WorldWideScience

Sample records for location update accuracy

  1. Location Update Accuracy in Human Tracking system using Zigbee modules

    CERN Document Server

    Amutha, B

    2009-01-01

    A location and tracking system becomes very important to our future world of pervasive computing. An algorithm for accurate location information is being incorporated in the human walking model and in the blind human walking model. We want to implement an accurate location tracking mechanism using Zigbee along with GPS, we have incorporated Markov chain algorithm for establishing accuracy. Normal Human and blind human walking steps were actually taken in the known environment within our campus and the Markov chain algorithm was used for smoothening the stepwise variation in location updates. A comparison module is also implemented to show the difference between normal human and blind human walking step variations. This accuracy is used for designing a blind tracking device so that the device can be used by the blind for finding the path without obstacles. We present a system level approach to localizing and tracking Human and blind users on a basis of different sources of location information [GPS plus Zigbee...

  2. The IBIS / ISGRI Source Location Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, A; Soldi, S; Gotz, D; Caballero, I; Mattana, F; Heras, J A Zurita

    2013-01-01

    We present here results on the source location accuracy of the INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI coded mask telescope, based on ten years of INTEGRAL data and on recent developments in the data analysis procedures. Data were selected and processed with the new Off-line Scientific Analysis pipeline (OSA10.0) that benefits from the most accurate background corrections, the most performing coding noise cleaning and sky reconstruction algorithms available. We obtained updated parameters for the evaluation of the point source location error from the source signal to noise ratio. These results are compared to previous estimates and to theoretical expectations. Also thanks to a new fitting procedure the typical error at 90% confidence level for a source at a signal to noise of 10 is now estimated to be 1.5 arcmin. Prospects for future analysis on the Point Spread Function fitting procedure and on the evaluation of residual biases are also presented. The new consolidated parameters describing the source location accuracy that will...

  3. An All-Time-Domain Moving Object Data Model, Location Updating Strategy, and Position Estimation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Qunyong; Huang, Junyi; Luo, Jianping; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    .... Secondly, we proposed a new dynamic threshold location updating strategy. The location updating threshold was given dynamically in accordance with the velocity, accuracy, and azimuth positioning information from the GPS...

  4. Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinesh Kumar S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server.

  5. Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinesh Kumar S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server..

  6. Dynamic movement-based location update in LEO networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 张乃通; 马永奎

    2003-01-01

    Mobility management is an important aspect of the LEO systems. In terrestrial wireless network, the movement of the user triggers the location updating and determines the paging scheme, while in LEO satellite systems, the location updating and paging is mainly based on the movement of satellite. Terrestrial location management techniques must be altered to fit LEO systems. This paper introduces a modified movement-based location update and paging scheme in LEO networks. In this scheme we propose the meta-cell concept, which includes two spot-beams of one satellite. First we present the location management scheme based on the architecture with meta-cell location area. Then an analytical model is applied to formulate the cost of location updating and location paging for the and movement meta-cell based dynamic location update scheme. The comparison of performance between meta-cell architecture method and conventional signal-spot-cell architecture method is provided to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and robust of the proposed scheme under various parameters. To reduce the impact of meta-cell architecture on location paging cost, we present forced location update strategy which used in the cases that the meta-cell includes the two spot-beams from different satellites.

  7. Accuracy of forecast of mine tremors location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Drzewieck [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is one of the most active mining areas in the world in respect of seismicity. Underground mining in this area takes place in a special environment with a high degree of risk of unpredictable event occurrence. Especially dangerous are phenomena that occur during the extraction of deposits at great depths in the environment of compact rocks. Deep underground mining violates the balance of these rocks and induces dynamic phenomena at the longwall life (in terms of distance) referred to as mine tremors. The sources of these tremors are located in layers characterised by high strength, especially in thick sandstone strata occurring in the roof of the mined seam. In the paper a discussion is presented about the influence of mining intensity (longwall face speed) on the location of mine tremor sources, both in the direction of longwall life (in terms of distance) and towards the surface. The presented material has been prepared based on the results of tests and measurements carried out at the Central Mining Institute. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Accuracy of forecast of mine tremors location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DRZEWIECKI Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is one of the most active mining areas in the world in respect of seismicity. Underground mining in this area takes place in a special environment with a high degree of risk of unpredictable event occurrence. Especially dangerous are phenomena that occur during the extraction of deposits at great depths in the environment of compact rocks. Deep underground mining violates the balance of these rocks and induces dynamic phenomena at the longwall life (in terms of distance) referred to as mine tremors. The sources of these tremors are located in layers characterised by high strength, especially in thick sandstone strata occurring in the roof of the mined seam. In the paper a discussion is presented about the influence of mining inten-sity (longwall face speed) on the location of mine tremor sources, both in the direction of longwall life (in terms of distance) and towards the surface. The presented material has been prepared basing on the results of tests and measurements carried out at the Central Mining Institute.

  9. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE LOCATION SYSTEMWITH PHASE DIFFERENCE RATE MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conventional mono-station passive location techniques of direction finding are low in speed and accuracy. It may not meet the requirements of modern targeting or accuracy attacking actions. For a moving observer, by employing some passive measurements such as Doppler or Phase Difference Rate (PDR), the location error can be reduced to nearly one-fifth of the conventional error[1~4].  In this paper, the location method using PDR is introduced in section one. Location accuracy analysis is given in section two. Simulation results of error's lower bound of 3D location are produced in section four. Finally, the conclusion is presented in section five.

  10. Research on techniques to improve accuracy in SBL locating systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jie; LIU Bo-sheng; SONG Hai-yan

    2008-01-01

    Short baseline system (SBL), which is a kind of underwater acoustic locating technology, has widely applicable value. In order to examine the capability of ship model design, the ship model experimentation should have high accuracy. This paper focuses on the key techniques of high accuracy locating system, including high accuracy sub-array position emendation, divisional locating, anti multi-path interference measure, etc. Experiments show that the SBL locating systems has received the satisfying effect owing to these key techniques proposed in this paper.

  11. Accuracy of references in Internet Journal of Medical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Adhikari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Internet Journal of Medical Update (IJMU. Sixty references were randomly selected from IJMU (Volume 5, Number 2, July 2010, Volume 4, Number 2, July 2009 and Volume 4, Number 1, January 2009. The instructions for authors of this journal were looked carefully. All the references were compared with the original for accuracy, using the following six elements: authors name; journal name as per Index Medicus; year; volume; and page numbers. References were considered incorrect if there was an error in any of these six elements. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage. Ten percent references in Internet Journal of Medical Update were inaccurate. Most common errors were author’s name and title of the article. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 5.0% references while title of the article was found to be incorrect in 3.3%. Least common error was found in writing the journal name (either incorrect abbreviations or incorrect instructions or punctuation errors in (1.7%. Inaccuracies of references are also found in the Internet Journal of Medical Update. The majority of errors in IJMU are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.

  12. Accuracy of four electronic apex locators: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, R J; Hommez, G M; Martens, L C; De Boever, J G

    1999-04-01

    In the present study, the accuracy and operator dependency of four electronic canal length measuring devices (Apex Finder AFA Model 7005, Apex-Finder, Neosono Ultima EZ and Apit 2) were compared under a set of specified conditions. The electronic apex locators were tested in unflared dry, flared wet and flared dry canals, and in a gelatin as well as in a sodium hypochlorite sponge model. Fifteen extracted single-canaled teeth were selected. The differences between canal lengths obtained by the electronic apex locators and actual canal lengths were scored. Only the Apex-Finder was found to be unreliable (measurements higher than +/- 0.5 mm from the apical foramen). This device was also found to be particularly dependent on operator. A ranking based on a precision of +/- 0.1 mm from the apical foramen showed the Apex Finder AFA Model 7005 to be the most accurate. Early coronal flaring did not ensure better or more precise readings. The gelatin model was evaluated to be more suitable for testing electronic apex locators in vitro than the sodium hypochlorite model.

  13. Global Positioning Satellite System Navigation Accuracy with Updated Ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    12) 0 and b-= -tkc (D-13) The algorithm actually normalizes these last two partials with the speed of light, so that the partials are: % bc =i(D-14...0 and bc -t (D-15)baic k This concludes the partial derivatives for the H matrix in the Ephemeris Update Algorithm. SW, % e Ii - - APPENDIX E 4...York, 1971. Broucke, Roger A., "On the Matrizant of the Two-Body Problem," Astronautics and Astrophysics, Vol. 6, 1970. Brouwer, D., and G.M. Clemence

  14. Real time hybrid simulation with online model updating: An analysis of accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ge; Dyke, Shirley J.; Prakash, Arun

    2017-02-01

    In conventional hybrid simulation (HS) and real time hybrid simulation (RTHS) applications, the information exchanged between the experimental substructure and numerical substructure is typically restricted to the interface boundary conditions (force, displacement, acceleration, etc.). With additional demands being placed on RTHS and recent advances in recursive system identification techniques, an opportunity arises to improve the fidelity by extracting information from the experimental substructure. Online model updating algorithms enable the numerical model of components (herein named the target model), that are similar to the physical specimen to be modified accordingly. This manuscript demonstrates the power of integrating a model updating algorithm into RTHS (RTHSMU) and explores the possible challenges of this approach through a practical simulation. Two Bouc-Wen models with varying levels of complexity are used as target models to validate the concept and evaluate the performance of this approach. The constrained unscented Kalman filter (CUKF) is selected for using in the model updating algorithm. The accuracy of RTHSMU is evaluated through an estimation output error indicator, a model updating output error indicator, and a system identification error indicator. The results illustrate that, under applicable constraints, by integrating model updating into RTHS, the global response accuracy can be improved when the target model is unknown. A discussion on model updating parameter sensitivity to updating accuracy is also presented to provide guidance for potential users.

  15. The accuracy of Root ZX electronic apex locator

    OpenAIRE

    Osama S Alothmani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate studies assessing the accuracy of Root ZX when used for working length determination in permanent teeth and to identify factors affecting the device′s precision. An electronic search for articles published in English language since 1994 was conducted on the Medline via Ovid interface. All issues of the International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology since 1994 were...

  16. STARD 2015: An Updated List of Essential Items for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Patrick M; Reitsma, Johannes B; Bruns, David E; Gatsonis, Constantine A; Glasziou, Paul P; Irwig, Les; Lijmer, Jeroen G; Moher, David; Rennie, Drummond; de Vet, Henrica C W; Kressel, Herbert Y; Rifai, Nader; Golub, Robert M; Altman, Douglas G; Hooft, Lotty; Korevaar, Daniël A; Cohen, Jérémie F

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete reporting has been identified as a major source of avoidable waste in biomedical research. Essential information is often not provided in study reports, impeding the identification, critical appraisal, and replication of studies. To improve the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies, the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) statement was developed. Here we present STARD 2015, an updated list of 30 essential items that should be included in every report of a diagnostic accuracy study. This update incorporates recent evidence about sources of bias and variability in diagnostic accuracy and is intended to facilitate the use of STARD. As such, STARD 2015 may help to improve completeness and transparency in reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies.

  17. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE LOCATION SYSTEM WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE RATE MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conventional mono-station passive location techniques of direction finding are low in speed and accuracy, due to the little information available. In this paper, a novel measurement-rate (derivative) of phase difference from a two-element antenna array (interferometer) is introduced, accuracy of a passive location system with this measurement and directions of arrival (DOA) is analyzed, and the Cramer-Rao bound of location error of this system for 3D location is examined by simulations.

  18. The accuracy of Root ZX electronic apex locator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama S Alothmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to evaluate studies assessing the accuracy of Root ZX when used for working length determination in permanent teeth and to identify factors affecting the device′s precision. An electronic search for articles published in English language since 1994 was conducted on the Medline via Ovid interface. All issues of the International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology since 1994 were manually searched. The reference lists of review articles were cross-referenced to identify any potential publications. A total of 76 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The studies varied in their methodologies, and most of them did not adhere to the manufacturer′s recommendations while operating the device. The Root ZX failed to consistently detect the apical constriction or the apical foramen. Nonetheless, it mostly allowed file tip placement in the area bounded by these two landmarks, especially when the 0.5 mark of its digital meter was adopted. Tooth-related factors potentially influencing the precision of Root ZX included pre-operative pulp status, tooth type, position of the apical foramen, canal obliteration, and the size of apical diameter. Operative factors including coronal pre-flaring, presence or absence of irrigants, file size, file alloy, and mode of file operation could also influence the performance of Root ZX. In conclusion, adopting the 0.5 mark of the digital meter of the Root ZX reduces chances of violating the apical foramen. Further, factors influencing the precision of Root ZX must be considered while operating it.

  19. A study for high accuracy real-time 3D ultrasonic location system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Ha, Zhang; Zhou, Kangyuan

    2006-12-22

    We discussed a high accuracy real-time 3D ultrasonic location system in this article. The signal received was sampled after it passed the TGC and the logarithmic amplifier. Inside the DSP, we used the dynamic threshold tracing technique to improve the accuracy. The result was processed with Weighted Arithmetic Average. By testing the 40 kHz 3D location system, we have arrived at the accuracy of 1 cm.

  20. Improved precision and accuracy for microarrays using updated probe set definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Ola

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays enable high throughput detection of transcript expression levels. Different investigators have recently introduced updated probe set definitions to more accurately map probes to our current knowledge of genes and transcripts. Results We demonstrate that updated probe set definitions provide both better precision and accuracy in probe set estimates compared to the original Affymetrix definitions. We show that the improved precision mainly depends on the increased number of probes that are integrated into each probe set, but we also demonstrate an improvement when the same number of probes is used. Conclusion Updated probe set definitions does not only offer expression levels that are more accurately associated to genes and transcripts but also improvements in the estimated transcript expression levels. These results give support for the use of updated probe set definitions for analysis and meta-analysis of microarray data.

  1. External Memory Planar Point Location with Logarithmic Updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    Point location is an extremely well-studied problem both in internal memory models and recently also in the external memory model. In this paper, we present an I/O-efficient dynamic data structure for point location in general planar subdivisions. Our structure uses linear space to store...

  2. Effect of chloroform, orange solvent and eucalyptol on the accuracy of four electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadlaq, Solaiman M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three retreatment solutions on the accuracy of four electronic apex locators, the Root ZX mini, the Mini Apex Locator, the Root ZX and the Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator. Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The four electronic apex locators were operated according to the manufacturer's instructions to locate the 'apical constriction' in the presence of chloroform, orange solvent or eucalyptol in the canal. The accuracy of each apex locator was not affected by the type of retreatment solution present in the root canal. In addition, the accuracy of the four apex locators was similar in the presence of each of the tested solutions.

  3. An Analysis of Base Station Location Accuracy within Mobile-Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Smit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important feature within a mobile-cellular net- work is that the location of a cellphone can be determined. As long as the cellphone is powered on, the location of the cellphone can always be traced to at least the cell from which it is receiving, or last received, signal from the cellular network. Such network-based methods of estimating the location of a cellphone is useful in cases where the cellphone user is unable or unwilling to reveal his or her location, and have practical value in digital forensic investigations. This study investigates the accuracy of using mobile-cellular network base station information for estimating the location of cellphones. Through quantitative analysis of mobile-cellular network base station data, large variations between the best and worst accuracy of recorded location information is exposed. Thus, depending on the requirements, base station locations may or may not be accurate enough for a particular application.

  4. Practical target location and accuracy indicator in digital close range photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Gentaro; Chikatsu, Hirofumi

    2011-07-01

    Recently, pixel numbers and functions of consumer grade digital camera are amazingly increasing by modern semiconductor and digital technology, and there are many low-priced consumer grade digital cameras which have more than 10 mega pixels on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, digital photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras is enormously expected in various application fields. There is a large body of literature on calibration of consumer grade digital cameras and circular target location. Target location with subpixel accuracy had been investigated as a star tracker issue, and many target location algorithms have been carried out. It is widely accepted that the least squares models with ellipse fitting is the most accurate algorithm. However, there are still problems for efficient digital close range photogrammetry. These problems are reconfirmation of the target location algorithms with subpixel accuracy for consumer grade digital cameras, relationship between number of edge points along target boundary and accuracy, and an indicator for estimating the accuracy of normal digital close range photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras. With this motive, an empirical testing of several algorithms for target location with subpixel accuracy and an indicator for estimating the accuracy are investigated in this paper using real data which were acquired indoors using 7 consumer grade digital cameras which have 7.2 mega pixels to 14.7 mega pixels.

  5. Location Accuracy of the China National Seismograph Network Estimated by Repeating Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Changsheng; Wu Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    Regionalized location accuracy of the China National Seismograph Network was estimated using the results obtained by studying "repeating earthquakes" or "doublets" in and around China by Schaffand Richards (2004). It is assumed that the "repeating events" or "doublets" are separated by no more than 1 km, and the network measured apparent distance X of "doublets"indicates the order of magnitudes of the location error. It is observed that the average location accuracy of the China National Seismograph Network, as represented by average X value, is in the order of magnitudes of 10km, and is larger in the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, western and northern Xinjiang, and eastern Inner Mongolia.

  6. Testing the prognostic accuracy of the updated pediatric sepsis biomarker risk model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector R Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously derived and validated a risk model to estimate mortality probability in children with septic shock (PERSEVERE; PEdiatRic SEpsis biomarkEr Risk modEl. PERSEVERE uses five biomarkers and age to estimate mortality probability. After the initial derivation and validation of PERSEVERE, we combined the derivation and validation cohorts (n = 355 and updated PERSEVERE. An important step in the development of updated risk models is to test their accuracy using an independent test cohort. OBJECTIVE: To test the prognostic accuracy of the updated version PERSEVERE in an independent test cohort. METHODS: Study subjects were recruited from multiple pediatric intensive care units in the United States. Biomarkers were measured in 182 pediatric subjects with septic shock using serum samples obtained during the first 24 hours of presentation. The accuracy of PERSEVERE 28-day mortality risk estimate was tested using diagnostic test statistics, and the net reclassification improvement (NRI was used to test whether PERSEVERE adds information to a physiology-based scoring system. RESULTS: Mortality in the test cohort was 13.2%. Using a risk cut-off of 2.5%, the sensitivity of PERSEVERE for mortality was 83% (95% CI 62-95, specificity was 75% (68-82, positive predictive value was 34% (22-47, and negative predictive value was 97% (91-99. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81 (0.70-0.92. The false positive subjects had a greater degree of organ failure burden and longer intensive care unit length of stay, compared to the true negative subjects. When adding PERSEVERE to a physiology-based scoring system, the net reclassification improvement was 0.91 (0.47-1.35; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The updated version of PERSEVERE estimates mortality probability reliably in a heterogeneous test cohort of children with septic shock and provides information over and above a physiology-based scoring system.

  7. The Accuracy of Locating Lumbar Vertebrae When Using Palpation Versus Ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune Mygind; Kawchuk, Gregory Neil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of locating lumbar vertebrae using palpation vs ultrasonography. METHODS: In this study, ultrasonic imaging was used by 2 experienced clinicians to identify the third lumbar spinous process (target) of a female participant....... The target was then located by 16 undergraduate chiropractic students using clinical palpation techniques learned in their academic program (with participant seated and prone) and ultrasonic imaging learned through a 5-minute training video. Presumed target locations identified by students were recorded...... different from the target location identified by expert clinicians using ultrasonic imaging (P

  8. Preliminary Location Accuracy Assessments of 3rd Satellite of TH-1

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The TH-1 satellite is the first stereo mapping transmission satellite in China, and the primary mission goal of the satellite is for topographic mapping at 1:50 000 scale and high-accuracy location without Ground Control Points (GCPs). 1st, 2nd satellites of TH-1 were launched on August 24, 2010, May 6, 2012, and 3rd satellite was launched on October 26, 2015. Now, three satellites of TH-1 are well operating on its orbit. After evaluation, the location accuracy of 1st satellite without GCPs i...

  9. Designing a location update strategy for free-moving and network-constrained objects with varying velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Ko HUANG; Lien-Fa LIN

    2014-01-01

    Spatio-temporal databases aim at appropriately managing moving objects so as to support various types of queries. While much research has been conducted on developing query processing techniques, less effort has been made to address the issue of when and how to update location information of moving objects. Previous work shifts the workload of processing updates to each object which usually has limited CPU and battery capacities. This results in a tremendous processing overhead for each moving object. In this paper, we focus on designing efficient update strategies for two important types of moving objects, free-moving objects (FMOs) and network-constrained objects (NCOs), which are classified based on object movement models. For FMOs, we develop a novel update strategy, namely the FMO update strategy (FMOUS), to explicitly indicate a time point at which the object needs to update location information. As each object knows in advance when to update (meaning that it does not have to continuously check), the processing overhead can be greatly reduced. In addition, the FMO update procedure (FMOUP) is designed to efficiently process the updates issued from moving objects. Similarly, for NCOs, we propose the NCO update strategy (NCOUS) and the NCO update procedure (NCOUP) to inform each object when and how to update location information. Exten-sive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed update strategies.

  10. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  11. In vivo comparison of the accuracy of two electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiz F M; Petry, Fernanda V; Martos, Josué; Neto, João B C

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse in vivo the accuracy of two apex locators, Root ZX and Novapex, to determine the position of the apical constriction. Twenty-three human single-rooted teeth to be extracted for periodontal reasons constituted the experiment. Endodontic access was obtained and the apical constriction was determined by one of the apex locators after initial crown-down preparation. When the electronic marker indicated that the tip of the endodontic file was at the apical constriction, the teeth were filled with composite and then surgically removed. The presence of the endodontic file tip at the apical constriction was evaluated stereomicroscopically (30×) and confirming radiographs were exposed. The accuracy of Root ZX and Novapex was 91.7% and 81.8% respectively. Within the limits of this study, the evaluated apex locators have a similar clinical performance for the apical constriction location.

  12. PASSIVE LOCATION AND ACCURACY ANALYSIS USING TDOA INFORMATION OF MULTI-STATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A new exact, explicit, uniterative, and computationally efficient solution of nonlinear equation set for estimation of emitter position based on the time differences of arrival (TDOA) measured by multi-stations is proposed. The accuracy analysis of the location method is also presented. Finally performance evaluation results of emitter location by using TDOA information are illustrated by some graphs of Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) for various conditions in the specific surveillance region.

  13. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  14. Accurate location estimation of moving object with energy constraint & adaptive update algorithms to save data

    CERN Document Server

    Semwal, Vijay Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Vinay S; Sati, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    In research paper "Accurate estimation of the target location of object with energy constraint & Adaptive Update Algorithms to Save Data" one of the central issues in sensor networks is track the location, of moving object which have overhead of saving data, an accurate estimation of the target location of object with energy constraint .We do not have any mechanism which control and maintain data .The wireless communication bandwidth is also very limited. Some field which is using this technique are flood and typhoon detection, forest fire detection, temperature and humidity and ones we have these information use these information back to a central air conditioning and ventilation system. In this research paper, we propose protocol based on the prediction and adaptive based algorithm which is using less sensor node reduced by an accurate estimation of the target location. we are using minimum three sensor node to get the accurate position .We can extend it upto four or five to find more accurate location ...

  15. Accuracy of teleseismic event locations in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-04

    Seismic characterization at the regional level requires accurate determination of phases and travel times for many combinations of stations and events. An important consideration in the process is the accuracy of event locations. The LLNL Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research Program is currently working on data from the Middle East and North Africa, where seismic station coverage is relatively sparse and ``ground truth`` seismic source information is practically nonexistent. In this report the investigator use after shock studies as a source of local ground truth. He evaluates teleseismic location accuracy by comparing hypocenters determined by local networks with those determined teleseismically [e.g. the International Seismological Center (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)]. Epicentral locations, origin times, and depth determinations of events from three aftershocks studies (Algeria, Armenia, and Iran) and one local network study (Iran) are compared with ISC and NEIC locations for the same events. The key parameter for the ISC locations is the number of observations used in the location determination. For more than 40-50 observations, the agreement rapidly diminishes and ISC locations can differ from local determinations by as much as 80 km or more. Events in Iran show a distinct bias of ISC location errors toward the northeast; events in Armenia and Algeria show no directional bias. This study shows that only events with ISC M{sub b} {gt} 4.4-4.5 or NEIS M{sub b} {gt} 4.7-4. should be used for compiling travel time information from teleseismic bulletins in the Middle East/North Africa region when locations from the NEIC and ISC bulletins are used.

  16. Reacting to different types of concept drift: the Accuracy Updated Ensemble algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Dariusz; Stefanowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Data stream mining has been receiving increased attention due to its presence in a wide range of applications, such as sensor networks, banking, and telecommunication. One of the most important challenges in learning from data streams is reacting to concept drift, i.e., unforeseen changes of the stream's underlying data distribution. Several classification algorithms that cope with concept drift have been put forward, however, most of them specialize in one type of change. In this paper, we propose a new data stream classifier, called the Accuracy Updated Ensemble (AUE2), which aims at reacting equally well to different types of drift. AUE2 combines accuracy-based weighting mechanisms known from block-based ensembles with the incremental nature of Hoeffding Trees. The proposed algorithm is experimentally compared with 11 state-of-the-art stream methods, including single classifiers, block-based and online ensembles, and hybrid approaches in different drift scenarios. Out of all the compared algorithms, AUE2 provided best average classification accuracy while proving to be less memory consuming than other ensemble approaches. Experimental results show that AUE2 can be considered suitable for scenarios, involving many types of drift as well as static environments.

  17. Effects of Dissolving Solutions on the Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator-Integrated Endodontic Handpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Yakup; Uzun, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat; Yalpı, Fatma; Canakci, Burhan Can

    2013-01-01

    The effects of three dissolving agents on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator- (EAL-) integrated endodontic handpiece during retreatment procedures were evaluated. The true lengths (TLs) of 56 extracted incisor teeth were determined visually. Twenty teeth were filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (group A), 20 with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide/eugenol-based sealer (group B), and 16 roots were used as the control group (group C). All roots were prepared to TL. Guttasolv, Resosolv, and Endosolv E were used as the dissolving solutions. Two evaluations of the handpiece were performed: the apical accuracy during the auto reverse function (ARL) and the apex locator function (EL) alone. The ARL function of the handpiece gave acceptable results. There were significant differences between the EL mode measurements and the TL (P < 0.05). In these comparisons, Tri Auto ZX EL mode measurements were significantly shorter than those of the TL. PMID:24379743

  18. Accuracy of three different techniques for automatically estimating innervation zone location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Stock, Matt S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the estimated innervation zone (IZ) locations obtained from cross-correlation, the minimum amplitude, and maximum center frequency criteria. Eight healthy men (mean±SD age=23.0±4.3 yrs) performed isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors, and 15 separate bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis. A custom software program was used to estimate the location of the IZ based on: (1) the EMG channel that demonstrated the lowest amplitude, (2) the EMG channel that showed the highest mean frequency, and (3) the EMG channel that demonstrated the lowest peak cross-correlation between the signals from adjacent channels. The IZ location estimates from the lowest amplitude and highest mean frequency criteria were accurate in only 43.75% and 7.5% of the cases, respectively. The accuracy of the cross-correlation-based method was 90%. The cross-correlation-based method was much more accurate for estimating IZ location than were the lowest amplitude and highest mean frequency criteria. Cross-correlation could potentially be used for estimating the location of the IZ without the need for visual inspection of EMG signals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Kinematic Accuracy of Soft Wearable Data Gloves by Optimizing Sensor Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-05-26

    Bending sensors enable compact, wearable designs when used for measuring hand configurations in data gloves. While existing data gloves can accurately measure angular displacement of the finger and distal thumb joints, accurate measurement of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint movements remains challenging due to crosstalk between the multi-sensor outputs required to measure the degrees of freedom (DOF). To properly measure CMC-joint configurations, sensor locations that minimize sensor crosstalk must be identified. This paper presents a novel approach to identifying optimal sensor locations. Three-dimensional hand surface data from ten subjects was collected in multiple thumb postures with varied CMC-joint flexion and abduction angles. For each posture, scanned CMC-joint contours were used to estimate CMC-joint flexion and abduction angles by varying the positions and orientations of two bending sensors. Optimal sensor locations were estimated by the least squares method, which minimized the difference between the true CMC-joint angles and the joint angle estimates. Finally, the resultant optimal sensor locations were experimentally validated. Placing sensors at the optimal locations, CMC-joint angle measurement accuracies improved (flexion, 2.8° ± 1.9°; abduction, 1.9° ± 1.2°). The proposed method for improving the accuracy of the sensing system can be extended to other types of soft wearable measurement devices.

  20. Improving Kinematic Accuracy of Soft Wearable Data Gloves by Optimizing Sensor Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bending sensors enable compact, wearable designs when used for measuring hand configurations in data gloves. While existing data gloves can accurately measure angular displacement of the finger and distal thumb joints, accurate measurement of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC joint movements remains challenging due to crosstalk between the multi-sensor outputs required to measure the degrees of freedom (DOF. To properly measure CMC-joint configurations, sensor locations that minimize sensor crosstalk must be identified. This paper presents a novel approach to identifying optimal sensor locations. Three-dimensional hand surface data from ten subjects was collected in multiple thumb postures with varied CMC-joint flexion and abduction angles. For each posture, scanned CMC-joint contours were used to estimate CMC-joint flexion and abduction angles by varying the positions and orientations of two bending sensors. Optimal sensor locations were estimated by the least squares method, which minimized the difference between the true CMC-joint angles and the joint angle estimates. Finally, the resultant optimal sensor locations were experimentally validated. Placing sensors at the optimal locations, CMC-joint angle measurement accuracies improved (flexion, 2.8° ± 1.9°; abduction, 1.9° ± 1.2°. The proposed method for improving the accuracy of the sensing system can be extended to other types of soft wearable measurement devices.

  1. The INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI System Point Spread Function and Source Location Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, A; Cadolle-Bel, M; Goldoni, P; Rodríguez, J; Foschini, L; Santo, M D; Blay, P

    2003-01-01

    The imager on board INTEGRAL (IBIS) presently provides the most detailed sky images ever obtained at energies above 30 keV. The telescope is based on a coded aperture imaging system which allows to obtain sky images in a large field of view 29deg x 29deg with an angular resolution of 12'. The System Point Spread Function of the telescope and its detailed characteristics are here described along with the specific analysis algorithms used to derive the accurate point-like source locations. The derived location accuracy is studied using the first in-flight calibration data on strong sources for the IBIS/ISGRI system. The dependence of the calibrated location accuracy with the signal to noise ratio of the sources is presented. These preliminary studies demonstrate that the IBIS/ISGRI telescope and the standard scientific analysis software allow source localizations with accuracy at 90% confidence level better than 1' for sources with signal to noise ratios > 30 over the whole field of view, in agreement with the ...

  2. Geopositioning with a quadcopter: Extracted feature locations and predicted accuracy without a priori sensor attitude information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Edwards, David; Theiss, Henry; Braun, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Full Motion Video-Geopositioning Test Bed (FMV-GTB) developed to investigate algorithm performance and issues related to the registration of motion imagery and subsequent extraction of feature locations along with predicted accuracy. A case study is included corresponding to a video taken from a quadcopter. Registration of the corresponding video frames is performed without the benefit of a priori sensor attitude (pointing) information. In particular, tie points are automatically measured between adjacent frames using standard optical flow matching techniques from computer vision, an a priori estimate of sensor attitude is then computed based on supplied GPS sensor positions contained in the video metadata and a photogrammetric/search-based structure from motion algorithm, and then a Weighted Least Squares adjustment of all a priori metadata across the frames is performed. Extraction of absolute 3D feature locations, including their predicted accuracy based on the principles of rigorous error propagation, is then performed using a subset of the registered frames. Results are compared to known locations (check points) over a test site. Throughout this entire process, no external control information (e.g. surveyed points) is used other than for evaluation of solution errors and corresponding accuracy.

  3. Boosting accuracy of automated classification of fluorescence microscope images for location proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Kai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed knowledge of the subcellular location of each expressed protein is critical to a full understanding of its function. Fluorescence microscopy, in combination with methods for fluorescent tagging, is the most suitable current method for proteome-wide determination of subcellular location. Previous work has shown that neural network classifiers can distinguish all major protein subcellular location patterns in both 2D and 3D fluorescence microscope images. Building on these results, we evaluate here new classifiers and features to improve the recognition of protein subcellular location patterns in both 2D and 3D fluorescence microscope images. Results We report here a thorough comparison of the performance on this problem of eight different state-of-the-art classification methods, including neural networks, support vector machines with linear, polynomial, radial basis, and exponential radial basis kernel functions, and ensemble methods such as AdaBoost, Bagging, and Mixtures-of-Experts. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate each classifier with various parameters on different Subcellular Location Feature sets representing both 2D and 3D fluorescence microscope images, including new feature sets incorporating features derived from Gabor and Daubechies wavelet transforms. After optimal parameters were chosen for each of the eight classifiers, optimal majority-voting ensemble classifiers were formed for each feature set. Comparison of results for each image for all eight classifiers permits estimation of the lower bound classification error rate for each subcellular pattern, which we interpret to reflect the fraction of cells whose patterns are distorted by mitosis, cell death or acquisition errors. Overall, we obtained statistically significant improvements in classification accuracy over the best previously published results, with the overall error rate being reduced by one-third to one-half and with the average

  4. New electronic apex locator Romiapex A-15 presented accuracy for working length determination in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to evaluate, ex vivo, the accuracy of electronic apex locators Root ZX II and Romiapex-15, for working length (WL determination in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Fourteen single-rooted teeth (incisors and canines, with their apices fully formed were used. The dental crowns were removed. The anatomic length of the tooth (real measurement was visually determined through the insertion of a size 10 K-file until the tip of the instrument could be observed in the apical foramen under a microscope (20X. Teeth were fixed in a model of resin and adapted into alginate soaked with saline solution, which was used as an  electrical conductor. Using a K-file, root canals were measured electronically using both devices. The results obtained for each apex locator were compared to the real measurements. The accuracy between the devices was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman graph, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference between the measurements using the Root ZX II was 0.277mm greater than the real measurement, while the measurements from the Romiapex-15 were 0.308mm higher on average. The comparison between Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had no significant difference (p= 0.868. Conclusion: It was concluded that Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had similar accuracy. Romiapex-15 could be an option for WL determination in permanent teeth.

  5. Evaluation of electrical impedance ratio measurements in accuracy of electronic apex locators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil-Jong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this paper was evaluating the ratios of electrical impedance measurements reported in previous studies through a correlation analysis in order to explicit it as the contributing factor to the accuracy of electronic apex locator (EAL. Materials and Methods The literature regarding electrical property measurements of EALs was screened using Medline and Embase. All data acquired were plotted to identify correlations between impedance and log-scaled frequency. The accuracy of the impedance ratio method used to detect the apical constriction (APC in most EALs was evaluated using linear ramp function fitting. Changes of impedance ratios for various frequencies were evaluated for a variety of file positions. Results Among the ten papers selected in the search process, the first-order equations between log-scaled frequency and impedance were in the negative direction. When the model for the ratios was assumed to be a linear ramp function, the ratio values decreased if the file went deeper and the average ratio values of the left and right horizontal zones were significantly different in 8 out of 9 studies. The APC was located within the interval of linear relation between the left and right horizontal zones of the linear ramp model. Conclusions Using the ratio method, the APC was located within a linear interval. Therefore, using the impedance ratio between electrical impedance measurements at different frequencies was a robust method for detection of the APC.

  6. Effect of pre-flaring and file size on the accuracy of two electronic apex locators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Brito-Júnior

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This ex vivo study evaluated the effect of pre-flaring and file size on the accuracy of the Root ZX and Novapex electronic apex locators (EALs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The actual working length (WL was set 1 mm short of the apical foramen in the palatal root canals of 24 extracted maxillary molars. The teeth were embedded in an alginate mold, and two examiners performed the electronic measurements using #10, #15, and #20 K-files. The files were inserted into the root canals until the "0.0" or "APEX" signals were observed on the LED or display screens for the Novapex and Root ZX, respectively, retracting to the 1.0 mark. The measurements were repeated after the preflaring using the S1 and SX Pro-Taper instruments. Two measurements were performed for each condition and the means were used. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated to verify the intra- and inter-examiner agreement. The mean differences between the WL and electronic length values were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA test (p0.8 and the results demonstrated a similar accuracy for both EALs (p>0.05. Statistically significant accurate measurements were verified in the pre-flared canals, except for the Novapex using a #20 K-file. CONCLUSIONS: The tested EALs showed acceptable accuracy, whereas the pre-flaring procedure revealed a more significant effect than the used file size.

  7. Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator for Working Length Determination in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Correct determination of working length is an important step for suc- cess of endodontic therapy. Conventional radiography has limitations in providing the accurate location of apical foramen. For this reason, electronic apex locators (EALs were developed to shorten the treatment time and decrease the radiation dose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Root ZX EAL for work- ing length determination in primary anterior teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 50 extracted primary anterior teeth with root resorption were selected with no obstructed canals or history of previous root canal therapy. Working lengths were measured by direct observation of actual length (AL, radiography and Root ZX EAL. A variation of ±0.5 mm from the AL was considered acceptable. The results were analyzed statistically using paired t test and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC at 0.05 level of significance.Results: Considering an acceptable 0.5 mm margin from AL (direct measurement, the accuracy of Root ZX EAL and radiography was found to be 86% and 76%, respectively. Absolute value of error from AL was significantly lower for ZX com- pared to radiography (P˂0.001. Interclass correlation comparing both radiography and Root ZX with AL showed strong correlations.Conclusion: Root ZX EAL can be used as a reliable tool for obtaining root canal length in primary anterior teeth with resorption.

  8. Rorschach test: Italian calibration update about statistical frequencies of responses and location sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caruson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The remarkable importance of a calibration of a test lies in the formalization of useful statistical norms. In particular, the determination of these norms is of key importance for the Rorschach Test because of it allows objectifying the estimates of the interpretations’ formal qualities, and help to characterize responses consistent with the common perception. The aim of this work is to communicate the new results provided by a study conducted  on Rorschach protocols related to a sample of “non-clinical” subjects. The expert team in Psychodiagnostic of CIFRIC (Italian Center for training, research and clinic in medicine and psychology has carried out the following work identifying the rate at which the details of each card are interpreted by normative sample. The data obtained are systematized in new Location sheets, which refers to the next edition of the "Updated Manual of Locations and Coding of Responses to Rorschach Test".             Considering the Rorschach Test one of the more effective means for the acquaintance of the personality, it appears therefore fundamental to provide the professional, who uses it, with the possibility of accessing updated statistical data that reflect the population of reference, in order to deduce from them reliable and objectively valid indications.

  9. In vivo accuracy of two electronic foramen locators based on different operation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Araújo, Rebeca Bastos Rocha; Silva, Francisco Cláudio Fernandes Alves e; Luna-Cruz, Suyane Maria; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Fernandes, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the accuracy of two electronic foramen locators (EFLs) based on different operation systems - Root ZX and Propex II. Ten healthy adult patients needing premolar extractions due to orthodontic reasons participated in the study, providing a sample of 17 noncarious, non-restored, vital teeth (n= 24 canals). After coronal access preparation and cervical preflaring and prior to tooth extraction, the root canal length was measured alternating the two EFLs. All measurements were performed with K-files well fitted to the canal diameter at the level that each EFL indicated the apical foramen in their display (APEX or 0.0). The last K-file were fixed in place with cyanoacrylate, the tooth was extracted, and the apical 4 mm of each root were resected to measure the distance between the file tip and the apical foramen. The mean errors based on the absolute values of discrepancies were 0.30 ± 0.29 mm (Root ZX) and 0.32 ± 0.27 mm (Propex II). Analysis by the Wilcoxon test for paired samples showed no statistically significant differences between the electronic canal measurements performed with the EFLs (p=0.587). The apical foramen was accurately located in 75% (Root ZX) and 66.7% (Propex II) of the cases, considering a ±0.5 mm error margin, with no statistically significant difference by the chi-square test. Despite having different measurement mechanisms, both EFLs were capable of locating the apical foramen with high accuracy in vivo. Under the tested clinical conditions, Root ZX and Propex II displayed similar results.

  10. Accuracy of a fourth generation apex locator-an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Abdullah

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The new fourth generation electronic apex locator (EAL, Elements (SybronEndo, USA has been introduced recently in the market. This study aims to investigate the accuracy of this EAL and to compare the result with a well-known apex locator, Root ZX and the radiographic technique using an in vitro model. Thirty anterior teeth with straight canals stored in 10% formalin were used. Access cavities were prepared followed by coronal flaring of the canals. Water was used as an irrigant. After the actual lengths (AL were measured, the teeth were then embedded in an alginate model. Periapical radiograph of each tooth was taken using a digital sensor and the radiographic lengths (RL were measured 0.5 mm short of the radiographic apex. Electronic tooth length measurements (EL were carried out using both EAL. Canals were then irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and EL was taken again. Results showed that both EALs were highly accurate to within + 0.5 mm of the apical foramen, with mean differences between the AL and EL of Elements 0.23mm (SE = 0.04 and Root ZX was 0.31mm (SE = 0.05. RL was significantly less accurate compared to the readings from both EAL. No significant difference was found in the reading between both apex locators when measurements were taken in NaOCl solution. Both Elements and Propex proved to be as reliable as Root ZX. Presence of sodium hypochlorite solution did not affect the accuracy of the measurements.

  11. Influence of instrument size on the accuracy of different apex locators: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Marroquín, Benjamín; Frajlich, Santiago; Goldberg, Fernando; Willershausen, Brita

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to determine the accuracy of 4 different electronic apex locators (EALs) with 3 different instrument sizes. For this study 146 roots were embedded in an agar solution. Electronic measurements were made to the physiologic foramen (apical constriction) with the Elements Apex Locator, Justy II, Raypex 5, and ProPex II and K-type files sizes 08, 10, and 15. Statistical significances were calculated with the sign test (P Locator, 36.99%, 39.04%, and 44.93%; Justy II, 38.62%, 32.41%, and 43.41%; Raypex 5, 42.76%, 39.31%, and 39.06%; and ProPex II, 38.62%, 43.45%, and 40.63% of the time with instrument sizes 08, 10, and 15, respectively. No significant differences were found between the actual working length and EALs/instrument size. A nonsignificant higher number of unstable measurements were observed in all EALs with instrument size 15.

  12. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in the presence of different irrigating solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Pion; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Moura, Abilio Albuquerque Maranhão de; Marques, Márcia Martins; Davidowicz, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs) - Elements Diagnostic®, Root ZX® and Apex DSP® - in the presence of different irrigating solutions (0.9% saline solution and 1% sodium hypochlorite). The electronic measurements were carried out by three examiners, using twenty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors. A size 10 K file was introduced into the root canals until reaching the 0.0 mark, and was subsequently retracted to the 1.0 mark. The gold standard (GS) measurement was obtained by combining visual and radiographic methods, and was set 1 mm short of the apical foramen. Electronic length values closer to the GS (± 0.5 mm) were considered as accurate measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to verify inter-examiner agreement. The comparison among the EALs was performed using the McNemar and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p 0.05), independent of the irrigating solutions used. The measurements taken with these two EALs were more accurate than those taken with Apex DSP®, regardless of the irrigating solution used (p locators are able to locate the cementum-dentine junction more precisely than Apex DSP®. The presence of irrigating solutions does not interfere with the performance of the EALs.

  13. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in the presence of different irrigating solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Pion Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs - Elements Diagnostic®, Root ZX® and Apex DSP® - in the presence of different irrigating solutions (0.9% saline solution and 1% sodium hypochlorite. The electronic measurements were carried out by three examiners, using twenty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors. A size 10 K file was introduced into the root canals until reaching the 0.0 mark, and was subsequently retracted to the 1.0 mark. The gold standard (GS measurement was obtained by combining visual and radiographic methods, and was set 1 mm short of the apical foramen. Electronic length values closer to the GS (± 0.5 mm were considered as accurate measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to verify inter-examiner agreement. The comparison among the EALs was performed using the McNemar and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p 0.05, independent of the irrigating solutions used. The measurements taken with these two EALs were more accurate than those taken with Apex DSP®, regardless of the irrigating solution used (p < 0.05. It was concluded that Elements Diagnostic® and Root ZX® apex locators are able to locate the cementum-dentine junction more precisely than Apex DSP®. The presence of irrigating solutions does not interfere with the performance of the EALs.

  14. Accuracy of ARGOS locations of Pinnipeds at-sea estimated using Fastloc GPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ARGOS satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. ARGOS location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (Location Class 0, A, B, or Z are provided with no declared error estimate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the accuracy of ARGOS Locations to those obtained using Fastloc GPS from the same electronic tags on five species of pinnipeds: 9 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, 4 Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki, 6 Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, 3 Australian fur seals (A. p. doriferus and 5 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. These species encompass a range of marine habitats (highly pelagic vs coastal, diving behaviors (mean dive durations 2-21 min and range of latitudes (equator to temperate. A total of 7,318 ARGOS positions and 27,046 GPS positions were collected. Of these, 1,105 ARGOS positions were obtained within five minutes of a GPS position and were used for comparison. The 68(th percentile ARGOS location errors as measured in this study were LC-3 0.49 km, LC-2 1.01 km, LC-1 1.20 km, LC-0 4.18 km, LC-A 6.19 km, LC-B 10.28 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ARGOS errors measured here are greater than those provided by ARGOS, but within the range of other studies. The error was non-normally distributed with each LC highly right-skewed. Locations of species that make short duration dives and spend extended periods on the surface (sea lions and fur seals had less error than species like elephant seals that spend more time underwater and have shorter surface intervals. Supplemental data (S1 are provided allowing the creation of density distributions that can be used in a variety of filtering algorithms to improve the

  15. A Traffic Information Estimation Model Using Periodic Location Update Events from Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bon-Yeh; Chen, Chi-Hua; Lo, Chi-Chun

    In recent years considerable concerns have arisen over building Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) which focuses on efficiently managing the road network. One of the important purposes of ITS is to improve the usability of transportation resources so as extend the durability of vehicle, reduce the fuel consumption and transportation times. Before this goal can be achieved, it is vital to obtain correct and real-time traffic information, so that traffic information services can be provided in a timely and effective manner. Using Mobile Stations (MS) as probe to tracking the vehicle movement is a low cost and immediately solution to obtain the real-time traffic information. In this paper, we propose a model to analyze the relation between the amount of Periodic Location Update (PLU) events and traffic density. Finally, the numerical analysis shows that this model is feasible to estimate the traffic density.

  16. Accuracy validation of T2L2 time transfer in co-location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Courde, Clément; Samain, Etienne; Exertier, Pierre; Guillemot, Philippe; Torre, Jean-Marie; Martin, Nicolas; Foussard, Claude

    2015-02-01

    The Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment has been developed in close collaboration between Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur. The aim is to synchronize remote ultra-stable clocks over large-scale distances using two laser ranging stations. This ground to space time transfer has been derived from laser telemetry technology with dedicated space equipment designed to record arrival time of laser pulses on board the satellite. For 3 years, specific campaigns have been organized to prove T2L2 performance. In April 2012, we performed a 2-week campaign with our two laser ranging stations, Métrologie Optique and French Transportable Laser Ranging Station, to demonstrate the T2L2 time transfer accuracy in co-location. We have compared three independent time transfer techniques: T2L2, GPS, and direct measurement, with both an event timer and an interval counter. The most important result obtained in this campaign was a mean agreement between T2L2 and a direct comparison better than 200 ps. This is the first major step to validate the uncertainty budget of the entire T2L2 experiment. This paper focuses on this campaign setup and the obtained results.

  17. Ex vivo accuracy of three electronic apex locators using different apical file sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Matos, Leonardo de Alencar; Pinheiro-Júnior, Elilton Cavalcante; Menezes, Antônio Sérgio Teixeira de; Vivacqua-Gomes, Nilton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (Root ZX, Novapex, and Justy II) in root canal length determinations using different apical file sizes, considering the apical constriction (AC) and the major foramen (MF) as anatomic references. The diameter of the apical foramina of 40 single-rooted teeth was determined by direct visual measurement and the master apical file was established. Electronic measurements were then performed using 3 instruments: the selected master apical file (adjusted file), one size smaller (intermediate file), and two sizes smaller (misfit file). The distances from the tip of files fixed in the canals to the MF and to the AC were measured digitally. Precision at AC and at MF for the misfit, intermediate and adjusted apical files was as follows: 80%/88%/83% and 78%/83%/95% (Root ZX); 80%/85%/80% and 68%/73%/73% (Novapex); and 78%/80%/78% and 65%/78%/70% (Justy II). Considering the mean discrepancies, statistically significant differences were found only for the adjusted file at MF, with Root ZX presenting the best results at MF. The chi-square test showed significant differences between the acceptable measurements at AC and at MF for the Justy II and Novapex (± 0.5 mm) regardless of file adjustment. Under the conditions of the present study, all devices provided acceptable electronic measurements regardless of file adjustment, except for Root ZX which had its performance improved significantly when the precisely fit apical file was used. Justy II and Novapex provided electronic measurements nearest to the AC.

  18. Accuracy of three different electronic apex locators in detecting simulated horizontal and vertical root fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Aqeel K; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX, Foramatron D10 and Apex NRG, in the detection of fractures in teeth having simulated horizontal and vertical root fractures. A total of 90 extracted intact, straight, single-rooted teeth were divided into six groups of 15 teeth each. In Groups A, B and C, an incomplete horizontal fracture was simulated by preparing a horizontal incision in the coronal, middle or apical portion of the root until the circumferential half of the canal was exposed in the horizontal plane respectively. In Groups D, E and F, an incomplete vertical root fracture was simulated by preparing a vertical straight incision to expose the canal in the coronal, middle or apical portion of the root all the way in the longitudinal plane respectively. The simulated fractures were 0.25 mm in thickness in all groups. The teeth were embedded in 1% agar and the canals were irrigated with saline solution during electronic measurement. Detection of the simulated root fractures was established with a size 10 K-file when the meter value reached 'APEX' on each EAL. In Groups A, B and C, Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between the three EALs. However, statistically significant differences were found among the EALs in Groups D, E and F (P < 0.0001, one-way anova and Tukey's post-hoc test). In conclusion, the three EALs tested were accurate and acceptable clinical tools in the detection of horizontal root fractures. However, the three EALs were unreliable in detecting the position of vertical root fractures.

  19. Global Location-Based Access to Web Applications Using Atom-Based Automatic Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kulwinder; Park, Dong-Won

    We propose an architecture which enables people to enquire about information available in directory services by voice using regular phones. We implement a Virtual User Agent (VUA) which mediates between the human user and a business directory service. The system enables the user to search for the nearest clinic, gas station by price, motel by price, food / coffee, banks/ATM etc. and fix an appointment, or automatically establish a call between the user and the business party if the user prefers. The user also has an option to receive appointment confirmation by phone, SMS, or e-mail. The VUA is accessible by a toll free DID (Direct Inward Dialing) number using a phone by anyone, anywhere, anytime. We use the Euclidean formula for distance measurement. Since, shorter geodesic distances (on the Earth’s surface) correspond to shorter Euclidean distances (measured by a straight line through the Earth). Our proposed architecture uses Atom XML syndication format protocol for data integration, VoiceXML for creating the voice user interface (VUI) and CCXML for controlling the call components. We also provide an efficient algorithm for parsing Atom feeds which provide data to the system. Moreover, we describe a cost-effective way for providing global access to the VUA based on Asterisk (an open source IP-PBX). We also provide some information on how our system can be integrated with GPS for locating the user coordinates and therefore efficiently and spontaneously enhancing the system response. Additionally, the system has a mechanism for validating the phone numbers in its database, and it updates the number and other information such as daily price of gas, motel etc. automatically using an Atom-based feed. Currently, the commercial directory services (Example 411) do not have facilities to update the listing in the database automatically, so that why callers most of the times get out-of-date phone numbers or other information. Our system can be integrated very easily

  20. Influence of pulp condition on the accuracy of an electronic foramen locator in posterior teeth: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Renner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess, in vivo, the accuracy of the NovApex® electronic foramen locator in determining working length (WL in vital and necrotic posterior teeth. The NovApex®was used in 144 canals: 35 teeth with vital pulps (68 canals and 42 teeth with necrotic pulps (76 canals. WL was measured with the NovApex® locator and confirmed using the radiographic method. Differences between electronic and radiographic measurements ranging between 0.0 and 0.4 millimeters were classified as acceptable; differences equal to or greater than 0.5 millimeter were considered unacceptable. Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess the influence of pulp condition on the accuracy of NovApex®(a = 0.05. Regardless of pulp condition, differences between electronic and radiographic WL measurements were acceptable in 73.61% of the canals. No statistically significant differences in accuracy were observed when comparing vital and necrotic canals (p > 0.05. There were 38 unacceptable measurements. In none of these cases was the file tip located beyond the radiographic apex; in 32, it was located short of the NovApex® measurement. Pulp condition had no significant effect on the accuracy of NovApex®.

  1. Application of Mensuration Technology to Improve the Accuracy of Field Artillery Firing Unit Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    the Geoid ” by Witold Fraczek suggests errors in GPS accuracy are due to the sea level measurements used as a constant in GPS time calculations......GEOID96 Geoid Height Model.” National Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_ LIB/gislis96

  2. In vitro evaluation of the accuracy of five different electronic apex locators

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    Nasil Sakkir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of Study: To evaluate in vitro the efficacy of five different electronic apex locators (Root ZX II, i-Root, Endo Master, Triauto ZX, and Elements apex locator in locating the minor diameter. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary central incisors were used for the study. Standard access preparation was carried out and the teeth were glued to three plastic frames containing alginate. Electronic working length measurement was determined using all the five apex locators. Following this, the actual canal length was determined by introducing a size 15 K-file into the canal until the tip of the file became visible at the apical foramen under microscope. The mean values of actual length and electronic working length readings were compared using Student t-test and multiple comparison procedures. Results: The average value for actual root canal length was 22.483 ± 1.8731 mm; and the mean electronic root canal length values for Root ZX II, i-Root, Elements, Endo Master, and Triauto ZX apex locators was 22.483 ± 1.7640 mm, 22.400 ± 1.7390 mm, 22.717 ± 1.9462 mm, 22.767 ± 1.9061 mm, and 22.417 ± 1.7523 mm, respectively. P > 0.05 for all the five tested apex locators. Conclusion: All the five modern apex locators tested in this study can determine the working length with high precision and greater predictability.

  3. Accuracy of five electronic foramen locators with different operating systems: an ex vivo study

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    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the precision of five electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs with different operating systems: the Root ZX, Mini Apex Locator, Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15, and the possible influence of the positioning of the instrument tips short of the apical foramen. Material and Methods: Forty-two mandibular bicuspids had their real canal lengths (RL previously determined. Electronic measurements were performed 1.0 mm short of the apical foramen (-1.0, followed by measurements at the apical foramen (0.0. The data resulting from the comparison of the ERCLMD measurements and the RL were evaluated by the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests at a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering the measurements performed at 0.0 and -1.0, the precision rates for the ERCLMDs were: 73.5% and 47.1% (Root ZX, 73.5% and 55.9% (Mini Apex Locator, 67.6% and 41.1% (Propex II, 61.7% and 44.1% (iPex, and 79.4% and 44.1% (RomiApex A-15, respectively, considering ±0.5 mm of tolerance. Regarding the mean discrepancies, no differences were observed at 0.0; however, in the measurements at -1.0, the iPex, a multi-frequency ERCLMD, had significantly more discrepant readings short of the apical foramen than the other devices, except for the Propex II, which had intermediate results. When the ERCLMDs measurements at -1.0 were compared with those at 0.0, the Propex II, iPex and RomiApex A-15 presented significantly higher discrepancies in their readings. Conclusions: Under the conditions of the present study, all the ERCLMDs provided acceptable measurements at the 0.0 position. However, at the -1.0 position, the ERCLMDs had a lower precision, with statistically significant differences for the Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15.

  4. Comparative analysis ex vivo of the accuracy of three apex locators: Root ZX, Bingo 1020 and Ipex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta HEIDEMANN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate ex vivo the reading accuracy of three electronic apex locators – Root ZX, Bingo 1020 and Ipex –, in respect to the real measure of the teeth.Material and methods: Fifty single root premolar teeth extracted were selected. After coronary access, the length tooth (LT measurement was directly realized by the insertion of a K#10 file in the canal until its tip was observed in the apical foramen with the help of a magnifying glass (8X. After removing the file, its length was recorded with accuracy of 0.01 mm using digital caliper. Then, the teeth were electronically measured (LE whit the three apex locators until achieving the zero mark on the display of each unit. The electronically measures obtained were compared with the LT and the differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis Test and by the test of proportions (α = 0.05. Results: It was found that the Root ZX system was statistically different from the Ipex (p 0.05. Within the limit of tolerance of ± 1.0 mm, the results demonstrated an accuracy of 100% for ZX Root, 94% for Bingo and 90% for Ipex when compared to the LT values. However, in the limits of ± 0.5 mm the accuracy achieved was 90% for Root ZX, 68% for Bingo and 52% for the Ipex. Conclusion: It was concluded that all electronic devices tested were able in determining the precise tooth length when considered a variation of 1 mm from the position of apical foramen. Nevertheless, when considered a variation of 0.5 mm, only the unit Root ZX proved to be accurate.

  5. Updating Mars-GRAM to Increase the Accuracy of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hiliary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). During the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process, it was discovered that Mars-GRAM, when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3, is less than realistic. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear set to 0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. This has resulted in an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. As a preliminary fix to this pressure-density problem, density factor values were determined for tau=0.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. Currently, these density factors are fixed values for all latitudes and Ls. Results will be presented from work being done to derive better multipliers by including variation with latitude and/or Ls by comparison of MapYear 0 output directly against TES limb data. The addition of these more precise density factors to Mars-GRAM 2005 Release 1.4 will improve the results of the sensitivity studies done for large optical depths.

  6. Comparative evaluation of accuracy of two electronic apex locators in the presence of various irrigants: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saru; Kapur, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Context: The establishment of appropriate working length is one of the most critical steps in endodontic therapy. Electronic apex locators have been introduced to determine the working length. The development of electronic apex locators has helped make the assessment of the working length more accurate and predictable, along with reduction in treatment time and radiation dose. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electronic apex locators after cleansing and shaping of the root canals and whether there was any alteration in accuracy when used in the presence of irrigants. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human permanent molars with mature apices were selected. Equal number of maxillary and mandibular permanent molars (35 each) were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. Access opening was done and only the mesiobuccal root canal was studied for the purpose of standardization. Electronic working length measurements were taken before and after preparation of the mesiobuccal canal with Root ZX and ProPex II using various irrigants. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using a paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results: P-values for actual and final canal lengths for Root ZX employing NaoCl(0.001), CHX(0.006), LA(0.020) and for ProPex II was (0.001) respectively. When the data were compared, results were statistically significant (P locator and CHX as irrigant matched more precisely with the actual canal length measurements. PMID:23230349

  7. Calcium hydroxide dressing residues after different removal techniques affect the accuracy of Root-ZX apex locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymirli, Ayhan; Uyanik, Mehmet Özgür; Çalt, Semra; Nagas, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the ability of several techniques to remove calcium hydroxide (CH) from the root canal and determined the influence of CH residues on the accuracy of the electronic apex locator. Materials and Methods Root canals of 90 human maxillary lateral incisors with confirmed true working length (TWL) were prepared and filled with CH. The teeth were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups according to the CH removal technique (n = 14): 0.9% saline; 0.9% saline + master apical file (MAF); 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA); 17% EDTA + MAF; 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 5.25% NaOCl + MAF. Six teeth were used as negative control. After CH removal, the electronic working length was measured using Root-ZX (Morita Corp.) and compared with TWL to evaluate Root-ZX accuracy. All specimens were sectioned longitudinally, and the area of remaining CH (CH) and total canal area were measured using imaging software. Results The EDTA + MAF and NaOCl + MAF groups showed better CH removal than other groups (p 85% within a tolerance of ± 1.0 mm (p < 0.05). There was strong negative correlation between amount of CH residues and EAL accuracy (r = -0.800 for ± 0.5 mm; r = -0.940 for ± 1.0 mm). Conclusions The mechanical instrumentation improves the CH removal of irrigation solutions although none of the techniques removed the dressing completely. Residues of CH medication in root canals affected the accuracy of Root-ZX adversely. PMID:25671212

  8. An integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences: hindsight effects and knowledge updating in personality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Steffen; Egloff, Boris; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Back, Mitja D

    2012-10-01

    The present article integrates research on the accurate inference of personality traits with process models of hindsight bias (the tendency to exaggerate in hindsight what one had said in foresight). Specifically, the article suggests a new model that integrates assumptions of the lens model on accurate personality judgments and accounts that view hindsight effects as a by-product of knowledge updating. We suggest 3 processes that have the potential to explain the occurrence of hindsight effects in personality judgments: (a) changes in an individual's cue perceptions, (b) changes in the utilization of more valid cues, and (c) changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied. In 2 studies (N1 = 91, N2 = 93), participants were presented with target pictures and were asked to judge each target's levels of the Big Five. Thereafter, they received feedback and had to recall their original judgments. Results show that there were clear hindsight effects for all 5 personality dimensions. Importantly, we found evidence that both the utilization of more valid cues and changes in cue perceptions--but not changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied--account for the hindsight effects. Implications of these results for models explaining hindsight effects, the inference of personality judgments, and the accuracy of these inferences are discussed.

  9. An in vivo comparative evaluation to determine the accuracy of working length between radiographic and electronic apex locators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vijay Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An in vivo comparative evaluation to determine the accuracy of working length between radiographic and electronic apex locators. Aim: The study was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of electronic apex locator, to determine the working length of root canal, and to compare it with the radiographic method of working length determination. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 teeth selected for the study had to go for extraction because of periodontal or orthodontic reasons. Access cavity was prepared and the clinical estimated working length (CEWL was determined with 10-25 no. K-file. A radiograph was then taken for determining the radiographic estimated working length (REWL. For electronic measurement of root canal, a 10 no. K-file was advanced toward the apex until it reached a 0.5 mm short of apex as shown by the apex locator. After fixing the file with a light cured composite, the tooth was extracted, the tooth surface was then longitudinally grounded using straight fissure diamond bur until the root canal and the tip of the file were visible. The distance of file from the minor constriction was measured with help of stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis : The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis for this study. Results: The chi-square test where χ2 = 21.034 with P = 0.000 indicated that a significant difference exists among the groups. The electronic method showed highest number of cases with the working length at the minor constrictor. Conclusion: The electronic method for determining the working length of root canal was found to be more accurate than the radiographic method.

  10. Comparative evaluation of accuracy of two electronic apex locators in the presence of various irrigants: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saru Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The establishment of appropriate working length is one of the most critical steps in endodontic therapy. Electronic apex locators have been introduced to determine the working length. The development of electronic apex locators has helped make the assessment of the working length more accurate and predictable, along with reduction in treatment time and radiation dose. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electronic apex locators after cleansing and shaping of the root canals and whether there was any alteration in accuracy when used in the presence of irrigants. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human permanent molars with mature apices were selected. Equal number of maxillary and mandibular permanent molars (35 each were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. Access opening was done and only the mesiobuccal root canal was studied for the purpose of standardization. Electronic working length measurements were taken before and after preparation of the mesiobuccal canal with Root ZX and ProPex II using various irrigants. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using a paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results: P-values for actual and final canal lengths for Root ZX employing NaoCl(0.001, CHX(0.006, LA(0.020 and for ProPex II was (0.001 respectively. When the data were compared, results were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study Root ZX can be considered to be an accurate electronic apex locator and CHX as irrigant matched more precisely with the actual canal length measurements.

  11. Age-related differences in strategy knowledge updating: blocked testing produces greater improvements in metacognitive accuracy for younger than older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2008-09-01

    Age-related differences in updating knowledge about strategy effectiveness after task experience have not been consistently found, perhaps because the magnitude of observed knowledge updating has been rather meager for both age groups. We examined whether creating homogeneous blocks of recall tests based on two strategies used at encoding (imagery and repetition) would enhance people's learning about strategy effects on recall. Younger and older adults demonstrated greater knowledge updating (as measured by questionnaire ratings of strategy effectiveness and by global judgments of performance) with blocked (versus random) testing. The benefit of blocked testing for absolute accuracy of global predictions was smaller for older than younger adults. However, individual differences in correlations of strategy effectiveness ratings and postdictions showed similar upgrades for both age groups. Older adults learn about imagery's superior effectiveness but do not accurately estimate the magnitude of its benefit, even after blocked testing.

  12. Investigation of the trade-off between time window length, classifier update rate and classification accuracy for restorative brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Sam; Ridding, Michael C; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the application of restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) has received significant interest in many BCI labs. However, there are a number of challenges, that need to be tackled to achieve efficient performance of such systems. For instance, any restorative BCI needs an optimum trade-off between time window length, classification accuracy and classifier update rate. In this study, we have investigated possible solutions to these problems by using a dataset provided by the University of Graz, Austria. We have used a continuous wavelet transform and the Student t-test for feature extraction and a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We find that improved results, for restorative BCIs for rehabilitation, may be achieved by using a 750 milliseconds time window with an average classification accuracy of 67% that updates every 32 milliseconds.

  13. ACCURACY EVALUATION OF THE OBJECT LOCATION VISUALIZATION FOR GEO-INFORMATION AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS OF MANNED AIRCRAFTS NAVIGATION COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostishin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of accuracy estimating for the object location display in the geographic information systems and display systems of manned aircrafts navigation complexes. Application features of liquid crystal screens with a different number of vertical and horizontal pixels are considered at displaying of geographic information data on different scales. Estimation display of navigation parameters values on board the aircraft is done in two ways: a numeric value is directly displayed on the screen of multi-color indicator, and a silhouette of the object is formed on the screen on a substrate background, which is a graphical representation of area map in the flight zone. Various scales of area digital map display currently used in the aviation industry have been considered. Calculation results of one pixel scale interval, depending on the specifications of liquid crystal screen and zoom of the map display area on the multifunction digital display, are given. The paper contains experimental results of the accuracy evaluation for area position display of the aircraft based on the data from the satellite navigation system and inertial navigation system, obtained during the flight program run of the real object. On the basis of these calculations a family of graphs was created for precision error display of the object reference point position using the onboard indicators with liquid crystal screen with different screen resolutions (6 "×8", 7.2 "×9.6", 9"×12" for two map display scales (1:0 , 25 km, 1-2 km. These dependency graphs can be used both to assess the error value of object area position display in existing navigation systems and to calculate the error value in upgrading facilities.

  14. Pulse oximeter accuracy and precision at five different sensor locations in infants and children with cyanotic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of pulse oximetry by Takuo Aoyagi in the early 1970s, its use has expanded beyond the perioperative care into neonatal, paediatric and adult intensive care units (ICUs. Pulse oximetry is one of the most important advances in respiratory monitoring as its readings (SpO 2 are used clinically as an indirect estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 . Sensors were placed frequently on the sole, palm, ear lobe or toes in addition to finger. On performing an extensive Medline search using the terms "accuracy of pulse oximetry" and "precision of pulse oximetry", limited data were found in congenital heart disease patients in the immediate post-corrective stage. Also, there are no reports and comparative data of the reliability and precision of pulse oximetry when readings from five different sensor locations (viz. finger, palm, toe, sole and ear are analysed simultaneously. To fill these lacunae of knowledge, we undertook the present study in 50 infants and children with cyanotic heart disease in the immediate post-corrective stage.

  15. Electronic apex locator: A comprehensive literature review — Part II: Effect of different clinical and technical conditions on electronic apex locator′s accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the effects of different clinical and technical conditions on the accuracy of electronic apex locators (EALs. Materials and Methods: "Tooth apex," "dental instrument," "odontometry," "electronic medical," and "electronic apex locator" were searched as primary identifiers via Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus data base up to 30 July 2013. Original articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Results: Out of 402 relevant studies, 183 were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In this part, 75 studies are presented. Pulp vitality conditions and root resorption, types of files and irrigating materials do not affect an EAL′s accuracy; however, the file size and foramen diameter can affect its accuracy. Conclusions: Various clinical conditions such as the file size and foramen diameter may affect EALs′ accuracy. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed for definitive conclusion.

  16. Using model-based functional MRI to locate working memory updates and declarative memory retrievals in the fronto-parietal network

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used model-based functional MRI (fMRI) to locate two functions of the fronto-parietal network: declarative memory retrievals and updating of working memory. Because regions in the fronto-parietal network are by definition coherently active, locating functions within this network is difficult. To overcome this problem, we applied model-based fMRI, an analysis method that uses predictions of a computational model to inform the analysis. We applied model-based fMRI to five prev...

  17. Accuracy of electronic apex locator in length determination in the presence of different irrigants: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soujanya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the root canal length accurately had been a challenge in endodontics. Introduction of apex locators have definitely served as an effective adjuvant to radiographs. This in vitro study had attempted to compare the effectiveness of electronic apex locator in the presence of various canal contents. Comparison of the length determined by apex locators with the radiographic length was also made. The results of the study had shown that the length of root canals can be accurately made irrespective of the canal contents.

  18. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang; LI Zishen; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10–20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3–5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioni...

  19. Space shuttle engineering and operations support: Study of the effects of multiple ground updates on the accuracy of the onboard state vector with IMU only navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, R.

    1977-01-01

    There are six cases considered: (1) no updates made during the flight, (2) one ground update in the vertical components only at the first practice separation minus 15 minutes, (3) one ground update in all components at the first practice separation minus 5 minutes, (4) updates 2 and 3 applied successively, (5) Case 4 plus an update in all components at the second separation attempt minus 3 minutes, and (6) one ground update at first separation attempt minus 5 minutes and a second update at second separation minus two minutes. The mission control simulation program, GROPER, was run using as radar input a tape containing radar derived state vectors for the trajectory.

  20. An in vivo radiographic evaluation of the accuracy of Apex and iPex electronic Apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludo, Laura; Souza, Sophia Lopes de; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the clinical applicability of two electronic apex locators (EALs) - Apex (Septodont) and iPex (NSK) - in different groups of human teeth by using radiography. The working lengths (WLs) of 100 root canals were determined electronically. The EAL to be used first was chosen randomly and a K-file was inserted into the root canal until the EAL display indicated the location of the apical constriction (0 mm). The K-file was fixed to the tooth and a periapical radiograph was taken using a radiographic film holder. The K-file was removed and the WL was measured. The same procedure was repeated using the other EAL. Radiographs were examined with the aid of a light-box with lens of ×4 magnification by two blinded experienced endodontists. The distance between the file tip and the root apex was recorded as follows: (A) +1 to 0 mm, (B) -0.1 to 0.5 mm, (C) -0.6 to 1 mm, (D) -1.1 to 1.5 mm, and (E) -1.6 mm or greater. For statistical purposes, these scores were divided into 2 subgroups according to the radiographic apex: acceptable (B, C, and D) and non-acceptable (A and E). Statistically significant differences were not found between the results of Apex and iPex in terms of acceptable and non-acceptable measurements (p>0.05) or in terms of the distance recorded from file tip and the radiographic apex (p>0.05). Apex and iPex EALs provided reliable measurements for WL determination for endodontic therapy.

  1. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P HELLO system is accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. This preliminary report indicated that the HELLO system significantly improves the puncture accuracy of PTED and reduces the fluoroscopic times, preoperative location time, as well as operation time. (ChiCTR-ICR-15006730).

  2. 影响微震震源定位精度的主要因素分析%Main Influencing Factors for the Accuracy of Microseismic Source Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陇军; 李夕兵; 唐礼忠

    2013-01-01

    微震震源坐标是微震监测最基本和最重要的参数之一,定位精度的高低直接影响着微震分析的结果.研究分析了微震震源定位精度的影响因素,台站误差,速度误差及由优化算法带来的误差.采用优化算法确定震源的坐标及震源事件的发生时间时,不同算法求解的源坐标值相差很大,为此,如何选取合理的优化算法意义重大.将麦夸特法(LM)、简面体爬山法(SM)、准牛顿法(QN)、最大继承法(MIO)、自组织群移法(SOMA)、麦夸特法与全局优化算法(LM-GO)、简面体爬山法与全局优化算法(SM-GO)、准牛顿法与全局优化算法(QN-GO)、最大继承法与全局优化算法(MIO-GO)应用到震源定位中,分析不同算法对震源定位精度的影响.研究发现单纯使用MIO、QN、LM很容易陷入局部最优值,选用时应慎重,联合使用全局最优算法可以显著提高定位精度.SOMA、SM-GO、MIO-GO、LM-GO计算结果较为稳定,定位精度高,建议在声发射源与震源定位时优先选用.%The microseismic source location is one of the most important and foundational parameters in seismic analysis.The positioning accuracy directly affects the results of the microseismic results.The influencing factors for the accuracy of the microseismic source location,including the station error,the velocity error and the error caused by the optimization algorithm,are analyzed and discussed.The source location and the number of source events are determined by an optimization algorithm,and the source coordinates vary greatly with the use of different algorithms.It is important to select a reasonable optimization algorithm with a high accuracy.The famous optimization algorithms,such as the Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LM),the Simplex Method (SM),the Quasi-Newton Method (QN),the Max Inherit Optimization (MIO),the Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithms (SOMA),as well as the Global Optimization (GO)coupled with MIO,QN,MIO and LM,were used

  3. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Li, Zishen; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hong

    2016-12-21

    Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10-20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3-5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS) combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50-80 km/h) mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed) for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS) were better than 0.15 m (horizontal) and 0.25 m (vertical) for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal) and 0.45 m (vertical) for the kinematic test.

  4. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS development. Real-time kinematic (RTK positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10–20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services to about 3–5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50–80 km/h mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS were better than 0.15 m (horizontal and 0.25 m (vertical for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal and 0.45 m (vertical for the kinematic test.

  5. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities. Equilibr

  6. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in determining the apical foramen in multi-rooted teeth: Randomised clinical and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Ivana; Ivanovic, Vladimir; Vujaskovic, Mirjana; Ignjatovic, Snezana; Miletic, Vesna

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs), Raypex 5, Apex NRG and ProPex II, in locating the apical foramen (AF) in vivo. Thirty multi-rooted teeth were included in the study. Distances from the file tip to the radiographic apex from the buccal (R1) and mesial (R2) aspect were measured after extraction. The distance from the file tip to the AF (L) was measured microscopically. Raypex 5, Apex NRG and ProPex II were accurate to within ± 0.5 mm in 84.6%, 78.6% and 66.7% of cases, respectively. R1, R2 and L measurements between the EALs were not statistically different (P > 0.05). R1 and L correlated positively (r(2) = 0.817; P 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the EALs. There was a positive correlation between electronic and radiographic measurements when locating the AF.

  7. Ex vivo accuracy of Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15 apex locators in extracted vital pulp teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thaís M; Alves, Flávio R F

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare, ex vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs), Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15, in detecting the apical foramen (AF). Forty extracted single-Rooted human teeth with vital pulp were used in this study. After access preparation, the Root canal length of each tooth was measured by placing a #10 file until the tip was visible at the AF under a stereomicroscope. The teeth were subsequently embedded in an alginate model. In each Root canal, all three EALs were used to determine the working length, which was defined as the zero reading or equivalent. The distance between the file tip and AF was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test. Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15 were accurate within 0.5 mm, 62.5, 56.2, 50% of the time. No significant differences were found between the three EALs (p > 0.05). Considering all EALs, the mean distance from the file tip to AF was 4.49 mm. The accuracy of the three EALs evaluated in this study was not statistically significantly different. The 'Apex' or '0.0' marks of the EALs do not indicate the AF itself, but just a position coronal 0.49 mm to the AF. Using a tolerance of ± 0.5 mm from the actual lengths, the ZX II yielded the most acceptable measurements.

  8. A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCURACIES OF RAYPEX 5, RAYPEX 6, IPEX AND IPEX II ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı GÜREL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine the accuracy of iPex II and to compare it with those of Raypex 5, Raypex 6 and iPex electronic apex locators (EALs. Materials and Methods: Thirty fresh human mandibular premolar teeth were used in this study. Crown segments were cut and root canals were coronally flared. A #10 K-file was inserted until its tip can be seen within apical foramen to determine actual working length (AWL. Teeth were embedded in alginate and each multi-frequency EALs were randomly tested to determine the electronic working length (EWL. Differences between AWLs and EWLs were statistically compared. Results: No significant differences were found between four EALs. EWL measurements by Raypex 5 were accurate in 64.29%, Raypex 6 in 53.58%, iPex in 64.29% and iPex II in 50% of the specimens, within the range of ±0.5 mm from the AWL. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro experiment, our findings indicate that the accuracy of working length measurements calculated with iPex II was similar to those of other multi-frequency EALs used in this study.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of PLA2R autoantibodies and glomerular staining for the differentiation of idiopathic and secondary membranous nephropathy: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huanzi; Zhang, Huhai; He, Yani

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) autoantibodies and PLA2R glomerular staining in discriminating between idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) and secondary membranous nephropathy (sMN) has not been fully evaluated. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to investigate the accuracy and clinical value of serological anti-PLA2R test and histological PLA2R staining for differentiation iMN from sMN. A total of 19 studies involving 1160 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of serum anti-PLA2R were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-074), 0.97 (95% CI, 0.85-1.00), 73.75 (95% CI, 12.56-432.96) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78-0.85), respectively, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2) = 86.42%). Subgroup analyses revealed the study design, publication type, study origin, assay method might account for the heterogeneity. Additionally, the overall sensitivity, specificity, DOR and AUROC of glomerular PLA2R staining were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.72-0.83), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.75-0.97), 34.70 (95% CI, 9.93-121.30) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.87), respectively, without heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). Serological anti-PLA2R testing has diagnostic value, but it must be interpreted in context with patient clinical characteristics and histological PLA2R staining in seronegative patients is recommended.

  10. The Glacier and Ice Sheet Topography Interferometer: An Update on a Unique Sensor for High Accuracy Swath Mapping of Land Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, D.; Heavey, B.; Hensley, S.; Hodges, R.; Rengarajan, S.; Rignot, E.; Sadowy, G.; Simard, M.; Zawadzki, M.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss the innovative concept and technology development of a Ka-band (35 GHz) radar for mapping the surface topography of glaciers and ice sheets. The "Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer" (GLISTIN) is a single-pass, single platform interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) with an 8mm wavelength, which minimizes snow penetration yet remains relatively impervious to atmospheric attenuation. Such a system has the potential for delivering topographic maps at high spatial resolution, high vertical accuracy, independent of cloud cover, with a subseasonal update and would greatly enhance current observational and modeling capabilities of ice mass-balance and glacial retreat. To enable such measurements, a digitally beamformed antenna array is utilized to provide a wide measurement swath at a technologically feasible transmit power. To prove this concept and advance the technology readiness of this design we are currently funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to build and test a 1m x 1m digitally-beamformed (DBF) Ka-band slotted waveguide antenna with integrated digital receivers. This antenna provides 16 simultaneous receive beams, effectively broadening the swath without reducing receive antenna gain. The implementation of such a large aperture at Ka-band presents many design, manufacturing and calibration challenges which are addressed as part of this IIP. The integrated DBF array will be fielded at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's antenna range to demonstrate the overall calibration, beamforming and interferometric performance through creation of topographic imagery of the local Arroyo Seco. Currently entering the third year of the program, we will overview the system concept, array implementation and status of the technology. While the IIP addresses the development of the major technology challenges, an additional effort will demonstrate the phenomenology of the measurement by

  11. 星点亚像元细分定位精度分析%Accuracy Analysis for Sub-Pixel Location of Star Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连月勇; 张超; 谢宗特

    2015-01-01

    Precise positioning of the star could provide key data for subsequent navigation calculation. Various star point’ s numerical simulations were characterized to vertify the positioning method, according to the principle of Gauss distribution. Centroid algorithm and Gaussian surface fitness algorithm were introduced in this paper, the effect factors on star position accuracy were studied, which include the gray system error, random noise, segmenta-tion threshold, magnitude and coordinate distribution. The similarities and differences of the two star position loca-ting method were indepth analysed. According to the study of simulation experiment, distance between star and ref-erence point is farther, positioning error is larger, and the positioning error rises with random noise increasing. The experimental results show that, compared to the Gauss surface fitness method, centroid method has better practica-bility and its positioning accuracy has less dependence on pixel information of star point.%星点的精确定位为后续的导航解算提供数据支撑。基于高斯分布原理进行星点模拟,为星点定位提供图像数据。分别介绍了质心法和高斯曲面拟合法的亚像元细分定位原理,并研究系统误差、随机噪声、分割阈值、星等和星点坐标分布5个因素对星点定位精度的影响,分析两种方法的异同点。对模拟的星点进行定位分析发现,星点距离参考点越远定位误差越大,定位精度随噪声增大而降低。实验表明,相比高斯曲面拟合方法,质心法具有更好的实用性,其定位精度对星点的像元信息依赖性较小。

  12. Accuracy and Reproducibility of Radiographic Images for Assessing Crestal Bone Height of Implants Using the Precision Implant X-ray Locator (PIXRL) Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Kyle A; Wadhwani, Chandur; McAllister, Bradley; Wang, Mansen; Katancik, James A

    Assessment of crestal bone levels around implants is essential to monitor success and health. This is best accomplished with intraoral radiographs exposed at 90 degrees to the long axis of the implant, but this can be challenging to achieve clinically. Radiographic paralleling devices produce orthogonal radiographs but traditionally have required access to the implant body for each exposure. This study was conducted to determine if use of the Precision Implant X-ray Locator (PIXRL), a radiographic paralleling device that indexes the implant at the time of surgical placement, can produce orthogonal radiographs of dental implants more accurately than traditional radiologic techniques for assessing crestal bone levels. Three dental implants were inserted in dry human skulls in supracrestal positions to simulate crestal bone loss (maxillary right first premolar [site 14], maxillary right central incisor [site 11], and mandibular left second premolar [site 35]). The implants were masked with a soft tissue moulage and restored with provisional restorations. Four dental assistants exposed six radiographs using their usual and customary technique and six using the PIXRL device for each implant. A single examiner measured crestal bone levels on the radiographs relative to the implant platform shoulder on the mesial and distal of each implant. Recorded measurements were compared to the known values. Statistical analysis was completed using a generalized linear regression model to analyze the differences, and post-hoc comparisons with pairwise adjustment were applied. The images produced using the PIXRL device were more accurate overall compared to traditional techniques and were also more consistent. The greater degree of accuracy was statistically significant for all sites with the exception of the mesial measurements of the implant at site 11. This study demonstrates that the use of the PIXRL device can assist clinicians in obtaining more accurate orthogonal radiographs

  13. A Dynamic Location Updating Management Scheme in Low Earth Orbit Networks%低轨卫星通信网络中动态位置更新管理方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 张乃通

    2003-01-01

    Mobility management is an important aspect in LEO (low earth orbit) systems. In terrestrial wireless networks, the movement of the user triggers location updating and determines the paging scheme, while in LEO satellite systems, the location updating and paging is mainly based on the movement of satellite. Terrestrial location management techniques must be altered to fit the LEO systems. This paper introduces a modified movement-based location updating and paging scheme in LEO networks. In this scheme the meta-cell concept is proposed which includes two spot-beams of one satellite. First the location management scheme based on the architecture with meta-cell location area is presented. Then an analytical model is applied to formulate the cost of location updating and paging for the movement meta-cell based dynamic location updating scheme. The comparison of performance between the meta-cell architecture method and the conventional signal-spot-cell architecture method is provided to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme under various parameters. To reduce the impact of meta-cell architecture on the location paging cost, a forced location updating strategy is presented which is used in the cases that the meta-cell includes the two spot-beams from different satellites.%移动性管理是LEO(低轨卫星(low earth orbit))卫星网络通信系统中的一个重要问题.提出了LEO网络中一种改进的基于移动的位置更新和寻呼方案.在这种方法中我们引入了"元小区"概念,它由两个相邻波束组成.首先阐述了基于"元小区"模型的位置管理策略,然后推导了基于移动的动态位置管理的数学模型,并利用该模型分别计算了LEO网络中单位呼叫的位置更新和寻呼代价.通过元小区方案和普通小区的在各种网络参数环境下的性能比较证明了"元小区"方法的有效性和健壮性.最后为了进一步减小"元小区"方法中的寻呼代价,提

  14. Children’s School-Breakfast Reports and School-Lunch Reports (in 24-hour Dietary Recalls): Conventional and Reporting-Error-Sensitive Measures Show Inconsistent Accuracy Results for Retention Interval and for Breakfast Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Puryear, Megan P.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Smith, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-hour recalls), and accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly-selected fourth-grade children at 10 schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed under one of eight conditions (two RIs [short (prior-24-hour recall obtained in afternoon); long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] crossed with four prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, etc.), open (no instructions), reverse (recent-to-distant)]). Each condition had 60 children (half girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure—report rate—and reporting-error-sensitive measures—correspondence rate and inflation ratio—were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio—but not report rate—showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short than long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select short RIs to maximize accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  15. 牙髓状态影响TRR1根尖定位仪准确性的临床评价%The influence of pulp status on the accuracy of TRR1 electronic apex locator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焱; 唐继伟; 陆兆威

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of pulp status on the accuracy of determining root canal length by TRR1 electronic apex locator in clinic.Methods Two hundred and fifty-seven root canals of 87 teeth were divided into two groups, teeth in group A were diagnosed as pulpitis, and teeth in group B were apical periodontitis. All these root canals' working length were measured by TRR1 electronic apex locator, then measured the distance between the K-file tip and the radiographs(L), when 0 mm≤L≤2 mm,the data were considered accuracy. Results The accuracy rate of group A was lower than that of group B, but there was no significant difference in these data between two groups. Conclusion The accuracy of TRR1 electronic apex locator wasn't influenced by the pulp status in this study.%目的 探讨TRR1根尖定位仪在不同牙髓活力状态下测量根管长度的准确性.方法 由指定的临床主治医师使用TRR1根尖定位仪对诊断为牙髓炎和尖周炎的两组患牙分别作根管长度测量,根据X线插针定位片测定K锉尖距根尖的距离(L),以0 mm≤L≤2 mm为测量准确.结果 牙髓炎组(A组)测量准确率较根尖周炎组(B组)低,但两组准确率无显著性差异.结论 TRR1根尖定位仪的准确性不受牙髓活力状态的影响.

  16. In vivo evaluation of the accuracy of working length determination using an electronic apex locater IPEX (NSK) on vital uninfected teeth and teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Kachenahalli Narasimhaiah; Daniel, Jacob G.; Razvi, Shuaib; Vinaychandra, Ramachandra; Kini, Annapurna; Nandakishore, Kunigal Jayram

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of working length determination of an electronic apex locator, IPEX, on vital uninfected teeth and teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty vital and uninfected teeth and 16 teeth with a single canal and matured apices and having radiographic evidence of periapical lesions of 5-10 mm were taken for this study. Access cavities were prepared and pulp was considered to be vital if bleeding was present upon entering the chambers. No. 15 k-type file was used to determine the working length. X-rays were taken to determine the working length using Ingle's method, followed by determination using the electronic apex locator, IPEX. Teeth were then observed under 45 × magnification using stereomicroscope. No 15 k-type file was maneuvered till the emergence of the tip was seen and the real length of the tooth was thus measured in the instrument up to 0.5 mm accuracy using stereomicroscope. Results: The data were duly collected and entered, and the statistical analysis was done using Student's t test. In uninfected teeth, IPEX was found to be more reliable than Ingle's radiographic technique, but this was not statistically significant. In case of teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions, the radiographic method appeared to be relatively more dependable; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: For rendering effective root canal procedure, both radiographs and electronic apex locators have important roles to play. PMID:25625080

  17. Study on Influence Factors of WIFI Indoor Location Accuracy%基于 WIFI 无线区域定位的精确度影响因子研究﹡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓洁; 江肖强

    2013-01-01

      在室内这种特定环境下,无线信号在传播过程中会发生 NLOS 和 LOS 传播,由此产生定位误差。主要在 WIFI 无线网络环境下对室内定位精确度的影响因子 NLOS 和 LOS 进行研究,并在室内环境下的对信号传播模型进行建模。通过仿真定位环境,分析推导出在影响因子强度不同的室内环境下的两种影响因子消减优化算法 BRBF 和 V-OBTL 以及这两种优化算法在定位中的精确度,以此提出在不同影响因子环境中以及采用不同采样方式下的提高定位精度的方法。%In specific indoor environment, NLOS and LOS would emerge in the transmission process of wireless signal, and this would weaken the signal intensity result in location errors. The influence factors of indoor-location precision in WIFI network environment is discussed in detail, and the signal propagation model constructed. By simulating the location environment, the two influence-factor decreasing algorithms and their location accuracy in different indoor environments are analyzed, and thus the method for improving location accuracy in different influence-factor environments or with different sampling modes is proposed.

  18. The Effect of File Size and Type and Irrigation Solutions on the Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locators: An In Vitro Study on Canine Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Piotr; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Dudek, Krzysztof; Chrószcz, Aleksander; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Gabren-Syller, Aleksandra; Bryła, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the root canal during endodontic treatment have a significant influence on the course of the therapeutic process as well as on its final result in both human and veterinary medicine. The apical constriction should be the termination point for the preparation and filling of the root canal. This research was conducted with the use of a Septodont kit consisting of a small chamber filled with the examined solution in which a healthy second incisor was placed. The step back method was applied for the root canal preparation and master apical file of 30 was used. The working length was 22 mm. The examination was conducted with the use of steel as well as nickel titanium hand instruments. Different irrigation solutions and two types of apex locators were used. Measurements of the working length of the root canal showed dependence on the size of the instrument. Examinations carried out in various environments showed that analogical measurements were obtained only for sodium hypochlorite solutions. In other environments the measured sections were shortened. Comparative examinations with the use of steel instruments demonstrated insignificant measurement differences. Compared to these results, the measurements in nickel titanium group were characterized by more considerable deviations.

  19. The Effect of File Size and Type and Irrigation Solutions on the Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locators: An In Vitro Study on Canine Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Maciej; Kosior, Piotr; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Dudek, Krzysztof; Chrószcz, Aleksander; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Gabren-Syller, Aleksandra; Kirstein, Karol; Skalec, Aleksandra; Bryła, Ewelina; Dobrzyński, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the root canal during endodontic treatment have a significant influence on the course of the therapeutic process as well as on its final result in both human and veterinary medicine. The apical constriction should be the termination point for the preparation and filling of the root canal. This research was conducted with the use of a Septodont kit consisting of a small chamber filled with the examined solution in which a healthy second incisor was placed. The step back method was applied for the root canal preparation and master apical file of 30 was used. The working length was 22 mm. The examination was conducted with the use of steel as well as nickel titanium hand instruments. Different irrigation solutions and two types of apex locators were used. Measurements of the working length of the root canal showed dependence on the size of the instrument. Examinations carried out in various environments showed that analogical measurements were obtained only for sodium hypochlorite solutions. In other environments the measured sections were shortened. Comparative examinations with the use of steel instruments demonstrated insignificant measurement differences. Compared to these results, the measurements in nickel titanium group were characterized by more considerable deviations.

  20. The Effect of File Size and Type and Irrigation Solutions on the Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locators: An In Vitro Study on Canine Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Janeczek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the root canal during endodontic treatment have a significant influence on the course of the therapeutic process as well as on its final result in both human and veterinary medicine. The apical constriction should be the termination point for the preparation and filling of the root canal. This research was conducted with the use of a Septodont kit consisting of a small chamber filled with the examined solution in which a healthy second incisor was placed. The step back method was applied for the root canal preparation and master apical file of 30 was used. The working length was 22 mm. The examination was conducted with the use of steel as well as nickel titanium hand instruments. Different irrigation solutions and two types of apex locators were used. Measurements of the working length of the root canal showed dependence on the size of the instrument. Examinations carried out in various environments showed that analogical measurements were obtained only for sodium hypochlorite solutions. In other environments the measured sections were shortened. Comparative examinations with the use of steel instruments demonstrated insignificant measurement differences. Compared to these results, the measurements in nickel titanium group were characterized by more considerable deviations.

  1. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  2. Accuracy of an electronic apex locator in the retreatment of teeth obturated with plastic or cross-linked gutta-percha carrier-based materials: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Manuele; Palopoli, Pietro; Iorio, Lorenzo; Conte, Gabriele; Cianconi, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the accuracy of the Root ZX electronic apex locator (EAL) (J Morita Corp, Kyoto, Japan) in determining the working length during retreatment of canals sealed with 2 different carrier-based obturating materials (ProTaper Obturator [Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland] and GuttaCore [Dentsply Maillefer]) and also evaluated whether they influenced its accuracy differently. Fifty extracted single-rooted human teeth with sound apices were selected for the study. We measured canals with the direct visual technique using a #10 K-file and shaped them with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer) up to this predetermined length. After instrumentation, we determined the canal length again using the visual technique (direct length [DL]). This value was considered the "reference point." Specimens were then placed in a tooth holder (Pro-Train; Simit Dental, Mantova, Italy), and the canal length was electronically measured (electronic length 1 [EL1]). Specimens were then obturated with ProTaper Obturators (group 1, n = 25) and GuttaCore (group 2, n = 25). Seven days later, a new electronic length was determined (electronic length 2 [EL2]) during retreatment procedures in the presence of the obturating material. EL1 and EL2 values were compared with DL using the Bland and Altman method. The different influences of the tested materials on the accuracy of the EAL were calculated with repeated measures analysis of variance. Both EL1 and EL2 values provided a statistically significant overestimation of the actual canal length (DL [P materials did not influence the accuracy of the EAL differently (P = .486). The measurements obtained with the EAL tested during orthograde retreatments can lead clinicians to overinstrumentation and consequent overfilling of the endodontic space. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 根管测量仪测定不同类型患牙工作长度准确性的探讨%Investigation of the apex locator for determining the accuracy of working length of different teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊杰; 邱赛男; 沈婷

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同类型患牙应用根管测量仪测量根管长度的准确性.方法:选择88例需要根管治疗的病例,共122颗患牙,均为单根牙,其中牙髓炎组62颗,根尖周炎组60颗.两组分别采用Root ZX根管测量仪测量根管工作长度并与X线法计算的根管工作长度比较,了解其应用在不同患牙时的准确性.结果:应用根管测量仪牙髓炎组的准确率优于根尖周炎组.结论:电测法测定根管工作长度快速、准确,但对较复杂的患牙,需用X线辅助校正电测法的结果.%Objective: To investigate the accuracy of the apex locater in measuring the working length of different teeth. Method: 122 single-root-canal teeth from 88 patients who need root canal therapy,62 teeth in pulpitis group,60 teeth in apical periodontitis group. The tow groups root canals were measured by Root ZX apex locator, comparing with the working length by X-ray respectively in order to know the accuracy in different dental. ResultiThe result of the pulpitis group was better than that of the apical periodontitis group. Conclusion: The electronic apex locator can measure root canal length accurately and fast.but to the complicated teeth,X-ray can assist in correction results.

  4. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li%《授时历》五星推步的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China,which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China.It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations.In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91° , 0.70° , 2.82° and 5.01° . Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved.The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83° and 1.21° . But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86° and 10.82° , respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  5. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  6. Accuracy of loss of resistance technique for location of fascia iliaca compartment : evaluation using ultrasound technique%阻力消失法定位髂筋膜间隙的准确性:超声法评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亮婧; 伊军; 许莉; 杨庆国

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用超声技术评价阻力消失法定位髂筋膜间隙的准确性.方法 拟行髋部手术患者175例,在髂前上棘和耻骨结节间连线中外1/3交界处向尾端旁开2 cm处进针,当感觉到2次突破感后,给予0.5%罗哌卡因30 ml,经超声辨认药液扩散部位确定准确穿刺情况,并记录给药后20min感觉阻滞有效情况.结果 经超声确定,应用阻力消失法定位髂筋膜间隙准确率56.6%.穿刺错误部位构成情况:髂筋膜浅层25例、髂腰肌内51例;准确定位于髂筋膜间隙的阻滞有效率为98.0%,而定位错误时阻滞有效率为82.9%.结论 阻力消失法不能准确定位髂筋膜间隙.%Objective The evaluate the accuracy of loss of resistance technique for location of fascia iliaca compartment using ultrasound technique.Methods One hundred and seventy-five patients undergoing hip surgery were enrolled in the study.A line was drawn on the skin from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine and divided in three equal parts.The site of puncture was marked 2 cm distal to the point at which the lateral met the middle third of the line.The needle was inserted until a loss of resistance was felt twice (fascia lata and fascia iliaca),at which point 0.5 % ropivacaine 30 ml was infused.Correct puncture was identified by visualized spread of local anesthetic solution under the guidance of ultrasound technique.The effective sensory block was recorded within 20 min after administration.Results The accuracy of loss of resistance method for locating the fascia iliac compartment was 56.6 % using ultrasound technique.There were 80 patients in whom fault site of puncture occurred:25 cases in the superficial layer of the fascia iliac and 51 cases in the iliopsoas muscle.The rate of effective block was 98.0 % for correct location and 82.9 % for fault location.Conclusion Loss of resistance technique cannot accurately locate the fascia iliac compartment.

  7. An evaluation of the accuracy of modeled and computed streamflow time-series data for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and at a location upstream from Sardis, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Between July 2013 and June 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made 10 streamflow measurements on the Ohio River about 1.5 miles (mi) downstream from the Hannibal Lock and Dam (near Hannibal, Ohio) and 11 streamflow measurements near the USGS Sardis gage (station number 03114306) located approximately 2.4 mi upstream from Sardis, Ohio. The measurement results were used to assess the accuracy of modeled or computed instantaneous streamflow time series created and supplied by the USGS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and National Weather Service (NWS) for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and (or) at the USGS streamgage. Hydraulic or hydrologic models were used to create the modeled time series; index-velocity methods or gate-opening ratings coupled with hydropower operation data were used to create the computed time series. The time step of the various instantaneous streamflow time series ranged from 15 minutes to 24 hours (once-daily values at 12:00 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). The 15-minute time-series data, computed by the USGS for the Sardis gage, also were downsampled to 1-hour and 24-hour time steps to permit more direct comparisons with other streamflow time series.

  8. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  9. A Successive Selection Method for finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Baiyong; Zhang, Weijie; Lu, Qiuhai; Wang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Finite Element (FE) model can be updated effectively and efficiently by using the Response Surface Method (RSM). However, it often involves performance trade-offs such as high computational cost for better accuracy or loss of efficiency for lots of design parameter updates. This paper proposes a Successive Selection Method (SSM), which is based on the linear Response Surface (RS) function and orthogonal design. SSM rewrites the linear RS function into a number of linear equations to adjust the Design of Experiment (DOE) after every FE calculation. SSM aims to interpret the implicit information provided by the FE analysis, to locate the Design of Experiment (DOE) points more quickly and accurately, and thereby to alleviate the computational burden. This paper introduces the SSM and its application, describes the solution steps of point selection for DOE in detail, and analyzes SSM's high efficiency and accuracy in the FE model updating. A numerical example of a simply supported beam and a practical example of a vehicle brake disc show that the SSM can provide higher speed and precision in FE model updating for engineering problems than traditional RSM.

  10. 活髓状态对电子根尖定位仪测量准确性影响的研究%THE STUDY ON VITAL PULP EFFECT ON THE ACCURACY OF ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子; 牛一山

    2015-01-01

    目的::在临床根管治疗过程中,分析活髓状态对DENTAPORT ZX,RAYPEX 5,PROPEXⅡ三种根尖定位仪测量根管工作长度的准确性的影响。方法:收集因急慢性牙髓炎、牙髓坏死、根尖周炎需行根管治疗的恒牙活髓根管50个。用三种根尖定位仪分别测量根管工作长度并记录数据,再测量并计算根管实际工作长度。比较根管实际工作长度与根尖定位仪所测长度的差值,并进行统计学分析。结果:活髓状态下, DENTAPORT ZX与RAYPEX 5、PROPEXⅡ之间的测量差别有统计学意义,而RAYPEX 5与PROPEXⅡ之间的测量差别无统计学意义。结论:活髓牙DENTAPORT ZX的测量更准确。%Objective:In the process of clinical root canal treatment, analyzed the vital pulp of influence the accuracies of DENTAPORT ZX,RAYPEX 5 and PROPEX Ⅱ for measuring the working length of the root canal. Methods:Collect 50 vital teeth and permanent root canals which need root canal treatment because of the acute and chronic pulpitis,pulp necrosis,and periapical periodontitis. Three electronic apex locator in root canal working length were measured and recorded data. And then Measurement and calculation of root canal working length. Compare the difference between the root canal working length and the measured length of root apex locator, and statistical analysis. Results:although there is no significant difference between RAYPEX 5 and PROPEX measured,the significant difference can be found between DENTAPORT ZX,RAYPEX 5 and PROPEX measured. Conclusion:DENTAPORT ZX is more accurate measurement under the vital teeth status.

  11. Triangulated Height Accuracy Analysis Based on Double -Targets Located on Vertical Line on High Slope%基于高边坡垂直特征线下双目标三角高程精度解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊晓东; 周惠成; 王贵君

    2012-01-01

    从边坡沉降监测实际数据,可以看出若采用基于高边坡垂直特征线下双目标三角高程观测,在选择了有利的观测条件,并进行差分计算后,可以有效地消除或减弱大气折光带来的误差,相对没有进行动态改正的单向观测(按0.14的经验折光系数进行修正)结果,精度提高比较明显。本方法所需设备条件简单,具有测量方便、精度高和安全实用特点。%Seeing from monitoring data used for high slope settlement, it is known that the height error caused by atmospheric refraction could be effectively eliminated or decreased when the difference is carried out in the wake of the method of triangulated height surveying based on double - targets which are located on the same vertical line. Comparing to one - way observation without dynamic correction (just choose the 0.14 experience refraction coefficient as atmospheric refraction correction) in the same condition, the observation precision is raised obviously. Only with simple surveying equipment to acquire more accuracy height result, this method has the characteristic of prosperity of convenient surveying with safety and practicality.

  12. Wave equation based microseismic source location and velocity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yikang; Wang, Yibo; Chang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    The microseismic event locations and velocity information can be used to infer the stress field and guide hydraulic fracturing process, as well as to image the subsurface structures. How to get accurate microseismic event locations and velocity model is the principal problem in reservoir monitoring. For most location methods, the velocity model has significant relation with the accuracy of the location results. The velocity obtained from log data is usually too rough to be used for location directly. It is necessary to discuss how to combine the location and velocity inversion. Among the main techniques for locating microseismic events, time reversal imaging (TRI) based on wave equation avoids traveltime picking and offers high-resolution locations. Frequency dependent wave equation traveltime inversion (FWT) is an inversion method that can invert velocity model with source uncertainty at certain frequency band. Thus we combine TRI with FWT to produce improved event locations and velocity model. In the proposed approach, the location and model information are interactively used and updated. Through the proposed workflow, the inverted model is better resolved and the event locations are more accurate. We test this method on synthetic borehole data and filed data of a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The results verify the effectiveness of the method and prove it has potential for real-time microseismic monitoring.

  13. An evaluation of location management procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Frank V.; Niemegeers, Ignas G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper gives a comparative description of two scenarios for location management in a mobile telecommunications system. The first scenario uses fixed location and paging areas. Mobiles perform a location update as they enter a new location area. The second scenario uses a time-out based location

  14. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  15. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  16. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  17. CATL Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    2010 Report sent NATC CATL 1922 20K Treadwear Bridgestone 2 LT235/85R16 (L/R E) GMC 2500 (2WD) Awaiting new control tire NATC CATL 1922 20K Treadwear...1 DSCC Annual Tire Conference CATL UPDATE March 24, 2011 UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CATL Update 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  18. Wave-equation Based Earthquake Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, P.; Yang, D.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Harris, J.

    2014-12-01

    Precisely locating earthquakes is fundamentally important for studying earthquake physics, fault orientations and Earth's deformation. In industry, accurately determining hypocenters of microseismic events triggered in the course of a hydraulic fracturing treatment can help improve the production of oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs. We develop a novel earthquake location method based on solving full wave equations to accurately locate earthquakes (including microseismic earthquakes) in complex and heterogeneous structures. Traveltime residuals or differential traveltime measurements with the waveform cross-correlation technique are iteratively inverted to obtain the locations of earthquakes. The inversion process involves the computation of the Fréchet derivative with respect to the source (earthquake) location via the interaction between a forward wavefield emitting from the source to the receiver and an adjoint wavefield reversely propagating from the receiver to the source. When there is a source perturbation, the Fréchet derivative not only measures the influence of source location but also the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy and attenuation of the subsurface structure on the arrival of seismic wave at the receiver. This is essential for the accuracy of earthquake location in complex media. In addition, to reduce the computational cost, we can first assume that seismic wave only propagates in a vertical plane passing through the source and the receiver. The forward wavefield, adjoint wavefield and Fréchet derivative with respect to the source location are all computed in a 2D vertical plane. By transferring the Fréchet derivative along the horizontal direction of the 2D plane into the ones along Latitude and Longitude coordinates or local 3D Cartesian coordinates, the source location can be updated in a 3D geometry. The earthquake location obtained with this combined 2D-3D approach can then be used as the initial location for a true 3D wave

  19. Location Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  20. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  1. Atrial-focused views improve the accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements of the left and right atrial volumes: a contribution to the increase in normal values in the guidelines update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebed, Kalie; Kruse, Eric; Addetia, Karima; Ciszek, Boguslawa; Thykattil, Minnie; Guile, Brittney; Lang, Roberto M; Mor-Avi, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Current guidelines recommend that the atria be measured in 2D echocardiographic (2DE) apical views using the method-of-disks (MOD) or area-length (AL) technique as an alternative, although no definitive data exists that these are interchangeable. However, standard apical views maximize the long-axis of the left ventricle, rather than the dimensions of the atria, resulting in atrial foreshortening. We hypothesized that the increase in normal values of atrial volumes in the recent guidelines update was driven by data obtained using either the AL technique or dedicated atrial-focused views, which maximize the longitudinal dimension of the atria and thus provide larger volumes than the MOD measurements in standard apical views. We prospectively studied 30 patients (Philips iE33) to compare 2DE measurements of left and right atrial volumes (LAV, RAV) using the MOD and AL techniques in standard and atrial-focused views, against 3D echocardiography (3DE) derived volumes (QLab) as a reference. Compared to standard views, atrial-focused views provided significantly larger MOD volumes for both atria, which were in better agreement with 3DE, as reflected by higher correlation coefficients (LAV: r = 0.95 vs. 0.89; RAV: r = 0.89 vs. 0.84), smaller biases (LAV: -1 ml vs. 7 ml; RAV: 3 ml vs. 7 ml) and tighter limits of agreement. This was also the case for the AL measurements, which were minimally larger than the MOD values (NS) for both atria. In conclusion, atrial-focused views are a more accurate alternative to standard apical views, which provides larger volumes. This finding can explain the increase in the normal values in the recent guidelines update, which was mostly driven by the use of atrial-focused views, rather than by the differences between MOD and AL techniques. This understanding is essential in order to correctly integrate the revised normal values into clinical practice.

  2. A study in vitro on accuracy of two kinds of electronic apex locators in canals with destroyed apical constrictions%根尖狭窄破坏情况下两种根尖定位仪定位准确性的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇英; 陈方淳

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare with the accuracy of Propex and Raypex5 electronic apex locators in canals with destroyed apical constrictions.Methods :Apices of 20 extracted human teeth with single root canal were cut off and the apical constrictions were destroyed to different diameters by a cone shaped diamond bur.Apical foramen were located with Propex and Raypex5 electronic apex locators in models and the results and the accuracy of the two in different diameter ranges of apical foramens were compared.Results:On condition of the apical constrictions destroyed,the differences between actual root canal length and measured root canal length of two electronic apex locators in the same root canals were no statistically significant(P0.05),and the differences between actual root canal length and measured root canal length of the same electronic apex locators in root canals with different diameter ranges of apical foramens were statistically significant(P0.05),and the accuracy of two electronic apex locators decreased with the increase of diameters of apical foramens.Conclusion:On condition of the apical constrictions destroyed,the accuracy of Propex and Raypex5 was influenced by diameters of apical foramens.Clinically the measurement error should be considered when Propex or Raypex5 was used to locating apical foramens in roots with destroyed apical constrictions or not well developed apices,and apical foramens locating should be done by electronic apex locators combined with other methods.%目的:比较Propex、Raypex5根尖定位仪在根尖狭窄破坏情况下定位根尖孔位置的准确性。方法:选取20颗新鲜拔除的单根管恒牙,采用锥形金刚砂针截去根尖,顺根管方向逆向自根尖破坏根尖狭窄,并放入实验模型中,使用Propex、Raypex5根尖定位仪定位根尖孔位置,比较两种根尖定位仪在不同根尖孔直径情况下测量结果与准确性的差异。结果:根尖孔开放情况下,同一根

  3. Expresiones locativas modificadoras de sustantivo (Locative Expressions Modifying Nouns).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonder, John P.

    1979-01-01

    Elaborates on and updates the article "Derived Noun Phrases in Spanish Containing Locatives" by John P. Wonder and Alberto Eraso Guerrero (1976). Gives a detailed description of the uses of "ser" and "haber" in the locative expression. (NCR)

  4. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  5. Regular database update logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Paul; Wieringa, Roel; Meyer, John-Jules

    2001-01-01

    We study regular first-order update logic (FUL), which is a variant of regular dynamic logic in which updates to function symbols as well as to predicate symbols are possible. We fi1rst study FUL without making assumptions about atomic updates. Second, we look at relational algebra update logic (RAU

  6. Varieties of update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Murray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses three potential varieties of update: updates to the common ground, structuring updates, and updates that introduce discourse referents. These different types of update are used to model different aspects of natural language phenomena. Not-at-issue information directly updates the common ground. The illocutionary mood of a sentence structures the context. Other updates introduce discourse referents of various types, including propositional discourse referents for at-issue information. Distinguishing these types of update allows a unified treatment of a broad range of phenomena, including the grammatical evidentials found in Cheyenne (Algonquian as well as English evidential parentheticals, appositives, and mood marking. An update semantics that can formalize all of these varieties of update is given, integrating the different kinds of semantic contributions into a single representation of meaning. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.2 BibTeX info

  7. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  8. 75 FR 70604 - Wireless E911 Location Accuracy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Room CY-A257, 445 12th Street, SW... http://www.fcc.gov . I. Introduction 1. One of the most important opportunities afforded by mobile... letters. 8. On November 4, 2008, the Commission adopted two Orders approving applications for transfers...

  9. Study of LZ-Based Location Prediction and Its Application to Transportation Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Noriega-Vivas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting users’ next location allows to anticipate their future context, thus providing additional time to be ready for that context and react consequently. This work is focused on a set of LZ-based algorithms (LZ, LeZi Update and Active LeZi capable of learning mobility patterns and estimating the next location with low resource needs, which makes it possible to execute them on mobile devices. The original algorithms have been divided into two phases, thus being possible to mix them and check which combination is the best one to obtain better prediction accuracy or lower resource consumption. To make such comparisons, a set of GSM-based mobility traces of 95 different users is considered. Finally, a prototype for mobile devices that integrates the predictors in a public transportation recommender system is described in order to show an example of how to take advantage of location prediction in an ubiquitous computing environment.

  10. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  11. An Intelligent Location Management approaches in GSM Mobile Network

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Mallikharjuna

    2012-01-01

    Location management refers to the problem of updating and searching the current location of mobile nodes in a wireless network. To make it efficient, the sum of update costs of location database must be minimized. Previous work relying on fixed location databases is unable to fully exploit the knowledge of user mobility patterns in the system so as to achieve this minimization. The study presents an intelligent location management approach which has interacts between intelligent information system and knowledge-base technologies, so we can dynamically change the user patterns and reduce the transition between the VLR and HLR. The study provides algorithms are ability to handle location registration and call delivery

  12. [Retinoblastoma update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, I; Lumbroso-Le Rouic, L; Gauthier-Villars, M; Brisse, H; Doz, F

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy of infancy with an incidence of 1/15,000 births. Sixty percent of retinoblastomas are unilateral, with a median age at diagnosis of 2 years, and in most cases they are not hereditary. Retinoblastoma is bilateral in 40% of cases, with an earlier median age at diagnosis of 1 year. All bilateral and multifocal unilateral forms are hereditary and are part of a genetic cancer predisposition syndrome. All children with a bilateral or familial form, and 10-15% of children with a unilateral form, constitutionally carry an RB1 gene mutation. The two most frequent symptoms at diagnosis are leukocoria and strabismus. Diagnosis is made by fundoscopy, with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contributing both to diagnosis and assessment of the extension of the disease. Treatment of patients with retinoblastoma must take into account the various aspects of the disease (unilateral/bilateral, size, location), the risks for vision, and the possible hereditary nature of the disease. The main prognostic aspects are still early detection and adapted coverage by a multidisciplinary, highly specialized team. Enucleation is still often necessary in unilateral disease; the decision for adjuvant treatment is made according to the histological risk factors. The most important recent therapeutic advances concern conservative treatment, which is proposed for at least one of the two eyes in most bilateral cases: laser alone or in combination with chemotherapy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy. Recently, the development of new conservative techniques of treatment, such as intra-arterial selective chemotherapy perfusion and intravitreal injections, aims at preserving visual function in these children and decreasing the number of enucleations and the need for external beam radiotherapy. The vital prognosis related to retinoblastoma is now excellent in industrialized countries, but long-term survival is still related to the

  13. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James B.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 596. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/596/).This updated New Mexico wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 562 wind turbines established within the State of New Mexico as of June 2011, an increase of 155 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. The locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based June 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during June 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy

  14. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  15. Hybrid head-tracker being examined for the high-accuracy attack rotorcraft market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Buddy

    2002-08-01

    The need for the helmet-mounted display (HMD) to present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line-of-sight has continued to rise as helicopter missions increase in complexity. To obtain spatial correlation of the direction of the head line-of-sight and pilotage imagery generated from helicopter-mounted sensors, it is necessary to slave the sensors to the head motion. To accomplish this task, a head-tracking system (HTS) must be incorporated into the HMD. There are a variety of techniques that could be applied for locating the position and attitude of a helmet-mounted display. Regardless of the technology, an HTS must provide defined measurements of accuracy. System parameters include motion box size, angular range, pointing angle accuracy, pointing angle resolution, update rate, and slew rate. This paper focuses on a hybrid tracker implementation in which a combination of optical and inertial tracking using strap-down gyros is preferred. Specifically, this tracker implementation is being examined for the high-accuracy attack rotorcraft market which requires a high degree of accuracy. The performance and resultant cost of the tracker components are determined by the specific needs of the intended application. The paper will also indicate how the various requirements drive the cost, configuration, and performance of the resultant hybrid head-tracker.

  16. Los Alamos Climatology 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) operates a meteorology monitoring network to support LANL emergency response, engineering designs, environmental compliance, environmental assessments, safety evaluations, weather forecasting, environmental monitoring, research programs, and environmental restoration. Weather data has been collected in Los Alamos since 1910. Bowen (1990) provided climate statistics (temperature and precipitation) for the 1961– 1990 averaging period, and included other analyses (e.g., wind and relative humidity) based on the available station locations and time periods. This report provides an update to the 1990 publication Los Alamos Climatology (Bowen 1990).

  17. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  18. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  19. On the Design of Energy-Efficient Location Tracking Mechanism in Location-Aware Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MoonBae Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery, in contrast to other hardware, is not governed by Moore's Law. In location-aware computing, power is a very limited resource. As a consequence, recently, a number of promising techniques in various layers have been proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The paper considers the problem of minimizing the energy used to track the location of mobile user over a wireless link in mobile computing. Energy-efficient location update protocol can be done by reducing the number of location update messages as possible and switching off as long as possible. This can be achieved by the concept of mobility-awareness we propose. For this purpose, this paper proposes a novel mobility model, called state-based mobility model (SMM to provide more generalized framework for both describing the mobility and updating location information of complexly moving objects. We also introduce the state-based location update protocol (SLUP based on this mobility model. An extensive experiment on various synthetic datasets shows that the proposed method improves the energy efficiency by 2 ∼ 3 times with the additional 10% of imprecision cost.

  20. Development of roughness updating based on artificial neural network in a river hydraulic model for flash flood forecasting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Fu; M H Hsu; Y Duann

    2016-02-01

    Flood is the worst weather-related hazard in Taiwan because of steep terrain and storm. The tropical storm often results in disastrous flash flood. To provide reliable forecast of water stages in rivers is indispensable for proper actions in the emergency response during flood. The river hydraulic model based on dynamic wave theory using an implicit finite-difference method is developed with river roughness updating for flash flood forecast. The artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to update the roughness of rivers in accordance with the observed river stages at each time-step of the flood routing process. Several typhoon events at Tamsui River are utilized to evaluate the accuracy of flood forecasting. The results present the adaptive n-values of roughness for river hydraulic model that can provide a better flow state for subsequent forecasting at significant locations and longitudinal profiles along rivers.

  1. Rethinking Empathic Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Meadors, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a methodological examination of the implicit empathic accuracy measure introduced by Zaki, Ochsner, and Bolger (2008). Empathic accuracy (EA) is defined as the ability to understand another person's thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1993). Because this definition is similar to definitions of cognitive empathy (e.g., Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and because affective empathy does not appear to be related to empathic accuracy (Zaki et al., 2008), the Basic Empathy Scale--which measures...

  2. Automatic fracture density update using smart well data and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anazi, A.; Babadagli, T.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a new methodology to continuously update and improve fracture network models. We begin with a hypothetical model whose fracture network parameters and geological information are known. After generating the "exact" fracture network with known characteristics, the data were exported to a reservoir simulator and simulations were run over a period of time. Intelligent wells equipped with downhole multiple pressure and flow sensors were placed throughout the reservoir and put into production. These producers were completed in different fracture zones to create a representative pressure and production response. We then considered a number of wells of which static (cores and well logs) and dynamic (production) data were used to model well fracture density. As new wells were opened, historical static and dynamic data from previous wells and static data from the new wells were used to update the fracture density using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The accuracy of the prediction model depends significantly on the representation of the available data of the existing fracture network. The importance of conventional data (surface production data) and smart well data prediction capability was also investigated. Highly sensitive input data were selected through a forward selection scheme to train the ANN. Well geometric locations were included as a new link in the ANN regression process. Once the relationship between fracture network parameters and well performance data was established, the ANN model was used to predict fracture density at newly drilled locations. Finally, an error analysis through a correlation coefficient and percentage absolute relative error performance was performed to examine the accuracy of the proposed inverse modeling methodology. It was shown that fracture dominated production performance data collected from both conventional and smart wells allow for automatically updating the fracture network model. The proposed technique helps

  3. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  4. Updated Status and Performance at the Fourth HST COS FUV Lifetime Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joanna M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Fix, Mees B.; Fox, Andrew; Indriolo, Nick; James, Bethan; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles R.; Rafelski, Marc; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; White, James

    2017-06-01

    To mitigate the adverse effects of gain sag on the spectral quality and accuracy of Hubble Space Telescope’s Cosmic Origins Spectrograph FUV observations, COS FUV spectra will be moved from Lifetime Position 3 (LP3) to a new pristine location on the detectors at LP4 in July 2017. To achieve maximal spectral resolution while preserving detector area, the spectra will be shifted in the cross-dispersion (XD) direction by -2.5" (about -31 pixels) from LP3 or -5” (about 62 pixels) from the original LP1. At LP4, the wavelength calibration lamp spectrum can overlap with the previously gain-sagged LP2 PSA spectrum location. If lamp lines fall in the gain sag holes from LP2, it can cause line ratios to change and the wavelength calibration to fail. As a result, we have updated the Wavecal Parameters Reference Table and CalCOS to address this issue. Additionally, it was necessary to extend the current geometric correction in order to encompass the entire LP4 location. Here we present 2-D template profiles and 1-D spectral trace centroids derived at LP4 as well as LP4-related updates to the wavelength calibration, and geometric correction.

  5. A Compare Research on Accuracy of X-ray Radiography and SybronEndo Apex Locator for Measuring Root Canal Working Length%X线插针摄片技术与SybronEndo根尖定位仪测量根管工作长度准确性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁巧凤

    2013-01-01

    目的根管治疗包括根管预备、根管消毒和根管充填。准确地测量根管工作长度是根管预备和根管充填必不可少的条件。方法抽取96颗前牙,分 A、B两组,在根管预备前分别应用X线插针摄片法、SybronEndo根尖定位仪法进行根管工作长度测量,以此长度进行根管预备和充填,然后摄 X线牙片,比较其恰充率。结果用X线插针摄片法和SybronEndo根管测量仪法指导的根管充填成功率分别为64.58%和81.25%(P<0.01),有显著性差异。结论 SybronEndo根管测量仪是一种准确率较高的根管工作长度测量工具,将成为今后临床测量根管工作长度的首选可行方法。%Objective The root canal therapy includes Root canal preparation, disinfection of root canal and root canal fil ing. The accurate measurement of root canal working length is indispensable condition of root canal preparation and root canal fil ing. Methods Extraction of 96 front teeth, divide into A, B two groups, X-ray radiography and SybronEndo apex locator for measuring root canal working length in the respectively application of root canal preparation.The root canal preparation and root canal fil ing in this length, then x-ray radiograph, Comparison of the appropriate fil ing rate. Result Use X-ray radiography and SybronEndo apex locator for measuring root canal working length to guide the success rate of root canal fil ing are 64.58%and 81.25%, respectively (P<0.01) there is a significant dif erences. Conclusion The SybronEndo apex locator is a kind of high accuracy of root canal working length measurement.It wil become the preferred method of future clinical measurement of root canal working length.

  6. Country Update: Israel 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Country Updates is a new section of "Intercultural Education." Starting in "Intercultural Education," Volume 16 No. 5, this column will focus on recent developments during the last two to three years in the field of intercultural education in one particular country. These updates can include recent policy decisions, the main…

  7. GPGPU for orbital function evaluation with a new updating scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejima, Yutaka; Maezono, Ryo

    2013-01-15

    We have accelerated an ab initio quantum Monte Carlo electronic structure calculation using general purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU). The part of the code causing the bottleneck for extended systems is replaced by Compute Unified Device Architecture-GPGPU subroutine kernels which build up spline basis set expansions of electronic orbital functions at each Monte Carlo step. We have achieved a speedup of a factor of 30 for the bottleneck for a simulation of solid TiO(2) with 1536 electrons. To improve the performance with GPGPU we propose a new updating scheme for Monte Carlo sampling, quasi-simultaneous updating, which is intermediate between configuration-by-configuration updating and the widely used particle-by-particle updating. The error in the energy due to by the single precision treatment and the new updating scheme is found to be within the required accuracy of ~10(-3) hartree per primitive cell.

  8. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  9. Accuracy of Sphygmomanometers

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Okay

    2014-01-01

    One of the factors affecting the accuracy of readings of blood pressure is the equipment used. Defects or inaccuracy of aneroid sphygmomanometers may be source of error in blood pressure measurement. We inspected 100 sphygmomanometers for physical defects and assessed their accuracy against a standard mercury manometer at four different pressure points. 46 of the 100 sphygmomanometers were determined to be intolerant (deviation from the mercury manometer by greater than±3 mm Hg at two or more...

  10. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E Legge

    Full Text Available Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms.Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135 and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900 conditions, and a Narrow Field (8° condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating.With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition.If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  11. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemysław; Mitka, Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects. This paper discusses the potential application of output data from laser scanners (point clouds) to the development and updating of cartographic materials, taking Poland's base map as an example. A few research sites were chosen to present the method and the process of conducting a TLS land survey: a fragment of a residential area, a street, the surroundings of buildings, and an undeveloped area. The entire map that was drawn as a result of the survey was checked by comparing it to a map obtained from PODGiK (pol. Powiatowy Ośrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej - Regional Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Records) and by conducting a field inspection. An accuracy and quality analysis of the conducted fieldwork and deskwork yielded very good results, which provide solid grounds for predicating that cartographic materials based on a TLS point cloud are a reliable source of information about land. The contents of the map that had been created with the use of the obtained point cloud were very accurately located in space (x, y, z). The conducted accuracy analysis and the inspection of the performed works showed that high quality is characteristic of TLS surveys. The

  12. Orthorectification of KOMPSAT Optical Images Using Various Ground Reference Data and Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangjae Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the appearance of high resolution satellite images, image correction using Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs has become common. Location accuracy of Korea Multipurpose Satellite (KOMPSAT standard images is still not adequate, so, in order to leverage the KOMPSAT images for applications such as mapping and change detection, it is necessary to orthorectify the images. In this study, using updated RPCs, we performed orthorectification of KOMPSAT-2, KOMPSAT-3, and KOMPSAT-3A images using various data. Through this study, we discovered that the orthorectification result using precise Ground Control Points (GCPs and Digital Elevation Model (DEM is the best, but it was found that the correction results through image matching are also excellent. In particular, it was confirmed that orthoimages with a planimetric accuracy around 3 m (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE can be generated by using well-known matching algorithms with open data such as OpenStreetMap (OSM and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM DEM, which can be acquired by anyone. Although the accuracy was low in some mountainous terrain, it was confirmed that it could be used for generating KOMPSAT orthoimages using open data. This paper describes the results for orthorectifying high resolution KOMPSAT optical images using various reference data.

  13. ACS Updates Environmental Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new publication of a report prepared by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Environmental Improvement. This is a new version that updates a 1969 report and contains additional material and expanded recommendations. (GA)

  14. Veterinary medicines update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  15. ACS Updates Environmental Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new publication of a report prepared by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Environmental Improvement. This is a new version that updates a 1969 report and contains additional material and expanded recommendations. (GA)

  16. Evaluating Measurement Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. Although multiple measurements are the focus of current theory, single measurements are the ones most commonly used. This book answers fundamental questions not addressed by present theory, such as how to discover the complete uncertainty of a measurement result. In developing a general theory of processing experimental data, this book, for the first time, presents the postulates of the theory of measurements. It introduces several new terms and definitions about the relationship between the accuracy of measuring instruments and measurements utilizing these instruments. It also offers well-grounded and practical methods for combining the components of measurement inaccuracy. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction in place of the traditional ones, this work encompasses the ful...

  17. Design and update of a classification system: the UCSD map of science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Börner

    Full Text Available Global maps of science can be used as a reference system to chart career trajectories, the location of emerging research frontiers, or the expertise profiles of institutes or nations. This paper details data preparation, analysis, and layout performed when designing and subsequently updating the UCSD map of science and classification system. The original classification and map use 7.2 million papers and their references from Elsevier's Scopus (about 15,000 source titles, 2001-2005 and Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (WoS Science, Social Science, Arts & Humanities Citation Indexes (about 9,000 source titles, 2001-2004-about 16,000 unique source titles. The updated map and classification adds six years (2005-2010 of WoS data and three years (2006-2008 from Scopus to the existing category structure-increasing the number of source titles to about 25,000. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a widely used map of science was updated. A comparison of the original 5-year and the new 10-year maps and classification system show (i an increase in the total number of journals that can be mapped by 9,409 journals (social sciences had a 80% increase, humanities a 119% increase, medical (32% and natural science (74%, (ii a simplification of the map by assigning all but five highly interdisciplinary journals to exactly one discipline, (iii a more even distribution of journals over the 554 subdisciplines and 13 disciplines when calculating the coefficient of variation, and (iv a better reflection of journal clusters when compared with paper-level citation data. When evaluating the map with a listing of desirable features for maps of science, the updated map is shown to have higher mapping accuracy, easier understandability as fewer journals are multiply classified, and higher usability for the generation of data overlays, among others.

  18. Automated correction of room location errors in anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Piotrowski, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) and operating room information management systems (ORIMS) are both used in operating rooms (OR). Anesthesia providers use AIMS to document their care in near real-time, including milestone events, and these systems automatically record vital signs from patient monitors. Circulating nurses use ORIMS primarily to document procedural information. Because of automatic documentation, AIMS would be ideal platforms for OR managerial decision support if the correct locations of cases in progress were known accurately. Trust is diminished if recommendations are poor. We compiled room location error rates from prior analyses of ORIMS data. Data from 24 consecutive 4-wk periods (45,459 cases) were analyzed from one hospital where both ORIMS and AIMS data were available. The actual location of cases was inferred from the physical location of the workstation recording the majority of pulse oximetry saturations. These were compared to the listed location in the AIMS and the final corrected location in the ORIMS. The scheduled and final ORIMS locations were compared to determine how often location changes were updated before the start of anesthesia. The location of cases was inferred in near real-time by using the identifier of the AIMS workstation transmitting pulse oximetry saturated electrocardiogram heart rate, and end-tidal CO(2) partial pressures. Location error rates ranged from 0% to 7.5% at 42 hospitals. The error rate at the studied hospital was just 0.4%, showing that the hospital was suitable for investigation. The 0.4% error rate was based on cases listed as overlapping in the same OR, and thus under-estimated the actual error rate in the ORIMS (1.0%). With education, there was a decrease in the moved cases in the ORIMS whose location was not changed before the start of anesthesia (9.3%-2.0%, P < 10(-5)). Despite the significant improvement (P < 10(-5)) in the error rate between the AIMS listed and actual locations

  19. Analysis and compare of location technologies supporting LBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hai-bing; XIA Ying; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    Location technology is the key part of location based service. Different technologies have different accuracy, modifying to network and cost of operating. Also these technologies have limitation to network. This paper compares existing popular location technologies and gives some suggestions about choosing of location technologies in GSM and CDMA systems.

  20. The Truth about Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buekens, F.A.I.; Truyen, Frederick; Martini, Carlo; Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    When we evaluate the outcomes of investigative actions as justified or unjustified, good or bad, rational or irrational, we make, in a broad sense of the term, evaluative judgements about them. We look at operational accuracy as a desirable and evaluable quality of the outcomes and explore how the c

  1. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  2. Uncertainty for Part Density Determination: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, Mario Orlando [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-12-14

    Accurate and precise density measurements by hydrostatic weighing requires the use of an analytical balance, configured with a suspension system, to both measure the weight of a part in water and in air. Additionally, the densities of these liquid media (water and air) must be precisely known for the part density determination. To validate the accuracy and precision of these measurements, uncertainty statements are required. The work in this report is a revision of an original report written more than a decade ago, specifically applying principles and guidelines suggested by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) for determining the part density uncertainty through sensitivity analysis. In this work, updated derivations are provided; an original example is revised with the updated derivations and appendix, provided solely to uncertainty evaluations using Monte Carlo techniques, specifically using the NIST Uncertainty Machine, as a viable alternative method.

  3. Experimental update on the exclusive determination of Vcb

    CERN Document Server

    Oyanguren, A

    2003-01-01

    In this talk a review on the exclusive determination of Vcb is presented. Updated values of this quantity obtained from B->Dlnu and B->D*lnu decays are given. New measurements from B-factories are expected to come soon and the main challenges to improve the accuracy on Vcb extracted from these decays are discussed.

  4. GPGPU for orbital function evaluation with a new updating scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Uejima, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    We accelerated an {\\it ab-initio} QMC electronic structure calculation by using GPGPU. The bottleneck of the calculation for extended solid systems is replaced by CUDA-GPGPU subroutine kernels which build up spline basis set expansions of electronic orbital functions at each Monte Carlo step. We achieved 30.8 times faster evaluation for the bottleneck, confirmed on the simulation of TiO$_2$ solid with 1,536 electrons. To achieve better performance in GPGPU we propose a new updating scheme for Monte Carlo sampling, quasi-simultaneous updating, which is in between the configuration-by-configuration updating and the widely-used particle-by-particle one. The energy deviation caused both by the single precision treatment and the new updating scheme is found to be within the accuracy required in the calculation, $\\sim 10^{-3}$ hartree per primitive cell.

  5. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the princip......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  6. Model updating of nonlinear structures from measured FRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaloğlu, Güvenç; Özgüven, H. Nevzat

    2016-12-01

    There are always certain discrepancies between modal and response data of a structure obtained from its mathematical model and experimentally measured ones. Therefore it is a general practice to update the theoretical model by using experimental measurements in order to have a more accurate model. Most of the model updating methods used in structural dynamics are for linear systems. However, in real life applications most of the structures have nonlinearities, which restrict us applying model updating techniques available for linear structures, unless they work in linear range. Well-established frequency response function (FRF) based model updating methods would easily be extended to a nonlinear system if the FRFs of the underlying linear system (linear FRFs) could be experimentally measured. When frictional type of nonlinearity co-exists with other types of nonlinearities, it is not possible to obtain linear FRFs experimentally by using low level forcing. In this study a method (named as Pseudo Receptance Difference (PRD) method) is presented to obtain linear FRFs of a nonlinear structure having multiple nonlinearities including friction type of nonlinearity. PRD method, calculates linear FRFs of a nonlinear structure by using FRFs measured at various forcing levels, and simultaneously identifies all nonlinearities in the system. Then, any model updating method can be used to update the linear part of the mathematical model. In this present work, PRD method is used to predict the linear FRFs from measured nonlinear FRFs, and the inverse eigensensitivity method is employed to update the linear finite element (FE) model of the nonlinear structure. The proposed method is validated with different case studies using nonlinear lumped single-degree of freedom system, as well as a continuous system. Finally, a real nonlinear T-beam test structure is used to show the application and the accuracy of the proposed method. The accuracy of the updated nonlinear model of the

  7. Multiple Sclerosis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurologic condition in young adults and imposes high financial and quality of life costs on patients, their families, and society. Yet, developments in the battle against MS include new treatments to slow its progression and updated diagnostic criteria that can accelerate diagnosis and effective treatment. This article offers a review and update on the disease, focusing on risk factors and possible causes, symptoms, forms of MS, diagnostic criteria and tools, and the expanding array of approved treatments. It also reports on the skyrocketing cost of MS drugs, misdiagnosis, and special patient populations with MS.

  8. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  9. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  10. Reconceptualizing metacomprehension calibration accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Rylan Graham

    2012-01-01

    Accurate judgment of text comprehension is compulsory for learners to effectively self-regulate learning from text. Unfortunately, until relatively recently the literature on text comprehension judgment, termed metacomprehension, has shown learners to be inaccurate in their judgments. Over the last decade researchers have discovered that when learners use delayed summaries of text to make judgments metacomprehension accuracy increases. In contrast, when learners use individual differences (e....

  11. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  12. Location predicting methods for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Location prediction of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is important for fighting with its enemy and ensuring its normal operation. This paper presents the motion model of UAVs and reduces the state space into 7 dimensions. The Bayesian Network, Markov Chain, Curve Fitting and Neural Network are introduced for designing predicting methods. Then Curve Fitting Predicting method, Markov Chain Predicting method, Bayesian Network Predicting method and Neural Network Predicting method are designed for UAVs. The simulation result shows that 1) Neural Network Predicting method has highest predicting accuracy; 2) Markov Chain Predicting method and Bayesian Network Predicting method methods have similar performance and both are better than Bayesian Network Predicting method methods; 3) Neural Network Predicting method is the first choice when predicting the locations of UAVs.

  13. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  14. XLMR genes: update 2000.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiurazzi, P.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Neri, G.

    2001-01-01

    This is the sixth edition of the catalogue of XLMR genes, ie X-linked genes whose malfunctioning causes mental retardation. The cloning era is not yet concluded, actually much remains to be done to account for the 202 XLMR conditions listed in this update. Many of these may eventually prove to be du

  15. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  16. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  17. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  18. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  19. Sugammadex: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezri Tiberiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this update is to provide recent knowledge and debates regarding the use of sugammadex in the fields of anesthesia and critical care. The review is not intended to provide a comprehensive description of sugammadex and its clinical use.

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points for Petersburg National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Petersburg National Battlefield. It was...

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Wupatki National Monument and in the surrounding...

  2. Method for Improving Indoor Positioning Accuracy Using Extended Kalman Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Seoung-Hyeon; Lim, Il-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    .... However, the beacon performance is poor in terms of the indoor positioning accuracy because of noise, motion, and fading, all of which are characteristics of a bluetooth signal and depend on the installation location...

  3. Accuracy of References in Ten Library Science Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Nancy N.

    1992-01-01

    A study of 100 article citations from 11 library science journals showed only 45 article citations that were completely free of errors, while 11 had major errors--i.e., errors preventing or hindering location of the reference--and the remaining 44 had minor errors. Citation accuracy in library science journals appears similar to accuracy in other…

  4. An aggressive location restoration proposal based on pointer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yimin; Huang Zailu; Tian Chen; Zhou Zongyi

    2006-01-01

    A proposal for smooth aggressive location restoration by forwarding pointer is given in this paper. A mobile communication system's robustness in case of a location-database failure is improved without the need for periodic location update operations. Radio resources would be saved at the cost of wire signal and operation of location databases. Meanwhile, a chain of forwarding location pointers has been used during the period of HLR failure. So mobile stations are unconscious of the failure of HLR, and mobile subscribers can always make outgoing call.

  5. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  6. Onderzoek location based marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based adv

  7. Onderzoek location based marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based advertising' effectief is.

  8. Axis-Exchanged Compensation and Gait Parameters Analysis for High Accuracy Indoor Pedestrian Dead Reckoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR is an effective way for navigation coupled with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System or weak GNSS signal environment like indoor scenario. However, indoor location with an accuracy of 1 to 2 meters determined by PDR based on MEMS-IMU is still very challenging. For one thing, heading estimation is an important problem in PDR because of the singularities. For another thing, walking distance estimation is also a critical problem for pedestrian walking with randomness. Based on the above two problems, this paper proposed axis-exchanged compensation and gait parameters analysis algorithm to improve the navigation accuracy. In detail, an axis-exchanged compensation factored quaternion algorithm is put forward first to overcome the singularities in heading estimation without increasing the amount of computation. Besides, real-time heading is updated by R-adaptive Kalman filter. Moreover, gait parameters analysis algorithm can be divided into two steps: cadence detection and step length estimation. Thus, a method of cadence classification and interval symmetry is proposed to detect the cadence accurately. Furthermore, a step length model adjusted by cadence is established for step length estimation. Compared to the traditional PDR navigation, experimental results showed that the error of navigation reduces 32.6%.

  9. Locatives in Kpelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuha, Mai

    This paper examines the differences between locative expressions in Kpelle and English, based on the dialect of one native speaker of Kpelle. It discusses the crucial role of the reference object in defining the meaning of locatives in Kpelle, in contrast to English, where the characteristics of the object to be located are less important. An…

  10. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  11. Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless clients measure signal strength differently. This is a fundamental problem for indoor location fingerprinting, and it has a high impact on the positioning accuracy. Mapping-based solutions have been presented that require manual and error-prone calibration for each new client...

  12. Filtering Method for Location Estimation of an Underwater Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Yong Ko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of extended Kalman filter(EKF for localization of an underwater robot. For the application, linearized model of robot motion and sensor measurement are derived. Like usual EKF, the method is recursion of two main steps: the time update(or prediction and measurement update. The measurement update uses exteroceptive sensors such as four acoustic beacons and a pressure sensor. The four beacons provide four range data from these beacons to the robot and pressure sensor does the depth data of the robot. One of the major contributions of the paper is suggestion of two measurement update approaches. The first approach corrects the predicted states using the measurement data individually. The second one corrects the predicted state using the measurement data collectively. The simulation analysis shows that EKF outperforms least squares or odometry based dead-reckoning in the precision and robustness of the estimation. Also, EKF with collective measurement update brings out better accuracy than the EKF with individual measurement update.

  13. Accuracy Assessment Points for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points, that were field sampled, based on the destination accuracy assessment points used in the vegetation mapping...

  14. Towards Understanding Spontaneous Speech Word Accuracy vs. Concept Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, M; Gallwitz, F; Goerz, G; Hanrieder, G; Niemann, H

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe an approach to automatic evaluation of both the speech recognition and understanding capabilities of a spoken dialogue system for train time table information. We use word accuracy for recognition and concept accuracy for understanding performance judgement. Both measures are calculated by comparing these modules' output with a correct reference answer. We report evaluation results for a spontaneous speech corpus with about 10000 utterances. We observed a nearly linear relationship between word accuracy and concept accuracy.

  15. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  16. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  17. NXE pellicle: development update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Derk; Bendiksen, Aage; Broman, Par; Casimiri, Eric; Colsters, Paul; de Graaf, Dennis; Harrold, Hilary; Hennus, Piet; Janssen, Paul; Kramer, Ronald; Kruizinga, Matthias; Kuntzel, Henk; Lafarre, Raymond; Mancuso, Andrea; Ockwell, David; Smith, Daniel; van de Weg, David; Wiley, Jim

    2016-09-01

    ASML introduced the NXE pellicle concept, a removable pellicle solution that is compatible with current and future patterned mask inspection methods. We will present results of how we have taken the idea from concept to a demonstrated solution enabling the use of EUV pellicle by the industry for high volume manufacturing. We will update on the development of the next generation of pellicle films with higher power capability. Further, we will provide an update on top level requirements for pellicles and external interface requirements needed to support NXE pellicle adoption at a mask shop. Finally, we will present ASML's pellicle handling equipment to enable pellicle use at mask shops and our NXE pellicle roadmap outlining future improvements.

  18. Recycling, Canadian update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V. I. [Process Research ORTECH Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Shaw, L. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An update on the recycling industry in Canada is provided by way of selected examples involving the recovery of gallium from electronic scrap, magnesium recovery from mine tailings and energy recovery from metal industry processes. These examples have been selected to illustrate the synergy between major mining, metallurgical and utility industries with end users in the building materials, automotive and electronic industries. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  20. Ukraine Poverty Update

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Ukraine recorded one of the sharpest declines in poverty of any transition economy in recent years. The poverty rate, measured against an absolute poverty line, fell from a high of 32 percent in 2001 to 14 percent in 2004, and then again to 8 percent in 2005. This Update presents simulations of the direct influence of an increase in energy prices on the poverty rate. Using 2005 as a base p...

  1. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant.

  2. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  3. Apex Locator: A Reliable and Easy Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Meza DDS, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Now days is more the trust we can have to the Apex-locator in endodontics. Now we can expect more accuracy results working length measure, not only of the apical constriction but the total length of the roots. Endodontics can’t left behind the use of the Apex-locator, because of its useful work, not only on the determination of the works length, also in the diagnostic of perforations or fractures. Even do, this article displays a reliable and simple guide in the use of apex locator during eno...

  4. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  5. Accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work provides a quantitative assessment of the positional tracking accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System. Method: Three experiments were completed: (a) static rigid-body tracking across different locations in the electromagnetic field volume, (b) dynamic rigid-body tracking across different locations within the…

  6. Brain Activation during Spatial Updating and Attentive Tracking of Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Georg; Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Keeping aware of the locations of objects while one is moving requires the updating of spatial representations. As long as the objects are visible, attentional tracking is sufficient, but knowing where objects out of view went in relation to one's own body involves an updating of spatial working memory. Here, multiple object tracking was employed…

  7. Generic Network Location Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mwansa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  8. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  9. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  10. Bluetooth enables in-door mobile location services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Several technologies can be applied to enable mobile location services, but most of them suffer from limited accuracy and availability. GPS can solve the problem of determining the location of users in most outdoor situations, but an end-user position inside a building cannot be pinpointed. Other...... mobile location techniques can also provide the user's position, but the accuracy is rather low. In order to improve the accuracy and make location-based services really attractive, existing approaches must be supplemented by new technologies. Wireless short-range technologies like Bluetooth could...... be candidates for solving these problems. This paper shows that Bluetooth can act as a key enabler of mobile location services in an in-door environment. The advantage of Bluetooth technology is, that it can provide rather precise location data inside a building or hotspot area, while the Bluetooth terminal...

  11. Mobile Tracking Application for Locating Friends using LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.Nadesh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days Location based services are becoming more important to mobile users. LBS are the mobile service which uses the user location information which consists of X and Y coordinates generated by GPS which is a mostly used positioning technique. This paper presents a mobile location tracking application in a cellular mobile networkbased on Location based service that describes tracking system called mobile tracker using GPS as a location provider through the geographic positions of a mobile network. This implements a client server system that helps the users to locate their friends and receive alerts whenever they are nearby. It enables the user, basing on the radius around the mobile device defined by the administrator. MYSQL database is used to update the location information and track the location. Further enhancement can be done by increasing the radius capacity to communicate more deliberately.

  12. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  13. Emergency Department Real Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    solution complies with all RF transmission guidelines to avoid interference with Hospital’s wireless communication systems and clinical...technology path that the messages will follow is, AgileTrac ESB services will capture real time updates of patient locations and push that

  14. Feature Extraction and Spatial Interpolation for Improved Wireless Location Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rizos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new methodology to improve location-sensing accuracy in wireless network environments eliminating the effects of non-line-of-sight errors. After collecting bulks of anonymous location measurements from a wireless network, the preparation stage of the proposed methodology begins. Investigating the collected location measurements in terms of signal features and geometric features, feature locations are identified. After the identification of feature locations, the non-line-of-sight error correction maps are generated. During the real-time location sensing stage, each user can request localization with a set of location measurements. With respected to the reported measurements, the pre-computed correction maps are applied. As a result, localization accuracy improves by eliminating the non-line-of-sight errors. A simulation result, assuming a typical dense urban environment, demonstrates the benefits of the proposed location sensing methodology.

  15. A Spatialization-based Method for Checking and Updating Metadata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the application of spatialization technology on metadata quality check and updating was discussed. A new method based on spatialization was proposed for checking and updating metadata to overcome the deficiency of text based methods with the powerful functions of spatial query and analysis provided by GIS software. This method employs the technology of spatialization to transform metadata into a coordinate space and the functions of spatial analysis in GIS to check and update spatial metadata in a visual environment. The basic principle and technical flow of this method were explained in detail, and an example of implementation using ArcMap of GIS software was illustrated with a metadata set of digital raster maps. The result shows the new method with the support of interaction of graph and text is much more intuitive and convenient than the ordinary text based method, and can fully utilize the functions of GIS spatial query and analysis with more accuracy and efficiency.

  16. Information Updating in Working Memory: Its Effect on Teacher Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher efficacy has a great impact on effective teaching and has been studied in various perspectives. The updating information ability in working memory is always related with many capabilities of cognition. An experiment of N-back task and a questionnaire of teacher efficacy were conducted in this study to test the effect of the ability of information updating in working memory on the teacher efficacy. A significant difference was found in the reaction time between high teacher efficacy group and low teacher efficacy group. The results showed that teachers who scored higher in the teacher efficacy scale tended to react faster than those who scored lower based on the same accuracy. And the updating information ability could serve as a predictor of teacher efficacy.

  17. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining locatio

  18. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  19. Assessing manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy-makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  20. Cohort Profile Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order...... of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates...

  1. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  2. Updates in pediatric endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Manmohan K

    2013-04-01

    There are rapid advances being made in the field of medicine! New research continues to investigate etiopathogenic mechanisms underlying many endocrine disorders, new tests to facilitate diagnosis, and newer treatment options. The discussion in this article focuses on a few of the important concerns in adolescent endocrinology and highlights some recent concepts that are important for the physicians taking care of these adolescents. This article also includes a brief update on diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; new thoughts and controversies about vitamin D and current management of the common thyroid disorders; adrenal insufficiency; and concerns with disorders of puberty in adolescents.

  3. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  4. Researchermap: a tool for visualizing author locations using Google maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Bales, Michael E; Yu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We hereby present ResearcherMap, a tool to visualize locations of authors of scholarly papers. In response to a query, the system returns a map of author locations. To develop the system we first populated a database of author locations, geocoding institution locations for all available institutional affiliation data in our database. The database includes all authors of Medline papers from 1990 to 2012. We conducted a formative heuristic usability evaluation of the system and measured the system's accuracy and performance. The accuracy of finding the accurate address is 97.5% in our system.

  5. 75 FR 3423 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY.... Requirements applying to Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') sources located within 25 miles of States' seaward..., Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer...

  6. 76 FR 43230 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia AGENCY... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources located within...

  7. Acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ping; Yang, Dinghui; Liu, Qinya; Yang, Xu; Harris, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel earthquake location method using acoustic wave-equation-based traveltime inversion. The linear relationship between the location perturbation (δt0, δxs) and the resulting traveltime residual δt of a particular seismic phase, represented by the traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) with respect to the earthquake location (t0, xs), is theoretically derived based on the adjoint method. Traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) is formulated as a convolution between the forward and adjoint wavefields, which are calculated by numerically solving two acoustic wave equations. The advantage of this newly derived traveltime kernel is that it not only takes into account the earthquake-receiver geometry but also accurately honours the complexity of the velocity model. The earthquake location is obtained by solving a regularized least-squares problem. In 3-D realistic applications, it is computationally expensive to conduct full wave simulations. Therefore, we propose a 2.5-D approach which assumes the forward and adjoint wave simulations within a 2-D vertical plane passing through the earthquake and receiver. Various synthetic examples show the accuracy of this acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location method. The accuracy and efficiency of the 2.5-D approach for 3-D earthquake location are further verified by its application to the 2004 Big Bear earthquake in Southern California.

  8. Is GPS telemetry location error screening beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry; Hansen, Jered R.

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of global positioning system (GPS) locations obtained from study animals tagged with GPS monitoring devices has been a concern as to the degree it influences assessments of movement patterns, space use, and resource selection estimates. Many methods have been proposed for screening data to retain the most accurate positions for analysis, based on dilution of precision (DOP) measures, and whether the position is a two dimensional or three dimensional fix. Here we further explore the utility of these measures, by testing a Telonics GEN3 GPS collar's positional accuracy across a wide range of environmental conditions. We found the relationship between location error and fix dimension and DOP metrics extremely weak (r2adj ∼ 0.01) in our study area. Environmental factors such as topographic exposure, canopy cover, and vegetation height explained more of the variance (r2adj = 15.08%). Our field testing covered sites where sky-view was so limited it affected GPS performance to the degree fix attempts failed frequently (fix success rates ranged 0.00–100.00% over 67 sites). Screening data using PDOP did not effectively reduce the location error in the remaining dataset. Removing two dimensional fixes reduced the mean location error by 10.95 meters, but also resulted in a 54.50% data reduction. Therefore screening data under the range of conditions sampled here would reduce information on animal movement with minor improvements in accuracy and potentially introduce bias towards more open terrain and vegetation.

  9. Semantic Location Extraction from Crowdsourced Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koswatte, S.; Mcdougall, K.; Liu, X.

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourced Data (CSD) has recently received increased attention in many application areas including disaster management. Convenience of production and use, data currency and abundancy are some of the key reasons for attracting this high interest. Conversely, quality issues like incompleteness, credibility and relevancy prevent the direct use of such data in important applications like disaster management. Moreover, location information availability of CSD is problematic as it remains very low in many crowd sourced platforms such as Twitter. Also, this recorded location is mostly related to the mobile device or user location and often does not represent the event location. In CSD, event location is discussed descriptively in the comments in addition to the recorded location (which is generated by means of mobile device's GPS or mobile communication network). This study attempts to semantically extract the CSD location information with the help of an ontological Gazetteer and other available resources. 2011 Queensland flood tweets and Ushahidi Crowd Map data were semantically analysed to extract the location information with the support of Queensland Gazetteer which is converted to an ontological gazetteer and a global gazetteer. Some preliminary results show that the use of ontologies and semantics can improve the accuracy of place name identification of CSD and the process of location information extraction.

  10. Satellite image based methods for fuels maps updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Benito, Alfonso; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Gonzalez-Calvo, Alejandro; Moreno-Ruiz, Jose A.; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose R.

    2016-10-01

    Regular updating of fuels maps is important for forest fire management. Nevertheless complex and time consuming field work is usually necessary for this purpose, which prevents a more frequent update. That is why the assessment of the usefulness of satellite data and the development of remote sensing techniques that enable the automatic updating of these maps, is of vital interest. In this work, we have tested the use of the spectral bands of OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor on board Landsat 8 satellite, for updating the fuels map of El Hierro Island (Spain). From previously digitized map, a set of 200 reference plots for different fuel types was created. A 50% of the plots were randomly used as a training set and the rest were considered for validation. Six supervised and 2 unsupervised classification methods were applied, considering two levels of detail. A first level with only 5 classes (Meadow, Brushwood, Undergrowth canopy cover >50%, Undergrowth canopy cover <15%, and Xeric formations), and the second one containing 19 fuel types. The level 1 classification methods yielded an overall accuracy ranging from 44% for Parellelepided to an 84% for Maximun Likelihood. Meanwhile, level 2 results showed at best, an unacceptable overall accuracy of 34%, which prevents the use of this data for such a detailed characterization. Anyway it has been demonstrated that in some conditions, images of medium spatial resolution, like Landsat 8-OLI, could be a valid tool for an automatic upgrade of fuels maps, minimizing costs and complementing traditional methodologies.

  11. Craniosynostosis update 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M M

    1988-01-01

    Information on craniosynostosis in this paper updates "Craniosynostosis: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management" (Cohen MM Jr: New York: Raven Press, 1986). It also discusses recent developments that were included in the book but need further explanation or emphasis. Subjects discussed are: epidemiology, etiology, sutural biology, growth and development, neurological and psychosocial aspects, surgery, cloverleaf skulls, craniosynostosis syndromes, and prenatal diagnosis. Under the subject of etiology, fetal head constraint, maternal thyroid disease, calcified cephalohematoma, teratogens, and delayed suture closure and Wormian bones are considered. An updating of 15 cloverleaf skull conditions includes four monogenic disorders, two chromosomal disorders, one disruption, one iatrogenic condition, and seven syndromes of unknown cause. Newly recognized disorders with cloverleaf skull include Beare-Stevenson cutis gyratum syndrome and Say-Poznanski syndrome. Craniosynostosis syndromes and associations discussed include acrocraniofacial dysostosis, Apert syndrome, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyratum syndrome, Calabro syndrome, calvarial hyperostosis, chromosomal craniostenosis, Cole-Carpenter type osteogenesis imperfecta, Crouzon syndrome, Curry-Jones syndrome, Curry variant of Carpenter syndrome, cutis aplasia and cranial stenosis, Fontaine-Farriaux syndrome, Gomex-López-Hernández syndrome, Hersh syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome and craniostenosis, hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis, Marfanoid features and craniostenosis, Pfeiffer-type cardiocranial syndrome, Pfeiffer-type dolichocephalosyndactyly, and Say-Barber syndrome.

  12. Titan's gravity: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, D.; Iess, L.; Racioppa, P.; Armstrong, J. W.; Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Tortora, P.

    2016-12-01

    Since its arrival at Saturn in 2004, Cassini performed nine flybys devoted to the determination of Titan's gravity field and its tidal variations. The last gravity flyby of the mission (T122) took place on Aug. 10, 2016. We will present an updated gravity solution, based on all available data. These include also an additional flyby (T110, March 2015, primarily devoted to the imaging Titan's north polar lakes) carried out with the low gain antenna. This flyby was particularly valuable because closest approach occurred at high latitude (75°N), over an area not previously sampled. Published gravity results (Iess et al., 2012) indicated that Titan is subject to large eccentricity tides in response to Saturn's time varying forcing field. The magnitude of the response quadrupole field, controlled by the Love number k2, was used to infer the existence of an internal ocean. The new gravity field determination provides a better estimate of k2, to a level of a few percent. In addition to a full 3x3 field, the new solution includes also higher degree and order harmonic coefficients (such as J4) and offers an improved map of gravity anomalies. The updated geoid and its associated uncertainty could be used to refine the gravity-altimetry correlative analysis and for improved interpretation of radar altimetric data.

  13. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  14. Accuracy of Sea Charts and Navigational Publications and the Influence of Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kasun

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main printed products of hydrographic organizations are sea charts and navigational publications. The disproportion of their information content with the actual data is a direct consequence of processes applied in their production, updating and actual changes. The information content of sea charts and navigational publications contains inherent and influent deviations. The accuracy of sea charts and navigational publications changes and decreases in the course of time. It equals the maximum accuracy of applied technology, including the graphic technology during the process of production, i.e. printing. The accuracy is in the function of time and updating procedure. The role of printing in the process of production is to increase the accuracy of sea charts and navigational publications by applying appropriate technology, standardization and reducing the time of graphic preparations and printing.

  15. Optimal Updating of Forecasts for the Timing of Future Events

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A. Shumsky

    1998-01-01

    A major problem in forecasting is estimating the time of some future event. Traditionally, forecasts are designed to minimize an error cost function that is evaluated once, possibly when the event occurs and forecast accuracy can be determined. However, in many applications forecast error costs accumulate over time, and the forecasts themselves may be updated with information that is collected as the expected time of the event approaches. This paper examines one such application, in which flo...

  16. Modeling Conservative Updates in Multi-Hash Approximate Count Sketches

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Multi-hash-based count sketches are fast and memory efficient probabilistic data structures that are widely used in scalable online traffic monitoring applications. Their accuracy significantly improves with an optimization, called conservative update, which is especially effective when the aim is to discriminate a relatively small number of heavy hitters in a traffic stream consisting of an extremely large number of flows. Despite its widespread application, a thorough u...

  17. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  18. Determining Geometric Accuracy in Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong; Chi; Kit; A; Geddam

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical components machined to high levels of ac cu racy are vital to achieve various functional requirements in engineering product s. In particular, the geometric accuracy of turned components play an important role in determining the form, fit and function of mechanical assembly requiremen ts. The geometric accuracy requirements of turned components are usually specifi ed in terms of roundness, straightness, cylindricity and concentricity. In pract ice, the accuracy specifications achievable are infl...

  19. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  20. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  1. Electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  2. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  3. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  4. IHS Facility Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This map can be used to find an Indian Health Service, Tribal or Urban Indian Health Program facility. This map can be used to: Zoom in to a general location to...

  5. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  6. Eldercare Locator Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Eldercare Locator is a searchable database that allows a user to search via zip code or city/ state for agencies at the State and local levels that provide...

  7. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  8. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  9. Experimental test of spatial updating models for monkey eye-head gaze shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static, or during (dynamic the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements.

  10. Spatial updating and the maintenance of visual constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, E M; Angelaki, D E

    2008-10-28

    Spatial updating is the means by which we keep track of the locations of objects in space even as we move. Four decades of research have shown that humans and non-human primates can take the amplitude and direction of intervening movements into account, including saccades (both head-fixed and head-free), pursuit, whole-body rotations and translations. At the neuronal level, spatial updating is thought to be maintained by receptive field locations that shift with changes in gaze, and evidence for such shifts has been shown in several cortical areas. These regions receive information about the intervening movement from several sources including motor efference copies when a voluntary movement is made and vestibular/somatosensory signals when the body is in motion. Many of these updating signals arise from brainstem regions that monitor our ongoing movements and subsequently transmit this information to the cortex via pathways that likely include the thalamus. Several issues of debate include (1) the relative contribution of extra-retinal sensory and efference copy signals to spatial updating, (2) the source of an updating signal for real life, three-dimensional motion that cannot arise from brain areas encoding only two-dimensional commands, and (3) the reference frames used by the brain to integrate updating signals from various sources. This review highlights the relevant spatial updating studies and provides a summary of the field today. We find that spatial constancy is maintained by a highly evolved neural mechanism that keeps track of our movements, transmits this information to relevant brain regions, and then uses this information to change the way in which single neurons respond. In this way, we are able to keep track of relevant objects in the outside world and interact with them in meaningful ways.

  11. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  12. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  13. Design of a TDOA location engine and development of a location system based on chirp spread spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Rong; Yu, Xiao-Qing; Zheng, Shu-Wang; Ye, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Location based services (LBS) provided by wireless sensor networks have garnered a great deal of attention from researchers and developers in recent years. Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) signaling formatting with time difference of arrival (TDOA) ranging technology is an effective LBS technique in regards to positioning accuracy, cost, and power consumption. The design and implementation of the location engine and location management based on TDOA location algorithms were the focus of this study; as the core of the system, the location engine was designed as a series of location algorithms and smoothing algorithms. To enhance the location accuracy, a Kalman filter algorithm and moving weighted average technique were respectively applied to smooth the TDOA range measurements and location results, which are calculated by the cooperation of a Kalman TDOA algorithm and a Taylor TDOA algorithm. The location management server, the information center of the system, was designed with Data Server and Mclient. To evaluate the performance of the location algorithms and the stability of the system software, we used a Nanotron nanoLOC Development Kit 3.0 to conduct indoor and outdoor location experiments. The results indicated that the location system runs stably with high accuracy at absolute error below 0.6 m.

  14. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  15. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  16. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  17. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study...... been between 10 and 35 days for altimetry missions until now. The location of the VS is also not necessarily the point at which measurements are needed. On the other hand, one of the main strengths of the dataset is its availability in near-real time. These characteristics make radar altimetry ideally...... suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...

  18. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  19. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  20. Update on Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderowf, Andrew; Stern, Matthew

    2003-04-15

    This Update reviews developments in the pathophysiology and treatment of Parkinson disease during the past several years. In the area of pathophysiology, studies have addressed the contribution of environmental factors such as caffeine and pesticides. Large-scale epidemiologic studies have also expanded the role genetic factors are thought to play. Detailed studies of kindreds with familial Parkinson disease due to alpha-synuclein and parkin have catalyzed basic science investigations into the pathologic mechanisms of the disease. These studies have led to the development of a pathophysiologic model of Parkinson disease that emphasizes abnormal protein aggregation. Studies of treatment have clarified the relative roles of l-dopa and dopamine agonists in early Parkinson disease and shown the potential for surgical interventions, particularly deep-brain stimulation, to relieve the symptoms of advanced, medically refractory disease.

  1. Y2K UPDATE

    CERN Multimedia

    Sverre JARP

    1999-01-01

    Concerning Y2K preparation, please note the following:Everybody, who has a NICE installation on his/her PC, needs to log in to NICE at least once before Xmas to get the Y2K update installed. This applies especially to dual boot systems.The test schedule on Y2Kplus.cern.ch will be prolonged. The last restart took place on 10 November and two more will take place on 24 November and 8 December, respectively. The Oracle users responsible for the maintenance of Oracle Forms applications which include PL/SQL blocks where date fields are handled with the default format are requested to contact oracle.support@cern.ch at their earliest convenience.Sverre Jarp (CERN Y2K co-ordinator, phone: 74944)

  2. ILRS Website Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey E.; Torrence, Mark H.; Pollack, Nathan H.; Tyahla, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    The ILRS website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of the ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components data, and products. Furthermore, the website provides an entry point to the archive of these data products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assesments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of suported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The website was reently redesigned. Content was reviewed during the update process, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will provide specific examples of key sections, applicaitons, and webpages.

  3. A Large Scale Automatic Earthquake Location Catalog in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area Using An Improved Shear-Wave Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. C. A.; Ross, Z.; Vernon, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    UC San Diego's ANZA network began archiving event-triggered data in 1982. As a result of improved recording technology, continuous waveform data archives are available starting in 1998. This continuous dataset, from 1998-present, represents a wealth of potential insight into spatio-temporal seismicity patterns, earthquake physics and mechanics of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. However, the volume of data renders manual analysis costly. In order to investigate the characteristics of the data in space and time, an automatic earthquake location catalog is needed. To this end, we apply standard earthquake signal processing techniques to the continuous data to detect first-arriving P-waves in combination with a recently developed S-wave detection algorithm. The resulting dataset of arrival time observations are processed using a grid association algorithm to produce initial absolute locations which are refined using a location inversion method that accounts for 3-D velocity heterogeneities. Precise relative locations are then derived from the refined absolute locations using the HypoDD double-difference algorithm. Moment magnitudes for the events are estimated from multi-taper spectral analysis. A >650% increase in the S:P pick ratio is achieved using the updated S-wave detection algorithm, when compared to the currently available catalog for the ANZA network. The increased number of S-wave observations leads to improved earthquake location accuracy and reliability (ie. less false event detections). Various aspects of spatio-temporal seismicity patterns and size distributions are investigated. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  5. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically diff...... classification accuracy obscures the aim of MGR: to select labels indistinguishable from those a person would choose....

  6. Geostar - Navigation location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donald A.

    The author describes the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS). The initial phase of the RDSS provides for a unique service enabling central offices and headquarters to obtain position-location information and receive short digital messages from mobile user terminals throughout the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. The system employs a spread-spectrum, CDMA modulation technique allowing multiple customers to use the system simultaneously, without preassigned coordination with fellow users. Position location is currently determined by employing an existing radio determination receiver, such as Loran-C, GPS, or Transit, in the mobile user terminal. In the early 1990s position location will be determined at a central earth station by time-differential ranging of the user terminals via two or more geostationary satellites. A brief overview of the RDSS system architecture is presented with emphasis on the user terminal and its diverse applications.

  7. Seamless Location Measuring System with Wifi Beacon Utilized and GPS Receiver based Systems in Both of Indoor and Outdoor Location Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai

    2015-01-01

    A seamless location measuring system with WiFi beacon utilized and GPS receiver based systems in both of indoor and outdoor location measurements is proposed. Through the experiments in both of indoor and outdoor, it is found that location measurement accuracy is around 2-3 meters for the locations which are designated in both of indoor and outdoor.

  8. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    The article investigates how users of personal satellite navigation devices (often referred to as sat-nav) are sometimes lost and led astray and argues that the satnav's aim to remove every insecurity about the correct route seems to remove the individual's conscious perception of the space...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  9. Combining head pose and eye location information for gaze estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Sebe, N.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Head pose and eye location for gaze estimation have been separately studied in numerous works in the literature. Previous research shows that satisfactory accuracy in head pose and eye location estimation can be achieved in constrained settings. However, in the presence of nonfrontal faces, eye

  10. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  11. Location-routing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte, G.

    1987-01-01

    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  12. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  13. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    OpenAIRE

    Tarald Taraldsen; Lucie Medová

    2007-01-01

    We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC) show up as directional prepositions (DIR) and vice versa, (under different circumstances) the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  14. Locative Inversion in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at reformulating in more current terms Hoekstra and Mulder’s (1990) analysis of the Locative Inversion (LI) construction. The new proposal is crucially based on the assumption that Small Clause (SC) predicates agree with their external argument in phi-features, which may be morphol

  15. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be......In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception...... of and behavior in everyday spaces, as the games reside on the boundaries between the continuums of play and ordinary, authentic and fictional, and as they merge physical and digital media. These are termed the six dimensions of LBGs. LBGs let the player explore the boundaries between these dimensions...... experiences of being in the world and the creation of meaning. The theory on motivation defines what motivation consists of and how it relates to our actions. This theory has been combined with theories concerning play and play culture, digital media, (digital) games, (optimal) experiences, landscape...

  16. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  17. Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Zakarauskas, Pierre; Dixon, Matt; Ellamil, Melissa; Thompson, Evan; Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1–15,000 hrs experience). Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a ‘body-scanning’ meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold) as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices. PMID:23049790

  18. Multiplicative updates for the LASSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2007-01-01

    .e. least squares minimization with $L_1$-norm regularization, since the multiplicative updates (MU) can efficiently exploit the structure of the problem traditionally solved using quadratic programming (QP). We derive an algorithm based on MU for the LASSO and compare the performance to Matlabs standard QP......Multiplicative updates have proven useful for non-negativity constrained optimization. Presently, we demonstrate how multiplicative updates also can be used for unconstrained optimization. This is for instance useful when estimating the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), i...

  19. Autoimmune pancreatitis. An update; Autoimmunpankreatitis. Ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Staedt. Klinikum, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disease, the pathophysiological understanding of which has been greatly improved over the last years. The most common form, type 1 AIP belongs to the IgG4-related diseases and must be distinguished from type 2 AIP, which is a much rarer entity associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Clinically, there is an overlap with pancreatic cancer. Imaging and further criteria, such as serological and histological parameters are utilized for a differentiation between both entities in order to select the appropriate therapy and to avoid the small but ultimately unnecessary number of pancreatectomies. The diagnostics of AIP are complex, whereby the consensus criteria of the International Association of Pancreatology have become accepted as the parameters for discrimination. These encompass five cardinal criteria and one therapeutic criterion. By applying these criteria AIP can be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 84.9 %, a specificity of 100 % and an accuracy of 93.8 %. The diagnosis of AIP is accomplished by applying several parameters of which two relate to imaging. As for the routine diagnostics of the pancreas these are ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Important for the differential diagnosis is the exclusion of signs of local and remote tumor spread for which CT and MRI are established. The essential diagnostic parameter of histology necessitates sufficient sample material, which cannot usually be acquired by a fine needle biopsy. CT or MRI are the reference standard methods for identification of the optimal puncture site and imaging-assisted (TruCut) biopsy. In patients presenting with unspecific upper abdominal pain, painless jaundice combined with the suspicion of a pancreatic malignancy in imaging but a mismatch of secondary signs of malignancy, AIP should also be considered as a differential diagnosis. As the diagnosis of AIP only partially relies on imaging radiologists also

  20. Subpixel Target Location Techniques for 3-D Coordinate Measuring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The close photogrammetric 3-D coordinate measurement is a new measuring technology in the fields of the coordinate measurement machine (CMM) in recent years. In this method, we usually place some targets on the measured object and take image of targets to determine the object coordinate. The subpixel location of target image plays an important role in high accuracy 3-D coordinate measuring procedure. In this paper, some subpixel location methods are reviewed and some factors which affect location precision are analyzed. Then we propose bilinear interpolation centroid algorithm. The experiments have shown this algorithm can improve accuracy of target centroid by increasing available pixels.

  1. A TDOA location algorithm based on data fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-min; ZHANG Chen; LIU Shi

    2006-01-01

    A new positioning method in mobile networks is presented.Based on the data fusion technology,it processes multi-layer information fusion for the location estimates achieved by the Chan algorithm,which increases mobile positioning accuracy effectively by only using measured difference of arriving (TDOA) signals.The method is simple and practical,especially when the location estimates are corrupted by the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error.It not only has high positioning accuracy,but also reduces the location failure probability.Results from computer simulation show that the proposed method is effective in various environments.

  2. Fast and accurate earthquake location within complex medium using a hybrid global-local inversion approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoying Bai; Rui Zhao; Stewart Greenhalgh

    2009-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for earthquake location is proposed which uses a combined coarse global search and fine local inversion with a minimum search routine, plus an examination of the root mean squares (RMS) error distribution. The method exploits the advantages of network ray tracing and robust formulation of the Frechet derivatives to simultaneously update all possible initial source parameters around most local minima (including the global minimum) in the solution space, and finally to determine the likely global solution. Several synthetic examples involving a 3-D complex velocity model and a challenging source-receiver layout are used to demonstrate the capability of the newly-developed method. This new global-local hybrid solution technique not only incorporates the significant benefits of our recently published hypocenter determination procedure for multiple earthquake parameters, but also offers the attractive features of global optimal searching in the RMS travel time error distribution. Unlike the traditional global search method, for example, the Monte Carlo approach, where millions of tests have to be done to find the final global solution, the new method only conducts a matrix inversion type local search but does it multiple times simultaneously throughout the model volume to seek a global solution. The search is aided by inspection of the RMS error distribution. Benchmark tests against two popular approaches, the direct grid search method and the oct-tree important sampling method, indicate that the hybrid global-local inversion yields comparable location accuracy and is not sensitive to modest level of noise data, but more importantly it offers two-order of magnitude speed-up in computational effort. Such an improvement, combined with high accuracy, make it a promising hypocenter determination scheme in earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, rapid hazard assessment and emergency response after strong earthquake occurrence.

  3. Intraoperative image updating for brain shift following dural opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W; Schaewe, Timothy J; Ji, Songbai; Holton, Leslie H; Simon, David A; Paulsen, Keith D

    2016-09-09

    OBJECTIVE Preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR) are typically coregistered to provide intraoperative navigation, the accuracy of which can be significantly compromised by brain deformation. In this study, the authors generated updated MR images (uMR) in the operating room (OR) to compensate for brain shift due to dural opening, and evaluated the accuracy and computational efficiency of the process. METHODS In 20 open cranial neurosurgical cases, a pair of intraoperative stereovision (iSV) images was acquired after dural opening to reconstruct a 3D profile of the exposed cortical surface. The iSV surface was registered with pMR to detect cortical displacements that were assimilated by a biomechanical model to estimate whole-brain nonrigid deformation and produce uMR in the OR. The uMR views were displayed on a commercial navigation system and compared side by side with the corresponding coregistered pMR. A tracked stylus was used to acquire coordinate locations of features on the cortical surface that served as independent positions for calculating target registration errors (TREs) for the coregistered uMR and pMR image volumes. RESULTS The uMR views were visually more accurate and well aligned with the iSV surface in terms of both geometry and texture compared with pMR where misalignment was evident. The average misfit between model estimates and measured displacements was 1.80 ± 0.35 mm, compared with the average initial misfit of 7.10 ± 2.78 mm between iSV and pMR, and the average TRE was 1.60 ± 0.43 mm across the 20 patients in the uMR image volume, compared with 7.31 ± 2.82 mm on average in the pMR cases. The iSV also proved to be accurate with an average error of 1.20 ± 0.37 mm. The overall computational time required to generate the uMR views was 7-8 minutes. CONCLUSIONS This study compensated for brain deformation caused by intraoperative dural opening using computational model-based assimilation of iSV cortical surface displacements. The u

  4. Implicitly learned suppression of irrelevant spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Andrew B; Gwinn, Rachael E; Hong, Yoolim; O'Toole, Ryan J

    2016-12-01

    How do we ignore a salient, irrelevant stimulus whose location is predictable? A variety of studies using instructional manipulations have shown that participants possess the capacity to exert location-based suppression. However, for the visual search challenges we face in daily life, we are not often provided explicit instructions and are unlikely to consciously deliberate on what our best strategy might be. Instead, we might rely on our past experience-in the form of implicit learning-to exert strategic control. In this paper, we tested whether implicit learning could drive spatial suppression. In Experiment 1, participants searched displays in which one location contained a target, while another contained a salient distractor. An arrow cue pointed to the target location with 70 % validity. Also, unbeknownst to the participants, the same arrow cue predicted the distractor location with 70 % validity. Results showed facilitated RTs to the predicted target location, confirming target enhancement. Critically, distractor interference was reduced at the predicted distractor location, revealing that participants used spatial suppression. Further, we found that participants had no explicit knowledge of the cue-distractor contingencies, confirming that the learning was implicit. In Experiment 2, to seek further evidence for suppression, we modified the task to include occasional masked probes following the arrow cue; we found worse probe identification accuracy at the predicted distractor location than control locations, providing converging evidence that observers spatially suppressed the predicted distractor locations. These results reveal an ecologically desirable mechanism of suppression, which functions without the need for conscious knowledge or externally guided instructions.

  5. Rapid Map Updating Procedures Using Orthophotos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, M.

    2009-04-01

    The General Directorate of Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Ministry for Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has the mandate for large scale mapping of 220 Saudi Arabian cities. During the last 30 years all of these cities have been mapped in 3D at least once using stereo photogrammetric procedures. The output of these maps is in digital vector files with more than 300 types of features coded. Mapping at the required scales of 1:10,000 for the urban and suburban areas and at 1:1,000 for the urban areas proper has been a lengthy and costly process, which did not lend itself to regular updating procedures. For this reason the major cities, where most of the developments took place, have been newly mapped at about 10 year intervals. To record the changes of urban landscapes more rapidly orthophotomapping has recently been introduced. Rather than waiting for about 5 years for the line mapping of a large city after the inception of a mapping project, orthophotos could be produced a few months after a new aerial flight was made. While new, but slow stereomapping in 3D provides accurate results in conformity with the usual urban mapping specifications, the geocoded superposition of outdated maps with the more recent orthophotos provided a very useful monitoring of the urban changes. At the same time the use of orthophotos opens up a new possibility for urban map updating by on-screen digitizing in 2D. This can at least be done for the most relevant features, such as buildings, walls, roads and vegetation. As this is a faster method than 3D stereo plotting a lesser geometric accuracy is to be expected for the on-screen digitization. There is a need to investigate and to compare the two methods with respect to accuracy and speed of operation as a basis for a decision, whether to continue with new 3D stereomapping every 10 years or to introduce rapid map updating in 2D via on-screen digitization every 3 to 5 years. This presentation is about

  6. Forests and Forest Cover - TREES_BIG2005_IN: Champion Tree Locations for 2005 in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller and Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — TREES_BIG2005_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of state champion trees in Indiana. The register is updated every 5 years. Each location represents a...

  7. Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.

  8. TOA-BASED ROBUST LOCATION ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS CELLULAR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guolin; Guo Wei

    2005-01-01

    Caused by Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagation effect, the non-symmetric contamination of measured Time Of Arrival (TOA) data leads to high inaccuracies of the conventional TOA based mobile location techniques. Robust position estimation method based on bootstrapping M-estimation and Huber estimator are proposed to mitigate the effects of NLOS propagation on the location error. Simulation results show the improvement over traditional Least-Square (LS)algorithm on location accuracy under different channel environments.

  9. Update in Internal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  10. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  11. Parallel updating and weighting of multiple spatial maps for visual stability during whole body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramper, J J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the brain uses multiple reference frames to code spatial information, including eye-centered and body-centered frames. When we move our body in space, these internal representations are no longer in register with external space, unless they are actively updated. Whether the brain updates multiple spatial representations in parallel, or whether it restricts its updating mechanisms to a single reference frame from which other representations are constructed, remains an open question. We developed an optimal integration model to simulate the updating of visual space across body motion in multiple or single reference frames. To test this model, we designed an experiment in which participants had to remember the location of a briefly presented target while being translated sideways. The behavioral responses were in agreement with a model that uses a combination of eye- and body-centered representations, weighted according to the reliability in which the target location is stored and updated in each reference frame. Our findings suggest that the brain simultaneously updates multiple spatial representations across body motion. Because both representations are kept in sync, they can be optimally combined to provide a more precise estimate of visual locations in space than based on single-frame updating mechanisms.

  12. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  13. Email Updates: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/listserv.html Email Updates To use the sharing features on this ... view your email history or unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ...

  14. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  16. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Çelebi, Hasari Burak

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. 77 FR 13198 - Product List Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is... adopted in a recent Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are... these updates. DATES: Effective Date: March 6, 2012. Applicability Dates: February 23, 2012...

  18. 75 FR 39629 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of... Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to 10 CFR 1703.107(b)(6) of the Board's regulations. DATES... update the FOIA Fee Schedule once every 12 months. The previous Fee Schedule Update was published in...

  19. Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    0 1 4 3 NDARDS THE NATIONAL February 1982 Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control RESEARCH PROG RAM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime...SUBTITLE Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...examples are contained in Appendix C. Included, are examples of how “A/C” process - analysis leads to design improvement and how a change in sequence can

  20. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2008-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Now in its 11th edition, Communication Technology Update has become an indispensable information resource for business, government, and academia. As always, every chapter has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest developments and market statistics, and now covers mobile computing, dig

  1. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  2. Episodic fieldwork, updating, and sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, M.

    2013-01-01

    on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity......, which is at the heart of sociability, becomes a tool for exploring time and new social experiences and the ways in which chronology is interwoven with shifting social positions....

  3. Location-based Services using Image Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertongen, Pieter-Paulus; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2008-01-01

    situations, for example in urban environments. We propose a system to provide location-based services using image searches without requiring GPS. The goal of this system is to assist tourists in cities with additional information using their mobile phones and built-in cameras. Based upon the result......Recent developments in image search has made them sufficiently efficient to be used in real-time applications. GPS has become a popular navigation tool. While GPS information provide reasonably good accuracy, they are not always present in all hand held devices nor are they accurate in all...... of the image search engine and database image location knowledge, the location is determined of the query image and associated data can be presented to the user....

  4. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  5. Securing Binding Updates in Routing Optimizaton of Mobile IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile IPv6 (mipv6 is an internet protocol that allows mobile nodes to have continuous network connectivity to the internet without changing their ip addresses while moving to other networks. The packets sent from Correspondent Node (CN to a Mobile Node (MN go first through the mobile node’s Home Agent (HA. Then the HA tunnels them to the MN’s foreign network. This process of delivering the packets to CN is called triangle routing. Triangle routing problem appears when the indirect path between CN and MN through the HA is longer than the direct path. To overcome triangle routing, Route Optimization (RO method is added in mobile Pv6. In route optimization, when MN changes its location, it sends a Binding Update (BU to CN informing its CoA. To secure these Binding Updates, we present a new protocol called “Certificate Based Inquisition Approach” for securing Binding Updates in RO. Performance analysis of this shows that it is computationally efficient than RR protocol and is not susceptible to any security attacks. To show the effectiveness of the proposed technique, it is compared with the state of art of other RO protocols. Simulation results presented in this study are based on the ns2 mobility software on linux platform. The simulations results show that our proposed technique achieves better performance than the Return Routability (RR, Certificate Based Binding Update protocol (CBU, Hierarchical Certificate Based Binding Update protocol (HCBU.

  6. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  7. Update on Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Jellinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the disproportionate growth of the elderly population, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, as the most common cause of dementia, has become a major public health and socio-economic problem of our time. Updated consensus criteria for clinical diagnosis and new biomarkers have increased the diagnostic accuracy to over 90%, with a sensitivity versus other dementias of around 85% and a specificity of up to 78%, although a definite diagnosis depends on neuropathological examination. However, due to overlap between dementing disorders and frequent concurrence of multiple pathologies in the aged brain, both clinical and post-mortem studies entail biases that affect their validity. Harmonised interdisciplinary approaches are required to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of AD diagnosis as a basis for neuroprotection and efficient treatment. Preventative measures can minimise risk factors and confounding diseases, whereas anti-dementive treatment with drugs and non-pharmacological interventions can currently only delay the progression of the clinical course without causal effects. Better early diagnosis, active immunotherapies, and disease-modifying measures are the most important challenges for modern neurosciences.

  8. Improving the accuracy of flood forecasting with transpositions of ensemble NWP rainfall fields considering orographic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wansik; Nakakita, Eiichi; Kim, Sunmin; Yamaguchi, Kosei

    2016-08-01

    The use of meteorological ensembles to produce sets of hydrological predictions increased the capability to issue flood warnings. However, space scale of the hydrological domain is still much finer than meteorological model, and NWP models have challenges with displacement. The main objective of this study to enhance the transposition method proposed in Yu et al. (2014) and to suggest the post-processing ensemble flood forecasting method for the real-time updating and the accuracy improvement of flood forecasts that considers the separation of the orographic rainfall and the correction of misplaced rain distributions using additional ensemble information through the transposition of rain distributions. In the first step of the proposed method, ensemble forecast rainfalls from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model are separated into orographic and non-orographic rainfall fields using atmospheric variables and the extraction of topographic effect. Then the non-orographic rainfall fields are examined by the transposition scheme to produce additional ensemble information and new ensemble NWP rainfall fields are calculated by recombining the transposition results of non-orographic rain fields with separated orographic rainfall fields for a generation of place-corrected ensemble information. Then, the additional ensemble information is applied into a hydrologic model for post-flood forecasting with a 6-h interval. The newly proposed method has a clear advantage to improve the accuracy of mean value of ensemble flood forecasting. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon 'Talas' of 2011 over the two catchments, which are Futatsuno (356.1 km2) and Nanairo (182.1 km2) dam catchments of Shingu river basin (2360 km2), which is located in the Kii peninsula, Japan.

  9. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks.

  10. Model updating in flexible-link multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, R.; Caneva, G.; Palomba, I.; Richiedei, D.; Trevisani, A.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic response of flexible-link multibody systems (FLMSs) can be predicted through nonlinear models based on finite elements, to describe the coupling between rigid- body and elastic behaviour. Their accuracy should be as high as possible to synthesize controllers and observers. Model updating based on experimental measurements is hence necessary. By taking advantage of the experimental modal analysis, this work proposes a model updating procedure for FLMSs and applies it experimentally to a planar robot. Indeed, several peculiarities of the model of FLMS should be carefully tackled. On the one hand, nonlinear models of a FLMS should be linearized about static equilibrium configurations. On the other, the experimental mode shapes should be corrected to be consistent with the elastic displacements represented in the model, which are defined with respect to a fictitious moving reference (the equivalent rigid link system). Then, since rotational degrees of freedom are also represented in the model, interpolation of the experimental data should be performed to match the model displacement vector. Model updating has been finally cast as an optimization problem in the presence of bounds on the feasible values, by also adopting methods to improve the numerical conditioning and to compute meaningful updated inertial and elastic parameters.

  11. Finite Element Model Updating Using Response Surface Method

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes the response surface method for finite element model updating. The response surface method is implemented by approximating the finite element model surface response equation by a multi-layer perceptron. The updated parameters of the finite element model were calculated using genetic algorithm by optimizing the surface response equation. The proposed method was compared to the existing methods that use simulated annealing or genetic algorithm together with a full finite element model for finite element model updating. The proposed method was tested on an unsymmetri-cal H-shaped structure. It was observed that the proposed method gave the updated natural frequen-cies and mode shapes that were of the same order of accuracy as those given by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. Furthermore, it was observed that the response surface method achieved these results at a computational speed that was more than 2.5 times as fast as the genetic algorithm and a full finite element model and 24 ti...

  12. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...... and lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment...

  13. hypoDD-A Program to Compute Double-Difference Hypocenter Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauser, Felix

    2001-01-01

    observed and calculated travel-time difference (or double-difference) between two events at a common station are a related to adjustments in the relative position of the hypocenters and origin times through the partial derivatives of the travel times for each event with respect to the unknown. HypoDD calculates travel times in a layered velocity model (where velocity depends only on depth) for the current hypocenters at the station where the phase was recorded. The double-difference residuals for pairs of earthquakes at each station are minimized by weighted least squares using the method of singular value decomposition (SVD) or the conjugate gradients method (LSQR, Paige and Saunders, 1982). Solutions are found by iteratively adjusting the vector difference between nearby hypocentral pairs, with the locations and partial derivatives being updated after each iteration. Details about the algorithm can be found in Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). When the earthquake location problem is linearized using the double-difference equations, the common mode errors cancel, principally those related to the receiver-side structure. Thus we avoid the need for station corrections or high-accuracy of predicted travel times for the portion of the raypath that lies outside the focal volume. This approach is especially useful in regions with a dense distribution of seismicity, i.e. where distances between neighboring events are only a few hundred meters. The improvement of double-difference locations over ordinary JHD locations is shown in Figure 1 for about 10,000 earthquakes that occurred during the 1997 seismic crisis in the Long Valley caldera, California. While the JHD locations (left panel) show a diffuse picture of the seismicity, double-difference locations (right panel) bring structural details such as the location of active fault planes into sharp focus.

  14. Group Search Optimizer for the Mobile Location Management Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a diversity-guided group search optimizer-based approach for solving the location management problem in mobile computing. The location management problem, which is to find the optimal network configurations of management under the mobile computing environment, is considered here as an optimization problem. The proposed diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is realized with the aid of diversity operator, which helps alleviate the premature convergence problem of group search optimizer algorithm, a successful optimization algorithm inspired by the animal behavior. To address the location management problem, diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is exploited to optimize network configurations of management by minimizing the sum of location update cost and location paging cost. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Group Search Optimizer for the Mobile Location Management Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Xiong, Congcong; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a diversity-guided group search optimizer-based approach for solving the location management problem in mobile computing. The location management problem, which is to find the optimal network configurations of management under the mobile computing environment, is considered here as an optimization problem. The proposed diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is realized with the aid of diversity operator, which helps alleviate the premature convergence problem of group search optimizer algorithm, a successful optimization algorithm inspired by the animal behavior. To address the location management problem, diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is exploited to optimize network configurations of management by minimizing the sum of location update cost and location paging cost. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25180199

  16. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  17. Accuracy evaluation of Kinematic GPS analysis based on the difference of the IGS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Kuno, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath the southwest Japan from the Nankai Trough with a rate of about 4-6 cm/year, where great interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-150 years. To clarify the mechanism of earthquake occurrence at such subduction zones, we require the geodetic data obtained from not only onshore area but also offshore area. However it is difficult to estimate the plate interaction in offshore areas, due to the poverty of those data. For this issue, we have conducted seafloor geodetic observation using GPS/Acoustic techniques around the Nankai Trough since 2004. In this system, we estimate the position of a surveying vessel by Kinematic GPS analysis and measure the distance between the vessel and the benchmark on the seafloor by Acoustic measurements. Next, we determine the location of the benchmark and detected crustal movement on the seafloor. Recently, a number of research institute have conducted seafloor geodetic observation after earthquake occurred in offshore area (Tadokoro et al., 2006), and then speedy solution is desired from a viewpoint of not only scientific research but also disaster mitigation. Although we use the IGS final product for its accuracy, the latency of that is longer, about 13 days or more. On the other hand, the IGS ultra-rapid product is updated every 6 hours with the delay of 3 hours. In the previous study, we compared the kinematic GPS solutions using the IGS final and ultra-rapid products. The rover GPS site was located on the roof of a building at Nagoya University and 5 fixed GPS sites were located on the roof of other buildings whose baseline lengths were 30-150 km. Though the standard deviation of the difference between final and ultra-rapid solutions increases with increasing baseline length, which is about 1.6 mm in 150 km baseline. This result showed that the difference was not significant for seafloor geodetic observations. In this study, we investigate the kinematic GPS solutions based

  18. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is minim......In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...... is minimized, where the distance is measured by a norm k2. We present results for the general case. In the case that k1 and k2 are both block norms, we are able to identify a nite dominating set in R3 for the problem, which can be obtained as the intersection of cones....

  19. Progress on Updating the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; Wilcox, S.; Marion, B.; George, R.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.; Perez, R.; Stackhouse, P. Jr.

    2003-04-01

    The 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) provides a 30-year climate summary and solar characterization of 239 locations throughout the United States. Over the past several years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has received numerous inquiries from a range of constituents as to whether an update of the database to include the 1990s will be developed. However, there are formidable challenges to creating an update of the serially complete station-specific database for the 1971-2000 period. During the 1990s, the National Weather Service changed its observational procedures from a human-based to an automated system, resulting in the loss of important input variables to the model used to complete the 19611990 NSRDB. As a result, alternative techniques are required for an update that covers the 1990s. This paper examines several alternative approaches for creating this update and describes preliminary NREL plans for implementing the update.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...... represented a useful tool for learning; 90% felt that virtual dermatopathology is useful tool for teaching dermatopathology. Conclusion No significant difference was observed in diagnostic accuracy using virtual dermatopathology compared to photomicrographs. Most participants felt virtual dermatopathology...

  1. VIIP 2017 Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's Space Medicine community knowledge regarding the "Vision Impairment Intracranial Pressure", or VIIP.has been evolving over time.. Various measures of occupational health related to this condition had to be determined and then plans/processes put into place. The most robust of these processes were inititated in 2010. This presentation will provide a clinic update of the astronaut occupational health data related to VIIP. METHODS: NASA and its international partners require its astronauts to undergo routine health measures deemed important to monitoring VIIP. The concern is that the spaceflight environment aboard ISS could cause some astronauts to have physiologic changes detrimental to either ongoing mission operations or long-term health related to the ocular system and possibly the CNS. Specific medical tests include but are not limited to brain/orbit MRI (NASA unique protocol), OCT, fundoscopy and ocular ultrasound. Measures are taken prior to spaceflight, in-flight and post-flight. Measures to be reported include incidence of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, ONSD and change in refractive error. RESULTS: 73 ISS astronauts have been evaluated at least partially for VIIP related measures. Of these individuals, approximately 1 in 7 have experienced disc edema. The prevalence of the other findings is more complicated as the medical testing has changed over time. Overall, 26 separate individuals have experienced at least one of the findings NASA has associated with VIIP Another confounding factor is most of the astronauts have prior spaceflight experience at the time of the "pre-flight" testing. DISCUSSION: In 2010 NASA and its US operating segment (USOS) partners (CSA, ESA and JAXA) began routine occupational monitoring and data collection for most VIIP related changes. Interpretation of that data is extremely challenging for several reasons. For example, the determination of disc edema is the most complete finding as we have had

  2. A Brief Update on the CMZoom Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Battersby, Cara; Zhang, Qizhou; Longmore, Steven N; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Pillai, Thushara; Kauffmann, Jens; Walker, Dan; Lu, Xing; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Henshaw, Jonathan D; Immer, Katharina; Patel, Nimesh; Tolls, Volker; Walsh, Andrew J; Johnston, Katharine; Ho, Luis C

    2016-01-01

    The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. CMZoom is a three-year survey in its final year and is mapping out the highest column density regions of the CMZ in dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines around 1.3 mm. CMZoom combines SMA compact and subcompact configurations with single-dish data from BGPS and the APEX telescope, achieving an angular resolution of about 4" (0.2 pc) and good image fidelity up to large spatial scales.

  3. LANMAS core: Update and current directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claborn, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Systems Group; Alvarado, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Local Area Network Material Accountability System (LANMAS) core software will provide the framework of a material accountability system. LANMAS is a network-based nuclear material accountability system. It tracks the movement of material throughout a site and generates the required reports on material accountability. LANMAS will run in a client/server mode. The database of material type and location will reside on the server, while the user interface runs on the client. The user interface accesses the server via a network. The LANMAS core can be used as the foundation for building required Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) functionality at any site requiring a new MC&A system. An individual site will build on the LANMAS core by supplying site-specific software. This paper will provide an update on the current LANMAS development activities and discuss the current direction of the LANMAS project.

  4. RELAP-7 Development Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, and is the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 development began in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. The code is being developed based on Idaho National Laboratory’s modern scientific software development framework – MOOSE (the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). The initial development goal of the RELAP-7 approach focused primarily on the development of an implicit algorithm capable of strong (nonlinear) coupling of the dependent hydrodynamic variables contained in the 1-D/2-D flow models with the various 0-D system reactor components that compose various boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, the RELAP-7 code has been further improved with expanded capability to support boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor NPPs analysis. The accumulator model has been developed. The code has also been coupled with other MOOSE-based applications such as neutronics code RattleSnake and fuel performance code BISON to perform multiphysics analysis. A major design requirement for the implicit algorithm in RELAP-7 is that it is capable of second-order discretization accuracy in both space and time, which eliminates the traditional first-order approximation errors. The second-order temporal is achieved by a second-order backward temporal difference, and the one-dimensional second-order accurate spatial discretization

  5. Daily modulation of the speed-accuracy trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Pozzo, Thierry; Darlot, Christian; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2017-07-25

    Goal-oriented arm movements are characterized by a balance between speed and accuracy. The relation between speed and accuracy has been formalized by Fitts' law and predicts a linear increase in movement duration with task constraints. Up to now this relation has been investigated on a short-time scale only, that is during a single experimental session, although chronobiological studies report that the motor system is shaped by circadian rhythms. Here, we examine whether the speed-accuracy trade-off could vary during the day. Healthy adults carried out arm-pointing movements as accurately and fast as possible toward targets of different sizes at various hours of the day, and variations in Fitts' law parameters were scrutinized. To investigate whether the potential modulation of the speed-accuracy trade-off has peripheral and/or central origins, a motor imagery paradigm was used as well. Results indicated a daily (circadian-like) variation for the durations of both executed and mentally simulated movements, in strictly controlled accuracy conditions. While Fitts' law was held for the whole sessions of the day, the slope of the relation between movement duration and task difficulty expressed a clear modulation, with the lowest values in the afternoon. This variation of the speed-accuracy trade-off in executed and mental movements suggests that, beyond execution parameters, motor planning mechanisms are modulated during the day. Daily update of forward models is discussed as a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paxos based directory updates for geo-replicated cloud storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rangarajan, Srivathsava

    2014-01-01

    Modern cloud data stores (e.g., Spanner, Cassandra) replicate data across geographically distributed data centers for availability, redundancy and optimized latencies.^ An important class of cloud data stores involves the use of directories to track the location of individual data objects. Directory-based datastores allow flexible data placement, and the ability to adapt placement in response to changing workload dynamics. However, a key challenge is maintaining and updating the directory sta...

  7. How to Green Windows Update?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifedine Kadry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important challenges facing the earth in the future are energy, water, environment and food security, Green IT contributes in significant role in finding solutions because it consume energy more efficient and reduce pollution in water, air and soil in addition to improving economy because Green IT is manage energy sources by reducing energy consumption with good performance. Most of energy consumed around the world depends on non-renewable energy and part of this energy consumed to update technologies In this paper ,we will study one of the most important tools in Microsoft, which is used in order to help users to get updates of Microsoft's products, which is called windows server update services (WSUS, which is helping to reduce energy consumption, we will study this tool and then try to make it more green by reducing the send / receive between Microsoft Update (MU and WSUS, which will reduce energy consumption, and we will propose algorithm and compared the energy consumption in the current design with energy consumption in the proposed design. This design will open the way for future work in order to make sending updates in MU less energy consumption by apply conditional sending and that will help to improve the performance of MU added to improve the network performance with more efficient consumption of energy.

  8. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...... of television drama, and it offers a comprehensible, scholarly and methodologically original approach to the popularity of Nordic television crime dramas....

  9. Quantum Image Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Dang, Yijie; Zhao, Na

    2016-10-01

    Quantum image processing has been a hot topic as a consequence of the development of quantum computation. Many quantum image processing algorithms have been proposed, whose efficiency are theoretically higher than their corresponding classical algorithms. However, most of the quantum schemes do not consider the problem of measurement. If users want to get the results, they must measure the final state many times to get all the pixels' values. Moreover, executing the algorithm one time, users can only measure the final state one time. In order to measure it many times, users must execute the algorithms many times. If the measurement process is taken into account, whether or not the algorithms are really efficient needs to be reconsidered. In this paper, we try to solve the problem of measurement and give a quantum image location algorithm. This scheme modifies the probability of pixels to make the target pixel to be measured with higher probability. Furthermore, it only has linear complexity.

  10. Parkinson disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazewood, John D; Richards, D Roxanne; Clebak, Karl

    2013-02-15

    Parkinson disease is a progressive neurologic disorder afflicting approximately 1 percent of Americans older than 60 years. The cardinal features of Parkinson disease are bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability. There are a number of neurologic conditions that mimic the disease, making it difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Physicians who rarely diagnose Parkinson disease should refer patients suspected of having it to physicians with more experience in making the diagnosis, and should periodically reevaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis. Treatment is effective in reducing motor impairment and disability, and should be started when a patient begins to experience functional impairment. The combination of carbidopa and levodopa is the most effective treatment, but dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors are also effective, and are less likely to cause dyskinesias. For patients taking carbidopa/levodopa who have motor complications, adjunctive therapy with a dopamine agonist, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, or a catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitor will improve motor symptoms and functional status, but with an increase in dyskinesias. Deep brain stimulation is effective in patients who have poorly controlled symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Occupational, physical, and speech therapy improve patient function. Fatigue, sleep disturbances, dementia, and depression are common in patients with Parkinson disease. Although these conditions are associated with significantly lower quality of life, they may improve with treatment.

  11. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed w

  12. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed w

  13. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建

    2014-01-01

    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  14. Hierarchical Location Service with Prediction in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Amar, Ebtisam; Renault, Éric; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    Position-based routing protocols take advantage of location information to perform a stateless and efficient routing. To enable position-based routing, a node must be able to discover the location of the messages' destination node. This task is typically accomplished by a location service. Recently, several location service protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks. In this paper we propose a novel location service called PHLS: Predictive Hierarchical Location Service. In PHLS, the entire network is partitioned into a hierarchy of smaller and smaller regions. For each node, one node in each-level region of the hierarchy is chosen as its local location server. When the network initializes or when a node attaches the network, nodes contact their local location server with their current location information (ie. position and velocity). Then, they only need to update their location server when they move away from their current region. Finally, nodes query their location servers and get the exact or predic...

  15. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  16. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  17. CADASTRAL DATABASE POSITIONAL ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hashim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  18. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.

  19. Psychology Textbooks: Examining Their Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Faye B.; Ham, K. Whitfield, II

    2008-01-01

    Sales figures and recollections of psychologists indicate textbooks play a central role in psychology students' education, yet instructors typically must select texts under time pressure and with incomplete information. Although selection aids are available, none adequately address the accuracy of texts. We describe a technique for sampling…

  20. Astronomic Position Accuracy Capability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    portion of F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. The three points were called THEODORE ECC , TRACY, and JIM and consisted of metal tribrachs plastered to cinder...sets were computed as a deviation from the standard. Accuracy figures were determined from these residuals. Homo - geneity of variances was tested using

  1. Experimental Studies on Finite Element Model Updating for a Heated Beam-Like Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaipeng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was made for the identification procedure of time-varying modal parameters and the finite element model updating technique of a beam-like thermal structure in both steady and unsteady high temperature environments. An improved time-varying autoregressive method was proposed first to extract the instantaneous natural frequencies of the structure in the unsteady high temperature environment. Based on the identified modal parameters, then, a finite element model for the structure was updated by using Kriging meta-model and optimization-based finite-element model updating method. The temperature-dependent parameters to be updated were expressed as low-order polynomials of temperature increase, and the finite element model updating problem was solved by updating several coefficients of the polynomials. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the time-varying modal parameter identification method and showed that the instantaneous natural frequencies of the updated model well tracked the trends of the measured values with high accuracy.

  2. Variance analysis for model updating with a finite element based subspace fitting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Guillaume; Mevel, Laurent; Mencik, Jean-Mathieu; Serra, Roger; Döhler, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a subspace fitting approach has been proposed for vibration-based finite element model updating. The approach makes use of subspace-based system identification, where the extended observability matrix is estimated from vibration measurements. Finite element model updating is performed by correlating the model-based observability matrix with the estimated one, by using a single set of experimental data. Hence, the updated finite element model only reflects this single test case. However, estimates from vibration measurements are inherently exposed to uncertainty due to unknown excitation, measurement noise and finite data length. In this paper, a covariance estimation procedure for the updated model parameters is proposed, which propagates the data-related covariance to the updated model parameters by considering a first-order sensitivity analysis. In particular, this propagation is performed through each iteration step of the updating minimization problem, by taking into account the covariance between the updated parameters and the data-related quantities. Simulated vibration signals are used to demonstrate the accuracy and practicability of the derived expressions. Furthermore, an application is shown on experimental data of a beam.

  3. Optimizing solution of fault location using single terminal quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG XinZhou; SHI ShenXing; CUI Tao; LU Qiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper firstly evaluated the impedance method and traveling waves method for fault location, and studied the robustness of fault location method based on im-pedance. Then it proposed an assembled fault location method for a transmission line based on single-terminal electrical quantities, in which the fault zone was firstly determined by impedance method with robustness then the accurate fault position was pinpointed by traveling waves method. EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Pro-gram) simulations showed that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of impedance method and traveling waves method when either one is used alone, and improve both the accuracy and the reliability of fault location.

  4. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  5. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  6. On location at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  7. Continuous wavelet transform analysis and modal location analysis acoustic emission source location for nuclear piping crack growth monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Shukri [Nondestructive Testing Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, CARDIFF CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-12

    Source location is an important feature of acoustic emission (AE) damage monitoring in nuclear piping. The ability to accurately locate sources can assist in source characterisation and early warning of failure. This paper describe the development of a novelAE source location technique termed 'Wavelet Transform analysis and Modal Location (WTML)' based on Lamb wave theory and time-frequency analysis that can be used for global monitoring of plate like steel structures. Source location was performed on a steel pipe of 1500 mm long and 220 mm outer diameter with nominal thickness of 5 mm under a planar location test setup using H-N sources. The accuracy of the new technique was compared with other AE source location methods such as the time of arrival (TOA) techniqueand DeltaTlocation. Theresults of the study show that the WTML method produces more accurate location resultscompared with TOA and triple point filtering location methods. The accuracy of the WTML approach is comparable with the deltaT location method but requires no initial acoustic calibration of the structure.

  8. Modeling and locating underground water pipe leak with microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Jiangping; Liu, Hao; Tian, Zhijian; Cheng, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Traditional pipeline leak locating methods require that geophones have to be placed on the pipe wall. While if the exact location of the pipeline is unknown, the leaks may not be identified accurately. To solve this problem, considering the characteristics of pipeline leak, a continuous random seismic source model is proposed and geological models are established. Based on the two dimensional (2D) viscoacoustic equations and the staggered grid finite-difference (FD) algorithm, the microseismic wave field generated by a leaking pipe is modeled. Cross-correlation analysis and the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm are employed to obtain the time difference and the leak location. Analysis and discussions of the effects of number of recorded traces, survey layout, and offset and trace interval on the accuracy of the estimated location are also conducted. Simulation and data field experiment results indicate that: (1) A continuous random source can realistically represent the leak microseismic wave field in a simulation using 2D viscoacoustic equations and staggered grid FD algorithm. (2) For the leak microseismic wave field, the cross-correlation method is effective for calculating time difference of the direct wave relative to the reference trace. However, outside the refraction blind zone, accuracy of the time difference is reduced by the effects of refracted wave. (3) The SA algorithm based upon time difference, helps to identify the leak location effectively, even in the presence of noise. Estimation of the horizontal distance is more accurate than that of the depth, and the locating errors increase with increasing number of traces and offset. Moreover, in the refraction blind zone, trace interval has almost no impact on the accuracy of the location estimate. And the symmetrical array provides a higher estimate accuracy than the asymmetrical array. (4) The acquisition method of time difference based on the microseismic theory and SA algorithm has a great potential

  9. Stakeholder needs for ground penetrating radar utility location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A. M.; Rogers, C. D. F.; Chapman, D. N.; Metje, N.; Castle, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the UK alone there are millions of miles of underground utilities with often inaccurate, incomplete, or non-existent location records that cause significant health and safety problems for maintenance personnel, together with the potential for large, unnecessary, social and financial costs for their upkeep and repair. This has led to increasing use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for utility location, but without detailed consideration of the degree of location accuracy required by stakeholders — i.e. all those directly involved in streetworks ranging from utility owners to contractors and surveyors and government departments. In order to ensure that stakeholder requirements are incorporated into a major new UK study, entitled Mapping the Underworld, a questionnaire has been used to determine the current and future utility location accuracy requirements. The resulting data indicate that stakeholders generally require location tolerances better than 100 mm at depths usually extending down to 3 m, and more occasionally to 5 m, below surface level, providing significant challenges to GPR if their needs are to be met in all ground conditions. As well as providing much useful data on stakeholder needs, these data are also providing a methodology for assessment of GPR utility location in terms of the factor most important to them — the degree to which the equipment provides location within their own accuracy requirements.

  10. WLAN indoor location method based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mu; Sun Ying; Xu Yubin; Deng Zhian; Meng Weixiao

    2010-01-01

    WLAN indoor location method based on artificial neural network (ANN) is analyzed.A three layer feed-forward ANN model offers the benefits of reducing time cost of the layout of an indoor location system, saving storage cost of the radio map establishment and enhancing real-time capacity in the on-line phase.According to the analysis of SNR distributions of recorded beacon signal samples and discussion about the multi-mode phenomenon, the one map method is proposed for the purpose of simplifying ANN input values and increasing location performances.Based on the simulations and comparison analysis with other two typical indoor location methods, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and probability, the feasibility and effectiveness of ANN-based indoor location method are verified with average location error of 2.37m and location accuracy of 78.6% in 3m.

  11. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  12. Lumbar discography: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    Discogenic pain most commonly affects the low back, buttocks, and hips and is thought to be a byproduct of internal disk degeneration. It is postulated that progressive annular breakdown and tearing results in biomechanical and/or biochemical stimulation of the pain fibers that reside in the outer one third of the annulus. Although multiple imaging modalities, most notably MRI, can show morphologic abnormalities of the spine, discography remains the only test that provides physiologic information regarding what role a given intervertebral disk plays in a patient's symptom complex. The controversy surrounding discography is here to stay until more definitive, well-designed studies are performed. In the meantime, there are certain things that can help the discographer maximize the accuracy of the test: 1. Always try to inject one "normal" disk as a "control level." 2. Be alert for factors that are associated with an increased false-positive rate (abnormal non-anatomic pain maps, a history of chronic pain of spinal or nonspinal origin, abnormal psychometric testing, and prior surgery at the injected disk level). In these cases, special attention should be directed to both the patient's verbal and nonverbal cues during disk injection. 3. Do not give any audible clues as to what level is being injected or when the injection is starting or finishing. In this regard, we find it very helpful to have one of our personnel talk with the patient during this portion of the procedure while closely observing the patient for any nonverbal cues regarding their pain response. This distraction is preferable to a silent room where the patient is intensely focused on what is going on with the injections. We also find that music playing during the procedure helps to relax and often distract the patient as well. 4. If the results are equivocal at a level (i.e., you are unable to determine whether or not the patient's pain response was truly concordant), go on to inject another disk level

  13. NEPR Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  14. CTL Model Update for System Modifications

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yulin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Y; 10.1613/jair.2420

    2011-01-01

    Model checking is a promising technology, which has been applied for verification of many hardware and software systems. In this paper, we introduce the concept of model update towards the development of an automatic system modification tool that extends model checking functions. We define primitive update operations on the models of Computation Tree Logic (CTL) and formalize the principle of minimal change for CTL model update. These primitive update operations, together with the underlying minimal change principle, serve as the foundation for CTL model update. Essential semantic and computational characterizations are provided for our CTL model update approach. We then describe a formal algorithm that implements this approach. We also illustrate two case studies of CTL model updates for the well-known microwave oven example and the Andrew File System 1, from which we further propose a method to optimize the update results in complex system modifications.

  15. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  16. Terra Nova update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrick, G. [Petro-Canada, Inc. (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This power point presentation shows a location map of the offshore oil and gas fields found off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. It depicts the proximity of the Terra Nova oil field to Hibernia, White Rose, and the Hebron/Ben Nevis oil fields. The progress of the Terra Nova project since 2001 is described along with the commissioning challenges regarding turret and moorings as well as its modules, underwater components, flow lines, offshore marine operation, well construction and offshore start up. The 2002 operations schedule is also presented, along with production performance, and drilling/completions performance. A chart depicting environment, health and safety (EHS) indicators show that the current focus is on achieving superior environmental performance, injury free and to achieve the EHS performance target in the leading/lagging indicator ratio. Other current issues include the achievement of stable gas compression and sustained production, and to test the full capacity of the FPSO up to 150,000 barrels per day. The drivers of the first quartile performance include unit lifting costs, operating costs, and production efficiency. Operating costs include maintenance, platform support, logistics, onshore support, and well work. The project signifies tremendous growth opportunities for the east coast offshore petroleum industry. tabs., figs.

  17. Exploring the Effects of Sampling Locations for Calibrating the Huff Model Using Mobile Phone Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Huff model is of critical significance in many fields, including urban transport, optimal location planning, economics and business analysis. Moreover, parameters calibration is a crucial procedure before using the model. Previous studies have paid much attention to calibrating the spatial interaction model for human mobility research. However, are whole sampling locations always the better solution for model calibration? We use active tracking data of over 16 million cell phones in Shenzhen, a metropolitan city in China, to evaluate the calibration accuracy of Huff model. Specifically, we choose five business areas in this city as destinations and then randomly select a fixed number of cell phone towers to calibrate the parameters in this spatial interaction model. We vary the selected number of cell phone towers by multipliers of 30 until we reach the total number of towers with flows to the five destinations. We apply the least square methods for model calibration. The distribution of the final sum of squared error between the observed flows and the estimated flows indicates that whole sampling locations are not always better for the outcomes of this spatial interaction model. Instead, fewer sampling locations with higher volume of trips could improve the calibration results. Finally, we discuss implications of this finding and suggest an approach to address the high-accuracy model calibration solution.

  18. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  19. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  20. Mozambique Economic Update, December 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Mozambique economic update brief for 2016 includes a section on recent economic developments and a discussion of Mozambique’s economic outlook, followed by focus section(s) analyzing issues of particular importance.This has been a testing year for Mozambique. An ongoing downturn, brought about by low commodity prices, drought and conflict, was compounded by the fallout from the discov...

  1. Bangladesh Development Update, October 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This update introduces Bangladesh's new poverty numbers at $1.90 per capita per day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices, followed by an account of recent economic development, the outlook, risks, and policy responses. The revised poverty rates are significantly lower, but follow the same downward historical trend seen when using the 2005 international extreme poverty line. Banglad...

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  3. Evidence-based guideline update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Peer Carsten Tfelt-Hansen, Glostrup, Denmark: According to the recent American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline update, a drug can be recommended as possibly effective for migraine prevention if it had demonstrated efficacy in one Class II study.(1) Eight drugs are recommended as possibly...

  4. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  5. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  6. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, I.; Kato, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Igarashi, A. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (JP)] [and others

    2002-10-01

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  7. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  8. Legal Update of Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2016-01-01

    This update of the legislation/regulations and case law specific to pre-K-12 gifted students since a cluster of publications in 2004-2005 primarily focuses on the "gifted alone" category, with only secondary attention to twice-exceptional and other students in the "gifted plus" category. For the gifted-alone category, the…

  9. Eczema and ceramides: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    types of treatment. We also consider the genetic influence on stratum corneum lipids. The review is an update on research indexed in PubMed following the discovery of the filaggrin mutations in atopic dermatitis in 2006, but when newer publications cannot stand alone, we include publications from before...

  10. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  12. Model validation: Correlation for updating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, a review is presented of the various methods which are available for the purpose of performing a systematic comparison and correlation between two sets of vibration data. In the present case, the application of interest is in conducting this correlation process as a prelude to model correlation or updating activity.

  13. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  14. The Effect of Ionospheric Variability on the Accuracy of High Frequency Position Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    ionospheric distur- banca ; and (4) employ an integrated network of ionosondes. The firt option recognizes the basic constraints of the available ionospheric...Constituents," ASL-TR-0069, October 1980. 141. Low, Richard D. H., "One-Dimensional Cloud Microphysical Models for Central Europe and their Optical...Bruce T., "Weather Scenarios for Central Germany," ASL-TR-0078, February 1981. 150. Cogan, James L., "Sensitivity Analysis of a Mesoscale Moisture

  15. Improving accuracy in road safety data exchange for navigation systems: European Union Location Framework Transportation Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    BORZACCHIELLO MARIA TERESA; BOGUSLAWSKI RAYMOND; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, the travel experience for drivers will radically change from what they were used to a decade ago: advanced safety systems will guide drivers and help reduce road accidents; built-in vehicle sensors will detect road and traffic conditions and adapt the behaviour of the vehicle; automatic control of the engine will enable the reduction of emissions and contribute to the objective of decarbonisation of transport. All this will be possible thanks to the application of Informat...

  16. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Accuracy Assessment Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  17. High accuracy flexural hinge development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.; Ortiz de Zárate, I.; Migliorero, G.

    2005-07-01

    This document provides a synthesis of the technical results obtained in the frame of the HAFHA (High Accuracy Flexural Hinge Assembly) development performed by SENER (in charge of design, development, manufacturing and testing at component and mechanism levels) with EADS Astrium as subcontractor (in charge of doing an inventory of candidate applications among existing and emerging projects, establishing the requirements and perform system level testing) under ESA contract. The purpose of this project has been to develop a competitive technology for a flexural pivot, usuable in highly accurate and dynamic pointing/scanning mechanisms. Compared with other solutions (e.g. magnetic or ball bearing technologies) flexural hinges are the appropriate technology for guiding with accuracy a mobile payload over a limited angular ranges around one rotation axes.

  18. Interview accuracy in partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besocke, Ana Gabriela; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Garcia, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    The statistical concept of accuracy has never been applied to verify the history data collected on seizure disorders by open format interview. We compared patients'/witnesses' descriptions of epileptic seizures with videotaped seizure characteristics and analyzed the accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), false-positive rate (FPR), and false-negative rate (FNR) of various components of the semiology in patients with partial epilepsy. Language disturbances, complex automatisms, and autonomic signs have high ACC and intermediate FNRs. This means that these manifestations are most obvious to the witness/patient and, therefore, are memorized easily. Dystonic posturing and upper limb automatisms have the highest FNRs, leading to low ACC. These are very subtle signs, not vigorous enough to be paid attention to, but their predictive value in partial epilepsy syndromes is relatively high. We believe these signs need to be directly sought in the interview, because often the patient/witness pays limited attention to them.

  19. Analysing Interplanetary Probe Guidance Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a guidance accuracy analysis and estimates delta-v budget required to provide the trajectory correction maneuvers for direct interplanetary flights (without midcourse gravity assists. The analysis takes into consideration the orbital hyperbolic injection errors (depend on a selected launch vehicle and ascent trajectory and the uncertainties of midcourse correction maneuvers.The calculation algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s matrix methods (the matrizant of keplerian motion. Danby’s method establishes a link between the errors of the spacecraft state vectors at different flight times using the reference keplerian orbit matrizant. Utilizing the nominal trajectory parameters and the covariance matrix of launch vehicle injection errors the random perturbed orbits are generated and required velocity corrections are calculated. The next step is to simulate midcourse maneuver performance uncertainty using the midcourse maneuver covariance matrix. The obtained trajectory correction impulses and spacecraft position errors are statistically processed to compute required delta-v budget and dispersions ellipse parameters for different prediction intervals.As an example, a guidance accuracy analysis has been conducted for a 2022 mission to Mars and a Venus mission in 2026. The paper considers one and two midcourse correction options, as well as utilization of two different launch vehicles.The presented algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s methods provides preliminary evaluation for midcourse corrections delta-v budget and spacecraft position error. The only data required for this guidance accuracy analysis are a reference keplerian trajectory and a covariance matrix of the injection errors. Danby’s matrix method allows us to take into account also the other factors affecting the trajectory thereby increasing the accuracy of analysis.

  20. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  1. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  2. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  3. Inertial measures of motion for clinical biomechanics: comparative assessment of accuracy under controlled conditions - changes in accuracy over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    Full Text Available Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven't been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1 to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2 to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time.This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP. Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials.Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase.The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame.Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their full potential in capturing clinical outcomes.

  4. Mining Object Similarity for Predicting Next Locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Chen; Xiaohui Yu; Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Next location prediction is of great importance for many location-based applications. With the virtue of solid theoretical foundations, Markov-based approaches have gained success along this direction. In this paper, we seek to enhance the prediction performance by understanding the similarity between objects. In particular, we propose a novel method, called weighted Markov model (weighted-MM), which exploits both the sequence of just-passed locations and the object similarity in mining the mobility patterns. To this end, we first train a Markov model for each object with its own trajectory records, and then quantify the similarities between different objects from two aspects: spatial locality similarity and trajectory similarity. Finally, we incorporate the object similarity into the Markov model by considering the similarity as the weight of the probability of reaching each possible next location, and return the top-rankings as results. We have conducted extensive experiments on a real dataset, and the results demonstrate significant improvements in prediction accuracy over existing solutions.

  5. 75 FR 70124 - Product List Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... 30 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  6. 76 FR 1357 - Product List Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... 30 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  7. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board... publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to the Board's regulations..., the Board's General Manager will update the FOIA Fee Schedule once every 12 months. The previous...

  8. 75 FR 81037 - Waste Confidence Decision Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 Waste Confidence Decision Update AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Update and final revision of Waste Confidence Decision. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... update to the Decision were products of rulemaking proceedings designed to assess the degree of...

  9. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board... publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to the Board's regulations... General Manager will update the FOIA Fee Schedule once every 12 months. The previous Fee Schedule...

  10. 76 FR 9648 - Product List Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  11. 77 FR 75377 - Product List Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  12. Solution and simulation algorithm of microseismic events location to three-dimensional model by comprehensive location method based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yuan-yuan; SHAO He-song; LI Shi-xiong; LU Jing-yu

    2012-01-01

    The essential for microseismic monitoring is fast and accurate calculation of seismic wave source location.The precision of most traditional microseismic monitoring processes of mines,using TDOA location method in two-dimensional space to position the microseismic events,as well as the accuracy of positioning microseismic events,may be reduced by the two-dimensional model and simple method,and ill-conditioned equations produced by TDOA location method will increase the positioning error.This article,based on inversion theory,studies the mathematical model of TDOA location method,polarization analysis location method,and comprehensive difference location method of adding angle factor in the traditional TDOA location method.The feasibility of three methods is verified by numerical simulation and analysis of the positioning error of them.The results show that the comprehensive location method of adding angle difference has strong positioning stability and high positioning accuracy,and it may reduce the impact effectively about ill-conditioned equations to positioning results.Comprehensive location method with the data of actual measure may get better positioning results.

  13. An Efficient Location Verification Scheme for Static Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Sung; Song, JooSeok

    2017-01-24

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the accuracy of location information is vital to support many interesting applications. Unfortunately, sensors have difficulty in estimating their location when malicious sensors attack the location estimation process. Even though secure localization schemes have been proposed to protect location estimation process from attacks, they are not enough to eliminate the wrong location estimations in some situations. The location verification can be the solution to the situations or be the second-line defense. The problem of most of the location verifications is the explicit involvement of many sensors in the verification process and requirements, such as special hardware, a dedicated verifier and the trusted third party, which causes more communication and computation overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient location verification scheme for static WSN called mutually-shared region-based location verification (MSRLV), which reduces those overheads by utilizing the implicit involvement of sensors and eliminating several requirements. In order to achieve this, we use the mutually-shared region between location claimant and verifier for the location verification. The analysis shows that MSRLV reduces communication overhead by 77% and computation overhead by 92% on average, when compared with the other location verification schemes, in a single sensor verification. In addition, simulation results for the verification of the whole network show that MSRLV can detect the malicious sensors by over 90% when sensors in the network have five or more neighbors.

  14. Soft sensor modelling by time difference, recursive partial least squares and adaptive model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Yang, W.; Xu, O.; Zhou, L.; Wang, J.

    2017-04-01

    To investigate time-variant and nonlinear characteristics in industrial processes, a soft sensor modelling method based on time difference, moving-window recursive partial least square (PLS) and adaptive model updating is proposed. In this method, time difference values of input and output variables are used as training samples to construct the model, which can reduce the effects of the nonlinear characteristic on modelling accuracy and retain the advantages of recursive PLS algorithm. To solve the high updating frequency of the model, a confidence value is introduced, which can be updated adaptively according to the results of the model performance assessment. Once the confidence value is updated, the model can be updated. The proposed method has been used to predict the 4-carboxy-benz-aldehyde (CBA) content in the purified terephthalic acid (PTA) oxidation reaction process. The results show that the proposed soft sensor modelling method can reduce computation effectively, improve prediction accuracy by making use of process information and reflect the process characteristics accurately.

  15. LocateP: Genome-scale subcellular-location predictor for bacterial proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Miaomiao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decades, various protein subcellular-location (SCL predictors have been developed. Most of these predictors, like TMHMM 2.0, SignalP 3.0, PrediSi and Phobius, aim at the identification of one or a few SCLs, whereas others such as CELLO and Psortb.v.2.0 aim at a broader classification. Although these tools and pipelines can achieve a high precision in the accurate prediction of signal peptides and transmembrane helices, they have a much lower accuracy when other sequence characteristics are concerned. For instance, it proved notoriously difficult to identify the fate of proteins carrying a putative type I signal peptidase (SPIase cleavage site, as many of those proteins are retained in the cell membrane as N-terminally anchored membrane proteins. Moreover, most of the SCL classifiers are based on the classification of the Swiss-Prot database and consequently inherited the inconsistency of that SCL classification. As accurate and detailed SCL prediction on a genome scale is highly desired by experimental researchers, we decided to construct a new SCL prediction pipeline: LocateP. Results LocateP combines many of the existing high-precision SCL identifiers with our own newly developed identifiers for specific SCLs. The LocateP pipeline was designed such that it mimics protein targeting and secretion processes. It distinguishes 7 different SCLs within Gram-positive bacteria: intracellular, multi-transmembrane, N-terminally membrane anchored, C-terminally membrane anchored, lipid-anchored, LPxTG-type cell-wall anchored, and secreted/released proteins. Moreover, it distinguishes pathways for Sec- or Tat-dependent secretion and alternative secretion of bacteriocin-like proteins. The pipeline was tested on data sets extracted from literature, including experimental proteomics studies. The tests showed that LocateP performs as well as, or even slightly better than other SCL predictors for some locations and outperforms

  16. Software applied to oral implantology: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Serrano, Minerva; Albalat Estela, Salvador; Peñarrocha Diago, Maria; Peñarrocha Diago, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Software in combination with imaging techniques is used increasingly for diagnosis, planning and treatment in oral implantology. Computer-aided surgery allows a great accuracy in implant positioning to be obtained, taking advantage of the amount of bone available and facilitating minimally invasive surgery. It is a significant aid in determining implant number, location, angle and characteristics. A CT with a radiographic template positioned in the mouth is made for the patient. Data are stored on a CD in DICOM 3 format and then introduced in the computer where implant treatment will be planned, using the chosen software. Navigation improves surgical accuracy through the aid of software based on the images captured from CT or MRI and a surgical instrument tracking system. Infrared light-emitting diodes are connected to rotatory instruments and to the patientvs template. Information is collected by special-purpose cameras, allowing the procedure to be viewed in real time on a monitor. It is useful in situations where an exact implantation is demanded, such as anatomical limitations, little space, atrophic maxillae, sinus lifts or zygomatic implants. Articles reviewed agree in emphasizing the reliability and accuracy of the planning and computer-assisted navigation systems available in the market. Nevertheless, many applications are still in the development phase.

  17. Accuracy Assessment Points for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Accuracy Assessment Observation Location executable shapefile (cachaa.exe) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems...

  18. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Richmond National Battlefield Park. It was...

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points for Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National...

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Appomottox Court House National Historical...

  2. Accuracy Assessment Points for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Colonial National Historical Park. It was...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Mesa Verde National Park Accuracy Assessment Observation Location zip shapefile (meveaa.zip) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) product in...

  4. Accuracy Assessment Point for Fire Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset was compiled to provide users with the geographic locations of the accuracy assessment plots used to assess the Fire Island Vegetation Map...

  5. Accuracy Assessment Points for Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Petrified Forest National Park Accuracy Assessment Observation Location zip shapefile (pefoaa.zip) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)...

  6. Enhancement of Localization Accuracy in Cellular Networks via Cooperative AdHoc Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lhomme, Edouard; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2006-01-01

    Positioning information enables new applications for cellular phones, personal communication systems, and specialized mobile radios. The network heterogeneity emerging in the fourth generation (4G) of mobile networks can be utilized for enhancements of the location estimation accuracy...

  7. Quantitative study of single molecule location estimation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anish V; Ram, Sripad; Chao, Jerry; Ward, E S; Ober, Raimund J

    2009-12-21

    Estimating the location of single molecules from microscopy images is a key step in many quantitative single molecule data analysis techniques. Different algorithms have been advocated for the fitting of single molecule data, particularly the nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood estimators. Comparisons were carried out to assess the performance of these two algorithms in different scenarios. Our results show that both estimators, on average, are able to recover the true location of the single molecule in all scenarios we examined. However, in the absence of modeling inaccuracies and low noise levels, the maximum likelihood estimator is more accurate than the nonlinear least squares estimator, as measured by the standard deviations of its estimates, and attains the best possible accuracy achievable for the sets of imaging and experimental conditions that were tested. Although neither algorithm is consistently superior to the other in the presence of modeling inaccuracies or misspecifications, the maximum likelihood algorithm emerges as a robust estimator producing results with consistent accuracy across various model mismatches and misspecifications. At high noise levels, relative to the signal from the point source, neither algorithm has a clear accuracy advantage over the other. Comparisons were also carried out for two localization accuracy measures derived previously. Software packages with user-friendly graphical interfaces developed for single molecule location estimation (EstimationTool) and limit of the localization accuracy calculations (FandPLimitTool) are also discussed.

  8. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  9. DBLAR: A DISTANCE-BASED LOCATION-AIDED ROUTING FOR MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kun; Wu Meng

    2009-01-01

    In location-aided routing of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET), nodes mobility and the inaccuracy of location information may result in constant flooding, which will reduce the network performance. In this paper, a Distance-Based Location-Aided Routing (DBLAR) for MANET has been proposed. By tracing the location information of destination nodes and referring to distance change between nodes to adjust route discovery dynamically, the proposed routing algorithm can avoid flooding in the whole networks. Besides, Distance Update Threshold (DUT) is set up to reach the balance between real-time ability and update overhead of location information of nodes, meanwhile, the detection of relative distance vector can achieve the goal of adjusting forwarding condition. Simulation results reveal that DBLAR performs better than LAR1 in terms of packet successful delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and routing-load, and the set of DUT and relative distance vector has a significant impact on this algorithm.

  10. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  11. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  12. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  13. Accuracy of carbapenem nonsusceptibility for identification of KPC-possessing Enterobacteriaceae by use of the revised CLSI breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, David; Salamera, Julius; Singh, Manisha; Quale, John

    2011-11-01

    Using the updated 2010 CLSI carbapenem breakpoints for the Enterobacteriaceae, nonsusceptibility to ertapenem and imipenem predicted the presence of bla(KPC) poorly, especially among Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species. In regions where KPC-producing bacteria are endemic, testing for nonsusceptibility to meropenem may provide improved accuracy in identifying these isolates.

  14. Accuracy of Carbapenem Nonsusceptibility for Identification of KPC-Possessing Enterobacteriaceae by Use of the Revised CLSI Breakpoints ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, David; Salamera, Julius; Singh, Manisha; Quale, John

    2011-01-01

    Using the updated 2010 CLSI carbapenem breakpoints for the Enterobacteriaceae, nonsusceptibility to ertapenem and imipenem predicted the presence of blaKPC poorly, especially among Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species. In regions where KPC-producing bacteria are endemic, testing for nonsusceptibility to meropenem may provide improved accuracy in identifying these isolates. PMID:21880962

  15. Detection of mobile user location on next generation wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel conceptual mechanism for detecting the location of a mobile user on next generation wireless networks. This mechanism can provide location information of a mobile user at different levels of accuracy, by applying the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6 at both...... of a Mobile IPv6 device can be determined by mapping the geographical location information with the two care-of-addresses and the physical address of the access point where the user is connected. Such a mechanism makes location services for mobile entities available on a global IP network. The end-users can...... macro- and micromobility level. In this scheme, an intradomain mobility management protocol (IDMP) is applied to manage the location of the mobile terminal. The mobile terminal needs two care-of addresses, a global care-of address (GCoA) and a local care-of address (LCoA). The current location...

  16. A protocol for evaluating the accuracy of 3D body scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouchi, M.; Mochimaru, M.; Bradtmiller, B.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Li, P.; Nacher, B.; Nam, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Scan-derived landmarks locations and surface shapes are more and more used, but there is no commonly accepted protocol for evaluating the accuracy of these measurements. Therefore we propose a protocol for evaluating the accuracy of surface shape and the repeatability of scan-derived landmark locati

  17. FLUOR HANFORD DECOMMISSIONING UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2008-04-21

    Fluor Hanford is completing D&D of the K East Basin at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State this spring, with demolition expected to begin in June. Located about 400 yards from the Columbia River, the K East Basin is one of two indoor pools that formerly contained irradiated nuclear fuel, radioactive sludge and tons of contaminated debris. In unique and path-breaking work, workers finished removing the spent fuel from the K Basins in 2004. In May 2007, workers completed vacuuming the sludge into containers in the K East Basin, and transferring it into containers in the K West Basin. In December, they finished vacuuming the remainder of K West Basin sludge into these containers. The K East Basin was emptied of its radioactive inventory first because it was more contaminated than the K West Basin, and had leaked in the past. In October 2007, Fluor Hanford began physical D&D of the 8,400-square foot K East Basin by pouring approximately 14-inches of grout into the bottom of it. Grout is a type of special cement used for encasing waste. Two months later, Fluor Hanford workers completed sluicing contaminated sand from the large filter that had sieved contaminants from the basin water for more than 50 years. Next, they poured grout into the filter housing and the vault that surrounds the filter, as well as into ion exchange columns that also helped filter basin water. For a six-week period in February and March, personnel drained the approximately one million gallons of contaminated water from the K East Basin. The effort required more than 200 tanker truck loads that transported the water to an effluent treatment facility for treatment and then release. A thin fixative was also applied to the basin walls as the water was removed to hold residual contamination in place. As soon as the water was out of the basin, Fluor pumped in approximately 18 feet of 'controlled density fill' material (somewhat

  18. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Event structure or updating disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-11-01

    According to event cognition theory, people segment experience into separate event models. One consequence of this segmentation is that when people transport objects from one location to another, memory is worse than if people move across a large location. In two experiments participants navigated through a virtual environment, and recognition memory was tested in either the presence or the absence of a location shift for objects that were recently interacted with (i.e., just picked up or set down). Of particular concern here is whether this location updating effect is due to (a) differences in retention intervals as a result of the navigation process, (b) a temporary disruption in cognitive processing that may occur as a result of the updating processes, or (c) a need to manage multiple event models, as has been suggested in prior research. Experiment 1 explored whether retention interval is driving this effect by recording travel times from the acquisition of an object and the probe time. The results revealed that travel times were similar, thereby rejecting a retention interval explanation. Experiment 2 explored whether a temporary disruption in processing is producing the effect by introducing a 3-second delay prior to the presentation of a memory probe. The pattern of results was not affected by adding a delay, thereby rejecting a temporary disruption account. These results are interpreted in the context of the event horizon model, which suggests that when there are multiple event models that contain common elements there is interference at retrieval, which compromises performance.

  19. In vitro comparison of four different electronic apex locators to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-14

    Apr 14, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Nov-Dec 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 6. Abstract. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four ... The distance between the tip of the file and the major foramen was measured ... Key words: Clearing technique, electronic apex locator, major foramen.

  20. A Review of Sodar Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Stuart; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    be large. On a uniform terrain site, differences between a SODAR and a mastmounted cup anemometer will arise due to turbulent fluctuations and wind components being measured in different spaces, as well as to variable background noise. We develop theories for turbulence-related random fluctuations due......What accuracy and reliability can today be expected from SODAR wind measurements? Is there traceable evidence for performance? Environmental factors, turbulent fluctuations and non-uniform terrain all affect the wind speed uncertainty. So site-to-site variations for SODAR-mast comparisons can...

  1. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  2. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  4. High-speed AMB machining spindle model updating and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Adam C.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Pesch, Alexander H.

    2011-04-01

    High-Speed Machining (HSM) spindles equipped with Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) have been envisioned to be capable of automated self-identification and self-optimization in efforts to accurately calculate parameters for stable high-speed machining operation. With this in mind, this work presents rotor model development accompanied by automated model-updating methodology followed by updated model validation. The model updating methodology is developed to address the dynamic inaccuracies of the nominal open-loop plant model when compared with experimental open-loop transfer function data obtained by the built in AMB sensors. The nominal open-loop model is altered by utilizing an unconstrained optimization algorithm to adjust only parameters that are a result of engineering assumptions and simplifications, in this case Young's modulus of selected finite elements. Minimizing the error of both resonance and anti-resonance frequencies simultaneously (between model and experimental data) takes into account rotor natural frequencies and mode shape information. To verify the predictive ability of the updated rotor model, its performance is assessed at the tool location which is independent of the experimental transfer function data used in model updating procedures. Verification of the updated model is carried out with complementary temporal and spatial response comparisons substantiating that the updating methodology is effective for derivation of open-loop models for predictive use.

  5. Accuracy and Stability of Filters for Dissipative PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Brett, C E A; Law, K J H; McCormick, D S; Scott, M R; Stuart, A M

    2012-01-01

    Data assimilation methodologies are designed to incorporate noisy observations of a physical system into an underlying model in order to infer the properties of the state of the system. Filters refer to a class of data assimilation algorithms designed to update the estimation of the state as data is acquired sequentially. For linear problems subject to Gaussian noise filtering can be performed exactly using the Kalman filter. For nonlinear systems it can be approximated in a systematic way by particle filters. However in high dimensions these particle filtering methods can break down. Hence, for the large nonlinear systems arising in applications such as oceanography and weather forecasting, various ad hoc filters are used, based on Gaussian approximations. In this work, we study the accuracy and stability of these ad hoc filters in the context of the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The ideas readily generalize to a range of dissipative partial differential equations (PDEs). By working in this infin...

  6. Improving axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    and their rapid warming and cooling, which prevent the achievement of a steady state. Several other factors, independent on the tool-workpiece interaction, influence the machining accuracy. The cutting parameter most heavily affected is the axial depth of cut which is the most critical when using micro end mills......In order to maintain an optimum cutting speed, the reduction of mill diameters requires machine tools with high rotational speed capabilities. A solution to update existing machine tools is the use of high speed attached spindles. Major drawbacks of these attachments are the high thermal expansion......, due to the easy breakage particularly when milling on hard materials. Typical values for the errors on the control of the axial depth of cut are in the order of 50 microns [1], [2], while the aimed depth of cut can be as low as 5 microns. As a result, micromilling cannot enter yet normal workshops...

  7. MEMS Stirling Cooler Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on the effort to build and test a prototype unit of the patented MEMS Stirling cooler concept. A micro-scale regenerator has been fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies and is currently being integrated into a Stirling cycle simulator at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A discussion of the analysis, design, assembly, and test plans for the prototype will be presented.

  8. Biofeedback and Performance: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    non- biofeedback meditation procedure; a single control was a group untrained in relaxation. It is not clear what instructions if any were given to...and meditation in the treatment of generalized anxiety. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America, 187-189...A Technical Report 658 N BIOFEEDBACK AND PERFORMANCE: Cq AN UPDATE In George H. Lawrence BASIC RESEARCH 6 U.I.S. Army _ Research Institute for the

  9. An update on percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefekli, A; Cordeiro, E; de la Rosette, J J M C H

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction in late 1970's, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) has undergone an evolution in both equipment and technique. This evolution still continues today in the era of minimally invasive treatment options, and is evidenced by the numerous publications. PNL is generally advantageo...... patients managed with PNL worldwide and analyzed the data in detail, producing more than 25 scientific papers. And this update focuses on the lessons learned from the CROES PCNL Global Study....

  10. Location-based Web Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Dirk; Boll, Susanne

    In recent years, the relation of Web information to a physical location has gained much attention. However, Web content today often carries only an implicit relation to a location. In this chapter, we present a novel location-based search engine that automatically derives spatial context from unstructured Web resources and allows for location-based search: our focused crawler applies heuristics to crawl and analyze Web pages that have a high probability of carrying a spatial relation to a certain region or place; the location extractor identifies the actual location information from the pages; our indexer assigns a geo-context to the pages and makes them available for a later spatial Web search. We illustrate the usage of our spatial Web search for location-based applications that provide information not only right-in-time but also right-on-the-spot.

  11. Improving accuracy of holes honing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan М. Buykli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in precision engineering industry tolerances for linear dimensions and tolerances on shape of surfaces of processing parts are steadily tightened These requirements are especially relevant in processing of holes. Aim of the research is to improve accuracy and to enhance the technological capabilities of holes honing process and, particularly, of blind holes honing. Based on formal logic the analysis of formation of processing errors is executed on the basis of consideration of schemes of irregularity of dimensional wear and tear along the length of the cutting elements. With this, the possibilities of compensating this irregularities and, accordingly, of control of accuracy of processing applied to the honing of both throughout and blind holes are specified. At the same time, a new method of honing is developed, it is protected by the patent of Ukraine for invention. The method can be implemented both on an existing machine tools at insignificant modernization of its system of processing cycle control and on newly designed ones.

  12. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.

  13. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  14. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2005-05-01

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  15. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernica, George [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Boer, Steven F de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Diaz, Aidnag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Fenstermaker, Robert A [Department of Neurosurgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Podgorsak, Matthew B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2005-05-07

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  16. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  17. Influence of Ephemeris Error on GPS Single Point Positioning Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Ma; Wang, Meng

    2013-09-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) user makes use of the navigation message transmitted from GPS satellites to achieve its location. Because the receiver uses the satellite's location in position calculations, an ephemeris error, a difference between the expected and actual orbital position of a GPS satellite, reduces user accuracy. The influence extent is decided by the precision of broadcast ephemeris from the control station upload. Simulation analysis with the Yuma almanac show that maximum positioning error exists in the case where the ephemeris error is along the line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Meanwhile, the error is dependent on the relationship between the observer and spatial constellation at some time period.

  18. The ability of two apex locators to locate the apical foramen: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Assunção, Fábio Luiz Cunha; de Albuquerque, Diana Santana; de Queiroz Ferreira, Linalda Correia

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Root-ZX and Novapex electronic apex locators (EALs) in locating the apical foramen. Forty extracted human teeth were used. The coronal portion of each canal was flared using Gates Glidden drill. Canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The actual length (AL) and electronic length (EL) measurements were made on each specimen separately with both devices with an aid of a K-type file. The results obtained with each EAL were compared with the corresponding control length. The statistical analysis of the results showed EAL reliability in detecting the apical foramen to 89.7% for the Root-ZX and 82.1% for the Novapex, taking the tolerance of +/-0.5 mm into account. A paired sample t test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the devices (p = 0.4305). The results of this study indicate that the Root-ZX and Novapex are useful and accurate devices for the apical foramen location.

  19. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  20. Updated SAO OMI formaldehyde retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. González Abad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO formaldehyde (H2CO retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated Air Mass Factor (AMF calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The theoretical basis of the retrieval is discussed in detail. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm−2 with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 40% and 100%. In high concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 3 × 1015 molecules cm−2. These updated retrievals are compared with previous ones.

  1. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas March 26 Update of the voice messaging system All CERN sites April...

  2. Research on Topographic Map Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Javorović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of interpretability of panchromatic satellite image IRS-1C integrated with multispectral Landsat TM image with the purpose of updating the topographic map sheet at the scale of 1:25 000 has been described. The geocoding of source map was based on trigonometric points of the map sheet. Satellite images were geocoded using control points selected from the map. The contents of map have been vectorized and topographic database designed. The digital image processing improved the interpretability of images. Then, the vectorization of new contents was made. The change detection of the forest and water area was defined by using unsupervised classification of spatial and spectral merged images. Verification of the results was made using corresponding aerial photographs. Although this methodology could not insure the complete updating of topographic map at the scale of 1:25 000, the database has been updated with huge amount of data. Erdas Imagine 8.3. software was used. 

  3. The Ibibio Locative Copular Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Anyanwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ibibio language, a member of the Lower Cross group of languages is predominantly spoken in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Ibibio has two types of copular construction. One is locative while the other is predicative. Using a purely descriptive approach/method, this paper provides a descriptive account of the copular locative constructions in Ibibio. This study is based on a database collected from adult speakers of Ibibio by the author using an elicitation list. The database includes both actual and potential words/sentences, which standard Ibibio speakers found to be in consistent with their language rules.The paper has observed that Ibibio copular locatives make use of locative copular verbs which have semantic content, but are however, with indeterminate locative precision except when they co- occur with an appropriate locative complement. It has further observed that in Ibibio, the location of a subject entity can be marked with locative elements in two ways. In the first instance, a locative copular verb which can be dórò, ‘be on’ síne ‘be in’ bà ‘be at’ obligatorily co-occurs with a deitic locative complement or a locative prepositional phrase (PP complement headed by a multipurpose preposition (P, ké. The P is semantically, interpreted as either on, in, at or under depending on the particular locative copular verb that it co-occurs with. In the second instance, in addition to the locative copular verb and the locative PP complement headed by the P ké, there is also within the PP complement (headed by the P ké , a locative relational noun modifier which, modifies the head noun, a complement to the locative P ké. Based on Ameka andOgbonna Anyanwu71Levinson’s (2007 cross-linguistic classification of positional and locative verbs, the paper concludes that Ibibio belongs to the multi-verb type of languages with inherently locative copular verbs which are used to express the spatial locative orientation of subject

  4. Parallel main-memory indexing for moving-object query and update workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    as combinations of deletions and insertions; thus, the query semantics guarantee that no objects are missed in query results. Empirical studies demonstrate that PGrid scales near-linearly with the number of hardware threads on four modern multi-core processors. Since both updates and queries are processed...... of supporting the location-related query and update workloads generated by very large populations of such moving objects. This paper presents a main-memory indexing technique that aims to support such workloads. The technique, called PGrid, uses a grid structure that is capable of exploiting the parallelism......, it avoids the stop-the-world problem that occurs when workload processing is interrupted to perform such snapshotting. Its concurrency control mechanism relies instead on hardware-assisted atomic updates as well as object-level copying, and it treats updates as non-divisible operations rather than...

  5. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Elena; Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2017-08-03

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  6. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ridolfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  7. Mobile location services over the next generation IP core network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    network is changing from circuit-switched to packet-switched technology and evolving to an IP core network based on IPv6. The IP core network will allow all IP devices to be connected seamlessly. Due to the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6, mobile terminals will periodically update......Mobile communication networks are evolving towards smaller cells, higher throughput, better security and provision of better services. Wireless short-range technologies, such as the WLAN 802.11 standards family and Bluetooth, are expected to play a major role in future networks. The mobile core...... their current point of attachment to the network and hence provide the current location of the mobile user automatically. The convergence of wireless short-range networks, mobile networks and Internet technology will provide the mobile user's location without any add-in equipment for location measurement...

  8. An Update on Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Whats the news coming from the research world on the search for Planet Nine? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.Artists illustration of Planet Nine, a hypothesized Neptune-sized planet orbiting in the distant reaches of our solar system. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]What is Planet Nine?In January of this year, Caltech researchers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown presented evidence of a distant ninth planet in our solar system. They predicted this planet to be of a mass and volume consistent with a super-Earth, orbiting on a highly eccentric pathwith a period of tens of thousands of years.Since Batygin and Browns prediction, scientists have been hunting for further signs of Planet Nine. Though we havent yet discovered an object matching its description, we have come up with new strategies for finding it, we set some constraints on where it might be, and we made some interesting theoretical predictions about its properties.Visualizations of the resonant orbits of the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects, depicted in a frame rotating with the mean angular velocity of Planet Nine. Planet Nines position is on the right (with the trace of possible eccentric orbits e=0.17 and e=0.4 indicated in red). [Malhotra et al 2016]Here are some of the newest constraints on Planet Nine from studies published just within the past two weeks.Resonant OrbitsRenu Malhotra (University of Arizonas Lunar and Planetary Laboratory) and collaborators present further evidence of the shaping of solar system orbits by the hypothetical Planet Nine. The authors point out that the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. Could it be that these outer KBOs have become locked into resonant orbits with a distant, massive body?The authors find that a distant planet orbiting with a period of ~17,117 years and a semimajor axis ~665 AU would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. If this is correct, it

  9. The Effects of Point or Polygon Based Training Data on RandomForest Classification Accuracy of Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Corcoran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are dynamic in space and time, providing varying ecosystem services. Field reference data for both training and assessment of wetland inventories in the State of Minnesota are typically collected as GPS points over wide geographical areas and at infrequent intervals. This status-quo makes it difficult to keep updated maps of wetlands with adequate accuracy, efficiency, and consistency to monitor change. Furthermore, point reference data may not be representative of the prevailing land cover type for an area, due to point location or heterogeneity within the ecosystem of interest. In this research, we present techniques for training a land cover classification for two study sites in different ecoregions by implementing the RandomForest classifier in three ways: (1 field and photo interpreted points; (2 fixed window surrounding the points; and (3 image objects that intersect the points. Additional assessments are made to identify the key input variables. We conclude that the image object area training method is the most accurate and the most important variables include: compound topographic index, summer season green and blue bands, and grid statistics from LiDAR point cloud data, especially those that relate to the height of the return.

  10. Based on the Wavelet Function of Power Network Fault Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan YU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the measurement accuracy, in the traditional measuring method based on, by avoiding wave speed influence on fault location of transmission line method, and compares it with the combination of wavelet transform. This article selects dBN wavelet and three B spline wavelet contrast, compared them with new methods, through the Xi'an City Power Supply Bureau of the actual fault data validation. The results show that, with3 B spline wavelet and the new method combined with the location results are closer to the actual distance, its accuracy is higher than that of db3wavelet transform and a new method derived from the results, the error is far less than the db3 wavelet function, location is satisfactory.

  11. Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data.

  12. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  13. Lazy Updating of hubs can enable more realistic models by speeding up stochastic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, Kurt; Loewe, Laurence, E-mail: loewe@wisc.edu [Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53715 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    To respect the nature of discrete parts in a system, stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) must update for each action (i) all part counts and (ii) each action's probability of occurring next and its timing. This makes it expensive to simulate biological networks with well-connected “hubs” such as ATP that affect many actions. Temperature and volume also affect many actions and may be changed significantly in small steps by the network itself during fever and cell growth, respectively. Such trends matter for evolutionary questions, as cell volume determines doubling times and fever may affect survival, both key traits for biological evolution. Yet simulations often ignore such trends and assume constant environments to avoid many costly probability updates. Such computational convenience precludes analyses of important aspects of evolution. Here we present “Lazy Updating,” an add-on for SSAs designed to reduce the cost of simulating hubs. When a hub changes, Lazy Updating postpones all probability updates for reactions depending on this hub, until a threshold is crossed. Speedup is substantial if most computing time is spent on such updates. We implemented Lazy Updating for the Sorting Direct Method and it is easily integrated into other SSAs such as Gillespie's Direct Method or the Next Reaction Method. Testing on several toy models and a cellular metabolism model showed >10× faster simulations for its use-cases—with a small loss of accuracy. Thus we see Lazy Updating as a valuable tool for some special but important simulation problems that are difficult to address efficiently otherwise.

  14. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular......(s). And this at a reasonable cost given the ubiquitous availability of location information in recent wireless standards or smart phones. Location tracking furthermore opens the new perspective of slow fading prediction....

  15. Probability-based Clustering and Its Application to WLAN Location Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-hua; ZHANG Shen-sheng; CAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    Wireless local area networks (WLAN) localization based on received signal strength is becoming an important enabler of location based services. Limited efficiency and accuracy are disadvantages to the deterministic location estimation techniques. The probabilistic techniques show their good accuracy but cost more computation overhead. A Gaussian mixture model based on clustering technique was presented to improve location determination efficiency. The proposed clustering algorithm reduces the number of candidate locations from the whole area to a cluster. Within a cluster, an improved nearest neighbor algorithm was used to estimate user location using signal strength from more access points. Experiments show that the location estimation time is greatly decreased while high accuracy can still be achieved.

  16. Detection of mobile user location on next generation wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    of a Mobile IPv6 device can be determined by mapping the geographical location information with the two care-of-addresses and the physical address of the access point where the user is connected. Such a mechanism makes location services for mobile entities available on a global IP network. The end-users can...... look up the current location of other mobile users on a unified IP network by using a ¡§search by identifier¡¨ feature. Furthermore, the entire population of mobile terminals in a specific area is available for search requests.......This paper proposes a novel conceptual mechanism for detecting the location of a mobile user on next generation wireless networks. This mechanism can provide location information of a mobile user at different levels of accuracy, by applying the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6 at both...

  17. A New Single DIFAR Sonobuoy Target Location Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶林伟; 王英民

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of target location of single direction finding and ranging(DIFAR) sonobuoy, a new target location algorithm is proposed. Based on the new generation of high performance sonobuoy signal processing platform, the new algorithm makes full use of the Doppler information of the targets while using the target location data, and success- fully implements the target detection, location and tracking. In the calculation of target parameters, the new algorithm utili- zes the repeated measurement data to further improve the calculation accuracy of the target parameters using the principle of Least Square. The simulation results indicate the correctness of the new algorithm. The algorithm is simple, stable and easily implemented in engineering. And besides, it overcomes the weakness of the traditional algorithm which requires at least two DIFAR buoys to locate the targets.

  18. Internal Location Based System for Mobile Devices Using Passive RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Vhatkar, Kapil N

    2010-01-01

    We have explored our own innovative work about the design & development of internal location-identification system for mobile devices based on integration of RFID and wireless technology. The function of our system is based on strategically located passive RFID tags placed on objects around building which are identified using an RFID reader attached to a mobile device. The mobile device reads the RFID tag and through the wireless network, sends the request to the server. The server resolves the request and sends the desired location-based information back to the mobile device. We had addressed that we can go through the RFID technology for internal location identification (indoor), which provides us better location accuracy because of no contact between the tag and the reader, and the system requires no line of sight. In this paper we had also focused on the issues of RFID technologies i.e. Non-line-of-sight & High inventory speeds.

  19. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  20. 75 FR 4227 - Phytosanitary Treatments; Location of and Process for Updating Treatment Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... harmonize and combine the requirements for performing irradiation treatment for imported articles, articles... schedules. Finally, we are harmonizing and combining the requirements for performing irradiation treatment for imported articles, articles moved interstate from Hawaii and U.S. territories, and articles...

  1. Experimental model updating using frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Liu, Xi; Dong, Xinjun; Wang, Yang; Pu, Qianhui

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain a finite element (FE) model that can more accurately describe structural behaviors, experimental data measured from the actual structure can be used to update the FE model. The process is known as FE model updating. In this paper, a frequency response function (FRF)-based model updating approach is presented. The approach attempts to minimize the difference between analytical and experimental FRFs, while the experimental FRFs are calculated using simultaneously measured dynamic excitation and corresponding structural responses. In this study, the FRF-based model updating method is validated through laboratory experiments on a four-story shear-frame structure. To obtain the experimental FRFs, shake table tests and impact hammer tests are performed. The FRF-based model updating method is shown to successfully update the stiffness, mass and damping parameters of the four-story structure, so that the analytical and experimental FRFs match well with each other.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of the care dependency scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Tiesinga, LJ; Plantinga, L; Dassen, TWN; Veltman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports an investigation of the diagnostic accuracy of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS). Background. Assessment tools can be described in terms of diagnostic accuracy, or the ability to correctly classify subjects into clinically relevant subgroups. Diagnostic accuracy can be determin

  3. Study on the method of optimal location on explosion events at near-source site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Introduction Earthquake location is one of the inverse problems in seismology. The accurate earthquake source location is the basis of studies of earthquake images, the relation analysis between seismicity and tectonics, and the important parameters of earthquakes. It is also the basic data used to study the space distribution of aftershocks after a strong earthquake. The earthquake location accuracy mainly depends on reliability of the velocity models for the earth¢s crust, the reasonable design of the seismograph network, the accuracy of arrival time, and the location method used (ZHAO, 1983; ZHU, ZHAO, 1997; LI, et al, 1999). The reliability of the velocity model directly influences loca-tion results. The reasonable seismograph network design can improve the location accuracy; otherwise it will in-troduce ill-conditioned equations and large location error. If arrival time is not accurate, for example, if the seismic phase is wrongly identified or the time service is inaccurate, large arrival time error will be produced, and the location results and real hypocenters will be discordant. Different location algorithms adopted will produce differ-ent location errors. The residual criterion chosen has influence on location results. Besides, whether the event is correctly associated also influences the location quality. In practice, it can often be seen that large location devia-tion introduced by wrong event association.

  4. 77 FR 23409 - Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Reporting for Facilities Located in Indian Country and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ..., because tribal governmental structures may vary, EPA is updating its terminology to refer to the principal..., so as to avoid any confusing overlap in terminology for facilities located in Indian country. With... rule to include ceded territories used for hunting, fishing, and gathering. Other commenters...

  5. An Allele Real-Coded Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Hybrid Updating Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xian; Qian, Xiao-Yi; Peng, Hui-Deng; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    For improving convergence rate and preventing prematurity in quantum evolutionary algorithm, an allele real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm based on hybrid updating strategy is presented. The real variables are coded with probability superposition of allele. A hybrid updating strategy balancing the global search and local search is presented in which the superior allele is defined. On the basis of superior allele and inferior allele, a guided evolutionary process as well as updating allele with variable scale contraction is adopted. And H ε gate is introduced to prevent prematurity. Furthermore, the global convergence of proposed algorithm is proved by Markov chain. Finally, the proposed algorithm is compared with genetic algorithm, quantum evolutionary algorithm, and double chains quantum genetic algorithm in solving continuous optimization problem, and the experimental results verify the advantages on convergence rate and search accuracy.

  6. Comparing the impact of time displaced and biased precipitation estimates for online updated urban runoff models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements, the requirements of the precipitation input change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time when the rain hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual catchment, due...... to the time it takes for the rain cell to travel from the rain gauge to the catchment. Since this time displacement is not present for system measurements the data assimilation scheme might already have updated the model to include the impact from the particular rain cell when the rain data is forced upon...... the model, which therefore will end up including the same rain twice in the model run. This paper compares forecast accuracy of updated models when using time displaced rain input to that of rain input with constant biases. This is done using a simple time-area model and historic rain series that are either...

  7. Impact of time displaced precipitation estimates for on-line updated models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-01-01

    catchment, due to the time it takes for the rain cell to travel from the rain gauge to the catchment. Since this time displacement is not present for system measurements the data assimilation scheme might already have updated the model to include the impact from the particular rain cell when the rain data......When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements the requirements to the precipitation estimates change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time where the rain intensity hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual...... is forced upon the model, which therefore will end up including the same rain twice in the model run. This paper compares forecast accuracy of updated models when using time displaced rain input to that of rain input with constant biases. This is done using a simple timearea model and historic rain series...

  8. An Allele Real-Coded Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Hybrid Updating Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For improving convergence rate and preventing prematurity in quantum evolutionary algorithm, an allele real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm based on hybrid updating strategy is presented. The real variables are coded with probability superposition of allele. A hybrid updating strategy balancing the global search and local search is presented in which the superior allele is defined. On the basis of superior allele and inferior allele, a guided evolutionary process as well as updating allele with variable scale contraction is adopted. And Hε gate is introduced to prevent prematurity. Furthermore, the global convergence of proposed algorithm is proved by Markov chain. Finally, the proposed algorithm is compared with genetic algorithm, quantum evolutionary algorithm, and double chains quantum genetic algorithm in solving continuous optimization problem, and the experimental results verify the advantages on convergence rate and search accuracy.

  9. Active Magnetic Bearing Rotor Model Updating Using Resonance and MAC Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanping Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern control techniques can improve the performance and robustness of a rotor active magnetic bearing (AMB system. Since those control methods usually rely on system models, it is important to obtain a precise rotor AMB analytical model. However, the interference fits and shrink effects of rotor AMB cause inaccuracy to the final system model. In this paper, an experiment based model updating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the finite element (FE model used in a rotor AMB system. Modelling error is minimized by applying a numerical optimization Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm to properly adjust FE model parameters. Both the error resonance frequencies and modal assurance criterion (MAC values are minimized simultaneously to account for the rotor natural frequencies as well as for the mode shapes. Verification of the updated rotor model is performed by comparing the experimental and analytical frequency response. The close agreements demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model updating methodology.

  10. Particle filter with importance density function generated by updated system equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左军毅; 贾颖娜; 张炜; 高全学

    2013-01-01

    The current measurement was exploited in a more efficient way. Firstly, the system equation was updated by introducing a correction term, which depends on the current measurement and can be obtained by running a suboptimal filter. Then, a new importance density function(IDF) was defined by the updated system equation. Particles drawn from the new IDF are more likely to be in the significant region of state space and the estimation accuracy can be improved. By using different suboptimal filter, different particle filters(PFs) can be developed in this framework. Extensions of this idea were also proposed by iteratively updating the system equation using particle filter itself, resulting in the iterated particle filter. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IDF.

  11. Pattern Recognition Using Carbon Nanotube Synaptic Transistors with an Adjustable Weight Update Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Choi, Bongsik; Lim, Meehyun; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2017-03-28

    Recent electronic applications require an efficient computing system that can perform data processing with limited energy consumption. Inspired by the massive parallelism of the human brain, a neuromorphic system (hardware neural network) may provide an efficient computing unit to perform such tasks as classification and recognition. However, the implementation of synaptic devices (i.e., the essential building blocks for emulating the functions of biological synapses) remains challenging due to their uncontrollable weight update protocol and corresponding uncertain effects on the operation of the system, which can lead to a bottleneck in the continuous design and optimization. Here, we demonstrate a synaptic transistor based on highly purified, preseparated 99% semiconducting carbon nanotubes, which can provide adjustable weight update linearity and variation margin. The pattern recognition efficacy is validated using a device-to-system level simulation framework. The enlarged margin rather than the linear weight update can enhance the fault tolerance of the recognition system, which improves the recognition accuracy.

  12. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  13. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    AIRBORNE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE THESIS Bradly S. Paul, Capt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-030 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-030 AIRBORNE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE THESIS Presented to the...NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE Bradly S. Paul, B.S.C.P. Capt, USAF Committee Membership: Maj Thomas E. Dube Chair Dr. Kenneth M. Hopkinson

  14. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released the "China Industry Competitiveness Report (2012) NO.2", Guo Chaoxian, deputy director of Industrial Organization Office of Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Industrial Economics, said that textile and garmentindustry was China's most competitive industries, product market share ranked the second in the world, while productivity was 14 times of the United States. Guo Chaoxian noted that China's textile and garment industry was the most competitive national industry, no matter in terms of international market share, trade competitiveness index, the real index of comparative advantage, all were regarded as the strongest in the world. China's textile and garment industry's market share came in the second in the world, six times of Italy, seven times of Germany and twelve times of the United States.

  15. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's middle and low textile export situation remains grim. India's ban on cotton exports is to improve the competitiveness of the terminal textiles in the international market. In recent years, India has become the opponent of the Chinese textile exports in the international market, especially in the low-end textiles. India relies on the advantages of raw material and labor cost to continue to erode China's international market share. Though the overall technical level of the domestic textile industry and transport conditions are not as good as China, its current price advantage pose a large threat to China's low-end textile and garment exports.

  16. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    2011 Chinese online shopping industry continues the momentum of rapid development in 2010, gradually narrowing the gap of the online shopping environment in the region, online shopping growth in some of the second and third tier provinces performed outstandingly. According to the iResearch ECPlus monitoring data,

  17. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family mem

  18. Pan-information Location Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  19. RESEARCH METHODS OF LOCATIVE ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULAYMANOVA N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of investigation of locative elements. Sentence analysis with locative elements is taken according to the results of component analysis in the system of contradicting – opposition. More over the article is full of examples related to the description of various syntactic units.

  20. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the le

  1. Locative Terms and Warlpiri Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavin, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language specific properties in the acquisition of locative expressions. Some of the claims from literature on the acquisition of locative expressions are discussed and data from the acquisition of Warlpiri are presented and discussed in terms of these claims. (Author/CB)

  2. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the

  3. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  4. An update on chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B

    1996-09-01

    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  5. Update on biosimilars in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischin, Adam; Östör, Andrew J K

    2017-04-01

    Biologic agents have become indispensable in the management of autoimmune disease particularly rheumatological conditions. The lives of countless individuals have been improved following treatment with these drugs. Unfortunately, their cost prohibits more widespread use around the globe. This critical issue has been addressed by the introduction of biosimilars into the market. These therapies have been developed to resemble the originator molecule as closely as possible and to increase competition in the therapy area thus allowing costs to be reduced. Our review is intended to offer an update on biosimilars including logistic considerations on their introduction into routine practice.

  6. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2014-01-01

    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  7. Cushing syndrome: update on testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Hershel

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) is one of the most enigmatic diseases in clinical medicine. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome depend on proper laboratory evaluation. In this review, an update is provided on selected critical issues in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome: the use of late-night salivary cortisol in initial diagnosis and for postoperative surveillance, and the use of prolactin measurement to improve the performance of inferior petrosal sinus sampling to distinguish Cushing disease from ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome during differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nordic MCL2 trial update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogenic non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity, with a median survival of about 5 years. In 2008 we reported the early - based on the median observation time of 4 years - results of the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2 study of frontline intensive induction immunochemotherapy...... and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with more than 60% event-free survival at 5 years, and no subsequent relapses reported. Here we present an update after a median observation time of 6·5 years. The overall results are still excellent, with median overall survival and response duration longer than...

  9. A COLLABORATIVE LOCATION MODEL FOR CELLULAR MOBILE POSITION LOCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Ping; Liu Lin; Fan Pingzhi

    2004-01-01

    In cellular network, several Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) location algorithms can be applied to mobile position estimation. However, each algorithm has its own limitations and none of them is proved to be the most reliable one in different channel environments. In this paper Kleine-Ostmann's data fusion model is modified and a collaborative location model which incorporates position estimate of two TDOA location algorithms is proposed.Analysis and simulation show that more reliable and accurate mobile position estimation can be achieved based on this model.

  10. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  11. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  12. Successful use of a metal detector in locating coins ingested by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, S P; Cetta, F

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of a metal detector in locating coins ingested by children. The metal detector correctly identified the presence or absence of coins in 13 patients (93%), as confirmed by radiologic studies.

  13. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...

  14. 75 FR 3392 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY... 50.410. Requirements applying to Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') sources located within 25 miles of..., Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate...

  15. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  16. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  17. Light location influences the perceived locations of internal sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellorso, Scott; Schirillo, James

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that visual stimuli can bias the perceived location of auditory stimuli. Here, we sought to determine if a visual stimulus can also bias the perceived location of multiple internal auditory stimuli. Fifty subjects were presented with a train of eight binaural click-pairs over headphones while a single flash of light was presented either to the left or to the right side of a central fixation point on an otherwise black CRT screen. A no-flash baseline was also implemented, as was a no-fixation control. The subjects used a rating scale to indicate the perceived location of each of the eight click-pairs within their heads. The results showed that the flash of light significantly influenced the perceived location of the click-pairs, biasing them in the same direction as the flash of light. This suggests that, even without perceptual correspondence, cross-modal interactions can occur.

  18. Updating Road Networks by Local Renewal from GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The long production cycle and huge cost of collecting road network data often leave the data lagging behind the latest real conditions. However, this situation is rapidly changing as the positioning techniques ubiquitously used in mobile devices are gradually being implemented in road network research and applications. Currently, the predominant approaches infer road networks from mobile location information (e.g., GPS trajectory data directly using various extracting algorithms, which leads to expensive consumption of computational resources in the case of large-scale areas. For this reason, we propose an alternative that renews road networks with a novel spiral strategy, including a hidden Markov model (HMM for detecting potential problems in existing road network data and a method to update the data, on the local scale, by generating new road segments from trajectory data. The proposed approach reduces computation costs on roads with completed or updated information by updating problem road segments in the minimum range of the road network. We evaluated the performance of our proposals using GPS traces collected from taxies and OpenStreetMap (OSM road networks covering urban areas of Wuhan City.

  19. An Updated 2017 Astrometric Solution for Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, G. M.; Brown, A.; Guinan, E. F.; O'Gorman, E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Kervella, P.; Decin, L.

    2017-07-01

    We provide an update for the astrometric solution for the Type II supernova progenitor Betelgeuse using the revised Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (HIAD) of van Leeuwen, combined with existing VLA and new e-MERLIN and ALMA positions. The 2007 Hipparcos refined abscissa measurements required the addition of so-called Cosmic Noise of 2.4 mas to find an acceptable 5-parameter stochastic solution. We find that a measure of radio Cosmic Noise should also be included for the radio positions because surface inhomogeneities exist at a level significant enough to introduce additional intensity centroid uncertainty. Combining the 2007 HIAD with the proper motions based solely on the radio positions leads to a parallax of π =5.27+/- 0.78 mas ({190}-25+33 pc), smaller than the Hipparcos 2007 value of 6.56 ± 0.83 mas ({152}-17+22 pc). Furthermore, combining the VLA and new e-MERLIN and ALMA radio positions with the 2007 HIAD, and including radio Cosmic Noise of 2.4 mas, leads to a nominal parallax solution of 4.51 ± 0.80 mas ({222}-34+48 pc), which, while only 0.7σ different from the 2008 solution of Harper et al., is 2.6σ different from the solution of van Leeuwen. An accurate and precise parallax for Betelgeuse is always going to be difficult to obtain because it is small compared to the stellar angular diameter (θ =44 mas). We outline an observing strategy utilizing future mm and sub-mm high-spatial resolution interferometry that must be used if substantial improvements in the precision and accuracy of the parallax and distance are to be achieved.

  20. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an