation of small "secondary" solitary waves in the trailing shelves, a process observed earlier in various numerical simulations. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  16. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S. [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H.J. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S. [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  17. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  18. Computer log evaluation in tertiary coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, S.; Krestan, J.

    1984-01-01

    The technology of working a lignite quarry in north Czechoslovakia includes use of AR, GK, GGKP, NNK and a cavernometer with digital processing of the material on an analog-digital transformer of the CSSR in the field and subsequent computer processing an an Eclipse C300. Hungarian equipment was used with recording scale: 1:100, quantization spacing was 0.1 m. The NNK probe was L = 50 cm, the NNK and GGKP calibrations were made on a rock block with known parameters. The task of logging is to determine the base of the productive interval, as well as the ash content (ASH) and calorific value (QD) of the coal in the shaft. The processing graph includes editing (translation of the conventional units into physical quantities) and construction of statistical distributions of parameters. The clay content K /sub cl/ is defined as the minimum quantity for double differential parameter GK and for NNK. The Cross plot of NNK (NPOR)-GGKP (DEN) determines the effective porosity EPOR, as well as the maximum points for porosity (48-53%) and density (1.28-1.75 g/cm/sup 3/) that characterize the coals. In order to determine QD and ASH, regression is used (linear, exponential, logarithmic, parabolic and hyperbolic). The clay type is determined by cross plot GK-GGKP. Examples are given of computer constructions, as well as the summary interpretation document which characterizes the initial and definite parameters in the bed mode (DEN, NPOR, GR, RESN, DS, VSH, EPOR, QD, ASH). The interpretation system is called SG.

  19. Cone penetration tests and soil borings at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Noce, Thomas E.; Lienkaemper, James J.

    2011-01-01

    In support of a study to investigate the history of the Green Valley Fault, 13 cone penetration test soundings and 3 auger borings were made at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California. Three borings were made at or near two of the cone penetration test soundings. The soils are mostly clayey with a few sandy layers or lenses. Fine-grained soils range from low plasticity sandy lean clay to very plastic fat clay. Lack of stratigraphic correlation in the subsurface prevented us from determining whether any channels had been offset at this site. Because the soils are generally very clayey and few sand layers or lenses are loose, the liquefaction potential at the site is very low.

  20. Development of 5 T NbTi Superconducting Magnet with 160 mm Warm Bore for Magnetic Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; WU Yu; LI Shaolei

    2008-01-01

    A wide-bore 5 T NbTi superconducting magnet,for magnetic separator,with an operational current of 106 A is designed and fabricated. This magnet with a φ60 mm room temperature bore is installed in a vacuum cryostat and immersed in liquid helium.A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler is used to maintain the cooling shield at 70 K and the condenser at 4 K in order to achieve the zero vaporization loss of liquid helium. The cooling power of the GM cryocooler is 1.5 W.In this paper,the design,heat leakage,stress analysis,quench protection characteristics and preliminary test results are presented.

  1. An alternative to the traveling-wave approach for use in two-port descriptions of acoustic bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, Eric

    2002-12-01

    For more than a decade, the digital waveguide model for musical instruments has been improved through the simulation of cylindrical and conical bores. But several difficulties remain, such as instabilities due to growing exponentials which appear when two conical bores are connected with decreasing taper. In this paper, an alternative overcoming these difficulties is proposed and can be extended to shapes other than cylinders, cones, and hyperbolic horns. A two-port model with more general state variables than usual traveling waves works efficiently for any shape without discontinuities in cross section. The equations for connecting separate elements at discontinuities make this two-port model appropriate for use in time domain simulation of the physical behavior of the wind instrument and its interactions with the player. The potential of this new approach is illustrated by several detailed examples.

  2. Performance of a 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil with a 300 mm wide cold bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Awaji, Satoshi; Hanai, Satoshi; Ioka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tsubouchi, Hirokazu

    2016-08-01

    A large-bore 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was developed for a 25 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet. The magnet consisted of a low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet of NbTi and Nb3Sn Rutherford coils, and a high-temperature superconducting magnet. The Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was fabricated by the react-and-wind method for the first time. The LTS magnet reached the designed operation current of 854 A without a training quench at a 1 h ramp rate. The central magnetic field generated by the LTS magnet was measured by a Hall sensor to be 14.0 T at 854 A in a 300 mm cold bore.

  3. "The defects of his race": E.G. Boring and antisemitism in American psychology, 1923-1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, A S

    1998-02-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, Edwin G. Boring wrote letters of reference for Jewish students and colleagues in which he followed the common practice of identifying them as Jews and assessing whether they showed "objectionable traits" thought to characterize Jews. These practices are discussed in relation to the increasing antisemitism of the interwar period, with specific reference to Abraham A. Roback and Kurt Lewin. In Roback's case, the "defect" of Jewishness was thought to explain his undesirable personality: with Lewin, personal charm mitigated the "defect" of Jewishness. Boring's unsuccessful attempts to place Jewish students, his subsequent pessimism, and his postwar discussions of Jewish identity are examined in relation to the general issue of antisemitism in the history of academic psychology.

  4. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  5. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  6. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis:Ⅱ.Shaping, Boring, Mortising and Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method of this paper is based on the standards of American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM).Four items that contain boring,mortising,shaping and turning are selected to study the machining properties of E. urophylla×E. grandis plantation wood.The reasons for machining defects are analyzed.The result shows that E.urophylla×E.grandis planted in South China is a good species with great potential for solid wood utilization.

  7. Intrinsic advantages of packed capillaries over narrow-bore columns in very high-pressure gradient liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2016-06-17

    250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC.

  8. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season of navigation, parties engaged in...

  9. New Data-Logging Tools--New Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    Presents examples of the types of investigations which exploit the tools now commonly featured in data-logging software. Emphasizes the importance of designing tasks that encourage pupils to think about the data and the principles which underpin worthwhile data-logging tasks. (Author/ASK)

  10. Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

  11. Log-concave Probability Distributions: Theory and Statistical Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Mark Yuing

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies the broad class of log-concave probability distributions that arise in economics of uncertainty and information. For univariate, continuous, and log-concave random variables we prove useful properties without imposing the differentiability of density functions. Discrete and mul...

  12. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  13. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  14. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Federal Reserve Board, 12 CFR part 203) indicates a pattern of significant variation in the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank...

  15. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  16. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  17. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  18. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  19. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  20. Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenkin, A.; Bolker, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Licona, J.C.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an importan

  1. 弹带挤进过程身管内壁损伤的数值模拟研究%Numerical simulation for gun barrel bore damage during shells with into bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广生; 孙河洋; 周伟

    2015-01-01

    针对火炮发射过程中内膛的损伤、裂纹萌生和扩展问题,基于 HLC 细观损伤本构模型建立了相应的损伤力学有限元数值计算方法,将完全隐式应力更新算法与显式有限元计算相结合,通过用户自定义材料子程序 VUMAT 将损伤模型嵌入到有限元软件 ABAQUS /EXPLICIT 模块中。对某型火炮多发射击工况下内膛损伤破坏过程进行了数值模拟计算,分析了弹带挤进内膛过程中身管内壁材料性能随射弹发数变化的规律,并与实验进行了对比。结果表明:HLC细观损伤模型可以有效揭示身管内膛复杂的损伤行为并预测破裂缺陷,为火炮身管安全性设计提供有益的参考。%A damage mechanics finite element numerical computation method was established based on HLC microscopic damage model to solve problems of gun barrel bore damage,crack initialization and growth during gun firing. With this method,the completely implicit stress renewing algorithm was combined with the explicit finite element computation,the damage model was embedded into the finite element software ABAQUS /EXPLICIT module with a VUMAT subroutine.The damage and failure process of the barrel bore of a certain type of gun was simulated numerically during multiple rounds of firings.The law of the barrel bore material performance changing with the number of firing rounds was analyzed during shells with into bore and the simulated results were compared with the experimental ones.The results showed that HLC microscopic damage model can reveal the complicate damage behavior of the barrel bore and predict its cracking defects.The results provided a reference for safety design of gun barrels.

  2. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R

    2008-04-01

    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer.

  3. Fine-structural analysis of black band disease-infected coral reveals boring cyanobacteria and novel bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Blackwelder, Patricia; Al-Sayegh, Husain; Richardson, Laurie L

    2011-02-22

    Examination of coral fragments infected with black band disease (BBD) at the fine- and ultrastructural levels using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed novel features of the disease. SEM images of the skeleton from the host coral investigated (Montastraea annularis species complex) revealed extensive boring underneath the BBD mat, with cyanobacterial filaments present within some of the bore holes. Cyanobacteria were observed to penetrate into the overlying coral tissue from within the skeleton and were present throughout the mesoglea between tissue layers (coral epidermis and gastrodermis). A population of novel, as yet unidentified, small filamentous bacteria was found at the leading edge of the migrating band. This population increased in number within the band and was present within degrading coral epithelium, suggesting a role in disease etiology. In coral tissue in front of the leading edge of the band, cyanobacterial filaments were observed to be emerging from bundles of sloughed-off epidermal tissue. Degraded gastrodermis that contained actively dividing zooxanthellae was observed using both TEM and SEM. The BBD mat contained cyanobacterial filaments that were twisted, characteristic of negative-tactic responses. Some evidence of boring was found in apparently healthy control coral fragments; however, unlike in BBD-infected fragments, there were no associated cyanobacteria. These results suggest the coral skeleton as a possible source of pathogenic BBD cyanobacteria. Additionally, SEM revealed the presence of a potentially important group of small, filamentous BBD-associated bacteria yet to be identified.

  4. Deformation Compensation of Ram Components of Super-heavy-duty CNC Floor Type Boring and Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fenghe; QIAO Lijun; XU Yaoling

    2012-01-01

    Ram is a very important component of super-heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC) floor type boring-milling machine,and deformation of ram is a significant source causing errors in machining process.To compensate the deformation error of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring-milling machine,based on force analysis theory,the law and compensation measures of deformation of ram are researched.Based on the principle of torque (force) balance of the ram components,the formulas of compensation forces and compensation torques are derived,the relations between compensation forces (compensation torques)and the stroke distance of the ram are given.According to theoretical analysis results and the structural characteristics of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring and milling machine of TK6932,rods compensation,hydrostatic pressure compensation and wire rope compensation measures are taken to compensate the deformation error of ram.The experiments and computer simulation results show that the straightness of the ram at its overhanging end meets the national machinery industry standards.

  5. Respiratory-Gated MRgHIFU in Upper Abdomen Using an MR-Compatible In-Bore Digital Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Auboiroux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To demonstrate the technical feasibility and the potential interest of using a digital optical camera inside the MR magnet bore for monitoring the breathing cycle and subsequently gating the PRFS MR thermometry, MR-ARFI measurement, and MRgHIFU sonication in the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods. A digital camera was reengineered to remove its magnetic parts and was further equipped with a 7 m long USB cable. The system was electromagnetically shielded and operated inside the bore of a closed 3T clinical scanner. Suitable triggers were generated based on real-time motion analysis of the images produced by the camera (resolution 640×480 pixels, 30 fps. Respiratory-gated MR-ARFI prepared MRgHIFU ablation was performed in the kidney and liver of two sheep in vivo, under general anaesthesia and ventilator-driven forced breathing. Results. The optical device demonstrated very good MR compatibility. The current setup permitted the acquisition of motion artefact-free and high resolution MR 2D ARFI and multiplanar interleaved PRFS thermometry (average SNR 30 in liver and 56 in kidney. Microscopic histology indicated precise focal lesions with sharply delineated margins following the respiratory-gated HIFU sonications. Conclusion. The proof-of-concept for respiratory motion management in MRgHIFU using an in-bore digital camera has been validated in vivo.

  6. A time-driven transmission method for well logging networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ruiqing; Chen Wei; Chen Tianqi; Li Qun

    2009-01-01

    Long delays and poor real-time transmission are disadvantageous to well logging networks consisting of multiple subnets. In this paper, we proposed a time-driven transmission method (TDTM) to improve the efficiency and precision of logging networks. Using TDTM, we obtained well logging curves by fusing the depth acquired on the surface, and the data acquired in downhole instruments based on the synchronization timestamp. For the TDTM, the precision of time synchronization and the data fusion algorithm were two main factors influencing system errors. A piecewise fractal interpolation was proposed to fast fuse data in each interval of the logging curves. Intervals with similar characteristics in curves were extracted based on the change in the histogram of the interval. The TDTM is evaluated with a sonic curve, as an example. Experimental results showed that the fused data had little error, and the TDTM was effective and suitable for the logging networks.

  7. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  8. Cased-hole log analysis and reservoir performance monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses vital issues, such as the evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and their production. Topics include the cased-hole logging environment, reservoir fluid properties; flow regimes; temperature, noise, cement bond, and pulsed neutron logging; and casing inspection. Production logging charts and tables are included in the appendices. The work serves as a comprehensive reference for production engineers with upstream E&P companies, well logging service company employees, university students, and petroleum industry training professionals. This book also: ·       Provides methods of conveying production logging tools along horizontal well segments as well as measurements of formation electrical resistivity through casing ·       Covers new information on fluid flow characteristics in inclined pipe and provides new and improved nuclear tool measurements in cased wells ·       Includes updates on cased-hole wireline formation testing  

  9. A Logical Method for Policy Enforcement over Evolving Audit Logs

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Deepak; Datta, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    We present an iterative algorithm for enforcing policies represented in a first-order logic, which can, in particular, express all transmission-related clauses in the HIPAA Privacy Rule. The logic has three features that raise challenges for enforcement --- uninterpreted predicates (used to model subjective concepts in privacy policies), real-time temporal properties, and quantification over infinite domains (such as the set of messages containing personal information). The algorithm operates over audit logs that are inherently incomplete and evolve over time. In each iteration, the algorithm provably checks as much of the policy as possible over the current log and outputs a residual policy that can only be checked when the log is extended with additional information. We prove correctness and termination properties of the algorithm. While these results are developed in a general form, accounting for many different sources of incompleteness in audit logs, we also prove that for the special case of logs that m...

  10. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  11. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  12. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests.

  13. 钻孔灌注桩施工中的质量通病及预防%Quality diseases and prevention of bored pile in construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏银玲

    2014-01-01

    The paper briefly discribes the characteristics of bored pile,analyzes bored pile construction quality problems causes such as hole-wall cracks,pile broken,bored pile inclination and shrinkage and so on,and puts forward preventive measures,with a view to reduce construction quality diseases and to further improve bored pile construction quality.%简述了钻孔灌注桩的特性,对钻孔灌注桩施工中容易出现的孔壁塌孔、断桩、钻孔倾斜、缩孔等质量问题成因进行了分析,并提出了预防措施,以期将施工质量病害的发生率降至最低,进一步提高钻孔灌注桩的质量。

  14. Desin and application of a new type of boring cutter head%一种新型镗刀头的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林景凡

    2013-01-01

    Basis of comparison in two kinds of boring cutter structure and processing characteristics.The machine clamp in large diameter deep hole boring processing technology of single blade. Can replace the commonly used strong rough boring, boring, floating cutter honing processes three, can make the work efficiency is improved by more than 3 times.%在两种镗刀结构和加工特点比较的基础上,介绍了机夹单刃镗刀加工大直径深孔工艺。可取代通常使用的强力粗镗、浮动刀精镗、珩磨三道工序,可使工效提高3倍以上。

  15. The Construction Technologies and Quality Control Measures of Rotary Drilling Bored Piles%旋挖桩的施工工艺及质量保证措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓元

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The construction of rotary drilling bored piles is more advanced way of pile foundation construction, and the rotary drilling bored pile has the the characteristics of good quality and high construction efficiency. This paper introduces in detail the construction technologies of rotary drilling bored pile, and probes into the quality control measures for the construction of rotary drilling bored piles.%旋挖桩施工是现今我国建筑施工中一种较为先进的桩基施工方式,具有质量好、施工效率高的特点。详细介绍了旋挖桩的施工工艺,探讨了旋挖桩的工程质量保证措施。

  16. Molecular phylogeny and shell microstructure of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al. 1968, boring into mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), in relation to other mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owada, M.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the evolution of the symbiosis between the boring mussel Fungiacava eilatensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) and its mushroom coral hosts (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), which requires phylogenetic reconstructions of both the Mytilidae and the Fungiidae, contributes to the understanding of the comple

  17. On the selection of equipment combination and craft in bored pile%钻孔灌注桩机具组合和工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵修健

    2009-01-01

    By combining with the extensive application of the bored pile in the construction, the paper introduces the poring method of the bored pile in the embedded holes and the selection of equipment in soft soil region, explores the craft process of the bored pile and its construetion points, and points out the control strategy of the common problems in quality, so as to accumulate experience for the bored pries.%结合钻孔灌注桩在工程中的广泛应用,介绍了软土地区嵌岩钻孔灌注桩成孔方法和设备的选择,探讨了钻孔灌注桩工艺流程及施工要点,提出了质量通病的控制对策,积累了钻孔灌注桩的施工经验.

  18. Impact of passing mesenchymal stem cells through smaller bore size needles for subsequent use in patients for clinical or cosmetic indications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Singh, Gurbind; Husin, Juani Mazmin; Nathan, Kavitha Ganesan; Sasidharan, Gopinath; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Bhonde, Ramesh; Majumdar, Anish Sen; Das, Anjan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    .... In this report, we aimed to investigate the smallest possible bore size needle which would support the safe delivery of MSCs into various tissues for different clinical or cosmetic applications...

  19. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  20. Log-concavity property for some well-known distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Mohtashami Borzadaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesting properties and propositions, in many branches of science such as economics have been obtained according to the property of cumulative distribution function of a random variable as a concave function. Caplin and Nalebuff (1988,1989, Bagnoli and Khanna (1989 and Bagnoli and Bergstrom (1989 , 1989, 2005 have discussed the log-concavity property of probability distributions and their applications, especially in economics. Log-concavity concerns twice differentiable real-valued function g whose domain is an interval on extended real line. g as a function is said to be log-concave on the interval (a,b if the function ln(g is a concave function on (a,b. Log-concavity of g on (a,b is equivalent to g'/g being monotone decreasing on (a,b or (ln(g" 6] have obtained log-concavity for distributions such as normal, logistic, extreme-value, exponential, Laplace, Weibull, power function, uniform, gamma, beta, Pareto, log-normal, Student's t, Cauchy and F distributions. We have discussed and introduced the continuous versions of the Pearson family, also found the log-concavity for this family in general cases, and then obtained the log-concavity property for each distribution that is a member of Pearson family. For the Burr family these cases have been calculated, even for each distribution that belongs to Burr family. Also, log-concavity results for distributions such as generalized gamma distributions, Feller-Pareto distributions, generalized Inverse Gaussian distributions and generalized Log-normal distributions have been obtained.