WorldWideScience

Sample records for locally launched rockets

  1. Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  2. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  3. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  4. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  5. Design criteria of launching rockets for burst aerial shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, T.; Takishita, Y.; Onda, T.; Shibamoto, H.; Hosaya, F. [Hosaya Kako Co. Ltd (Japan); Kubota, N. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Rocket motors attached to large-sized aerial shells are proposed to compensate for the increase in the lifting charge in the mortar and the thickness of the shell wall. The proposal is the result of an evaluation of the performance of solid propellants to provide information useful in designing launch rockets for large-size shells. The propellants composed of ammonium perchlorate and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene were used to evaluate the ballistic characteristics such as the relationship between propellant mass and trajectories of shells and launch rockets. In order to obtain an optimum rocket design, the evaluation also included a study of the velocity and height of the rocket motor and shell separation. A launch rocket with a large-sized shell (84.5 cm in diameter) was designed to verify the effectiveness of this class of launch system. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Infrasound from the 2009 and 2017 DPRK rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, L. G.; Assink, J. D.; Smets, P. SM

    2018-06-01

    Supersonic rockets generate low-frequency acoustic waves, that is, infrasound, during the launch and re-entry. Infrasound is routinely observed at infrasound arrays from the International Monitoring System, in place for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Association and source identification are key elements of the verification system. The moving nature of a rocket is a defining criterion in order to distinguish it from an isolated explosion. Here, it is shown how infrasound recordings can be associated, which leads to identification of the rocket. Propagation modelling is included to further constrain the source identification. Four rocket launches by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 2009 and 2017 are analysed in which multiple arrays detected the infrasound. Source identification in this region is important for verification purposes. It is concluded that with a passive monitoring technique such as infrasound, characteristics can be remotely obtained on sources of interest, that is, infrasonic intelligence, over 4500+ km.

  7. Worldwide Space Launch Vehicles and Their Mainstage Liquid Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.

    2010-01-01

    Space launch vehicle begins with a basic propulsion stage, and serves as a missile or small launch vehicle; many are traceable to the 1945 German A-4. Increasing stage size, and increasingly energetic propulsion allows for heavier payloads and greater. Earth to Orbit lift capability. Liquid rocket propulsion began with use of storable (UDMH/N2O4) and evolved to high performing cryogenics (LOX/RP, and LOX/LH). Growth versions of SLV's rely on strap-on propulsive stages of either solid propellants or liquid propellants.

  8. Throttleable GOX/ABS launch assist hybrid rocket motor for small scale air launch platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Zachary S.

    Aircraft-based space-launch platforms allow operational flexibility and offer the potential for significant propellant savings for small-to-medium orbital payloads. The NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's Towed Glider Air-Launch System (TGALS) is a small-scale flight research project investigating the feasibility for a remotely-piloted, towed, glider system to act as a versatile air launch platform for nano-scale satellites. Removing the crew from the launch vehicle means that the system does not have to be human rated, and offers a potential for considerable cost savings. Utah State University is developing a small throttled launch-assist system for the TGALS platform. This "stage zero" design allows the TGALS platform to achieve the required flight path angle for the launch point, a condition that the TGALS cannot achieve without external propulsion. Throttling is required in order to achieve and sustain the proper launch attitude without structurally overloading the airframe. The hybrid rocket system employs gaseous-oxygen and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as propellants. This thesis summarizes the development and testing campaign, and presents results from the clean-sheet design through ground-based static fire testing. Development of the closed-loop throttle control system is presented.

  9. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  10. Radiophysical and geomagnetic effects of rocket burn and launch in the near-the-earth environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chernogor, Leonid F

    2013-01-01

    Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers.The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burn

  11. A Multiconstrained Ascent Guidance Method for Solid Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a multiconstrained ascent guidance method for a solid rocket-powered launch vehicle, which uses a hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV as payload and shuts off by fuel exhaustion. First, pseudospectral method is used to analyze the two-stage launch vehicle ascent trajectory with different rocket ignition modes. Then, constraints, such as terminal height, velocity, flight path angle, and angle of attack, are converted into the constraints within height-time profile according to the second-stage rocket flight characteristics. The closed-loop guidance method is inferred by different spline curves given the different terminal constraints. Afterwards, a thrust bias energy management strategy is proposed to waste the excess energy of the solid rocket. Finally, the proposed method is verified through nominal and dispersion simulations. The simulation results show excellent applicability and robustness of this method, which can provide a valuable reference for the ascent guidance of solid rocket-powered launch vehicles.

  12. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  13. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  14. State Machine Modeling of the Space Launch System Solid Rocket Boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua A.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System is a Shuttle-derived heavy-lift vehicle currently in development to serve as NASA's premiere launch vehicle for space exploration. The Space Launch System is a multistage rocket with two Solid Rocket Boosters and multiple payloads, including the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. Planned Space Launch System destinations include near-Earth asteroids, the Moon, Mars, and Lagrange points. The Space Launch System is a complex system with many subsystems, requiring considerable systems engineering and integration. To this end, state machine analysis offers a method to support engineering and operational e orts, identify and avert undesirable or potentially hazardous system states, and evaluate system requirements. Finite State Machines model a system as a finite number of states, with transitions between states controlled by state-based and event-based logic. State machines are a useful tool for understanding complex system behaviors and evaluating "what-if" scenarios. This work contributes to a state machine model of the Space Launch System developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The Space Launch System Solid Rocket Booster avionics and ignition subsystems are modeled using MATLAB/Stateflow software. This model is integrated into a larger model of Space Launch System avionics used for verification and validation of Space Launch System operating procedures and design requirements. This includes testing both nominal and o -nominal system states and command sequences.

  15. Infrasound and Seismic Recordings of Rocket Launches from Kennedy Space Center, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, S. R.; Thompson, G.; Brown, R. G.; Braunmiller, J.; Farrell, A. K.; Mehta, C.

    2017-12-01

    We installed a temporary 3-station seismic-infrasound network at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in February 2016 to test sensor calibrations and train students in field deployment and data acquisitions techniques. Each station featured a single broadband 3-component seismometer and a 3-element infrasound array. In May 2016 the network was scaled back to a single station due to other projects competing for equipment. To date 8 rocket launches have been recorded by the infrasound array, as well as 2 static tests, 1 aborted launch and 1 rocket explosion (see next abstract). Of the rocket launches recorded 4 were SpaceX Falcon-9, 2 were ULA Atlas-5 and 2 were ULA Delta-IV. A question we attempt to answer is whether the rocket engine type and launch trajectory can be estimated with appropriate travel-time, amplitude-ratio and spectral techniques. For example, there is a clear Doppler shift in seismic and infrasound spectrograms from all launches, with lower frequencies occurring later in the recorded signal as the rocket accelerates away from the array. Another question of interest is whether there are relationships between jet noise frequency, thrust and/or nozzle velocity. Infrasound data may help answer these questions. We are now in the process of deploying a permanent seismic and infrasound array at the Astronaut Beach House. 10 more rocket launches are schedule before AGU. NASA is also conducting a series of 33 sonic booms over KSC beginning on Aug 21st. Launches and other events at KSC have provided rich sources of signals that are useful to characterize and gain insight into physical processes and wave generation from man-made sources.

  16. Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

  17. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ganji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.

  18. Concentric traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charles C. H.; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Chou, Min-Yang; Chen, Chia-Hung; Yue, Jia; Chen, Po-Cheng; Matsumura, Mitsuru

    2017-08-01

    We report the first observation of concentric traveling ionospheric disturbances (CTIDs) triggered by the launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on 17 January 2016. The rocket-triggered ionospheric disturbances show shock acoustic wave signature in the time rate change (time derivative) of total electron content (TEC), followed by CTIDs in the 8-15 min band-pass filtering of TEC. The CTIDs propagated northward with phase velocity of 241-617 m/s and reached distances more than 1000 km away from the source on the rocket trajectory. The wave characteristics of CTIDs with periods of 10.5-12.7 min and wavelength 200-400 km agree well with the gravity wave dispersion relation. The optimal wave source searching and gravity wave ray tracing technique suggested that the CTIDs have multiple sources which are originated from 38-120 km altitude before and after the ignition of the second-stage rocket, 200 s after the rocket was launched.

  19. Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

  20. EUROLAUNCH - a cooperation between DLR, German Aerospace Center and SSC, Swedish Space Corporation in sounding rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemi, S.; Turner, P.; Norberg, O.

    Sounding rocket and balloon launches have been conducted since more than 30 years at ESRANGE - the European Sounding Rocket Launching Range of SSC, the Swedish Space Corporation of Kiruna in North-Sweden. MORABA - the Mobile Rocket Base of DLR German Aerospace Center at München-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, has planned and implemented sounding rocket and balloon launches on occasions throughout the globe during more than 30 years. An evolutionary step of sounding rocket launches is undertaken with the creation of EuroLaunch. EuroLaunch has recently been formed by SSC, the Swedish Space Corporation, and DLR, the German Aerospace Center. With EuroLaunch the long-lasting co-operation of the two complementary technical centers ESRANGE and MORABA is being enhanced and intensified, and this co-operation may also be the start of a future European Network of Center for sounding rockets. The comprehensive competence within the scope of the Network of Centers in Europa will be presented. The consolidation of competencies and work distribution among the partners shall be detailed. The managerial structure of EuroLaunch and the embedding in the mother organizations SSC and DLR respectively will be explained. The newly organized EuroLaunch is expected to provide improved services to experimenters in Europe and worldwide with improved competence, capability and efficiency.

  1. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Ganji; M. Gorji; M. Hatami; A. Hasanpour; N. Khademzadeh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and least square method (LSM) were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a paramet...

  2. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is

  3. Photometric observations of local rocket-atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R. G. H.; Murtagh, D. P.; Witt, G.; Stegman, J.

    1983-06-01

    Photometric measurements from rocket flights which recorded a strong foreign luminance in the altitude region between 90 and 130 km are reported. From one Nike-Orion rocket the luminance appeared on both up-leg and down-leg; from a series of Petrel rockets the luminance was apparent only on the down-leg. The data suggest that the luminance may be distributed mainly in the wake region along the rocket trajectory. The luminance is believed to be due to a local interaction between the rocket and the atmosphere although the precise nature of the interaction is unknown. It was measured at wavelengths ranging from 275 nm to 1.61 microns and may be caused by a combination of reactions.

  4. Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

    The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

  5. Computing Analysis of Bearing Elements of Launch Complex Aggregates for Space Rocket "Soyuz-2.1v"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the computational analysis of bearing structures of launch system aggregates, which are designed for the prelaunch preparation and launch security of space rocket (SR "SOYUZ-2" of 1B stage. The bearing structures taken under consideration are the following: supporting trusses (ST, bearing arms (BA, the upper cable girder (UCG, the umbilical mast (UM. The SR “SOYUZ-2" of 1B stage has the characteristics of the propulsion unit (PU thrust, different from those of the "Soyuz" family space rockets exploited before.The paper presents basic modeling principles to calculate units and their operating loadings. The body self-weight and the influence of a gas-dynamic jet of "SOYUZ-2.1B" propulsion unit have been considered as a load of units. Parameters of this influence are determined on the basis of impulse stream fields and of deceleration temperatures calculated for various SR positions according to the specified path of its ascent and demolition.Physical models of the aggregates and calculations are based on the finite elements method and super-elements method using “SADAS” software package developed at the chair SM8 of Bauman Moscow State Technical University.Fields of nodal temperatures distribution in the ST, BA, UCG, UM models, and fields of tension in finite elements as well represent the calculation results.Obtained results revealed the most vulnerable of considered starting system aggregates, namely UM, which was taken for local durability calculation. As an example, this research considers calculation of local durability in the truss branches junction of UM rotary part, for which the constructive strengthening has been offered. For this node a detailed finite-element model built in the model of UM rotary part has been created. Calculation results of local durability testify that the strengthened node meets durability conditions.SR developers used calculation results of launch system aggregates for the space

  6. Vibration control of uncertain multiple launch rocket system using radial basis function neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Rui, Xiaoting

    2018-01-01

    Poor dispersion characteristics of rockets due to the vibration of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) have always restricted the MLRS development for several decades. Vibration control is a key technique to improve the dispersion characteristics of rockets. For a mechanical system such as MLRS, the major difficulty in designing an appropriate control strategy that can achieve the desired vibration control performance is to guarantee the robustness and stability of the control system under the occurrence of uncertainties and nonlinearities. To approach this problem, a computed torque controller integrated with a radial basis function neural network is proposed to achieve the high-precision vibration control for MLRS. In this paper, the vibration response of a computed torque controlled MLRS is described. The azimuth and elevation mechanisms of the MLRS are driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors and supposed to be rigid. First, the dynamic model of motor-mechanism coupling system is established using Lagrange method and field-oriented control theory. Then, in order to deal with the nonlinearities, a computed torque controller is designed to control the vibration of the MLRS when it is firing a salvo of rockets. Furthermore, to compensate for the lumped uncertainty due to parametric variations and un-modeled dynamics in the design of the computed torque controller, a radial basis function neural network estimator is developed to adapt the uncertainty based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system and show that the proposed controller is robust with regard to the uncertainty.

  7. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  8. Unsteady Aerodynamic Investigation of the Propeller-Wing Interaction for a Rocket Launched Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of propeller-wing interaction for the rocket launched UAV have been investigated numerically by means of sliding mesh technology. The corresponding forces and moments have been collected for axial wing placements ranging from 0.056 to 0.5D and varied rotating speeds. The slipstream generated by the rotating propeller has little effects on the lift characteristics of the whole UAV. The drag can be seen to remain unchanged as the wing's location moves progressively closer to the propeller until 0.056D away from the propeller, where a nearly 20% increase occurred sharply. The propeller position has a negligible effect on the overall thrust and torque of the propeller. The efficiency affected by the installation angle of the propeller blade has also been analyzed. Based on the pressure cloud and streamlines, the vortices generated by propeller, propeller-wing interaction, and wing tip have also been captured and analyzed.

  9. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  10. The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herb

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

  11. The second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted for mating at the launch tower, Vandenberg AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the launch tower, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted to vertical. The Titan will power the launch of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. Multicamera High Dynamic Range High-Speed Video of Rocket Engine Tests and Launches

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-speed video recording of rocket engine tests has several challenges. The scenes that are imaged have both bright and dark regions associated with plume emission...

  12. Water-cooled spacecraft : DART to be launched by Russian Volna (Stingray) rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baten, T.; Buursink, J.; Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    A25 September 2005, Barents Sea, near Murmansk.Ten metres under the surface of the sea, the launch tube of the Mstislav, a Rostropovich class nuclear submarine, grinds open. The countdown for the launch of a Volna R-29R slbm (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile) starts: For many years, satellites

  13. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  14. A rapid compensation method for launch data of long-range rockets under influence of the Earth's disturbing gravity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the rapid compensation of the influence of the Earth’ s disturbing gravity field upon trajectory calculation, the key point lies in how to derive the analytical solutions to the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the launch data. In view of this, this paper mainly expounds on two issues: one is based on the approximate analytical solution to the motion equation for the vacuum flight section of a long-range rocket, deriving the analytical solutions to the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the changing rate of the final-stage pitch program; the other is based on the initial positioning and orientation error propagation mechanism, proposing the analytical calculation formula for the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the launch azimuth. The calculation results of correction data are simulated and verified under different circumstances. The simulation results are as follows: (1 the accuracy of approximation between the analytical solutions and the results attained via the difference method is higher than 90%, and the ratio of calculation time between them is lower than 0.2%, thus demonstrating the accuracy of calculation of data corrections and advantages in calculation speed; (2 after the analytical solutions are compensated, the longitudinal landing deviation of the rocket is less than 20 m and the lateral landing deviation of the rocket is less than 10 m, demonstrating that the corrected data can meet the requirements for the hit accuracy of a long-range rocket.

  15. Rocket and satellite observations of the local interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinsky, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to obtained new information on the structure of the local interstellar medium (ISM). Two separate experiments using different instruments were used in this study. The first experiment employed a spectrometer with a spectral bandpass from 350-1150 angstrom which was placed at the focus of a 95 cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on an Aries sounding rocket. The purpose of this experiment was to measure the interstellar absorption edges, due to neutral helium and neutral hydrogen, in the spectrum of a hot white dwarf. The hot white dwarf G191-B2B was observed for 87 seconds during the flight. Unfortunately, due to high pressure in the rocket, no scientifically useful data was obtained during the flight. The second experiment utilized the high resolution spectrometer on the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The purpose of the experiment was to observe interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of hot white dwarfs. A new method of determining the equivalent widths of absorption lines and their uncertainties was developed. The neutral hydrogen column density is estimated from the N I, Si II, and C II columns. Unfortunately, the uncertainties in the neutral hydrogen columns are very large, only two are constrained to better than an order of magnitude. High ionization species (N V, Si IV, and C IV) are seen in five of the stars. Upper limits to the temperature of the ISM are determined from the velocity dispersions. The temperature of the low ionization gas toward four of the stars is constrained to be less than 50,000 K

  16. Rocket Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)

  17. Advanced Design and Manufacture of Cryogenic Propellant Tanks for Air Launched Liquid Rockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Generation Orbit (GO) is developing a sub-orbital system to enable rapid and inexpensive hypersonic flight regime test capabilities. To keep the cost of their launch...

  18. The Rocket Electric Field Sounding (REFS) Program: Prototype Design and Successful First Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-15

    insulators surrounding the stators, and stator edges themselves, are fully covered by the rotor , so that any effects of charge on the insulators are...Jumper performed a separate analysis of the aerodynamics (primarily the " Magnus effect ") induced by the relative rotation of rocket body and shell. The...significant advantages over an aircraft in simplicity and calibration. A single cylindrical rotor covering most of the payload acts as the shutter for all

  19. The issue of ensuring the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a launch vehicle with propulsion rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushlyakov Valeriy I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept Mounted on Pegasus Rocket Attached to B-52 Launch Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hyper-X research vehicle riding on a booster rocket prior to being launched by the Dryden Flight Research Center's B-52 at about 40,000 feet. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry

  2. ROCOZ-A (improved rocket launched ozone sensor) for middle atmosphere ozone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Parsons, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    An improved interference filter based ultraviolet photometer (ROCOZ-A) for measuring stratospheric ozone is discussed. The payload is launched aboard a Super-Loki to a typical apogee of 70 km. The instrument measures the solar ultraviolet irradiance as it descends on a parachute. The total cumulative ozone is then calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law. The cumulative ozone precision measured in this way is 2.0% to 2.5% over an altitude range of 20 and 55 km. Results of the intercomparison with the SBUV overpass data and ROCOZ-A data are also discussed

  3. Ionospheric hole made by a North Korean rocket launched in 2012 December: Observation with the Russian GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Unha-3 rocket was launched due southward at 00:49:46UT on Dec. 12, 2012, from the Tongchang-ri.launch pad on the Yellow Sea side of North Korea. We converted the RINEX format GPS data of the launch day to TEC, and looked for the ionospheric hole signatures. We could not find clear electron depletion signals simply because no GPS satellites were available in the northwestern skies. GPS is the American GNSS system, and other systems are becoming operational. GEONET receivers have been replaced with the new models capable of receiving multiple GNSS, and about 10 percent of them could observe GLONASS and QZSS, the Russian and the Japanese GNSS, respectively, at the time of the Unha-3 launch. More than 20 GLONASS satellites are already in operation, and we used the number 13 satellite to detect the ionospheric hole formation above the Yellow Sea (see Figure). We modified the software to convert RINEX file into TEC time series [Heki et al., JGSJ 2010] in order to handle RINEX v.2.12 files including GLONASS/QZSS data. The broadcast orbits of the GLONASS satellites are given in the geocentric Cartesian coordinates instead of the Keplerian elements like GPS and QZSS. GLONASS uses different microwave frequencies for different satellites, which also required the modification for the original software to calculate TEC. Ozeki & Heki [2010] compared the thrust of the 1998 and 2009 Taepodong missiles by comparing the sizes/depths of the ionospheric holes, and here we compare the hole made by the 2012 December Unha-3 launch with the past cases. The onset times of the depletion are the same, suggesting similar ascending speeds of the three rockets (missiles). Depth of the hole depends both on the amount of water vapor in the exhaust and the background TEC. The hole of the Unha-3 is similar to the 2009 case (or somewhat deeper/larger), which would reflect the vertical TEC in the 2012 case about 1/3 larger than that in 2009. The hole seems to last longer in the 2012 case possibly

  4. Chinese modify CZ-2/3 rocket boosters, focus on commercial launch market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, C.

    1985-07-01

    A program underway in the People's Republic of China to modify the Titan-class CZ-2/3 satellite-launch and ICBM boosters is described on the basis of a recent visit to the manufacturing plant in Shanghai. The present two-stage CZ-2 and three-stage CZ-3 can place 5000 lbs in LEO or 3080 lbs in GEO, respectively, and are produced on a custom basis with a delivery time of about 2 yrs. Modifications introduced include 4 x 6-ft fins and a pogo-suppression system for the four-engine first stage and a steel support band for the combustion chamber of the 80-ton-thrust second-stage main engine.

  5. Optimum launching of electron-cyclotron power for localized current drive in a hot tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.

    1989-05-01

    Optimum launch parameters are determined for localized electron-cyclotron current drive near the magnetic axis and the q=2 surface by solving several minimization problems. For central current drive, equatorial and bottom launch are compared. Localized current drive near q=2 is studied for equatorial launch and for an alternative outside launch geometry that may be better for suppressing tearing modes and controlling disruptions. 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Preliminary Sizing Completed for Single- Stage-To-Orbit Launch Vehicles Powered By Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) propulsion remains an elusive goal for launch vehicles. The physics of the problem is leading developers to a search for higher propulsion performance than is available with all-rocket power. Rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technology provides additional propulsion performance that may enable SSTO flight. Structural efficiency is also a major driving force in enabling SSTO flight. Increases in performance with RBCC propulsion are offset with the added size of the propulsion system. Geometrical considerations must be exploited to minimize the weight. Integration of the propulsion system with the vehicle must be carefully planned such that aeroperformance is not degraded and the air-breathing performance is enhanced. Consequently, the vehicle's structural architecture becomes one with the propulsion system architecture. Geometrical considerations applied to the integrated vehicle lead to low drag and high structural and volumetric efficiency. Sizing of the SSTO launch vehicle (GTX) is itself an elusive task. The weight of the vehicle depends strongly on the propellant required to meet the mission requirements. Changes in propellant requirements result in changes in the size of the vehicle, which in turn, affect the weight of the vehicle and change the propellant requirements. An iterative approach is necessary to size the vehicle to meet the flight requirements. GTX Sizer was developed to do exactly this. The governing geometry was built into a spreadsheet model along with scaling relationships. The scaling laws attempt to maintain structural integrity as the vehicle size is changed. Key aerodynamic relationships are maintained as the vehicle size is changed. The closed weight and center of gravity are displayed graphically on a plot of the synthesized vehicle. In addition, comprehensive tabular data of the subsystem weights and centers of gravity are generated. The model has been verified for accuracy with finite element analysis. The

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  8. Cracking Codes & Launching Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Teo J.

    2013-01-01

    To engage students, many teachers wish to connect the mathematics they are teaching to other branches of mathematics or to real-world applications. The lesson presented in this article, which uses the algebraic skill of finding the equation of a line between two points and the geometric axiom that any two points define a line, does both. A…

  9. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes

  10. Pre-launch simulation experiment of microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment in the space plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N. (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan); Tsutsui, M. (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan); Matsumoto, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan)

    1980-09-01

    A pre-flight test experiment of a microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment (MINIX) has been carried out in a space plasma simulation chamber. Though the first rocket experiment ended up in failure because of a high voltage trouble, interesting results are observed in the pre-flight experiment. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 300% temperature increase is observed. Strong excitations of plasma waves by the transmitted microwaves in the VLF and HF range are observed as well. These microwave effects may have to be taken into account in solar power satellite projects in the future.

  11. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes are obtained by the method of matching, taking advantage of the modal power orthogonality relations. The necessary excitation of modes provided by a number of coaxial loop antennas inserted inside the waveguide section. The antennas currents are computed from the solution of the waveguide excitation inverse problem. The accuracy of the synthesized wave field (compared to the mathematical model) and the power efficiency of the generation technique are evaluated in order to practically realize a launcher for LWs in the microwave regime. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.

  13. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  14. ‘Initiative-Decision’ Typology of New Product Launching (NPL into Local Market: Toward Interaction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmanzah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New product launching (NPL process in subsidiaries is very complex, expensive and risky. This process is marked by the problem of role partition between headquarter and subsidiaries. This research emphasizes the quality of relation between subsidiaries and headquarter which determines the qualities of NPL process into local market. Typology of initiative-decision during NPL process has been documented. Using cluster analysis, three clusters of ‘initiative-decision’ during NPL are found in this research: ‘headquarters domination’, ‘mix-initiative’ and ‘interaction’. Using ANOVA analysis, this research found that interaction between subsidiary and headquarter managers positively increases the effectiveness of marketing-strategy during NPL process. This finding suggests that interaction mechanism between subsidiary and headquarter is the best solution to launch a new product to the local market.

  15. Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)

  16. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  17. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  18. Rockets two classic papers

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Rockets, in the primitive form of fireworks, have existed since the Chinese invented them around the thirteenth century. But it was the work of American Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) and his development of liquid-fueled rockets that first produced a controlled rocket flight. Fascinated by rocketry since boyhood, Goddard designed, built, and launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926. Ridiculed by the press for suggesting that rockets could be flown to the moon, he continued his experiments, supported partly by the Smithsonian Institution and defended by Charles Lindbergh. T

  19. Cryogenic rocket engine development at Delft aerospace rocket engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, J; Hermsen, R.; Huijsman, R; Akkermans, C.; Denies, L.; Barreiro, F.; Schutte, A.; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current developments regarding cryogenic rocket engine technology at Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE). DARE is a student society based at Delft University of Technology with the goal of being the first student group in the world to launch a rocket into space. After

  20. Polar 5, a Norwegian US electron accelerator sounding rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, T.A.; Maehlum, B.N.; Troeim, J.

    1976-01-01

    A technical description of a mother daughter experiment including an electron gun is given. The payload was launched by a Nike/Tomahawk rocket from Andenes, North-Norway near 2030 local time on February 1, 1976. A few preliminary observations obtained by the HF-wave propagation experiment, the retarding potential analyzer and the energetic electron counters are be presented

  1. The Spanish national programme of balloons and sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.; Pueyo, L.

    1978-01-01

    The main points of the Spanish scientific programme are briefly described: CONIE/NASA cooperative project on meteorological sounding rocket launchings; ozonospheric programme; CONIE/NASA/CNES cooperative ionospheric sounding rocket project; D-layer research; rocket infrared dayglow measurements; ultraviolet astronomy research; cosmic ray research. The schedule of sounding rocket launchings at El Arenosillo station during 1977 is given

  2. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  4. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  5. The Dual-channel Extreme Ultraviolet Continuum Experiment: Sounding Rocket EUV Observations of Local B Stars to Determine Their Potential for Supplying Intergalactic Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nicholas; Green, James C.; France, Kevin; Stocke, John T.; Nell, Nicholas

    2018-06-01

    We describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Dual-channel Extreme Ultraviolet Continuum Experiment (DEUCE). DEUCE is a sounding rocket payload designed to obtain the first flux-calibrated spectra of two nearby B stars in the EUV 650-1150Å bandpass. This measurement will help in understanding the ionizing flux output of hot B stars, calibrating stellar models and commenting on the potential contribution of such stars to reionization. DEUCE consists of a grazing incidence Wolter II telescope, a normal incidence holographic grating, and the largest (8” x 8”) microchannel plate detector ever flown in space, covering the 650-1150Å band in medium and low resolution channels. DEUCE will launch on December 1, 2018 as NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.331 UG, observing Epsilon Canis Majoris, a B2 II star.

  6. Reusable Military Launch Systems (RMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    shown in Figure 11. The second configuration is an axisymmetric, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) powered, SSTO vehicle, similar to the GTX...McCormick, D., and Sorensen, K., “Hyperion: An SSTO Vision Vehicle Concept Utilizing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Propulsion”, AIAA paper 99-4944...there have been several failedattempts at the development of reusable rocket or air-breathing launch vehicle systems. Single-stage-to-orbit ( SSTO

  7. Rocket science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Expanding across the Solar System will require more than a simple blast off, a range of promising new propulsion technologies are being investigated by ex- NASA shuttle astronaut Chang Diaz. He is developing an alternative to chemical rockets, called VASIMR -Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasm Rocket. In 2012 Ad Astra plans to test a prototype, using solar power rather than nuclear, on the International Space Station. Development of this rocket for human space travel is discussed. The nuclear reactor's heat would be converted into electricity in an electric rocket such as VASIMR, and at the peak of nuclear rocket research thrust levels of almost one million newtons were reached.

  8. Assessment of exposure-response functions for rocket-emission toxicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Rocket-Emission Toxicants, National Research Council

    ... aborted launch that results in a rocket being destroyed near the ground. Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emmission Toxicants evaluates the model and the data used for three rocket emission toxicants...

  9. Engagement in community activities and trust in local leaders as concomitants of psychological distress among Israeli civilians exposed to prolonged rocket attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanbar, Lea; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Ben-Tzur, Navit

    2018-07-01

    Present study, conducted in the aftermath of the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, investigated psychological toll of exposure to rockets attacks in a sample of residents of central and southern Israel. Analyses focused on the distress-protective functions of collectively grounded resources: engagement in community activities and trust in local leadership. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2 and 3 months after the hostilities. Participants (N = 764) were recruited by an online survey company that distributed a questionnaire assessing, in addition to focal predictors, sociodemographic factors and prior exposure to trauma. The outcome variables were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and nonspecific distress symptoms. Conservative regression analyses revealed that greater exposure to rocket attacks was predictive of higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Higher engagement in community activities exhibited a partial trauma-buffering function. However, higher levels of trust in local leaders appeared to exacerbate, rather than diminish, negative impact of rocket exposure on PTSD. Symptoms of psychological distress were not influenced neither by trauma exposure nor by stressor interactions with resources. Trust in local leadership exerted a beneficial main effect on distress. Collectively based resources are important for coping in times of community-wide stressors, yet their role is complex.

  10. COSMOS Launch Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  11. Rocket + Science = Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

  12. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  13. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  14. National Security Space Launch at a Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    appropriations measure expire (i.e., at the start of FY2017). Rocket Engines: Goods or Services37 In the Commercial Space Act of 1998 (CSA),38...procured from commercial sources or whether the government may independently develop and manufacture rocket engines. The resolution to this question may...Space Act of 1998 ...) the DoD procures commercial launch services rather than rockets or engines used in those services.”43 Notably, the view

  15. Development and Performance of the 10 kN Hybrid Rocket Motor for the Stratos II Sounding Rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, R.M.; Knop, T.R.; Wink, J; Ehlen, J; Huijsman, R; Powell, S; Florea, R.; Wieling, W; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development work of the 10 kN hybrid rocket motor DHX-200 Aurora. The DHX-200 Aurora was developed by Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE) to power the Stratos II and Stratos II+ sounding rocket, with the later one being launched in October 2015. Stratos II and Stratos

  16. Air Launch from a Towed Glider

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort is exploring the concept of launching a rocket from a glider that is towed by an aircraft. The idea is to build a relatively inexpensive...

  17. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  18. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  19. Launch Environmental Test for KITSAT-3 FM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Lee

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The satellite experiences the severe launch environment such as vibration, acceleration, shock, and acoustics induced by rocket. Therefore, the satellite should be designed and manufactured to endure such severe launch environments. In this paper, we describe the structure of the KITSAT-3 FM(Flight Model and the processes and results of the launch environmental test to ensure the reliability during launch period.

  20. National Security Space Launch Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Company Clayton Mowry, President, Arianespace Inc., North American—“Launch Solutions” Elon Musk , CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX...technologies to the NASA Exploration Initiative (“…Moon, Mars and Beyond.”).1 EELV Technology Needs The Atlas V and Delta IV vehicles incorporate current... Mars and other destinations.” 46 National Security Space Launch Report Figure 6.1 U.S. Government Liquid Propulsion Rocket Investment, 1991–2005

  1. Rocket observation of electron density irregularities in the lower E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuzo; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Amemiya, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    Local ionospheric electron density irregularities in the scale size of 3 m to 300 m have been measured on the ascending path from 74 km to 93 km by a fix biased Langmuir probe on board the S-310-16 sounding rocket. The rocket was launched at 22:40:00 on February 1, 1986 from Kagoshima Space Center in Japan. It is found from frequency analysis of the data that the spectral index of the irregularities is 0.9 to 1.8 and the irregularity amplitude is 1 to 15 %. The altitude where the amplitude reaches its maximum is 88 km. The generation mechanism of these irregularities is explained by the neutral turbulence theory, which indicates that the spectral index is 5/3 and has been confirmed by a chemical release experiment using rockets over India to be valid up to about 110 km. From frequency analysis of the data observed during the descent in the lower E region, we have found that the rocket-wake effect becomes larger when the probe is situated near the edge of the rocket-wake, and that this is also the case even when the rocket-wake effect does not clearly appear in the DC current signal which approximately changes in proportion to the electron density, where the probe is completely situated inside the rocket-wake region. (author)

  2. Overview of GX launch services by GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Kondou, Yoshirou

    2006-07-01

    Galaxy Express Corporation (GALEX) is a launch service company in Japan to develop a medium size rocket, GX rocket and to provide commercial launch services for medium/small low Earth orbit (LEO) and Sun synchronous orbit (SSO) payloads with a future potential for small geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO). It is GALEX's view that small/medium LEO/SSO payloads compose of medium scaled but stable launch market due to the nature of the missions. GX rocket is a two-stage rocket of well flight proven liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene booster and LOX/liquid natural gas (LNG) upper stage. This LOX/LNG propulsion under development by Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is robust with comparable performance as other propulsions and have future potential for wider application such as exploration programs. GX rocket is being developed through a joint work between the industries and GX rocket is applying a business oriented approach in order to realize competitive launch services for which well flight proven hardware and necessary new technology are to be introduced as much as possible. It is GALEX's goal to offer “Easy Access to Space”, a highly reliable and user-friendly launch services with a competitive price. GX commercial launch will start in Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007 2008.

  3. Air-Powered Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

    This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

  4. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  5. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  6. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  7. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  8. Rocket Tablet,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-12

    not accustomed to Chinese food, he ran off directly to the home of the Mayor of Beijing and requested two Western cuisine cooks from a hotel. At the...played out by our Chinese sons and daughters of ancient times. The famous Han dynasty general Li Guang was quickly cured of disease and led an army...Union) of China. This place was about to become the birthplace of the Chinese people’s first rocket baby. Section One In this eternal wasteland called

  9. The UK sounding rocket and balloon programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The UK civil science balloon and rocket programmes for 1979/80/81 are summarised and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981/85 mentioned. In the main the facilities available are 10 in number balloons up to 40 m cu ft launched from USA or Australia and up to 10 in number 7 1/2'' diameter Petrel rockets. This paper outlines the 1979 and 1980 programmes and explains the longer term plans covering the next 5 years. (Auth.)

  10. Subsonic Glideback Rocket Demonstrator Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.

  11. The Potential for Ozone Depletion in Solid Rocket Motor Plumes by Heterogeneous Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanning-Lee, M

    1996-01-01

    ... (hydroxylated alumina), respectively, over the temperature range -60 to 200 degrees C. This work addresses the potential for stratospheric ozone depletion by launch vehicle solid rocket motor exhaust...

  12. Investigation Regarding Assertions Made by Former United Launch Alliance Executive (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-05

    reviewed documents and contract awards. First, did ULA improperly transfer five RD-180 rocket engines from NSS launch missions to commercial ...distinguish between commercial and government missions and uses a “first in, first out” asset management method for its RD-180 rocket engines. The...improperly transfer five RD-180 rocket engines from NSS launch missions to commercial launch missions to influence congressional legislation? 2. Did

  13. Rockets for Extended Source Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntaffer, Randall

    The soft X-ray background surrounds our local galactic environment yet very little is known about the physical characteristics of this plasma. A high-resolution spectrum could unlock the properties of this million degree gas but the diffuse, low intensity nature of the background have made it difficult to observe, especially with a dispersive spectrograph. Previous observations have relied on X-ray detector energy resolution which produces poorly defined spectra that are poorly fit by complex plasma models. Here we propose a series of suborbital rocket flights that will begin the characterization of this elusive source through high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy. The rocket-based spectrograph can resolve individual emission lines over the soft X-ray band and place tight constraints on the temperature, density, abundance, ionization state and age of the plasma. These payloads will draw heavily from the heritage gained from previous rocket missions, while also benefiting from related NASA technology development programs. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) team has a history of designing and flying spectrometer components onboard rockets while also being scientific leaders in the field of diffuse soft X-ray astronomy. The PSU program will provide hands-on training of young scientists in the techniques of instrumental and observational X-ray astronomy. The proposed rocket program will also expose these researchers to a full experiment cycle: design, fabrication, tolerance analysis, assembly, flight-qualification, calibration, integration, launch, and data analysis; using a combination of technologies suitable for adaptation to NASA's major missions. The PSU program in suborbital X-ray astronomy represents an exciting mix of compelling science, heritage, cutting-edge technology development, and training of future scientists.

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most impor...

  15. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1978-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Norwegian sounding rocket programme is reasonably well defined up to and including the winter of 1981/82. All the projects have been planned and will be carried out in international cooperation. Norwegian scientists so far plan to participate in a number of 24 rocket payloads over the period. Out of these 18 will be launched from the Andoya rocket range, 3 from Esrange and 3 from the siple station in the antarctic. (author)

  16. Pegasus Rocket Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A small, desk-top model of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus winged rocket booster. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable

  17. Project Stratos; reaching space with a student-built rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneveer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the spring of 2009 a team of 15 TU Delft students travelled to Kiruna, Sweden with only one goal: to launch the rocket Stratos I they had been working on for 2 years to an altitude of over 12km, thereby claiming the European Amateur Rocket Altitude record. These students were part of Delft

  18. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  19. Focused RBCC Experiments: Two-Rocket Configuration Experiments and Hydrocarbon/Oxygen Rocket Ejector Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    This addendum report documents the results of two additional efforts for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector mode research work carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA s technology development efforts for enabling 3 d generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The tasks reported here build on an earlier NASA MSFC funded research program on rocket ejector investigations. The first task investigated the improvements of a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen twin thruster RBCC rocket ejector system over a single rocket system. The second task investigated the performance of a hydrocarbon (liquid JP-7)/gaseous oxygen single thruster rocket-ejector system. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket-ejector s internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static diffusion and afterburning (DAB) configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions. For all experimental conditions, overall system performance was obtained through global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust. Detailed mixing and combustion information was obtained through Raman spectroscopy measurements of major species (gaseous oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapor) for the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket ejector experiments.

  20. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

  1. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  2. How High? How Fast? How Long? Modeling Water Rocket Flight with Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashline, George; Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    We describe an easy and fun project using water rockets to demonstrate applications of single variable calculus concepts. We provide procedures and a supplies list for launching and videotaping a water rocket flight to provide the experimental data. Because of factors such as fuel expulsion and wind effects, the water rocket does not follow the…

  3. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Sounding Rockets Program (SRP) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... government agencies, and educational institutions have conducted suborbital rocket launches from the PFRR...

  4. 14 CFR 437.95 - Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... suborbital rockets. 437.95 Section 437.95 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL... of an Experimental Permit § 437.95 Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. A permittee may launch or reenter additional reusable suborbital rockets of the same design under the permit after...

  5. Modeling and validation of Ku-band signal attenuation through rocket plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, van der B.J.; Chintalapati, S.; Kirk, D.R.; Gutierrez, H.; Bun, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Communications to and from a launch vehicle during ascent are of critical importance to the success of rocket-launch operations. During ascent, the rocket's exhaust plume causes significant interference in the radio communications between the vehicle and ground station. This paper presents an

  6. Launch Pad in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, James; Tamasy, Gabor; Mueller, Rob; Townsend, Van; Sampson, Jeff; Lane, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  7. Wave-particle interaction phenomena observed by antarctic rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.; Hirasawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Rocket measurements of wave and particles activities made at Syowa Station in Antarctica during IMS period are reviewed. Nine rockets were used for such observations, out of which 6 rockets were launched in the auroral sky. In the VLF frequency range, 0 - 10 KHz, wideband spectra of wave electric and magnetic fields, Poynting flux and the direction of propagation vector were measured for chorus, ELF and VLF hiss, and for electrostatic noises. In the MF and HF range, the dynamic frequency spectra of 0.1 - 10 MHz were measured. The relationship of these wave phenomena with energetic particle activities measured by the same rockets are discussed. (author)

  8. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  9. Maturation of Structural Health Management Systems for Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn; Zhang, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Concepts of an autonomous and automated space-compliant diagnostic system were developed for conditioned-based maintenance (CBM) of rocket motors for space exploration vehicles. The diagnostic system will provide real-time information on the integrity of critical structures on launch vehicles, improve their performance, and greatly increase crew safety while decreasing inspection costs. Using the SMART Layer technology as a basis, detailed procedures and calibration techniques for implementation of the diagnostic system were developed. The diagnostic system is a distributed system, which consists of a sensor network, local data loggers, and a host central processor. The system detects external impact to the structure. The major functions of the system include an estimate of impact location, estimate of impact force at impacted location, and estimate of the structure damage at impacted location. This system consists of a large-area sensor network, dedicated multiple local data loggers with signal processing and data analysis software to allow for real-time, in situ monitoring, and longterm tracking of structural integrity of solid rocket motors. Specifically, the system could provide easy installation of large sensor networks, onboard operation under harsh environments and loading, inspection of inaccessible areas without disassembly, detection of impact events and impact damage in real-time, and monitoring of a large area with local data processing to reduce wiring.

  10. Safety Practices Followed in ISRO Launch Complex- An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurty, V.; Srivastava, V. K.; Ramesh, M.

    2005-12-01

    The spaceport of India, Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is located at Sriharikota, a spindle shaped island on the east coast of southern India.SDSC SHAR has a unique combination of facilities, such as a solid propellant production plant, a rocket motor static test facility, launch complexes for different types of rockets, telemetry, telecommand, tracking, data acquisition and processing facilities and other support services.The Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant (SPROB) located at SDSC SHAR produces composite solid propellant for rocket motors of ISRO. The main ingredients of the propellant produced here are ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer), fine aluminium powder (fuel) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (binder).SDSC SHAR has facilities for testing solid rocket motors, both at ambient conditions and at simulated high altitude conditions. Other test facilities for the environmental testing of rocket motors and their subsystems include Vibration, Shock, Constant Acceleration and Thermal / Humidity.SDSC SHAR has the necessary infrastructure for launching satellites into low earth orbit, polar orbit and geo-stationary transfer orbit. The launch complexes provide complete support for vehicle assembly, fuelling with both earth storable and cryogenic propellants, checkout and launch operations. Apart from these, it has facilities for launching sounding rockets for studying the Earth's upper atmosphere and for controlled reentry and recovery of ISRO's space capsule reentry missions.Safety plays a major role at SDSC SHAR right from the mission / facility design phase to post launch operations. This paper presents briefly the infrastructure available at SDSC SHAR of ISRO for launching sounding rockets, satellite launch vehicles, controlled reentry missions and the built in safety systems. The range safety methodology followed as a part of the real time mission monitoring is presented. The built in safety systems

  11. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  12. Experimental reslts from the HERO project: In situ measurements of ionospheric modifications using sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, G.; Grandal, B.; Neske, E.; Ott, W.; Spenner, K.; Maseide, K.; Troim, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Heating Rocket project HERO comprised the first in situ experiments to measure artifical ionospheric modifications at F layer heights set up by radio waves transmitted from the Heating facility at Ramfjord near Tromso in Northern Norway. Four instrumented payloads were launched on sounding rockets from Andoya Rocket Range during the autumn of 1982 into a sunlit ionosphere with the sun close to the horizon. The payloads recorded modifications, in particular, the presence of electron plasma waves near the reflection level of the heating wave. The amplitude and phase of the three components of the electric and magnetic fields of the heating wave were measured simultaneously as a function of altitude. Coherent spectra of the three electric field components of the locally generated electron plasma waves were obtained in a 50-kHz-wide band. At the same time quasi-continuous measurements were made on several fixed frequencies from 4 kHz to 16 kHz below the heating frequency and in the VLF-range using linear dipole antennas. Moreover, measurements were made of electron temperature, suprathermal electrons and local electron density along the rocket trajectory. The experimental results will be presented and discussed

  13. First results of the Auroral Turbulance II rocket experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielides, M.A.; Ranta, A.; Ivchenco, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Auroral Turbulance II sounding rocket was launched on February 11, 1997 into moderately active nightside aurora from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, US. The experiment consisted of three independent, completely instrumented payloads launched by a single vehicle. The aim of the experiment...

  14. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  15. Rocket center Peenemünde — Personal memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    Von Braun built his first rockets as a young teenager. At 14, he started making plans for rockets for human travel to the Moon and Mars. The German Army began a rocket program in 1929. Two years later, Colonel (later General) Becker contacted von Braun who experimented with rockets in Berlin, gave him a contract in 1932, and, jointly with the Air Force, in 1936 built the rocket center Peenemünde where von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under Army auspices, while the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes. Albert Speer, impressed by the work of the rocketeers, allowed a modest growth of the Peenemünde project; this brought Dannenberg to the von Braun team in 1940. Hitler did not believe in rockets; he ignored the A-4 project until 1942 when he began to support it, expecting that it could turn the fortunes of war for him. He drastically increased the Peenemünde work force and allowed the transfer of soldiers from the front to Peenemünde; that was when Stuhlinger, in 1943, came to Peenemünde as a Pfc.-Ph.D. Later that year, Himmler wrenched the authority over A-4 production out of the Army's hands, put it under his command, and forced production of the immature rocket at Mittelwerk, and its military deployment against targets in France, Belgium, and England. Throughout the development of the A-4 rocket, von Braun was the undisputed leader of the project. Although still immature by the end of the war, the A-4 had proceeded to a status which made it the first successful long-range precision rocket, the prototype for a large number of military rockets built by numerous nations after the war, and for space rockets that launched satellites and traveled to the Moon and the planets.

  16. Space Launch System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  17. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting method is a normative forecasting technique that allows the designer to quantify the effects of adding new technologies on a given design. This method can be used to assess and identify the necessary technological improvements needed to close the gap that exists between the current design and one that satisfies all constraints imposed on the design. The TIF methodology allows for more design knowledge to be brought to the earlier phases of the design process, making use of tools such as Quality Function Deployments, Morphological Matrices, Response Surface Methodology, and Monte Carlo Simulations.2 This increased knowledge allows for more informed decisions to be made earlier in the design process, resulting in shortened design cycle time. This paper will investigate applying the TIF method, which has been widely used in aircraft applications, to the conceptual design of a hydrocarbon rocket engine. In order to reinstate a manned presence in space, the U.S. must develop an affordable and sustainable launch capability. Hydrocarbon-fueled rockets have drawn interest from numerous major government and commercial entities because they offer a low-cost heavy-lift option that would allow for frequent launches1. However, the development of effective new hydrocarbon rockets would likely require new technologies in order to overcome certain design constraints. The use of advanced design methods, such as the TIF method, enables the designer to identify key areas in need of improvement, allowing one to dial in a proposed technology and assess its impact on the system. Through analyses such as this one, a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-fueled vehicle that meets all imposed requirements can be achieved.

  18. Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

  19. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the constuction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31% increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  20. Eddie Rocket's Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Vahter, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Eddie Rocket's Franchise - Setting up a franchise restaurant in Helsinki. TIIVISTELMÄ: Eddie Rocket's on menestynyt amerikkalaistyylinen 1950-luvun ”diner” franchiseravintolaketju Irlannista. Ravintoloita on perustettu viimeisen 18 vuoden aikana 28 kappaletta Irlantiin ja Isoon Britanniaan sekä yksi Espanjaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tutkia onko Eddie Rocket'silla potentiaalia menestyä Helsingissä, Suomessa. Tutkimuskysymystä on lähestytty toimiala-analyysin, markkinatutkimuksen j...

  1. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  2. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nippert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket with a model using virtual reality and a photorealistic simulation of the launch that allows the students to appreciate the optimization problems associated with water and air pressure and launch angle. Our usage data indicates that students easily adapt to the virtual reality simulation and use our simulation for intuitive experiments on their own to optimize launch conditions.

  3. Method for Producing Launch/Landing Pads and Structures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current plans for deep space exploration include building landing-launch pads capable of withstanding the rocket blast of much larger spacecraft that that of the Apollo days. The proposed concept will develop lightweight launch and landing pad materials from in-situ materials, utilizing regolith to produce controllable porous cast metallic foam brickstiles shapes. These shapes can be utilized to lay a landing launch platform, as a construction material or as more complex parts of mechanical assemblies.

  4. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  5. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  6. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  7. Design options for advanced manned launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    1995-03-01

    Various concepts for advanced manned launch systems are examined for delivery missions to space station and polar orbit. Included are single-and two-stage winged systems with rocket and/or air-breathing propulsion systems. For near-term technologies, two-stage reusable rocket systems are favored over single-stage rocket or two-stage air-breathing/rocket systems. Advanced technologies enable viable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts. Although two-stage rocket systems continue to be lighter in dry weight than SSTO vehicles, advantages in simpler operations may make SSTO vehicles more cost-effective over the life cycle. Generally, rocket systems maintain a dry-weight advantage over air-breathing systems at the advanced technology levels, but to a lesser degree than when near-term technologies are used. More detailed understanding of vehicle systems and associated ground and flight operations requirements and procedures is essential in determining quantitative discrimination between these latter concepts.

  8. Measurements of auroral particles by means of sounding rockets of mother-daughter type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, A.

    1985-11-01

    The scientific objective of the S17 payloads was to study the ionosphere during auroral situations and especially with regards to the local fine structure and a possible separation of spatial and temporal variations of auroral phenomena. The intensities of 8 keV and 2 keV electrons have been measured from one sounding rocket launched into a breakup aurora of moderate activity and from another rocket launched into a very active substorm situation. Both the rockets were of mother-daughter type i.e. had two separated payloads. The general features in the data of different particle energies were very similar over the whole flight time of the rockets. Special events and gradients and well identifiable shapes in the particle intensities were studied to see if the intensity fluctuations obtained from two detectors in one payload or from detectors into separate payloads were time delayed. Such time delays in the particle flux intensities were obvious in both of the rocket measurements and most of these time shifts could be understood as caused by spatial variations in the particle precipitation. In parts of the rocket flights the particle intensity variations were true temporal changes. The time lags between 8 keV and 2 keV electron intensities detected in the same payload, which could be observed and were obtained by crosscorrelation analyses, were in the range less than 0.3 s and most of them less than 0.1 s. If the time differences are assumed to be caused by the velocity dispersion of the particles, the particle data reported here placed the modulation source at a distance of less than 10 000 km from the rocket position. Measurements at the S17-1 mother payload of the electric field have been compared with data of precipitating electrons and low-light-level-TV-recording of the auroral situation. An inverted-V precipitation event was observed and was associated with auroral arcs and with reversals of the measured electric field components implicating the possibility of

  9. Field of infrasound wave on the earth from blast wave, produced by supersonic flight of a rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    It was developed a physical model, which allowed calculating a field of infrasound wave on the earth from blast wave, produced by supersonic flight of a rocket. For space launching site Baikonur it is shown that the nearest horizontal distance from launching site of rocket up to which arrive infrasound waves, produced by supersonic flight of a rocket, is 56 km. Amplitude of acoustic impulse decreases in 5 times on distance of 600 km. Duration of acoustic impulse increases from 1.5 to 3 s on the same distance. Values of acoustic field parameters on the earth surface, practically, do not depend from season of launching of rocket. (author)

  10. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  11. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to Earth Orbit from a Tethered Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Propellant will be more than 85% of the mass that needs to be lofted into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in the planned program of Exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This paper describes a possible means for launching thousands of tons of propellant per year into LEO at a cost 15 to 30 times less than the current launch cost per kilogram. The basic idea is to mass-produce very simple, small and relatively low-performance rockets at a cost per kilogram comparable to automobiles, instead of the 25X greater cost that is customary for current launch vehicles that are produced in small quantities and which are manufactured with performance near the limits of what is possible. These small, simple rockets can reach orbit because they are launched above 95% of the atmosphere, where the drag losses even on a small rocket are acceptable, and because they can be launched nearly horizontally with very simple guidance based primarily on spin-stabilization. Launching above most of the atmosphere is accomplished by winching the rocket up a tether to a balloon. A fuel depot in equatorial orbit passes over the launch site on every orbit (approximately every 90 minutes). One or more rockets can be launched each time the fuel depot passes overhead, so the launch rate can be any multiple of 6000 small rockets per year, a number that is sufficient to reap the benefits of mass production.

  12. Plasma waves observed by sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of plasma wave phenomena have been conducted with several rockets launched at Kagoshima Space Center, Kyushu, Japan, and at Showa Base, Antarctica. This report presents some results of the observations in anticipation of having valuable comments from other plasma physicists, especially from those who are concerned with laboratory plasma. In the K-9M-41 rocket experiment, VLF plasma waves were observed. In this experiment, the electron beam of several tens of uA was emitted from a hot cathode when a positive dc bias changing from 0 to 10V at 1V interval each second was applied to a receiving dipole antenna. The discrete emissions with 'U' shaped frequency spectrum were observed for the dc bias over 3 volts. The U emissions appeared twice per spin period of the rocket. Similar rocket experiment was performed at Showa Base using a loop and dipole antenna and without hot cathode. Emissions were observed with varying conditions. At present, the authors postulate that such emissions may be produced just in the vicinity of a rocket due to a kind of wake effect. (Aoki, K.)

  13. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  14. The Role of CFD Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Outline of the presentation: CFD at NASA/MSFC (1) Flight Projects are the Customer -- No Science Experiments (2) Customer Support (3) Guiding Philosophy and Resource Allocation (4) Where is CFD at NASA/MSFC? Examples of the expanding Role of CFD at NASA/MSFC (1) Liquid Rocket Engine Applications : Evolution from Symmetric and Steady to 3D Unsteady (2)Launch Pad Debris Transport-> Launch Pad Induced Environments (a) STS and Launch Pad Geometry-steady (b) Moving Body Shuttle Launch Simulations (c) IOP and Acoustics Simulations (3)General Purpose CFD Applications (4) Turbomachinery Applications

  15. SSTO rockets. A practical possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1994-07-01

    Most experts agree that single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rockets would become feasible if more advanced technologies were available to reduce the vehicle dry weight, increase propulsion system performance, or both. However, these technologies are usually judged to be very ambitious and very far off. This notion persists despite major advances in technology and vehicle design in the past decade. There appears to be four major misperceptions about SSTOs, regarding their mass fraction, their presumed inadequate performance margin, their supposedly small payloads, and their extreme sensitivity to unanticipated vehicle weight growth. These misperceptions can be dispelled for SSTO rockets using advanced technologies that could be matured and demonstrated in the near term. These include a graphite-composite primary structure, graphite-composite and Al-Li propellant tanks with integral reusable thermal protection, long-life tripropellant or LOX-hydrogen engines, and several technologies related to operational effectiveness, including vehicle health monitoring, autonomous avionics/flight control, and operable launch and ground handling systems.

  16. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  17. Technology Maturation and Flight Validation for Air Launched Liquid Rockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Generation Orbit is partnering with NASA-AFRC to conduct a flight test campaign for GOLauncher 1 (GO1) Inert Test Article (ITA), to include aircraft integration...

  18. Assessment of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Training Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Unclassified Unclassified Unlimited NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) i Precribed by AN % Std Z39-18296-102? ARI Research Report 1614 13...Chiefs reported that they can get to be monotonous for the troops and produce " burn out"(9o 12 14)* 33 Post Number 2 reported success with Best-by

  19. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  20. A Suborbital Spaceship for Short Duration Space and Microsat Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Bahn, Pat

    2005-01-01

    The TGV Rockets corporation is working on a small Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing Suborbital Rocketship capable of carrying 1000 kg to 100 km for low cost. This provides unique and interesting capabilities for payload test and qualification, development and short duration experimentation. Theoretical possibilities include micro-sat launch. TGV Rockets was founded in 1997 on a desire to commercialize the Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)1,5,8. Subsequently TGV has been working towards th...

  1. Simultaneous rocket and radar measurements of currents in an auroral arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.M.; Bering, E.A.; Vondrak, R.R.; Anderson, H.R.; Cloutier, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed study of electric field, current and conductivities associated with an auroral arc was made in a coordinated rocket and radar experiment in Alaska on March 9, 1978. The payload, designated 29.007 UE, was launched at 1013 p.m. local time. It penetrated the diffuse aurora on the upleg and at apogee traversed field lines connected to a stable auroral arc of 40 kR intensity. Among the instruments carried by the payload were a vector magnetometer, a set of electrostatic double probes and a set of electron and proton spectrometers. Simultaneous electron density and line-of-sight velocity measurements were made by Chatanika radar operating in an elevation scan mode in the magnetic meridian plane. Both the radar and rocket measurements indicated that the zonal electric field was westward and approximately constant across the arc with a magnitude of about 7 mV/m. Small differences between the rocket and radar zonal electric field measurements indicated the presence of upward drifting ions in the region of the arc. The meridional field was large and northward equatorward of the arc, but negligible within the arc. Conductivities computed from measured fluxes of energetic electrons agreed well with the conductivities derived from the radar measureements of electron density. The electric field and conductivity measurements indicated that the zonal currents were eastward equatorward of the arc and westward within the arc. These electrojet currents agreed well with those inferred from the rocket magnetometer data. Better agreement was obtained when a westward neutral wind was added. The westward wind was also consistent with differences between the rocket and radar meridional electric fields. The meridional currents computed from the electric field measurements were northward over the entire region

  2. Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System/Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System Alternative Warhead (GMLRS/GMLRS AW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Physical Configuration Audit for the GMLRS AW was completed at the system level in March 2015. ​Director of Operational Test and Evaluation Assessment...Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 50% The confidence level used in establishing the cost estimate for GMLRS/GMLRS AW...PAUC Development Estimate Changes PAUC Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 0.039 -0.003 0.001 0.001 0.009 0.037 0.000 0.000 0.045

  3. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  4. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  5. Feasibility and Performance of the Microwave Thermal Rocket Launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Culick, Fred E. C.

    2004-01-01

    Beamed-energy launch concepts employing a microwave thermal thruster are feasible in principle, and microwave sources of sufficient power to launch tons into LEO already exist. Microwave thermal thrusters operate on an analogous principle to nuclear thermal thrusters, which have experimentally demonstrated specific impulses exceeding 850 seconds. Assuming such performance, simple application of the rocket equation suggests that payload fractions of 10% are possible for a single stage to orbit...

  6. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  7. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  8. The History of Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the origins and development of rockets mainly from the perspective of warfare. Includes some early enthusiasts, such as Congreve, Tsiolkovosky, Goddard, and Oberth. Describes developments from World War II, and during satellite development. (YP)

  9. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and Rock

  10. Sounding rocket study of auroral electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of energetic electrons in the auroral zone have proved to be one of the most useful tools in investigating the phenomena of auroral arc formation. This dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the electron data from two sounding rocket campaigns and interprets the measurements in terms of existing auroral models. The Polar Cusp campaign consisted of a single rocket launched from Cape Parry, Canada into the afternoon auroral zone at 1:31:13 UT on January 21, 1982. The results include the measurement of a narrow, magnetic field aligned electron flux at the edge of an arc. This electron precipitation was found to have a remarkably constant 1.2 eV temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field over a 200 to 900 eV energy range. The payload also made simultaneous measurements of both energetic electrons and 3-MHz plasma waves in an auroral arc. Analysis has shown that the waves are propagating in the upper hybrid band and should be generated by a positive slope in the parallel electron distribution. A correlation was found between the 3-MHz waves and small positive slopes in the parallel electron distribution but experimental uncertainties in the electron measurement were large enough to influence the analysis. The BIDARCA campaign consisted of two sounding rockets launched from Poker Flat and Fort Yukon, Alaska at 9:09:00 UT and 9:10:40 UT on February 7, 1984

  11. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Searing the early evening sky with its near sun-like rocket exhaust, the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39A at 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2 on its way to the Mir space station. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  12. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  13. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  14. Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

  15. Comet mission is blown off course by faulty rocket

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    ESA has announced that the launch of the Rosetta probe, has been delayed indefinitely because of problems with the unreliable Ariane-5 rocket on which it was to fly. The project will now have to be redesigned completely to target a different comet at a later date (1/2 page).

  16. LV-IMLI: Integrated MLI/Aeroshell for Cryogenic Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic propellants have the highest energy density of any rocket fuel, and are used in most NASA and commercial launch vehicles to power their ascent. Cryogenic...

  17. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  18. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  19. The reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

  20. The reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

  1. Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 2 Agenda • Solid Rocket Motors • History of Sea Level Testing • Small Component Testing • Full-scale Testing • Altitude...Facility • History of Testing • Questions -Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 3 RQ-West • AFRL/RQ...INTEGRATION FACILITY NATIONAL HOVER TEST FACILITY TITAN SRM TEST FACILITY TS-1C1-125 LARGE ENGINE/COMPONENT TEST FACILITY TS-1A 1-120 1-115 X-33 LAUNCH

  2. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  3. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  4. Russian Meteorological and Geophysical Rockets of New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, V.; Gvozdev, Yu.; Lykov, A.; Shershakov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Pozin, A.; Afanasenkov, A.; Savenkov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    To study the process in the middle and upper atmosphere, ionosphere and near-Earth space, as well as to monitor the geophysical environment in Russian Federal Service for Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET) the development of new generation of meteorological and geophysical rockets has been completed. The modern geophysical research rocket system MR-30 was created in Research and Production Association RPA "Typhoon". The basis of the complex MR-30 is a new geophysical sounding rocket MN-300 with solid propellant, Rocket launch takes place at an angle of 70º to 90º from the launcher, which is a farm with a guide rail type required for imparting initial rotation rocket. The Rocket is spin stabilized with a spin rate between 5 and 7 Hz. Launch weight is 1564 kg, and the mass of the payload of 50 to 150 kg. MR-300 is capable of lifting up to 300 km, while the area of dispersion points for booster falling is an ellipse with parameters 37x 60 km. The payload of the rocket MN-300 consists of two sections: a sealed, located below the instrument compartment, and not sealed, under the fairing. Block of scientific equipment is formed on the platform in a modular layout. This makes it possible to solve a wide range of tasks and conduct research and testing technologies using a unique environment of space, as well as to conduct technological experiments testing and research systems and spacecraft equipment. New Russian rocket system MERA (MEteorological Rocket for Atmospheric Research) belongs to so called "dart" technique that provide lifting of small scientific payload up to altitude 100 km and descending with parachute. It was developed at Central Aerological Observatory jointly with State Unitary Enterprise Instrument Design Bureau. The booster provides a very rapid acceleration to about Mach 5. After the burning phase of the buster the dart is separated and continues ballistic flight for about 2 minutes. The dart carries the instrument payload+ parachute

  5. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  6. US Rocket Propulsion Industrial Base Health Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The number of active liquid rocket engine and solid rocket motor development programs has severely declined since the "space race" of the 1950s and 1960s center dot This downward trend has been exacerbated by the retirement of the Space Shuttle, transition from the Constellation Program to the Space launch System (SLS) and similar activity in DoD programs center dot In addition with consolidation in the industry, the rocket propulsion industrial base is under stress. To Improve the "health" of the RPIB, we need to understand - The current condition of the RPIB - How this compares to past history - The trend of RPIB health center dot This drives the need for a concise set of "metrics" - Analogous to the basic data a physician uses to determine the state of health of his patients - Easy to measure and collect - The trend is often more useful than the actual data point - Can be used to focus on problem areas and develop preventative measures The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs. center dot The RPIB encompasses US government, academic, and commercial (including industry primes and their supplier base) research, development, test, evaluation, and manufacturing capabilities and facilities. center dot The RPIB includes the skilled workforce, related intellectual property, engineering and support services, and supply chain operations and management. This definition touches the five main segments of the U.S. RPIB as categorized by the USG: defense, intelligence community, civil government, academia, and commercial sector. The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs

  7. Advanced Launch System Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-120 consists of three liquid rocket stands, with five firing positions, a control center and various support facilities. Vertical Stand 1A is a...

  8. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  9. Launching technological innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren

    2009-01-01

    have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...

  10. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  11. This Is Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries, but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al. In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

  12. The Relativistic Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  13. This "Is" Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical…

  14. ROCKETS: Soar to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Christine E. W.; O'Merle, Mary Jane; White, Gene

    2017-01-01

    This article describes ROCKETS, an after-school program for at-risk youth, and how the university students became involved in this service-learning project. The article discusses the steps that were taken to start the program, what is being done to continue the program, and the challenges that faculty have faced. This program is an authentic…

  15. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  16. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  17. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  18. Improved Background Removal in Sounding Rocket Neutral Atom Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. R.; Rowland, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The VISIONS sounding rocket, launched into a substorm on Feb 7, 2013 from Poker Flat, Alaska had a novel miniaturized energetic neutral atom (ENA) imager onboard. We present further analysis of the ENA data from this rocket flight, including improved removal of ultraviolet and electron contamination. In particular, the relative error source contributions due to geocoronal, auroral, and airglow UV, as well as energetic electrons from 10 eV to 3 keV were assessed. The resulting data provide a more clear understanding of the spatial and temporal variations of the ion populations that are energized to tens or hundreds of eV.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  20. Water Rockets. Get Funny With Newton's Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roca Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement of the rocket has been used for decades to encourage students in the study of physics. This system has an undeniable interest to introduce concepts such as properties of gases, laws of Newton,  exchange  between  different  types  of  energy  and  its  conservation  or fluid  mechanics.  Our  works has  been  to  build  and  launch  these  rockets  in  different  educational  levels  and  in  each  of  these  ones  have introduced  the  part  of  Physics  more  suited  to  the  knowledge  of  our  students.  The  aim  of  the  learning experience  is  to  launch  the  rocket  as  far  as  possible  and  learn  to  predict  the  travelled  distance,  using Newton's  laws  and fluid  mechanics.  After  experimentation  we  demonstrated  to  be  able  to  control  the parameters that improve the performance of our rocket, such as the  fill factor, the volume and mass of the empty  bottle,  liquid  density,  launch  angle,  pressure  prior  air  release.  In addition, it is a fun experience can be attached to all levels of education in primary and high school.

  1. Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

  2. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  3. INTELSAT III LIFTS OFF FROM LC 17A ABOARD A DELTA LAUNCH VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    A Delta launch vehicle carrying the Intelsat III spacecraft was launched from Complex 17 at 8:09 p.m. EDT. A malfunction in flight resulted in the rocket breaking up some 102 seconds into the mission. Destruct action was initiated by the Air Force East Test Range some six seconds later when it was apparent that the mission could not succeed.

  4. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  5. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  6. Observation of galactic soft x-ray by the rocket K-10-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasue; Higuchi, Masuto; Kitamoto, Shunji; Miyamoto, Shigenori; Kawabata, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was performed to observe the soft X-ray from Cygnus Loop. Since the attitude control system of the rocket did not work well, the observed area was around Hercules HI min. The observation was made with the HTXT on K-10-14. The local hot plasma in this region was able to be evaluated. The spectrum analysis was made on the data (region 1) taken from 114 to 219 second after the launch of the rocket and the data (region 2) taken from 226 to 300 second. In these two periods, the direction of field of view was stable. The counting rates of M band (more than 0.5 KeV) and L band (less than 0.3 KeV) are shown in figures. The counting rate in the region 2 was stronger than that of the region 1. By Hadamard transformation, images were constructed from the obtained data. The intensity of the diffuse component of soft X-ray was isotropic. This result proved the correct operation of HTXT. The chi-square fit of the energy spectrum in the region 2 showed a good agreement with a high temperature plasma model. In the region 1, the simple high temperature plasma model was able to be rejected with 90 percent confidence. It can be said that the Hercules HI min region is filled with local hot plasma, and this reaches to the end of direction of thickness of galaxy disk. (Kato, T.)

  7. Observation and simulation of the ionosphere disturbance waves triggered by rocket exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charles C. H.; Chen, Chia-Hung; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Lin, Jia-Ting; Kakinami, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-01

    Observations and theoretical modeling of the ionospheric disturbance waves generated by rocket launches are investigated. During the rocket passage, time rate change of total electron content (rTEC) enhancement with the V-shape shock wave signature is commonly observed, followed by acoustic wave disturbances and region of negative rTEC centered along the trajectory. Ten to fifteen min after the rocket passage, delayed disturbance waves appeared and propagated along direction normal to the V-shape wavefronts. These observation features appeared most prominently in the 2016 North Korea rocket launch showing a very distinct V-shape rTEC enhancement over enormous areas along the southeast flight trajectory despite that it was also appeared in the 2009 North Korea rocket launch with the eastward flight trajectory. Numerical simulations using the physical-based nonlinear and nonhydrostatic coupled model of neutral atmosphere and ionosphere reproduce promised results in qualitative agreement with the characteristics of ionospheric disturbance waves observed in the 2009 event by considering the released energy of the rocket exhaust as the disturbance source. Simulations reproduce the shock wave signature of electron density enhancement, acoustic wave disturbances, the electron density depletion due to the rocket-induced pressure bulge, and the delayed disturbance waves. The pressure bulge results in outward neutral wind flows carrying neutrals and plasma away from it and leading to electron density depletions. Simulations further show, for the first time, that the delayed disturbance waves are produced by the surface reflection of the earlier arrival acoustic wave disturbances.

  8. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  9. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  10. Transient Acoustic Environment Prediction Tool for Launch Vehicles in Motion during Early Lift-Off, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicles experience extreme acoustic loads dominated by rocket exhaust plume interactions with ground structures during lift-off, which can produce damaging...

  11. The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew

    2017-08-01

    The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) is a diffuse soft X-ray spectrometer that will launch on a sounding rocket from the Kwajalein Atoll. WRX-R has a field of view of >10 deg2 and will observe the Vela supernova remnant. A mechanical collimator, state-of-the-art off-plane reflection grating array and hybrid CMOS detector will allow WRX to achieve the most highly-resolved spectrum of the Vela SNR ever recorded. In addition, this payload will fly a hard X-ray telescope that is offset from the soft X-ray spectrometer in order to observe the pulsar at the center of the remnant. We present here an introduction to the instrument, the expected science return, and an update on the state of the payload as we work towards launch.

  12. Feasibility and Performance of the Microwave Thermal Rocket Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Culick, Fred E. C.

    2004-03-01

    Beamed-energy launch concepts employing a microwave thermal thruster are feasible in principle, and microwave sources of sufficient power to launch tons into LEO already exist. Microwave thermal thrusters operate on an analogous principle to nuclear thermal thrusters, which have experimentally demonstrated specific impulses exceeding 850 seconds. Assuming such performance, simple application of the rocket equation suggests that payload fractions of 10% are possible for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) microwave thermal rocket. We present an SSTO concept employing a scaled X-33 aeroshell. The flat aeroshell underside is covered by a thin-layer microwave absorbent heat-exchanger that forms part of the thruster. During ascent, the heat-exchanger faces the microwave beam. A simple ascent trajectory analysis incorporating X-33 aerodynamic data predicts a 10% payload fraction for a 1 ton craft of this type. In contrast, the Saturn V had 3 non-reusable stages and achieved a payload fraction of 4%.

  13. Foreign launch competition growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  14. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  15. Performance analysis of an IMU-augmented GNSS tracking system on board the MAIUS-1 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin; Grillenberger, Andreas; Markgraf, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation receivers are adequate tracking sensors for range safety of both orbital launch vehicles and suborbital sounding rockets. Due to high accuracy and its low system complexity, satellite navigation is seen as well-suited supplement or replacement of conventional tracking systems like radar. Having the well-known shortcomings of satellite navigation like deliberate or unintentional interferences in mind, it is proposed to augment the satellite navigation receiver by an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to enhance continuity and availability of localization. The augmented receiver is thus enabled to output at least an inertial position solution in case of signal outages. In a previous study, it was shown by means of simulation using the example of Ariane 5 that the performance of a low-grade microelectromechanical IMU is sufficient to bridge expected outages of some ten seconds, and still meeting the range safety requirements in effect. In this publication, these theoretical findings shall be substantiated by real flight data that were recorded on MAIUS-1, a sounding rocket launched from Esrange, Sweden, in early 2017. The analysis reveals that the chosen representative of a microelectromechanical IMU is suitable to bridge outages of up to thirty seconds.

  16. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  17. Research Technology (ASTP) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  18. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  19. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS

  20. THE STERN PROJECT–HANDS ON ROCKETS SCIENCE FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENT

    OpenAIRE

    Schüttauf, Katharina; Stamminger, Andreas; Lappöhn, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    In April 2012, the German Aerospace Center DLR initiated a sponsorship program for university students to develop, build and launch their own rockets over a period of three years. The program designation STERN was abbreviated from the German “STudentische Experimental-RaketeN”, which translates to Student- Experimental-Rockets. The primary goal of the STERN program is to inspire students in the subject of space transportation through hands-on activities within a pro...

  1. On the coordination of EISCAT measurements with rocket and satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1977-01-01

    The scientific interest of combining EISCAT measurements of the thermal ionospheric plasma with sounding rocket and/or satellite measurements of the hot plasma distribution function and other variables is discussed briefly. Some examples are presented where such coordinated measurements are of great interest. The importance of being able to launch rockets through, or at least quite close to, the radar beam is emphasized. (Auth.)

  2. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  3. X-ray scanning of overhead aurorae from rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcus, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two Nike Tomahawk rocket payloads were launched into energetic auroral events to investigate their structure and effects on the atmosphere. The instrument complement included X-ray scintillation detectors with energy discrimination in four ranges to measure the deposition of bremsstrahlung produced X-rays within the stratosphere and mesosphere. For this purpose, each instrument was designed for wide angle viewing; however, properties of the rocket motion have permitted coarse observation of distinct spatial X-ray structure. The detectors were mounted at a 45 0 angle with respect to the payload axis to permit scanning of the upper hemisphere, with rocket spin rates near 5 c/s during the upleg portion of each flight. Here, atmospheric shielding reduced energetic particle contamination effects to insignificant values below 65 to 75 km. Iterative computer techniques were used to reconstruct X-ray source maps at 100 km, taking atmospheric absorption effects into account. Payload 18.178 was launched on 21 September (0302 LMT) into an aurora observed to have two distinct azimuthal regions of optical brightness. Payload 18.179 (23 September, 0147 LMT) was launched into an aurora of more diffuse character. The presence of a two component spectrum is indicated for each event with the hard component originating in the more diffuse, optically faint regions. (author)

  4. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  5. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  6. Development and Short-Range Testing of a 100 kW Side-Illuminated Millimeter-Wave Thermal Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander; Eilers, James A.; Lambot, Thomas; Parkin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the phase described here of the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) Project was to launch a small thermal rocket into the air using millimeter waves. The preliminary results of the first MTLS flight vehicle launches are presented in this work. The design and construction of a small thermal rocket with a planar ceramic heat exchanger mounted along the axis of the rocket is described. The heat exchanger was illuminated from the side by a millimeter-wave beam and fed propellant from above via a small tank containing high pressure argon or nitrogen. Short-range tests where the rocket was launched, tracked, and heated with the beam are described. The rockets were approximately 1.5 meters in length and 65 millimeters in diameter, with a liftoff mass of 1.8 kilograms. The rocket airframes were coated in aluminum and had a parachute recovery system activated via a timer and Pyrodex. At the rocket heat exchanger, the beam distance was 40 meters with a peak power intensity of 77 watts per square centimeter. and a total power of 32 kilowatts in a 30 centimeter diameter circle. An altitude of approximately 10 meters was achieved. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  7. Sounding rocket experiments during the IMS period at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Nagata, T.

    1979-01-01

    During IMS Period, 19 sounding rockets were launched into auroras at various stages of polar substorms from Syowa Station (Geomag. lat. = -69.6 0 , Geomag. log. = 77.1 0 ), Antarctica. Through the successful rocket flights, the significant physical quantities in auroras were obtained: 19 profiles of electron density and temperature, 11 energy spectra of precipitating electrons, 15 frequency spectra of VLF and HF plasma waves and 4 vertical profiles of electric and magnetic fields. These rocket data have been analyzed and compared with the coordinated ground-based observation data for studies of polar substorms. (author)

  8. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  9. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  10. Big Bang launch

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Physicists from the University, along with scientists and engineers around the world, watched with fevered anticipation as the world's biggest scientific experiment was launched in September. (1/1 page)

  11. Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T.; Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits

  12. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  13. STS-37 Breakfast / Ingress / Launch & ISO Camera Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-37 mission was to deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory. The mission was launched at 9:22:44 am on April 5, 1991, onboard the space shuttle Atlantis. The mission was led by Commander Steven Nagel. The crew was Pilot Kenneth Cameron and Mission Specialists Jerry Ross, Jay Apt, and Linda Godwing. This videotape shows the crew having breakfast on the launch day, with the narrator introducing them. It then shows the crew's final preparations and the entry into the shuttle, while the narrator gives information about each of the crew members. The countdown and launch is shown including the shuttle separation from the solid rocket boosters. The launch is reshown from 17 different camera views. Some of the other camera views were in black and white.

  14. Experimental investigation of solid rocket motors for small sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksila, Thada

    2018-01-01

    Experimentation and research of solid rocket motors are important subjects for aerospace engineering students. However, many institutes in Thailand rarely include experiments on solid rocket motors in research projects of aerospace engineering students, mainly because of the complexity of mixing the explosive propellants. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a solid rocket motor for total impulse in the class I-J that can be utilised as a small sounding rocket by researchers in the near future. Initially, the test stands intended for measuring the pressure in the combustion chamber and the thrust of the solid rocket motor were designed and constructed. The basic design of the propellant configuration was evaluated. Several formulas and ratios of solid propellants were compared for achieving the maximum thrust. The convenience of manufacturing and casting of the fabricated solid rocket motors were a critical consideration. The motor structural analysis such as the combustion chamber wall thickness was also discussed. Several types of nozzles were compared and evaluated for ensuring the maximum thrust of the solid rocket motors during the experiments. The theory of heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber was discussed and compared with the experimental data.

  15. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The next generation of X-ray spectrometers necessitate significant increases in both resolution and effective area to achieve the science goals set forth in the 2010 Decadal Survey and the 2013 Astrophysics Roadmap. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), an X-ray spectroscopy suborbital rocket payload currently scheduled for launch in Q3 2020, will serve as a testbed for several key technologies which can help achieve the desired performance increases of future spectrometers. OGRE will be the first instrument to fly mono-crystalline silicon X-ray mirrors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The payload will also utilize an array of off-plane gratings manufactured at The Pennsylvania State University. Additionally, the focal plane will be populated with an array of four electron-multiplying CCDs developed by the Open University and XCAM Ltd. With these key technologies, OGRE hopes to achieve the highest resolution on-sky soft X-ray spectrum to date. We discuss the optical design, expected performance, and the current status of the payload.

  16. Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology (SMART) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Flatley, Thomas P.; Bull, James B.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office are exercising a multi-year collaborative agreement focused on a redefinition of the way space missions are designed and implemented. A much faster, leaner and effective approach to space flight requires the concerted effort of a multi-agency team tasked with developing the building blocks, both programmatically and technologically, to ultimately achieve flights within 7-days from mission call-up. For NASA, rapid mission implementations represent an opportunity to find creative ways for reducing mission life-cycle times with the resulting savings in cost. This in tum enables a class of missions catering to a broader audience of science participants, from universities to private and national laboratory researchers. To that end, the SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) micro-spacecraft prototype demonstrates an advanced avionics system with integrated GPS capability, high-speed plug-and-playable interfaces, legacy interfaces, inertial navigation, a modular reconfigurable structure, tunable thermal technology, and a number of instruments for environmental and optical sensing. Although SMART was first launched inside a sounding rocket, it is designed as a free-flyer.

  17. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  18. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  19. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  20. Two-Rockets Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    Let n>=2 be identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1, v2, ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. Let's focus on two arbitrary rockets Ri and Rjfrom the previous n rockets. Let's suppose, without loss of generality, that their speeds verify virocket Rj is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Lj =Lj' C(vj -vi) .(2) But in the reference frame of the astronaut in Rjit is like rocket Rjis stationary andRi moves with the speed vj -vi in opposite direction. Therefore, similarly, the non-proper time interval as measured by the astronaut inRj with respect to the event inRi is dilated with the same factor D(vj -vi) , i.e. Δtj . i = Δt' D(vj -vi) , and rocketRi is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Li =Li' C(vj -vi) .But it is a contradiction to have time dilations in both rockets. (3) Varying i, j in {1, 2, ..., n} in this Thought Experiment we get again other multiple contradictions about time dilations. Similarly about length contractions, because we get for a rocket Rj, n-2 different length contraction factors: C(vj -v1) , C(vj -v2) , ..., C(vj -vj - 1) , C(vj -vj + 1) , ..., C(vj -vn) simultaneously! Which is abnormal.

  1. Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services (SPLITS) - SPSDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    My experience working on the Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services project has been both educational and rewarding. I have been given the opportunity to work on and experiment with a number of exciting projects and initiatives, each offering different challenges and opportunities for teamwork and collaboration. One of my assignments is to aid in the design and construction of a small-scale two stage rocket as part of a Rocket University initiative. My duties include programming a microcontroller to control the various sensors on the rocket as well as process and transmit data. Additionally, I am writing a graphical user interface application for the ground station that will receive the transmitted data from the rocket and display the information on screen along with a 3D rendering displaying the rocket orientation. Another project I am working on is to design and develop the avionics that will be used to control a high altitude balloon flight that will test a sensor called a Micro Dosimeter that will measure the total ionizing dose absorbed by electrical components during a flight. This includes assembling and soldering the various sensors and components, programming a microcontroller to input and process data from the Micro Dosimeter, and transmitting the data down to a ground station as well as save the data to an on-board SD card. Additionally, I am aiding in the setup and development of ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) capability in the SPSDL (Spaceport Processing System Development Lab).

  2. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  3. Significant Climate Changes Caused by Soot Emitted From Rockets in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Ross, M.; Toohey, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine with a larger soot emission index than current kerosene rockets is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. At projected launch rates, emissions from these rockets will create a persistent soot layer in the northern middle stratosphere that would disproportionally affect the Earth’s atmosphere and cryosphere. A global climate model predicts that thermal forcing in the rocket soot layer will cause significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical ozone columns decline as much as 1%, while polar ozone columns increase by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures rise one Kelvin regionally and polar summer sea ice fractions shrink between 5 - 15%. After 20 years of suborbital rocket fleet operation, globally averaged radiative forcing (RF) from rocket soot exceeds the RF from rocket CO_{2} by six orders of magnitude, but remains small, comparable to the global RF from aviation. The response of the climate system is surprising given the small forcing, and should be investigated further with different climate models.

  4. Designing on-Board Data Handling for EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, A.; Faiz, L. A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) rocket to launch requires a system of monitoring, tracking and controlling to allow the rocket to glide properly. One of the important components in the rocket is OBDH (On-Board Data Handling) which serves as a medium to perform commands and data processing. However, TTC (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) are required to communicate between GCS (Ground Control Station) and OBDH on EDF rockets. So the design control system of EDF rockets and GCS for telemetry and telecommand needs to be made. In the design of integrated OBDH controller uses a lot of electronics modules, to know the behavior of rocket used IMU sensor (Inertial Measurement Unit) in which consist of 3-axis gyroscope sensor and Accelerometer 3-axis. To do tracking using GPS, compass sensor as a determinant of the direction of the rocket as well as a reference point on the z-axis of gyroscope sensor processing and used barometer sensors to measure the height of the rocket at the time of glide. The data can be known in real-time by sending data through radio modules at 2.4 GHz frequency using XBee-Pro S2B to GCS. By using windows filter, noises can be reduced, and it used to guarantee monitoring and controlling system can work properly.

  5. VSB-30 sounding rocket: history of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Jung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The VSB-30 vehicle is a two-stage, unguided, rail launched sounding rocket, consisting of two solid propellant motors, payload, with recovery and service system. By the end of 2010, ten vehicles had already been launched, three from Brazil (Alcântara and seven from Sweden (Esrange. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the main characteristics of the first ten flights of the VSB-30, with emphasis on performance and trajectory data. The circular 3σ dispersion area for payload impact point has around 50 km of radius. In most launchings of such vehicle, the impact of the payload fell within 2 sigma. This provides the possibility for further studies to decrease the area of dispersion from the impact point.

  6. The international trade in launch services : the effects of U.S. laws, policies and practices on its development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenema, van H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Rockets or launch vehicles, though sharing the same technology, have both military and civil applications: they can be used as missiles or as 'ordinary' transportation vehicles. As a consequence, national security and foreign policy considerations stand in the way of the international launch

  7. CONTOUR investigation launched

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 27 August, NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe appointed a team to investigate the apparent loss of the Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) spacecraft, which stopped communicating with the mission control operations on 15 August.On that date, CONTOUR failed to communicate following the firing of its main engine that would take it out of its orbit around the Earth. Shortly afterwards, the mission team received telescope images from several observatories showing two objects traveling along the spacecraft's predicted path. Those objects could be CONTOUR, and part of the spacecraft that may have separated from it when the spacecraft's solid rocket motor fired.

  8. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  9. Theodore von Karman - Rocket Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seminal contributions to several areas of fluid and solid mechanics, as the first head of ... nent position in Aeronautics research, as a pioneer of rocket science in America ... toral work, however, was on the theory of buckling of large structures.

  10. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  11. Not just rocket science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAdam, S.; Anderson, R. [Celan Energy Systems, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The paper explains a different take on oxyfuel combustion. Clean Energy Systems (CES) has integrated aerospace technology into conventional power systems, creating a zero-emission power generation technology that has some advantages over other similar approaches. When using coal as a feedstock, the CES process burns syngas rather than raw coal. The process uses recycled water and steam to moderate the temperature, instead of recycled CO{sub 2}. With no air ingress, the CES process produces very pure CO{sub 2}. This makes it possible to capture over 99% of the CO{sub 2} resulting from combustion. CES uses the combustion products to drive the turbines, rather than indirectly raising steam for steam turbines, as in the oxyfuel process used by companies such as Vattenfall. The core of the process is a high-pressure oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include natural gas, coal or coke-derived synthesis gas, landfill and biodigester gases, glycerine solutions and oil/water emulsion. 2 figs.

  12. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  13. Easier Analysis With Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing rocket engines is one of Marshall Space Flight Center's specialties. When Marshall engineers lacked a software program flexible enough to meet their needs for analyzing rocket engine fluid flow, they overcame the challenge by inventing the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which was named the co-winner of the NASA Software of the Year award in 2001. This paper describes the GFSSP in a wide variety of applications

  14. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-α line profile observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-α (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya

  15. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  16. Rocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brattli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On 18 January 2005, two small, instrumented rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69.3° N, 16° E during conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE. Each of the rockets was equipped with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, and was launched as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected between 55 and 77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. The rockets were launched during a solar proton event, and measured extremely high ion densities, of order 1010 m−3, in the region where PMWE were observed. The density measurements were analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. At large length scales, ~103 m, the power spectral density can be fitted with a k−3 wave number dependence, consistent with saturated gravity waves. Outside the PMWE layers the k−3 spectrum extends down to approximately 102 m where the fluctuations are quickly damped and disappear into the instrumental noise. Inside the PMWE layers the spectrum at smaller length scales is well fitted with a k−5/3 dependence over two decades of scales. The PMWE are therefore clearly indicative of turbulence, and the data are consistent with the turbulent dissipation of breaking gravity waves. We estimate a lower limit for the turbulent energy dissipation rate of about 10−2 W/kg in the upper (72 km layer.

  17. NanoLaunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan; Harris, Lawanna

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both Earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low-Earth orbit for CubeSat-class payloads. The project will also serve as an early career personnel training opportunity with mentors to gain hands-on project experience.

  18. The electromagnetic rocket gun - a means to reach ultrahigh velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1983-01-01

    A novel kind of electromagnetic launcher for the acceleration of multigram-size macroparticles, up to velocities required for impact fusion, is proposed. The novel launcher concept combines the efficiency of a gun with the much higher velocities attainable by a rocket. In the proposed concept a rocket-like projectile is launched inside a gun barrel, drawing its energy from a travelling magnetic wave. The travelling magnetic wave heats and ionizes the exhaust jet of the rocket. As a result, the projectile i propelled both by the recoil from the jet and the magnetic pressure of the travelling magnetic wave. In comparison to magnetic linear accelerators, accelerating either superconducting or ferromagnetic projectiles, the proposed concept has several important advantages. First, the exhaust jet is much longer than the rocket-like projectile and which permits a much longer switching time to turn on the travelling magnetic wave. Second, the proposed concept does not require superconducting projectiles, or projectiles made from expensive ferromagnetic material. Third, unlike in railgun accelerators, the projectile can be kept away from the wall, and thereby can reach much larger velocities. (orig.)

  19. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  20. A Shuttle Derived Vehicle launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewell, J. R.; Buell, D. N.; Ewing, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) launch system presently being studied for the NASA by Martin Marietta Aerospace which capitalizes on existing Shuttle hardware elements to provide increased accommodations for payload weight, payload volume, or both. The SDV configuration utilizes the existing solid rocket boosters, external tank and the Space Shuttle main engines but replaces the manned orbiter with an unmanned, remotely controlled cargo carrier. This cargo carrier substitution more than doubles the performance capability of the orbiter system and is realistically achievable for minimal cost. The advantages of the SDV are presented in terms of performance and economics. Based on these considerations, it is concluded that an unmanned SDV offers a most attractive complement to the present Space Transportation System.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2017-01-01

    Major hardware and software for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) began rolling off assembly lines in 2016, setting the stage for critical testing in 2017 and the launch of a major new capability for deep space human exploration. SLS continues to pursue a 2018 first launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). At NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, LA, Boeing completed welding of structural test and flight liquid hydrogen tanks, and engine sections. Test stands for core stage structural tests at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. neared completion. The B2 test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, MS, completed major structural renovation to support core stage green run testing in 2018. Orbital ATK successfully test fired its second qualification solid rocket motor in the Utah desert and began casting the motor segments for EM-1. Aerojet Rocketdyne completed its series of test firings to adapt the heritage RS-25 engine to SLS performance requirements. Production is under way on the first five new engine controllers. NASA also signed a contract with Aerojet Rocketdyne for propulsion of the RL10 engines for the Exploration Upper Stage. United Launch Alliance delivered the structural test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage to MSFC for tests and construction was under way on the flight stage. Flight software testing at MSFC, including power quality and command and data handling, was completed. Substantial progress is planned for 2017. Liquid oxygen tank production will be completed at Michoud. Structural testing at Marshall will get under way. RS-25 hotfire testing will verify the new engine controllers. Core stage horizontal integration will begin. The core stage pathfinder mockup will arrive at the B2 test stand for fit checks and tests. EUS will complete preliminary design review. This paper will discuss the technical and programmatic successes and challenges of 2016 and look ahead to plans for 2017.

  2. An X-ray Experiment with Two-Stage Korean Sounding Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Won Nam

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The test result of the X-ray observation system is presented which have been developed at Korea Astronomy Observatory for 3 years (1995-1997. The instrument, which is composed of detector and signal processing parts, is designed for the future observations of compact X-ray sources. The performance of the instrument was tested by mounting on the two-stage Korean Sounding Rocket, which was launched from Taean rocket flight center on June 11 at 10:00 KST 1998. Telemetry data were received from individual parts of the instrument for 32 and 55.7 sec, respectively, since the launch of the rocket. In this paper, the result of the data analysis based on the telemetry data and discussion about the performance of the instrument is reported.

  3. Preliminary results of rocket attitude and auroral green line emission rate in the DELTA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Naomoto; Komada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Takao

    2006-09-01

    The attitude of a sounding rocket launched in the DELTA (Dynamics and Energetics of the Lower Thermosphere in Aurora) campaign was determined with IR horizon sensors and geomagnetic sensors. Since the payload was separated into two portions, two sets of attitude sensors were needed. A new IR sensor was developed for the present experiment, and found the zenith-angle of the spin-axis of the rocket with an accuracy of 2°. By combining information obtained by both type of sensors, the absolute attitudes were determined. The auroral green line emission rate was measured by a photometer on board the same rocket launched under active auroral conditions, and the energy flux of the auroral particle precipitation was estimated.

  4. From A-4 to Explorer 1. [U.S. rocket and missile technology historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Historical review of the development of rocket and missile technology in the United States over the period from 1945 to 1958. Attention is given to the organization of activities, the launch facilities, and the scope of test rocket firings at the White Sands Proving Ground area during the initial phase of research with captured German V2 rockets. The development of the Redstone missiles is outlined by discussing aspects of military involvement, cooperation with industrial suppliers, details of ground support equipment, and results of initial test firings. Subsequent development of the Jupiter missiles is examined in a similar manner, and attention is given to activities involved in the launching of the Explorer 1 satellite.

  5. A new sounding rocket payload for solar plasma studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.; Brown, William A.; Appert, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket payload developed for studies of high-temperature plasmas associated with solar active regions and flares is described. The payload instruments will record both spectra and images in the UV, EUV, and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The instruments, including the Dual Range Spectrograph, the Flat Field Soft X-ray Spectrograph, the Normal Incidence Soft X-ray Imager, the UV Filtergraph, and the H-alpha Imaging system, are described. Attention is also given to the new structural system of the payload, based on a large optical table suspended within the payload cavity, which will support the optical elements in their correct positions and orientations and will maintain these alignments throughout the rocket launch environment.

  6. A new sounding rocket payload for solar plasma studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Brown, W.A.; Appert, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket payload developed for studies of high-temperature plasmas associated with solar active regions and flares is described. The payload instruments will record both spectra and images in the UV, EUV, and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The instruments, including the Dual Range Spectrograph, the Flat Field Soft X-ray Spectrograph, the Normal Incidence Soft X-ray Imager, the UV Filtergraph, and the H-alpha Imaging system, are described. Attention is also given to the new structural system of the payload, based on a large optical table suspended within the payload cavity, which will support the optical elements in their correct positions and orientations and will maintain these alignments throughout the rocket launch environment. 8 refs

  7. MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

  8. STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, at KSC Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, sits atop the mobile launcher platform at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B. Profile of OV-104 mounted on external tank and flanked by solid rocket boosters (SRBs) is obscured by a flock of seagulls in the foreground. The fixed service structure (FSS) with rotating service structure (RSS) retracted appears in the background. Water resevoir is visible at the base of the launch pad concrete structure.

  9. Level II Documentation of Launch Complex 31/32, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Navigational Satellite Time and Ranging (NAVSTAR) Global Positioning System (GPS) program. Most of the above satellites have been launched from Cape...rocket, put together from existing hardware: an Honest John first stage, topped with two Nike stages, then a Recruit fourth stage, and finally, a T-55...a ground power oscillograph, exhaust fans, a sump pump, the dehydrator and humidity recorder, launch/perimeter and TV cameras, an Ampex- brand

  10. Response of Launch Pad Structures to Random Acoustic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi N. Margasahayam

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of launch pad structures, particularly those having a large area-to-mass ratio, is governed by launch-induced acoustics, a relatively short transient with random pressure amplitudes having a non-Gaussian distribution. The factors influencing the acoustic excitation and resulting structural responses are numerous and cannot be predicted precisely. Two solutions (probabilistic and deterministic for the random vibration problem are presented in this article from the standpoint of their applicability to predict the response of ground structures exposed to rocket noise. Deficiencies of the probabilistic method, especially to predict response in the low-frequency range of launch transients (below 20 Hz, prompted the development of the deterministic analysis. The relationship between the two solutions is clarified for future implementation in a finite element method (FEM code.

  11. Internet Based Simulations of Debris Dispersion of Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    The debris dispersion model (which dispersion model?) is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models are useful in understanding the complexity of launch and range operations. Modeling and simulation in this area mainly focuses on orbital dynamics and range safety concepts, including destruct limits, telemetry and tracking, and population risk. Particle explosion modeling is the process of simulating an explosion by breaking the rocket into many pieces. The particles are scattered throughout their motion using the laws of physics eventually coming to rest. The size of the foot print explains the type of explosion and distribution of the particles. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations of the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable modeling behaviors of Shuttle launches.

  12. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  13. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  14. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  15. Launch Control Network Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.

  16. Yes--This is Rocket Science: MMCs for Liquid Rocket Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelley, J

    2001-01-01

    The Air Force's Integrated High-Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies (IHPRPT) Program has established aggressive goals for both improved performance and reduced cost of rocket engines and components...

  17. How supernovae launch galactic winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; Martizzi, Davide; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-09-01

    We use idealized three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of global galactic discs to study the launching of galactic winds by supernovae (SNe). The simulations resolve the cooling radii of the majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) and thus self-consistently capture how SNe drive galactic winds. We find that SNe launch highly supersonic winds with properties that agree reasonably well with expectations from analytic models. The energy loading (η _E= \\dot{E}_wind/ \\dot{E}_SN) of the winds in our simulations are well converged with spatial resolution while the wind mass loading (η _M= \\dot{M}_wind/\\dot{M}_\\star) decreases with resolution at the resolutions we achieve. We present a simple analytic model based on the concept that SNRs with cooling radii greater than the local scaleheight break out of the disc and power the wind. This model successfully explains the dependence (or lack thereof) of ηE (and by extension ηM) on the gas surface density, star formation efficiency, disc radius and the clustering of SNe. The winds our simulations are weaker than expected in reality, likely due to the fact that we seed SNe preferentially at density peaks. Clustering SNe in time and space substantially increases the wind power.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  19. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Multi-Rocket Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    We consider n>=2 identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1 ,v2 , ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. (1) If we consider the observer on earth and the first rocket R1, then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with the factor D(v1) : or Δt = Δt' D(v1) (1) But if we consider the observer on earth and the second rocket R2 , then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with a different factor D(v2) : or Δt = Δt' D(v2) And so on. Therefore simultaneously Δt is dilated with different factors D(v1) , D(v2), ..., D(vn) , which is a multiple contradiction.

  1. Intense auroral field-aligned currents and electrojets detected by rocket-borne fluxgate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Fumio; Fukunishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takao; Kokubun, Susumu; Fujii, Ryoichi; Yamagishi, Hisao.

    1988-01-01

    The S-310JA-11 and S-310JA-12 rockets, having a vector magnetometer with high sensitivity (1.8 nT) and high sampling frequency (100 Hz), were launched into the aurora on May 29 and July 12, 1985, from Syowa Station, Antarctica. The S-310JA-11 rocket penetrated twice quiet arcs, while the S-310JA-12 rocket traversed across intense and active auroral arcs during a large magnetic substorm. In the S-310JA-12 rocket experiment, intense field-aligned currents of 400 - 600 nT were observed when the rocket penetrated an active arc during the descending flight. The magnetometer on board the S-310JA-12 rocket also detected intense electrojet currents with a center at 110 km on the upward leg and at 108 km on the downward leg. The magnetometer data of the S-310JA-11 rocket showed no distinguished magnetic field variation due to field-aligned current and electrojet. (author)

  2. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  3. Rocket Science 101 Interactive Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Dennis; Funkhouse, Deborah; DiMarzio, Donald

    2007-01-01

    To better educate the public on the basic design of NASA s current mission rockets, Rocket Science 101 software has been developed as an interactive program designed to retain a user s attention and to teach about basic rocket parts. This program also has helped to expand NASA's presence on the Web regarding educating the public about the Agency s goals and accomplishments. The software was designed using Macromedia s Flash 8. It allows the user to select which type of rocket they want to learn about, interact with the basic parts, assemble the parts to create the whole rocket, and then review the basic flight profile of the rocket they have built.

  4. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  5. Computational study of variable area ejector rocket flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etele, Jason

    Access to space has always been a scientific priority for countries which can afford the prohibitive costs associated with launch. However, the large scale exploitation of space by the business community will require the cost of placing payloads into orbit be dramatically reduced for space to become a truly profitable commodity. To this end, this work focuses on a next generation propulsive technology called the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine in which rocket, ejector, ramjet, and scramjet cycles operate within the same engine environment. Using an in house numerical code solving the axisymmetric version of the Favre averaged Navier Stokes equations (including the Wilcox ko turbulence model with dilatational dissipation) a systematic study of various ejector designs within an RBCC engine is undertaken. It is shown that by using a central rocket placed along the axisymmetric axis in combination with an annular rocket placed along the outer wall of the ejector, one can obtain compression ratios of approximately 2.5 for the case where both the entrained air and rocket exhaust mass flows are equal. Further, it is shown that constricting the exit area, and the manner in which this constriction is performed, has a significant positive impact on the compression ratio. For a decrease in area of 25% a purely conical ejector can increase the compression ratio by an additional 23% compared to an equal length unconstricted ejector. The use of a more sharply angled conical section followed by a cylindrical section to maintain equivalent ejector lengths can further increase the compression ratio by 5--7% for a total increase of approximately 30%.

  6. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale.

  7. Next Generation Launch Technology Program Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen; Tyson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In November 2002, NASA revised its Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) to evolve the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to serve as a theme for two emerging programs. The first of these, the Orbital Space Plane (OSP), was intended to provide crew-escape and crew-transfer functions for the ISS. The second, the NGLT Program, developed technologies needed for safe, routine space access for scientific exploration, commerce, and national defense. The NGLT Program was comprised of 12 projects, ranging from fundamental high-temperature materials research to full-scale engine system developments (turbine and rocket) to scramjet flight test. The Program included technology advancement activities with a broad range of objectives, ultimate applications/timeframes, and technology maturity levels. An over-arching Systems Engineering and Analysis (SE&A) approach was employed to focus technology advancements according to a common set of requirements. Investments were categorized into three segments of technology maturation: propulsion technologies, launch systems technologies, and SE&A.

  8. Rocket measurement of auroral partial parallel distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-A.

    1980-01-01

    The auroral partial parallel distribution functions are obtained by using the observed energy spectra of electrons. The experiment package was launched by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket from Poker Flat, Alaska over a bright auroral band and covered an altitude range of up to 180 km. Calculated partial distribution functions are presented with emphasis on their slopes. The implications of the slopes are discussed. It should be pointed out that the slope of the partial parallel distribution function obtained from one energy spectra will be changed by superposing another energy spectra on it.

  9. NASA Lewis Launch Collision Probability Model Developed and Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D

    1999-01-01

    There are nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the earth. These objects encompass manned objects, active and decommissioned satellites, spent rocket bodies, and debris. They range from a few centimeters across to the size of the MIR space station. Anytime a new satellite is launched, the launch vehicle with its payload attached passes through an area of space in which these objects orbit. Although the population density of these objects is low, there always is a small but finite probability of collision between the launch vehicle and one or more of these space objects. Even though the probability of collision is very low, for some payloads even this small risk is unacceptable. To mitigate the small risk of collision associated with launching at an arbitrary time within the daily launch window, NASA performs a prelaunch mission assurance Collision Avoidance Analysis (or COLA). For the COLA of the Cassini spacecraft, the NASA Lewis Research Center conducted an in-house development and analysis of a model for launch collision probability. The model allows a minimum clearance criteria to be used with the COLA analysis to ensure an acceptably low probability of collision. If, for any given liftoff time, the nominal launch vehicle trajectory would pass a space object with less than the minimum required clearance, launch would not be attempted at that time. The model assumes that the nominal positions of the orbiting objects and of the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time, and therefore, that any tracked object that comes within close proximity of the launch vehicle can be identified. For any such pair, these nominal positions can be used to calculate a nominal miss distance. The actual miss distances may differ substantially from the nominal miss distance, due, in part, to the statistical uncertainty of the knowledge of the objects positions. The model further assumes that these position uncertainties can be described with position covariance matrices

  10. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  12. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  13. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  14. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  15. Launch team training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the training, certification, recertification, and proficiency maintenance of the Shuttle launch team is proposed. Previous training approaches are first reviewed. Short term program goals include expanding current training methods, improving the existing simulation capability, and scheduling training exercises with the same priority as hardware tests. Long-term goals include developing user requirements which would take advantage of state-of-the-art tools and techniques. Training requirements for the different groups of people to be trained are identified, and future goals are outlined.

  16. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    FY13+ Phase I Buy Contractor: United Launch Services, LLC Contractor Location: 9501 East Panorama Circle Centennial , CO 80112 Contract Number...Contract Name: FY13+ Phase I Buy Contractor: United Launch Services, LLC Contractor Location: 9501 East Panorama Circle Centennial , CO 80112 Contract...FY12 EELV Launch Services (ELS5) Contractor: United Launch Services, LLC. Contractor Location: 9501 East Panorama Circle Centennial , CO 80112

  17. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  18. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  19. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  20. New Product Launching Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  1. Bantam: A Systematic Approach to Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn; Lyles, Garry

    1999-01-01

    capability to expand the capability of a reusable first stage, including ground launch, powered return to the launch site, and a fully reusable rocket propulsion system. A Bantam technology goal is to demonstrate twenty-five flights with no unplanned rocket engine maintenance and only minor planned maintenance or inspections. The design goal of the propulsion system is a mission life of one hundred.

  2. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Pablo

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  3. Design study of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Shoyama, Hidetoshi; Kanda, Yukinori

    1991-01-01

    A design study was made on a rocket powered by laser fusion. Dependence of its flight performance on target gain, driver repetition rate and fuel composition was analyzed to obtain optimal design parameters of the laser fusion rocket. The results indicate that the laser fusion rocket fueled with DT or D 3 He has the potential advantages over other propulsion systems such as fission rocket for interplanetary travel. (author)

  4. Sounding rocket flight report, MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two-Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP is similar to the thermosphere probe, an ejectable instrument package for studying the variability of the earth's atmospheric parameters. The MUMP 9 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe, a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. These instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch.

  5. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  6. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  7. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, Satira; King, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort

  8. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  9. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  10. Deep Impact Delta II Launch Vehicle Cracked Thick Film Coating on Electronic Packages Technical Consultation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Kichak, Robert A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Wilson, Timmy R.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft was launched on a Boeing Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on January 12, 2005. Prior to the launch, the Director of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) lead a team to render an independent opinion on the rationale for flight and the risk code assignments for the hazard of cracked Thick Film Assemblies (TFAs) in the E-packages of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Deep Impact Mission. The results of the evaluation are contained in this report.

  11. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - 'Propulsion Depots' Not 'Propellant Depots'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Yu, Chi Yau

    2011-01-01

    As we have previously reported, it may be possible to launch payloads into low-Earth orbit (LEO) at a per-kilogram cost that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than current launch systems, using only a relatively small capital investment (comparable to a single large present-day launch). An attractive payload would be large quantities of high-performance chemical rocket propellant (e.g. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen (LO2/LH2)) that would greatly facilitate, if not enable, extensive exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  12. Subscale Winged Rocket Development and Application to Future Reusable Space Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi YONEMOTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kyushu Institute of Technology has been studying unmanned suborbital winged rocket called WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket and its research subjects concerning aerodynamics, NGC (Navigation, Guidance and Control, cryogenic composite tanks etc., and conducting flight demonstration of small winged rocket since 2005. WIRES employs the original aerodynamic shape of HIMES (HIghly Maneuverable Experimental Sounding rocket studied by ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 1980s. This paper presents the preliminary design of subscale non-winged and winged rockets called WIRES#013 and WIRES#015, respectively, that are developed in collaboration with JAXA, USC (University of Southern California, UTEP (University of Texas at El Paso and Japanese industries. WIRES#013 is a conventional pre-test rocket propelled by two IPA-LOX (Isopropyl Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen engines under development by USC. It has the total length of 4.6m, and the weight of 1000kg to reach the altitude of about 6km. The flight objective is validation of the telemetry and ground communication system, recovery parachute system, and launch operation of liquid engine. WIRES#015, which has the same length of WIRES#013 and the weight of 1000kg, is a NGC technology demonstrator propelled by a fully expander-cycle LOX-Methane engine designed and developed by JAXA to reach the altitude more than 6km. The flight tests of both WIRES#013 and WIRES#015 will be conducted at the launch facility of FAR (Friends of Amateur Rocketry, Inc., which is located at Mojave Desert of California in United States of America, in May 2018 and March 2019 respectively. After completion of WIRES#015 flight tests, the suborbital demonstrator called WIRES-X will be developed and its first flight test well be performed in 2020. Its application to future fully reusable space transportation systems, such as suborbital space tour vehicles and two

  13. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  14. A technique for rocket-borne detection of electron bunching at megahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    Energetic electrons precipitating in the auroral ionosphere may be bunched at frequencies up to several megahertz as a result of local wave-particle interactions. A technique is described whereby this megahertz bunching can be observed using conventional rocket-borne energetic electron detectors counting at rates below 10 5 cps. Electron arrival time information is pre-processed on board the rocket and any bunching present can be realized by subsequent computer processing on the ground using only a modest data transmission rate from the rocket. Results of a pilot rocket experiment prove the value of the technique and lead on to formulating the design of a future experiment where the maximum amount of data processing is performed on the rocket. The technique should perform an important diagnostic role, helping us to understand the complex wave-particle interactions occurring in the auroral ionosphere. (orig.)

  15. LHCb launches new website

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A new public website for the LHCb experiment was launched last Friday to coincide with CERN’s Open Day weekend. Designed to provide accessible information on all aspects of the experiment, the website contains images and key facts about the LHCb detector, its design and installation and the international team behind the project. "LHCb is going to be one of the most important b-physics experiments in the world when it starts taking data later this year", explains Roger Forty, the experiment’s deputy spokesperson. "We hope the website will be a valuable resource, enabling people to learn about this fascinating area of research." The new website can be found at: http://cern.ch/lhcb-public

  16. Payload Launch Lock Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A payload launch lock mechanism includes a base, a preload clamp, a fastener, and a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The preload clamp is configured to releasibly restrain a payload. The fastener extends, along an axis, through the preload clamp and into the base, and supplies a force to the preload clamp sufficient to restrain the payload. The SMA actuator is disposed between the base and the clamp. The SMA actuator is adapted to receive electrical current and is configured, upon receipt of the electrical current, to supply a force that causes the fastener to elongate without fracturing. The preload clamp, in response to the fastener elongation, either rotates or pivots to thereby release the payload.

  17. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

    2012-03-01

    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  19. An introduction to the water recovery x-ray rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew M.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Schultz, Ted B.; Donovan, Benjamin D.; Tutt, James H.; Yastishock, Daniel; Steiner, Tyler; Hillman, Christopher R.; McCoy, Jake A.; Wages, Mitchell; Hull, Sam; Falcone, Abe; Burrows, David N.; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Anderson, Tyler; McQuaide, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRXR) is a sounding rocket payload that will launch from the Kwajalein Atoll in April 2018 and seeks to be the first astrophysics sounding rocket payload to be water recovered by NASA. WRXR's primary instrument is a grating spectrometer that consists of a mechanical collimator, X-ray reflection gratings, grazing-incidence mirrors, and a hybrid CMOS detector. The instrument will obtain a spectrum of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the northern part of the Vela supernova remnant and is optimized for 3rd and 4th order OVII emission. Utilizing a field of view of 3.25° × 3.25° and resolving power of λ/δλ ≍40-50 in the lines of interest, the WRXR spectrometer aims to achieve the most highly-resolved spectrum of Vela's diffuse soft X-ray emission. This paper presents introductions to the payload and the science target.

  20. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  1. Rocket measurements of electric fields, electron density and temperature during the three phases of auroral substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Block, L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.

    1979-12-01

    On Jan. 27, 1979, three rocket payloads were launched from Kiruna, Sweden, into different phases of two successive auroral substorms. Among other experiments, the payloads carried the RIT double probe electric field experiments, providing electric field, electron density and temperature data, which are presented here. These are discussed in association with observations of particles, ionospheric drifts (STARE) and electric fields in the equatorial plane (GEOS). The motions of the auroral forms, as obtained from auroral pictures are compared with the E x B/B 2 drifts and the currents calculated from the rocket electric field and density measurements with the equivalent current system deduced from ground based magnetometer data (SMA). (Auth.)

  2. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Donaldson, A. B.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.; Bystrom, E.; Haug, A.; Sharp, L.; Surmick, D. M.

    2014-11-01

    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified.

  3. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, W; Cruz-Cabrera, A A; Bystrom, E; Donaldson, A B; Haug, A; Sharp, L; Lim, J; Sivathanu, Y; Surmick, D M

    2014-01-01

    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified

  4. Building and Leading the Next Generation of Exploration Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human spaceflight to the Moon and beyond. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to: conduct the first flight test of Ares I, test-fire the Ares I first stage solid rocket motor; build the first integrated Ares I upper stage; continue testing hardware for the J-2X upper stage engine, and continue refining the design of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. These efforts come with serious challenges for the project leadership team as it continues to foster a culture of ownership and accountability, operate with limited funding, and works to maintain effective internal and external communications under intense external scrutiny.

  5. Initial risk assessment for a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The risks posed by the surface launch of a nuclear thermal rocket are considered. • Radiation exposure at the public viewing distance is insignificant. • Production of fission products and actinides during launch is limited. • The production of activated argon around the rocket may be a significant concern. - Abstract: In order to consider the possibility of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) ground launch, it is necessary to evaluate the risks from such a launch. This includes analysis of the radiation dose rate around the rocket, determining the rate of activation of the materials near the launch, and considering the radionuclides present in the core after the launch. This paper evaluates the potential risk of the NTR ground launch for a range of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons (MT) using three NTR reactor cores (40, 80, and 120 cm in length) designed in a previous study, based on data produced by MCNP5 and MCNPX models. At the same power level, the 40 cm core length reactor results in the lowest radiation dose rate of the three reactors. Radiation dose rates decrease to background levels 3.5 km from the launch site. After a 1-year decay time, all of the activated materials produced by an NTR launch would be classified as Class A low-level waste. The activation of air produces significant amounts of argon-41 and nitrogen-16 within 100 m of the launch. The derived air concentration (DAC) ratio of the activation products decays to less than unity within 2 days, with only argon-41 remaining. After 10 min of full power operation, the 120 cm core for a 15 MT payload contains 2.5 × 10{sup 13}, 1.4 × 10{sup 12} and 1.5 × 10{sup 12} Bq of {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr, respectively. The decay heat after shutdown increases with increasing reactor power with a maximum decay heat of 108 kW immediately after shutdown for the 15 MT payload.

  6. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When operating...

  7. Five-Segment Solid Rocket Motor Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskos, Alex S.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing a new, more powerful solid rocket motor for space launch applications. To minimize technical risks and development costs, NASA chose to use the Space Shuttle s solid rocket boosters as a starting point in the design and development. The new, five segment motor provides a greater total impulse with improved, more environmentally friendly materials. To meet the mass and trajectory requirements, the motor incorporates substantial design and system upgrades, including new propellant grain geometry with an additional segment, new internal insulation system, and a state-of-the art avionics system. Significant progress has been made in the design, development and testing of the propulsion, and avionics systems. To date, three development motors (one each in 2009, 2010, and 2011) have been successfully static tested by NASA and ATK s Launch Systems Group in Promontory, UT. These development motor tests have validated much of the engineering with substantial data collected, analyzed, and utilized to improve the design. This paper provides an overview of the development progress on the first stage propulsion system.

  8. A two-channel wave analyser for sounding rockets and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondz, E.

    1989-04-01

    Studies of low frequency electromagnetic waves, produced originally by lightning discharges penetrating the ionosphere, provide an important source of valuable information about the earth's surrounding plasma. Use of rockets and satellites supported by ground-based observations implies, unique opportunity for measuring in situ a number of parameters simultaneously in order to correlate data from various measurements. However, every rocket experiment has to be designed bearing in mind telemetry limitations and/or short flight duration. Typical flight duration for Norwegian rockets launched from Andoeya Rocket Range is 500 to 600 s. Therefore, the most desired way to use a rocket or satellite is to carry out data analyses on board in real time. Recent achievements in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology have made it possible to undertake very complex on board data manipulation. As a part of rocket instrumentation, a DSP based unit able to carry out on board analyses of low frequency electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere has been designed. The unit can be seen as a general purpose computer built on the basis of a fixed-point 16 bit signal processor. The unit is supplied with a program code in order to perform wave analyses on two independent channels simultaneously. The analyser is able to perform 256 point complex fast fourier transformations, and it produce a spectral power desity estimate on both channels every 85 ms. The design and construction of the DSP based unit is described and results from the tests are presented

  9. Infrared signature modelling of a rocket jet plume - comparison with flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rialland, V; Perez, P; Roblin, A; Guy, A; Gueyffier, D; Smithson, T

    2016-01-01

    The infrared signature modelling of rocket plumes is a challenging problem involving rocket geometry, propellant composition, combustion modelling, trajectory calculations, fluid mechanics, atmosphere modelling, calculation of gas and particles radiative properties and of radiative transfer through the atmosphere. This paper presents ONERA simulation tools chained together to achieve infrared signature prediction, and the comparison of the estimated and measured signatures of an in-flight rocket plume. We consider the case of a solid rocket motor with aluminized propellant, the Black Brant sounding rocket. The calculation case reproduces the conditions of an experimental rocket launch, performed at White Sands in 1997, for which we obtained high quality infrared signature data sets from DRDC Valcartier. The jet plume is calculated using an in-house CFD software called CEDRE. The plume infrared signature is then computed on the spectral interval 1900-5000 cm -1 with a step of 5 cm -1 . The models and their hypotheses are presented and discussed. Then the resulting plume properties, radiance and spectra are detailed. Finally, the estimated infrared signature is compared with the spectral imaging measurements. The discrepancies are analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  10. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  11. External tank chill effect on the space transportation system launch pad environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R. A.; Boraas, S.

    1991-01-01

    The external tank (ET) of the STS contains liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as oxidizer and fuel for the SSMEs. Once the cryogen have been loaded into the ET, the temperature of the air surrounding the STS is chilled by the cold outer surface of the ET. This paper describes a two-dimensional flow and thermal analysis to determine this chill effect on the STS launch pad environment subsequent to the ET loading operation. The analysis was done assuming winter conditions and a northwest wind direction. An existing CFD code, PHOENICS '81, was used in the study. The results are presented as local and average values of the heat transfer coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the surface temperature around the redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRMs) and the ET. The temperature depression caused by the ET chilling of the air in the vicinity of the RSRMs was calculated to be 3 F below the ambient. This compares with the observed 1-2 F RSRM surface temperature depression based upon measurements made prior to the winter flight of STS-29. Since the surface temperature would be expected to be slightly higher than the local air temperature, the predicted temperature depression of the air appears to be substantiated.

  12. Status of NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) continued to make significant progress in 2015 and 2016, completing hardware and testing that brings NASA closer to a new era of deep space exploration. Programmatically, SLS completed Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015. A team of independent reviewers concluded that the vehicle design is technically and programmatically ready to move to Design Certification Review (DCR) and launch readiness in 2018. Just five years after program start, every major element has amassed development and flight hardware and completed key tests that will lead to an accelerated pace of manufacturing and testing in 2016 and 2017. Key to SLS' rapid progress has been the use of existing technologies adapted to the new launch vehicle. The existing fleet of RS-25 engines is undergoing adaptation tests to prove it can meet SLS requirements and environments with minimal change. The four-segment shuttle-era booster has been modified and updated with a fifth propellant segment, new insulation, and new avionics. The Interim Cryogenic Upper Stage is a modified version of an existing upper stage. The first Block I SLS configuration will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). The vehicle architecture has a clear evolutionary path to more than 100t and, ultimately, to 130t. Among the program's major 2015-2016 accomplishments were two booster qualification hotfire tests, a series of RS-25 adaptation hotfire tests, manufacturing of most of the major components for both core stage test articles and first flight tank, delivery of the Pegasus core stage barge, and the upper stage simulator. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing was completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. This year will see the completion of welding for all qualification and flight EM-1 core stage components and testing of flight avionics, completion of core stage structural test stands, casting of the EM-1 solid rocket motors, additional testing

  13. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  14. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, D.W.; Rochow, R.

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps

  15. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  16. Space Launch System Spacecraft and Payload Elements: Progress Toward Crewed Launch and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Smith, David Alan; Holcomb, Shawn; Hitt, David

    2017-01-01

    While significant and substantial progress continues to be accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already underway on preparations for the second flight - using an upgraded version of the vehicle - and beyond. Designed to support human missions into deep space, SLS is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and is one of three programs being managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration Systems Development division. The Orion spacecraft program is developing a new crew vehicle that will support human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program is transforming Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a next-generation spaceport capable of supporting not only SLS but also multiple commercial users. Together, these systems will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. For its first flight, SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70-metric-ton (t) Block 1 configuration. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS, which will propel Orion around the moon and back. Encompassing hardware qualification, structural testing to validate hardware compliance and analytical modeling, progress is on track to meet the initial targeted launch date. In Utah and Mississippi, booster and engine testing are verifying upgrades made to proven shuttle hardware. At Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in Louisiana, the world's largest spacecraft welding tool is producing tanks for the SLS core stage. Providing the Orion crew capsule/launch vehicle interface and in-space propulsion via a cryogenic upper stage, the Spacecraft/Payload Integration and Evolution (SPIE) element serves a key role in achieving SLS goals and objectives. The SPIE element

  17. APME launches common method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A common approach for carrying out ecological balances for commodity thermoplastics is due to be launched by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels) and its affiliate, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment (PWMI) this week. The methodology report is the latest stage of a program started in 1990 that aims to describe all operations up to the production of polymer powder or granules at the plant gate. Information gathered will be made freely available to companies considering the use of polymers. An industry task force, headed by PWMI executive director Vince Matthews, has gathered information on the plastics production processes from oil to granule, and an independent panel of specialists, chaired by Ian Boustead of the U.K.'s Open University, devised the methodology and analysis. The methodology report stresses the need to define the system being analyzed and discusses how complex chemical processes can be analyzed in terms of consumption of fuels, energy, and raw materials, as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions

  18. AMS ready for launch

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 29 April, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will complete its long expedition to the International Space Station on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The Endeavour is set to lift off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Station at 15:47 EST (21:47 CET).   Samuel Ting, principal investigator for the AMS project, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, visit the Kennedy Space Centre before the AMS launch.  Courtesy of NASA and Kennedy Space Center. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment, created by an internal collaboration of 56 institutes. It will be the first large magnetic spectrometer to be used in space, and has been designed to function as an external module on the ISS. AMS will measure cosmic rays without atmospheric interference, allowing researchers on the ground to continue their search for dark matter and antimatter in the Universe. Data collected by AMS will be analysed in CERN’s new AMS Control Centre in Building 946 (due for completion in June 2011). The End...

  19. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  20. Water Impact Prediction Tool for Recoverable Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, William; Glaese, John; Clayton, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Reusing components from a rocket launch can be cost saving. NASA's space shuttle system has reusable components that return to the Earth and impact the ocean. A primary example is the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) that descends on parachutes to the Earth after separation and impacts the ocean. Water impact generates significant structural loads that can damage the booster, so it is important to study this event in detail in the design of the recovery system. Some recent examples of damage due to water impact include the Ares I-X First Stage deformation as seen in Figure 1 and the loss of the SpaceX Falcon 9 First Stage.To ensure that a component can be recovered or that the design of the recovery system is adequate, an adequate set of structural loads is necessary for use in failure assessments. However, this task is difficult since there are many conditions that affect how a component impacts the water and the resulting structural loading that a component sees. These conditions include the angle of impact with respect to the water, the horizontal and vertical velocities, the rotation rate, the wave height and speed, and many others. There have been attempts to simulate water impact. One approach is to analyze water impact using explicit finite element techniques such as those employed by the LS-Dyna tool [1]. Though very detailed, this approach is time consuming and would not be suitable for running Monte Carlo or optimization analyses. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-body simulation tool that runs quickly and that captures the environments a component might see. The simulation incorporates the air and water interaction with the component, the component dynamics (i.e. modes and mode shapes), any applicable parachutes and lines, the interaction of winds and gusts, and the wave height and speed. It is capable of quickly conducting Monte Carlo studies to better capture the environments and genetic algorithm optimizations to reproduce a

  1. Using NASA's Space Launch System to Enable Game Changing Science Mission Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will help restore U.S. leadership in space by carrying the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids, Mars, and the outer solar system. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip times and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as monolithic telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  2. Rf control system for a rocket-borne accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.T.; Sorum, L.N.; Keffeler, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Beam Experiments Aboard Rockets (BEAR) accelerator experiment imposes several nonstandard requirements on the rf control system. The experiment is entirely hands-off and must operate under local computer control. The rf control system must be extremely reliable, which implies excellence in design and fabrication as well as redundancy whenever possible. This paper describes the design of the frequency-source, frequency-control, and amplitude-control systems for the BEAR experiment

  3. Electron spectra over discrete auroras as measured by the Substorm-GEOS rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, I.; Eliasson, L.; Lundin, R.

    1980-01-01

    Results from the first two Substorm-GEOS rockets are presented. These rockets, as well as the third one, were launched from ESRANGE on January 27, 1979 into different substorm phases. The first rocket went into an active pre-breakup evening arc and the second one into a breakup close to magnetic midnight. Electron spectra of downcoming particles measured by a narrow energy bandwidth detector show very narrow energy peaks as soon as the integral energy fluxes are high. These peaks always show populations of two different characteristic energies above the peak energy. One of the populations has properties similar to those found in the boundary layer plasma and the other one seems to be of plasma sheet origin. The plasma sheet like population is also seen where there are no signs of energy peaks, for example equatorward of the arc. The boundary layer plasma is exclusively connected with the signatures of acceleration. (Auth.)

  4. PLUMEX II: A second set of coincident radar and rocket observations of equatorial spread-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Tsunoda, R.T.; Narcisi, R.; Holmes, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    PLUMEX II, the second rocket in a two-rocket operation that successfully executed coincident rocket and radar measurements of backscatter plumes and plasma depletions, was launched into the mid-phase of well-developed equatorial spread-F. In contrast with the first operation, the PLUMEX II results show large scale F-region irregularities only on the bottomside gradient with smaller scale irregularities (i.e., small scale structure imbedded in larger scale features) less intense than corresponding observations in PLUMEX I. The latter result could support current interpretations of east-west plume asymmetry which suggests that during initial upwelling the western wall of a plume (the PLUMEX I case) is more unstable than its eastern counterpart (the PLUMEX II case). In addition, ion mass spectrometer results are found to provide further support for an ion transport model which ''captures'' bottomside ions in an upwelling bubble and transports them to high altitudes

  5. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.

    1992-12-01

    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  6. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  8. Simultaneous measurements of auroral particles and electric currents by a rocket-borne instrument system - Introductory remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. R.; Cloutier, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment package has been designed to obtain simultaneous in situ measurements of the pitch angle distributions and energy spectra of primary auroral particles, the flux of neutral hydrogen at auroral energies, the electric currents flowing in the vicinity of the auroral arc as determined from vector magnetic data, and the modulation of precipitating electrons in the frequency range 0.5-10 MHz. The experiment package was launched by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on Feb. 25, 1972, over a bright auroral band. This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to the detailed discussion of results given in the companion papers. As such it includes a brief review of the general problem, a discussion of the rocket instrumentation, a delineation of the auroral and geomagnetic conditions at the time of launch, and comments on the overall payload performance.

  9. Simultaneous measurements of auroral particles and electric currents by a rocket-borne instrument system: introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.R.; Cloutier, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment package has been designed to obtain simultaneous in situ measurements of the pitch angle distribution and energy spectra of primary auroral particles, the flux of neutral hydrogen at auroral energies, the electric currents flowing in the vicinity of the auroral arc as determined from vector magnetic data, and the modulation of precipitating electrons in the frequency range 0.5-10 MHz. The experiment package was launched by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972, over a bright auroral band. This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to the detailed discussion of results given in the companion papers. As such it includes a brief review of the general problem, a discussion of the rocket instrumentation, a delineation of the auroral and geomagnetic conditions at the time of launch, and comments on the overall payload performance

  10. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials and chemicals, rocket propulsion, satellite technology, control and guidance system, etc. ... entire country, especially the rural areas, and in the survey and management of natural resources. Listeners are no .... satellite will store the information over a longer period and then on command from the ground station at ...

  11. Lessons from half a century experience of Japanese solid rocketry since Pencil rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matogawa, Yasunori

    2007-12-01

    50 years have passed since a tiny rocket "Pencil" was launched horizontally at Kokubunji near Tokyo in 1955. Though there existed high level of rocket technology in Japan before the end of the second World War, it was not succeeded by the country after the War. Pencil therefore was the substantial start of Japanese rocketry that opened the way to the present stage. In the meantime, a rocket group of the University of Tokyo contributed to the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958 by developing bigger rockets, and in 1970, the group succeeded in injecting first Japanese satellite OHSUMI into earth orbit. It was just before the launch of OHSUMI that Japan had built up the double feature system of science and applications in space efforts. The former has been pursued by ISAS (the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) of the University of Tokyo, and the latter by NASDA (National Space Development Agency). This unique system worked quite efficiently because space activities in scientific and applicational areas could develop rather independently without affecting each other. Thus Japan's space science ran up rapidly to the international stage under the support of solid propellant rocket technology, and, after a 20 year technological introduction period from the US, a big liquid propellant launch vehicle, H-II, at last was developed on the basis of Japan's own technology in the early 1990's. On October 1, 2003, as a part of Governmental Reform, three Japanese space agencies were consolidated into a single agency, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), and Japan's space efforts began to walk toward the future in a globally coordinated fashion, including aeronautics, astronautics, space science, satellite technology, etc., at the same time. This paper surveys the history of Japanese rocketry briefly, and draws out the lessons from it to make a new history of Japan's space efforts more meaningful.

  12. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. Less than one year after the Exploration Launch Projects Office was formed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, engineers are testing engine components, firing test rocket motors, refining vehicle designs in wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I, scheduled for spring 2009. The Vision for Exploration will require this nation to develop tools, machines, materials, and processes never before invented, technologies and capabilities that can be turned over to the private sector to benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. This new pioneering venture, as did the Apollo Program before it, will contribute to America's economic leadership, national security, and technological global competitiveness and serve as an inspiration for all its citizens.

  13. Investigation of Electron Density Profile in the ionospheric D and E region by Kagoshima rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyake, T.; Okada, T.; Nagano, I.; Abe, T.; Ono, T.

    2007-12-01

    The radio wave propagation characteristic in the lower ionosphere is important because of its effect on commercial radio communication, navigation, and broadcast services. The electron density is of primary interest in this region because the high ion-neutral collision frequencies result in radio wave absorption. In order to investigate the ionization structure in the ionospheric D and E region by using the propagation characteristics of MF-band and LF-band radio waves, S-310-37 and S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments have been carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC). S-310-37 sounding rocket was launched at 11:20 LT on January 16, 2007. The apex of rocket trajectory was about 138 km. Then S-520-23 sounding rocket was launched at 19:20 LT on September 2, 2007. The apex was about 279 km. As a common measurement, these sounding rockets measure the fields intensities and the waveform of radio waves from NHK Kumamoto broadcasting station (873kHz, 500kW) and JJY signals from Haganeyama LF radio station (60kHz, 50kW). The approximate electron density profile can be determined from the comparison between these experimental results and propagation characteristics calculated by the full wave method. We will get the most probable electron density profile in the ionosphere. In presentation, we will show the propagation characteristic of LF/MF radio waves measured by two sounding rocket experiments. Then we will discuss the analysis method and the estimated electron density profile in the ionosphere.

  14. European souding-rocket, balloon and related research, with emphasis on experiments at high latitudes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, T.; Battrick, B.; Rowley, C.

    1978-06-01

    The document contains 75 papers presented at the fourth symposium held within the framework of the ESA programme advisory committee on the special project concerning the launching of sounding rockets (PAC), which took place at Ajaccio, Corsica, from 24-29 April 1978. The symposium, organised jointly by the PAC and the Centre national d'etudes spaciales (CNES), was divided into 8 sessions embracing, respectively, a review of the national programmes, magnetospheric physics, launch range presentations, middle-atmosphere physics, astrophysic, material sciences, subsatellites and technology, as relevant to souding-rocket and balloon research. Working groups formed during the symposium formulated proposals to the PAC for new or intensified studies based on coordination of other experiments with EISCAT, optical experiments in connection with range and other experiment, middle-atmosphere programme experiments, and subsatellite experiments

  15. Lockheed Martin approach to a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvin, John D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses Lockheed Martin's perspective on the development of a cost effective Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Critical to a successful Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program are; an economic development plan sensitive to fiscal constraints; a vehicle concept satisfying present and future US launch needs; and an operations concept commensurate with a market driven program. Participation in the economic plan by government, industry, and the commercial sector is a key element of integrating our development plan and funding profile. The RLV baseline concept design, development evolution and several critical trade studies illustrate the superior performance achieved by our innovative approach to the problem of SSTO. Findings from initial aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic wind tunnel tests and trajectory analyses on this concept confirm the superior characteristics of the lifting body shape combined with the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This Aero Ballistic Rocket (ABR) concept captures the essence of The Skunk Works approach to SSTO RLV technology integration and system engineering. These programmatic and concept development topics chronicle the key elements to implementing an innovative market driven next generation RLV.

  16. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  17. The Development of Rocketry Capability in New Zealand—World Record Rocket and First of Its Kind Rocketry Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Buchanan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The University of Canterbury has developed a rocket research group, UC Rocketry, which recently broke the world altitude record for an I-class motor (impulse of 320–640 Ns and has run a rocketry course for the first time in New Zealand. This paper discusses the development and results of the world record rocket “Milly” and details all the fundamental elements of the rocketry final year engineering course, including the manufacturing processes, wind tunnel testing, avionics, control and the final rocket launch of “Smokey”. The rockets Milly and Smokey are an example of the design, implementation and testing methodologies that have significantly contributed to research and graduates for New Zealand’s space program.

  18. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, production, and launch support analysis for determining the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle are discussed. Specific program objectives considered were: (1) definition of engine designs to satisfy the performance and configuration requirements of the various vehicle/booster concepts, (2) definition of requirements to produce booster stages at rates of 60, 40, 20, and 10 launches per year in a man-rated system, and (3) estimation of costs for the defined SRM booster stages.

  19. The Cost-Optimal Size of Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.

    2000-07-01

    The paper answers the question, what is the optimum vehicle size — in terms of LEO payload capability — for a future reusable launch vehicle ? It is shown that there exists an optimum vehicle size that results in minimum specific transportation cost. The optimum vehicle size depends on the total annual cargo mass (LEO equivalent) enviseaged, which defines at the same time the optimum number of launches per year (LpA). Based on the TRANSCOST-Model algorithms a wide range of vehicle sizes — from 20 to 100 Mg payload in LEO, as well as launch rates — from 2 to 100 per year — have been investigated. It is shown in a design chart how much the vehicle size as well as the launch rate are influencing the specific transportation cost (in MYr/Mg and USS/kg). The comparison with actual ELVs (Expendable Launch Vehicles) and Semi-Reusable Vehicles (a combination of a reusable first stage with an expendable second stage) shows that there exists only one economic solution for an essential reduction of space transportation cost: the Fully Reusable Vehicle Concept, with rocket propulsion and vertical take-off. The Single-stage Configuration (SSTO) has the best economic potential; its feasibility is not only a matter of technology level but also of the vehicle size as such. Increasing the vehicle size (launch mass) reduces the technology requirements because the law of scale provides a better mass fraction and payload fraction — practically at no cost. The optimum vehicle design (after specification of the payload capability) requires a trade-off between lightweight (and more expensive) technology vs. more conventional (and cheaper) technology. It is shown that the the use of more conventional technology and accepting a somewhat larger vehicle is the more cost-effective and less risky approach.

  20. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  1. A study of performance and cost improvement potential of the 120 inch (3.05 m) diameter solid rocket motor. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, S. J.; Rossen, J. N.

    1971-01-01

    A parametric study of ballistic modifications to the 120 inch diameter solid propellant rocket engine which forms part of the Air Force Titan 3 system is presented. 576 separate designs were defined and 24 were selected for detailed analysis. Detailed design descriptions, ballistic performance, and mass property data were prepared for each design. It was determined that a relatively simple change in design parameters could provide a wide range of solid propellant rocket engine ballistic characteristics for future launch vehicle applications.

  2. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake (TTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent interviews. Most pertinently, an interview in 2005 with a

  3. The beginning of Space Life Science in China exploration rockets for biological experiment during 1960's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peidong; Zhang, Jingxue

    The first step of space biological experiment in China was a set of five exploration rockets launched during 1964 to 1966, by Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electricity, and Institute of Biophysics of The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three T-7AS1rockets for rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1964 and June of 1965. Two T-7AS2rockets for dog, rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1966. Institute of Biophysics in charged of the general design of biological experiments, telemetry of physiological parameters, and selection and training of experiment animals. The samples on-board were: rats, mice, dogs, and test tubes with fruit fly, enzyme, bacteria, E. Coli., lysozyme, bacteriaphage, RNAase, DNAase, crystals of enzyme, etc. Physiological, biochemical, bacte-riological, immunological, genetic, histochemical studies had been conducted, in cellular and sub cellular level. The postures of rat and dog were monitored during flight and under weight-lessness. Physiological parameters of ECG, blood pressure, respiration rate, body temperature were recorded. A dog named"Xiao Bao"was flight in 1966 with video monitor, life support system and conditioned reflex equipment. It flighted for more than 20 minutes and about 70km high. After 40 years, the experimental data recorded of its four physiological parameters during the flight process was reviewed. The change of 4 parameters during various phase of total flight process were compared, analyzed and discussed.

  4. Computer Program for Analysis, Design and Optimization of Propulsion, Dynamics, and Kinematics of Multistage Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lali, Mehdi

    2009-03-01

    A comprehensive computer program is designed in MATLAB to analyze, design and optimize the propulsion, dynamics, thermodynamics, and kinematics of any serial multi-staging rocket for a set of given data. The program is quite user-friendly. It comprises two main sections: "analysis and design" and "optimization." Each section has a GUI (Graphical User Interface) in which the rocket's data are entered by the user and by which the program is run. The first section analyzes the performance of the rocket that is previously devised by the user. Numerous plots and subplots are provided to display the performance of the rocket. The second section of the program finds the "optimum trajectory" via billions of iterations and computations which are done through sophisticated algorithms using numerical methods and incremental integrations. Innovative techniques are applied to calculate the optimal parameters for the engine and designing the "optimal pitch program." This computer program is stand-alone in such a way that it calculates almost every design parameter in regards to rocket propulsion and dynamics. It is meant to be used for actual launch operations as well as educational and research purposes.

  5. Optimized Dual Expander Aerospike Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    SSME Space Shuttle Main Engine SSTO Single-stage-to-orbit T/W Thrust-to-Weight Ratio TDE Two-Dimensional Equilibrium xix TDF...stage-to-orbit ( SSTO ) launch vehicle and Lockheed Martin’s proposed VentureStar. The liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen linear aerospike operated at a

  6. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  7. Studies of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the cusp ionosphere using sounding rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Spicher, Andres; Ilyasov, Askar A.; Miloch, Wojciech J.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.

    2018-04-01

    Microprocesses associated with plasma inhomogeneities are studied on the basis of data from the Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI-3) sounding rocket. The ICI-3 rocket is devoted to investigating a reverse flow event in the cusp F region ionosphere. By numerical stability analysis, it is demonstrated that inhomogeneous-energy-density-driven (IEDD) instability can be a mechanism for the excitation of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities. The Local Intermittency Measure (LIM) method also applied the rocket data to analyze irregular structures of the electric field during rocket flight in the cusp. A qualitative agreement between high values of the growth rates of the IEDD instability and the regions with enhanced LIM is observed. This suggests that IEDD instability is connected to turbulent non-Gaussian processes.

  8. EISCAT observation on plasma drifts connected with the Aureld-VIP rocket and the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Sandahl, I.; Wannberg, G.; Opgenoorth, H.; Soeraas, F.; Murphree, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Coordinated simultaneous measurements with the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, Aureld-VIP sounding rocket, and Viking satellite are described. Background measurements from EISCAT provide us with the development of global plasma convection during the rocket night. The observed convection pattern is very distorted, with the eveningside reversal occurring at unusually low latitudes. On the morningside it withdraws back poleward from the measurement area. Viking particle measurements over the oval indicate a very complicated auroral topology with two sectors of boundary plasma sheet (BPS) and central plasma sheet (CPS) particles. The situation is interpreted as an intrusion of the evening side BPS into the morningside, which is also consistent with the convection pattern measured by EISCAT. Local measurements with the sounding rocket and radar indicate that the rocket flew in the northern part of the evening BPS area, approaching the inner transition region from BPS to CPS in its northward motion, thus confirming the existence of such a boundary

  9. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  10. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  11. Maneuver of Spinning Rocket in Flight

    OpenAIRE

    HAYAKAWA, Satio; ITO, Koji; MATSUI, Yutaka; NOGUCHI, Kunio; UESUGI, Kuninori; YAMASHITA, Kojun

    1980-01-01

    A Yo-despin device successfully functioned to change in flight the precession axis of a sounding rocket for astronomical observation. The rocket attitudes before and after yodespin were measured with a UV star sensor, an infrared horizon sensor and an infrared telescope. Instrumentation and performance of these devices as well as the attitude data during flight are described.

  12. Aerodynamics and flow characterisation of multistage rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Prakash, M. V. S.

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic flow analysis on single, double and multistage rockets using ANSYS software. Today non-air breathing propulsion is increasing dramatically for the enhancement of space exploration. The rocket propulsion is playing vital role in carrying the payload to the destination. Day to day rocket aerodynamic performance and flow characterization analysis has becoming challenging task to the researchers. Taking this task as motivation a systematic literature is conducted to achieve better aerodynamic and flow characterization on various rocket models. The analyses on rocket models are very little especially in numerical side and experimental area. Each rocket stage analysis conducted for different Mach numbers and having different flow varying angle of attacks for finding the critical efficiency performance parameters like pressure, density and velocity. After successful completion of the analysis the research reveals that flow around the rocket body for Mach number 4 and 5 best suitable for designed payload. Another major objective of this paper is to bring best aerodynamics flow characterizations in both aero and mechanical features. This paper also brings feature prospectus of rocket stage technology in the field of aerodynamic design.

  13. Design methods in solid rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    A compilation of lectures summarizing the current state-of-the-art in designing solid rocket motors and and their components is presented. The experience of several countries in the use of new technologies and methods is represented. Specific sessions address propellant grains, cases, nozzles, internal thermal insulation, and the general optimization of solid rocket motor designs.

  14. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

  15. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  16. Discovery is in the VAB as STS-95 launch preparations continue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, the orbiter Discovery is mated with the external tank and solid rocket booster stack (seen behind the orbiter, to the left). The orbiter was recently painted with the NASA logo, termed the 'meatball,' on the left, or port, wing and both sides of the aft fuselage. Discovery (OV- 103) is the first of the orbiters to be launched with the new artwork. It is scheduled for its 25th flight, from Launch Pad 39B, on Oct. 29, 1998, for the STS-95 mission.

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Refractory Materials for the Main Flame Deflectors at KSC Launch Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Trejo, David; Rutkowsky, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The deterioration of the refractory materials used to protect the KSC launch complex steel base structures from the high temperatures during launches results in frequent and costly repairs and safety hazards. KSC-SPEC-P-0012, Specification for Refractory Concrete, is ineffective in qualifying refractory materials. This study of the specification and of alternative refractory materials recommends a complete revision of the specification and further investigation of materials that were found to withstand the environment of the Solid Rocket Booster main flame deflector better than the refractory materials in current use in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, shrinkage, and abrasion.

  18. A Change of Inertia-Supporting the Thrust Vector Control of the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is America's next launch vehicle. To utilize the vehicle more economically, heritage hardware from the Space Transportation System (STS) will be used when possible. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) actuators could possibly be used in the core stage of the SLS. The dynamic characteristics of the SRB actuator will need to be tested on an Inertia Load Stand (ILS) that has been converted to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The inertia on the pendulum of the ILS will need to be changed to match the SSME inertia. In this testing environment an SRB actuator can be tested with the equivalent resistence of an SSME.

  19. Performance and technical feasibility comparison of reusable launch systems: A synthesis of the ESA winged launcher studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W.; Grallert, H.

    1996-02-01

    The paper presents a synthesis of the performance and technical feasibility assessment of 7 reusable launcher types, comprising 13 different vehicles, studied by European Industry for ESA in the ESA Winged Launcher Study in the period January 1988 to May 1994. The vehicles comprised single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles, propelled by either air-breathing/rocket propulsion or entirely by rocket propulsion. The results showed that an SSTO vehicle of the HOTOL-type, propelled by subsonic combustion air-breathing/rocket engines could barely deliver the specified payload mass and was aerodynamically unstable; that a TSTO vehicle of the Saenger type, employing subsonic combustion airbreathing propulsion in its first stage and rocket propulsion in its second stage, could readily deliver the specified payload mass and was found to be technically feasible and versatile; that an SSTO vehicle of the NASP type, propelled by supersonic combustion airbreathing/rocket propulsion was able to deliver a reduced payload mass, was very complex and required very advanced technologies; that an air-launched rocket propelled vehicle of the Interim HOTOL type, although technically feasible, could deliver only a reduced payload mass, being constrained by the lifting capability of the carrier airplane; that three different, entirely rocket-propelled vehicles could deliver the specified payload mass, were technically feasible but required relatively advanced technologies.

  20. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  1. Qualification of Coatings for Launch Facilities and Ground Support Equipment Through the NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion protection at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is a high priority item. The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs.

  2. Investigation of Advanced Propellants to Enable Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    ERS-PAS-2006-205) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Graduate work for California State University, Fresno 14. ABSTRACT Single-Stage-To-Orbit ( SSTO ...and maintained. Despite well-funded development efforts, no SSTO vehicles have been fielded to date. Existing chemical rocket and vehicle...technologies do not enable feasible SSTO designs. In the future, new propellants with advanced properties could enable SSTO launch vehicles. A parametric

  3. Evaluation of thermal sprayed metallic coatings for use on the structures at Launch Complex 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the evaluation program is presented. The objective was to evaluate the applicability of Thermal Sprayed Coatings (TSC) to protect the structures in the high temperature acid environment produced by exhaust of the Solid Rocket Boosters during the launches of the Shuttle Transportation System. Only the relatively low cost aluminum TSC which provides some cathodic protection for steel appears to be a practical candidate for further investigation.

  4. 75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... traditional haulout site) during the December 7 survey; however, this has been the trend during the past few... subsistence uses. In addition, NMFS must prescribe regulations that include permissible methods of taking and... missile on July 18, 2008 at 1:47:00 a.m. ADT. Aerial surveys to document marine mammals in the primary...

  5. A CMC database for use in the next generation launch vehicles (rockets)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Kamala

    1994-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are being envisioned as the state-of-the-art material capable of handling the tough structural and thermal demands of advanced high temperature structures for programs such as the SSTO (Single Stage to Orbit), HSCT (High Speed Civil Transport), etc. as well as for evolution of the industrial heating systems. Particulate, whisker and continuous fiber ceramic matrix (CFCC) composites have been designed to provide fracture toughness to the advanced ceramic materials which have a high degree of wear resistance, hardness, stiffness, and heat and corrosion resistance but are notorious for their brittleness and sensitivity to microscopic flaws such as cracks, voids and impurity.

  6. Data Collection Instruments and Database for Assessment of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Training Strategy: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    We set up leadership progams. There’s a 40 hour course for SPC -4/E-5s. Als a leadership course for E-6/E-7s and Officers, and a counseling course that...Btry level. (06) 1. CTT and Bty. METL tasks are trained every Wed. during f:.s. time. Records of task performance proficiency are kept in a Squat look...a lot harder than we did out there at NTC because they had to go to an ammunition grid. What they wanted was a private and a SPC -4 or an NCO in each

  7. Vertical Wind Tunnel for Prediction of Rocket Flight Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoani Bryson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A customized vertical wind tunnel has been built by the University of Canterbury Rocketry group (UC Rocketry. This wind tunnel has been critical for the success of UC Rocketry as it allows the optimization of avionics and control systems before flight. This paper outlines the construction of the wind tunnel and includes an analysis of flow quality including swirl. A minimal modelling methodology for roll dynamics is developed that can extrapolate wind tunnel behavior at low wind speeds to much higher velocities encountered during flight. The models were shown to capture the roll flight dynamics in two rocket launches with mean roll angle errors varying from 0.26° to 1.5° across the flight data. The identified model parameters showed consistent and predictable variations over both wind tunnel tests and flight, including canard–fin interaction behavior. These results demonstrate that the vertical wind tunnel is an important tool for the modelling and control of sounding rockets.

  8. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  9. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  10. Rocket in situ observation of equatorial plasma irregularities in the region between E and F layers over Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savio Odriozola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage VS-30 Orion rocket was launched from the equatorial rocket launching station in Alcântara, Brazil, on 8 December 2012 soon after sunset (19:00 LT, carrying a Langmuir probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes. At the time of launch, ground equipment operated at equatorial stations showed rapid rise in the base of the F layer, indicating the pre-reversal enhancement of the F region vertical drift and creating ionospheric conditions favorable for the generation of plasma bubbles. Vertical profiles of electron density estimated from Langmuir probe data showed wave patterns and small- and medium-scale plasma irregularities in the valley region (100–300 km during the rocket upleg and downleg. These irregularities resemble those detected by the very high frequency (VHF radar installed at Jicamarca and so-called equatorial quasi-periodic echoes. We present evidence suggesting that these observations could be the first detection of this type of irregularity made by instruments onboard a rocket.

  11. Analysis of In Situ Thermal Ion Measurements from the MICA Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Hampton, D. L.; Fisher, L. E.; Powell, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The MICA sounding rocket launched on 19 Feb. 2012 into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. In situ and ground-based observations provide a measured response of the ionosphere to preflight and localized auroral drivers. Initial analysis of the in situ thermal ion data indicate possible measurement of an ion conic at low altitude (< 325 km). In the low-energy regime, the response of the instrument varies from the ideal because the measured thermal ion population is sensitive to the presence of the instrument. The plasma is accelerated in the frame of the instrument due to flows, ram, and acceleration through the sheath which forms around the spacecraft. The energies associated with these processes are large compared to the thermal energy. Correct interpretation of thermal plasma measurements requires accounting for all of these plasma processes and the non-ideal response of the instrument in the low-energy regime. This is an experimental and modeling project which involves thorough analysis of ionospheric thermal ion data from the MICA campaign. Analysis includes modeling and measuring the instrument response in the low-energy regime as well as accounting for the complex sheath formed around the instrument. This results in a forward model in which plasma parameters of the thermal plasma are propagated through the sheath and instrument models, resulting in an output which matches the in situ measurement. In the case of MICA, we are working toward answering the question of the initiating source processes that result, at higher altitudes, in well-developed conics and outflow on auroral field lines.

  12. A Concept of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Xiaojun; Tang, Yihua

    2002-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) has a capability of delivering a wide rang of payload to earth orbit with greater reliability, lower cost, more flexibility and operability than any of today's launch vehicles. It is the goal of future space transportation systems. Past experience on single stage to orbit (SSTO) RLVs, such as NASA's NASP project, which aims at developing an rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) airplane and X-33, which aims at developing a rocket RLV, indicates that SSTO RLV can not be realized in the next few years based on the state-of-the-art technologies. This paper presents a concept of all rocket two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle. The TSTO RLV comprises an orbiter and a booster stage. The orbiter is mounted on the top of the booster stage. The TSTO RLV takes off vertically. At the altitude about 50km the booster stage is separated from the orbiter, returns and lands by parachutes and airbags, or lands horizontally by means of its own propulsion system. The orbiter continues its ascent flight and delivers the payload into LEO orbit. After completing orbit mission, the orbiter will reenter into the atmosphere, automatically fly to the ground base and finally horizontally land on the runway. TSTO RLV has less technology difficulties and risk than SSTO, and maybe the practical approach to the RLV in the near future.

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  14. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  15. The 4D-var Estimation of North Korean Rocket Exhaust Emissions Into the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssessanga, Nicholas; Kim, Yong Ha; Choi, Byungyu; Chung, Jong-Kyun

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a four-dimensional variation data assimilation technique (4D-var) and utilized it to reconstruct three-dimensional images of the ionospheric hole created during Kwangmyongsong-4 rocket launch. Kwangmyongsong-4 was launched southward from North Korea Sohae space center (124.7°E, 39.6°N) at 00:30 UT on 7 February 2016. The data assimilated were Global Positioning System total electron content from the South Korean Global Positioning System-receiver network. Due to lack of publicized information about Kwangmyongsong-4, the rocket was assumed to inherit its technology from previous launches (Taepodong-2). The created ionospheric hole was assumed to be made by neutral molecules, water (H2O) and hydrogen (H2), deposited in exhaust plumes. The dispersion model was developed based on advection and diffusion equation, and a simple asymmetric diffusion model assumed. From the analysis, using the adjoint technique, we estimated an ionospheric hole with the largest depletion existing around 6-7 min after launch and gradually recovering within 30 min. These results are in agreement with temporal total electron content analyses of the same event from previous studies. Furthermore, Kwangmyongsong-4 second stage exhaust emissions were estimated as 1.9 × 1026 s-1 of which 40% was H2 and the rest H2O.

  16. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  17. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkotter, Robert H

    1956-01-01

    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  18. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  19. Echo 2: a study of electron beams injected into the high-latitude ionosphere from a large sounding rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Hendrickson, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Black Brant V-C Echo 2 rocket was launched at Fort Churchill on September 25, 1972, and it injected 64-ms pulses of electron beams of 80-mA current and 45-keV voltage into the ionosphere. This paper studies the responses of on-board electrostatic deflection and solid state detectors to injected electrons after motion in the near ionosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it was only through some form of scattering that the detectors could sense the injected beam electrons. By means of 'phase maps' of injection and detection pitch angles a number of distinct regions are found corresponding to a rocket scattering halo, an atmospheric scattering halo, a region of weak responses, and a source of strong scattering above the rocket. The atmospheric scattering has been compared with the theoretical and experimental results of the Echo 1 experiment, and it is found to be in reasonable agreement. The rocket halo is discussed qualitatively; but no explanation is found for the backscatter from above the rocket, which may be associated with an occasional violent beam instability. This analysis has been carried out to better understand the complexities of electron motion observed near large rockets carrying artifical electron accelerators as a guide in the planning of future experiments

  20. Origin of how steam rockets can reduce space transport cost by orders of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Larson, T.K.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Rice, J.W.; Hill, T.J.; Richins, W.D.; Parlier, L.; Werner, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A brief sketch shows the origin of why and how thermal rocket propulsion has the unique potential to dramatically reduce the cost of space transportation for most inner solar system missions of interest. Orders of magnitude reduction in cost are apparently possible when compared to all processes requiring electrolysis for the production of rocket fuels or propellants and to all electric propulsion systems. An order of magnitude advantage can be attributed to rocket propellant tank factors associated with storing water propellant, compared to cryogenic liquids. An order of magnitude can also be attributed to the simplicity of the extraction and processing of ice on the lunar surface, into an easily stored, non-cryogenic rocket propellant (water). A nuclear heated thermal rocket can deliver thousands of times its mass to Low Earth Orbit from the Lunar surface, providing the equivalent to orders of magnitude drop in launch cost for mass in Earth orbit. Mass includes water ice. These cost reductions depend (exponentially) on the mission delta-v requirements being less than about 6 km/s, or about 3 times the specific velocity of steam rockets (2 km/s, from Isp 200 sec). Such missions include: from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit, (LLO), from LLO to lunar escape, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), from LEO to Earth Escape, from LEO to Mars Transfer Orbit, from LLO to GEO, missions returning payloads from about 10% of the periodic comets using propulsive capture to orbits around Earth itself, and fast, 100 day missions from Lunar Escape to Mars. All the assertions depend entirely and completely on the existence of abundant, nearly pure ice at the permanently dark North and South Poles of the Moon. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Harris, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible inhibitors are generally used in solid rocket motors (SRMs) as a means to control the burning of propellant. Vortices generated by the flow of propellant around the flexible inhibitors have been identified as a driving source of instabilities that can lead to thrust oscillations in launch vehicles. Potential coupling between the SRM thrust oscillations and structural vibration modes is an important risk factor in launch vehicle design. As a means to predict and better understand these phenomena, a multidisciplinary simulation capability that couples the NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This capability is crucial to the development of NASA's new space launch system (SLS). This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the coupled software to demonstrate and investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena between pressure waves and flexible inhibitors inside reusable solid rocket motors (RSRMs). The features of the fluid and structural solvers are described in detail, and the coupling methodology and interfacial continuity requirements are then presented in a general Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The simulations presented herein utilize production level CFD with hybrid RANS/LES turbulence modeling and grid resolution in excess of 80 million cells. The fluid domain in the SRM is discretized using a general mixed polyhedral unstructured mesh, while full 3D shell elements are utilized in the structural domain for the flexible inhibitors. Verifications against analytical solutions for a structural model under a steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic modal analysis show excellent agreement in terms of displacement distribution and eigenmode frequencies. The preliminary coupled results indicate that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor

  2. RX LAPAN Rocket data Program With Dbase III Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauman

    2001-01-01

    The components data rocket RX LAPAN are taken from workshop product and assembling rocket RX. In this application software, the test data are organized into two data files, i.e. test file and rocket file. Besides [providing facilities to add, edit and delete data, this software provides also data manipulation facility to support analysis and identification of rocket RX failures and success

  3. 16 CFR 1507.10 - Rockets with sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rockets with sticks. 1507.10 Section 1507.10... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.10 Rockets with sticks. Rockets with sticks (including skyrockets and bottle rockets) shall utilize a straight and rigid stick to provide a direct and stable flight. Such sticks shall...

  4. Sounding rocket flight report: MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP 9 paylaod included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe (Spencer, Brace, and Carignan, 1962), a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch in January 1971. A general description of the payload kinematics, orientation analysis, and the technique for the reduction and analysis of the data is given.

  5. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10 31 H 2 O and H 2 molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10 29 exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0 + ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described

  6. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  7. The electromagnetic rocket gun impact fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    A macroparticle accelerator to be used as an impact fusion driver is discussed and which can accelerate a small projectile to --200 km/sec over a distance of a few 100 meters. The driver which we have named electromagnetic rocket gun, accelerates a small rocket-like projectile by a travelling magnetic wave. The rocket propellant not only serves as a sink to absorb the heat produced in the projectile by resistive energy losses, but at the same time is also the source of additional thrust through the heating of the propellant to high temperatures by the travelling magnetic wave. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is here much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel of the gun rather than to a tenuous jet. (author)

  8. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  9. Space Power Experiments Aboard Rockets SPEAR-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raitt, W. J

    1997-01-01

    The SPEAR-3 program was a sounding rocket payload designed to study the interaction of a charged body with the Earth's upper atmosphere with particular reference to the discharging ability of selected...

  10. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  11. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  12. Solid rocket motor cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  13. Star-grain rocket motor - nonsteady internal ballistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loncaric, S.; Greatrix, D.R.; Fawaz, Z. [Ryerson University, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    The nonsteady internal ballistics of a star-grain solid-propellant rocket motor are investigated through a numerical simulation model that incorporates both the internal flow and surrounding structure. The effects of structural vibration on burning rate augmentation and wave development in nonsteady operation are demonstrated. The amount of damping plays a role in influencing the predicted axial combustion instability symptoms of the motor. The variation in oscillation frequencies about a given star grain section periphery, and along the grain with different levels of burn-back, also influences the means by which the local acceleration drives the combustion and flow behaviour. (authors)

  14. Near-optimal operation of dual-fuel launch vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardema, M.D.; Chou, H.C.; Bowles, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Current studies of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles are focused on all-rocket propulsion systems. One option for such vehicles is the use of dual-fuel (liquid hydrocarbon and liquid hydrogen (LH 2 )), for a portion of the mission. As compared with LH 2 , hydrocarbon fuel has higher density and produces higher thrust-to-weight, but has lower specific impulse. The advantages of hydrocarbon fuel are important early in the ascent trajectory, and its use may be expected to lead to reduced vehicle size and weight. Because LH 2 is also needed for cooling purposes, in the early portion of the trajectory both fuels must be burned simultaneously. Later in the ascent, when vehicle weight is lower, specific impulse is the key parameter, indicating single-fuel LH 2 use

  15. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  16. Dynamic Beam Solutions for Real-Time Simulation and Control Development of Flexible Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; King, Cecilia K.; Clark, Scott R.; Griffin, Edwin D.; Suhey, Jeffrey D.; Wolf, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flexible rockets are structurally represented by linear beams. Both direct and indirect solutions of beam dynamic equations are sought to facilitate real-time simulation and control development for flexible rockets. The direct solution is completed by numerically integrate the beam structural dynamic equation using an explicit Newmark-based scheme, which allows for stable and fast transient solutions to the dynamics of flexile rockets. Furthermore, in the real-time operation, the bending strain of the beam is measured by fiber optical sensors (FOS) at intermittent locations along the span, while both angular velocity and translational acceleration are measured at a single point by the inertial measurement unit (IMU). Another study in this paper is to find the analytical and numerical solutions of the beam dynamics based on the limited measurement data to facilitate the real-time control development. Numerical studies demonstrate the accuracy of these real-time solutions to the beam dynamics. Such analytical and numerical solutions, when integrated with data processing and control algorithms and mechanisms, have the potential to increase launch availability by processing flight data into the flexible launch vehicle's control system.

  17. Contingency Operations of Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea

    2010-01-01

    America has begun the development of a new space vehicle system which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. The system is called Constellation: it has 2 earth-launch vehicles, Ares I and Ares V; a crew module, Orion; and a lander, Altair with descent and ascent stages. Ares V will launch an Earth Departure Stage (EDS) and Altair into low earth orbit. Ares I will launch the Orion crew module into low earth orbit where it will rendezvous and dock with the Altair and EDS "stack". After rendezvous, the stack will contain four complete rocket systems, each capable of independent operations. Of course this multiplicity of vehicles provides a multiplicity of opportunities for off-nominal behavior and multiple mitigation options for each. Contingency operations are complicated by the issues of crew safety and the possibility of debris from the very large components impacting the ground. This paper examines contingency operations of the EDS in low earth orbit, during the boost to translunar orbit, and after the translunar boost. Contingency operations under these conditions have not been a consideration since the Apollo era and analysis of the possible contingencies and mitigations will take some time to evolve. Since the vehicle has not been designed, much less built, it is not possible to evaluate contingencies from a root-cause basis or from a probability basis; rather they are discussed at an effects level (such as the reaction control system is consuming propellant at a high rate). Mitigations for the contingencies are based on the severity of the off-nominal condition, the time of occurrence, recovery options, options for alternate missions, crew safety, evaluation of the condition (forensics) and future prevention. Some proposed mitigations reflect innovation in thinking and make use of the multiplicity of on-orbit resources including the crew; example: Orion could do a "fly around" to allow the crew to determine the condition

  18. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  19. Gigantic Circular Shock Acoustic Waves in the Ionosphere Triggered by the Launch of FORMOSAT-5 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Jia-Ting

    2018-02-01

    The launch of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket delivered Taiwan's FORMOSAT-5 satellite to orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 18:51:00 UT on 24 August 2017. To facilitate the delivery of FORMOSAT-5 to its mission orbit altitude of 720 km, the Falcon 9 made a steep initial ascent. During the launch, the supersonic rocket induced gigantic circular shock acoustic waves (SAWs) in total electron content (TEC) over the western United States beginning approximately 5 min after the liftoff. The circular SAWs emanated outward with 20 min duration, horizontal phase velocities of 629-726 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 390-450 km, and period of 10.28 ± 1 min. This is the largest rocket-induced circular SAWs on record, extending approximately 114-128°W in longitude and 26-39°N in latitude ( 1,500 km in diameter), and was due to the unique, nearly vertical attitude of the rocket during orbit insertion. The rocket-exhaust plume subsequently created a large-scale ionospheric plasma hole ( 900 km in diameter) with 10-70% TEC depletions in comparison with the reference days. While the circular SAWs, with a relatively small amplitude of TEC fluctuations, likely did not introduce range errors into the Global Navigation Satellite Systems navigation and positioning system, the subsequent ionospheric plasma hole, on the other hand, could have caused spatial gradients in the ionospheric plasma potentially leading to a range error of 1 m.

  20. Measurement of IR atmospheric band dayglow by S-520-4 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tadao; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of IR atmospheric band dayglow was made by rocket S-520-4 flown from Uchinoura at 1000 JST on Sept. 5, 1981. The instrument loaded on the rocket was the same type as the one loaded on EXOS-C satellite which will be launched in 1984 in order to observe the mesospheric ozone. This rocket experiment was performed for the purpose of testing the functions of this instrument in flight. The 1.27 μm filter radiometer consisted of three plane mirros, a camera lens, a chopper and a PbS detector array. The PbS array (4x5=20 elements) was operated at about -4 0 C with a thermoelectric cooler. We obtained the following results from the rocket experiment: (i) this instrument worked well during the flight, (ii) the intensities of the solar radiation scattered by the sea and clouds were obtained at 1.27 μm, and (iii) the baffle designed to permit the daytime measurement of the atmospheric emission could attenuate the off-axis radiation as weak as possible. The altitude distribution of the daytime mesospheric ozone density derived from the downleg data was in agreement with the previous profile obtained in twilight condition. (author)

  1. The comparative analysis of the forecasts of development of rocket propulsion in past and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaivoda, A.; Prisniakov, V.

    2001-03-01

    Consideration is being given to use the known long and short forecasts of development of rocket engines in past - at the beginning of development of a missile engineering (K. Tsiolkovsky etc. pioneers of rocket propulsion); on the eve of launching of the artificial satellite of Earth (A. Blagonravov); after manned flight of Yu. Gagarin (V. Gluchko); after manned flight on Moon (" The Forecasts on 2001 " on materials of readings R. Goddard in USA); in middle of 70-s' years (D. Sevruk, V. Prisniakov) and at the end of 20 centure. Last years under the initiative R. Beichel and M. Pouliquen IAA. Advanced Propulsion Working Group carries out large researches on definition of the tendencies of development of rocket propulsion for the next forty years, the outcomes which one will be used in the report. The comparison of development of rocket propulsion expected to the end of 20 century and real-life is given. The report analyses the errors of the forecasts of the past - the absence reliable prognostic procedure; the euphoria of the maiden successes of conquest of space; dominance of military and political- propaganda motives of implementation of the space programs before economical; to keep developments secret; competition of two super-powers USSR and USA etc.

  2. Optimal Reference Strain Structure for Studying Dynamic Responses of Flexible Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Natsuki; Su, Weihua; Wolf, Michael G.; Griffin, Edwin D.; Dumoulin, Marie P.

    2017-01-01

    In the proposed paper, the optimal design of reference strain structures (RSS) will be performed targeting for the accurate observation of the dynamic bending and torsion deformation of a flexible rocket. It will provide the detailed description of the finite-element (FE) model of a notional flexible rocket created in MSC.Patran. The RSS will be attached longitudinally along the side of the rocket and to track the deformation of the thin-walled structure under external loads. An integrated surrogate-based multi-objective optimization approach will be developed to find the optimal design of the RSS using the FE model. The Kriging method will be used to construct the surrogate model. For the data sampling and the performance evaluation, static/transient analyses will be performed with MSC.Natran/Patran. The multi-objective optimization will be solved with NSGA-II to minimize the difference between the strains of the launch vehicle and RSS. Finally, the performance of the optimal RSS will be evaluated by checking its strain-tracking capability in different numerical simulations of the flexible rocket.

  3. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  4. The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph

    CERN Document Server

    Lardier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Soyuz launch vehicle has had a long and illustrious history. Built as the world's first intercontinental missile, it took the first man into space in April 1961, before becoming the workhorse of Russian spaceflight, launching satellites, interplanetary probes, every cosmonaut from Gagarin onwards, and, now, the multinational crews of the International Space Station. This remarkable book gives a complete and accurate description of the two lives of Soyuz, chronicling the cooperative space endeavor of Europe and Russia. First, it takes us back to the early days of astronautics, when technology served politics. From archives found in the Soviet Union the authors describe the difficulty of designing a rocket in the immediate post-war period. Then, in Soyuz's golden age, it launched numerous scientific missions and manned flights which were publicized worldwide while the many more numerous military missions were kept highly confidential! The second part of the book tells the contemporary story of the second li...

  5. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  6. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  7. Rocket and ground-based study of an auroral breakup event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.

    1982-02-01

    On 27 January, 1979 the substorm-GEOS rocket S23H was launched from ESRANGE, Kiruna, shortly after the onset of an intense magnetospheric substorm over northern Scandinavia. Rocket electric field and particle observations have been used to calculate ionospheric currents and heating rates. These results are generally consistent with the ground magnetic and optical observations. An important finding emerging from a comparison of this event with a pre-breakup event earlier on this day is that the ionospheric substorm-related electric field could be split up into two parts, namely: 1) an ambient LT dependent field, probably of magnetospheric origin 2) superimposed on this a small-scale electric field associated with the bright auroral structures, being southward for both events. This is shown to have important consequences on the location of the ionospheric currents and the Joule energy discussion relative to the auroral forms. (Author)

  8. Observation of solar HLy-α by K-9M-59 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norihiko; Tono, Ichiro; Koshio, Takafumi.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the observation is to measure the illumination intensity of solar HLy-α (1216 A) and the altitude distribution of O 2 density in earth atmosphere. Since solar HLy-α is strongly absorbed by O 2 in the earth atmosphere, the extinction of HLy-α depends on the altitude distribution of O 2 density. The K-9M-59 rocket was launched on September 3, 1977. The HLy-α detector was a narrow-band ion chamber filled with NO gas. The result showed that the solar HLy-α irradiance at the rocket altitude of 90 km was 3.5 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 s and the altitude distribution of O 2 density was obtained. (Yoshimori, M.)

  9. Proposed UK high-latitude rocket campaign in late 1976/early 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.R.; Bryant, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The second major UK high-latitude rocket campaign is scheduled for late 1976/early 19777 at Andoya. The proposed experiments provide a comprehensive set of measurements of high-latitude phenomena and include studies of the sources and acceleration of auroral particles, the stability of plasma flow, wave-particle interactions, and the response of the atmosphere and ionosphere to enhanced geomagnetic activity. These experiments require co-ordinated launching of high-latitude (740-950 km) and small, medium-altitude (320-370km) rockets. The provisional campaign plan includes four Skylark 12's (with Skylark 11 as a possible substitute), one Skylark 7 (with Skylark 6 as a possible substitute), and five Fulmars (with Skylark 10A as a possible substitute). Some of the experiments require simultaneous measurements by GEOS in the European sector (early 1977), but the remainder could be carried out in late 1976

  10. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  11. The launch of new-look Chishango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasse, D

    2002-09-01

    PSI/Malawi is a local affiliate of the non-profit NGO, Population Services International, which operates in over 50 countries worldwide. PSI/Malawi's mission is to "improve and sustain the health of all Malawians through cost-effective social marketing of needed and affordable health products". In this context, social marketing involves using a range of media channels to create demand for branded health products which are sold at subsidised prices through a wide range of distribution outlets (e.g. wholesalers/retailers, institutions, NGOs, the workplace, etc.). Chishango is PSI/Malawi's condom brand which was launched in 1994 to provide sexually active Malawians with an affordable means of protecting themselves and their partners from HIV transmission. In 2001, research indicated that the brand needed a 'face lift' to improve its relevance to modern Malawians and therefore lead to an increase in consistent condom use resulting in a further reduction in HIV transmission. The newly packaged and positioned Chishango was launched on the 13th May 2002. The speech below was given by the Resident Director of PSI/Malawi, Dr Desmond Chavasse at the relaunch of Chishango.

  12. Design of a rocket-borne radiometer for stratospheric ozone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.A.; Simeth, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    A four-filter ultraviolet radiometer for measuring stratospheric ozone is described. The payload is launched aboard a Super-Loki rocket to an apogee of 70 km. The instrument measures the solar ultraviolet irradiance over its filter wavelengths as it descends on a parachute. The amount of ozone in the path between the radiometer and the sun is calculated from the attenuation of solar flux using the Beer-Lambert law. Radar at the launch site measures the height of the instrument throughout its flight. The fundamental ozone value measured by the ROCOZ-A radiometer is the vertical ozone overburden as a function of geometric altitude. Ozone measurements are obtained for altitudes from 55 to 20 km, extending well above the altitude range of balloon-borne ozone-measuring instruments. The optics and electronics in the radiometer have been designed within relatively severe size and weight limitations imposed by the launch vehicle. The electronics in the improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A) provide essentially drift-free outputs throughout 40-min ozone soundings at stratospheric temperatures. The modest cost of the payload precludes recovery and makes the instrument a versatile tool compared to larger ozonesondes

  13. Particle swarm optimization of ascent trajectories of multistage launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontani, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Multistage launch vehicles are commonly employed to place spacecraft and satellites in their operational orbits. If the rocket characteristics are specified, the optimization of its ascending trajectory consists of determining the optimal control law that leads to maximizing the final mass at orbit injection. The numerical solution of a similar problem is not trivial and has been pursued with different methods, for decades. This paper is concerned with an original approach based on the joint use of swarming theory and the necessary conditions for optimality. The particle swarm optimization technique represents a heuristic population-based optimization method inspired by the natural motion of bird flocks. Each individual (or particle) that composes the swarm corresponds to a solution of the problem and is associated with a position and a velocity vector. The formula for velocity updating is the core of the method and is composed of three terms with stochastic weights. As a result, the population migrates toward different regions of the search space taking advantage of the mechanism of information sharing that affects the overall swarm dynamics. At the end of the process the best particle is selected and corresponds to the optimal solution to the problem of interest. In this work the three-dimensional trajectory of the multistage rocket is assumed to be composed of four arcs: (i) first stage propulsion, (ii) second stage propulsion, (iii) coast arc (after release of the second stage), and (iv) third stage propulsion. The Euler-Lagrange equations and the Pontryagin minimum principle, in conjunction with the Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions, are employed to express the thrust angles as functions of the adjoint variables conjugate to the dynamics equations. The use of these analytical conditions coming from the calculus of variations leads to obtaining the overall rocket dynamics as a function of seven parameters only, namely the unknown values of the initial state

  14. Examination of Cross-Scale Coupling During Auroral Events using RENU2 and ISINGLASS Sounding Rocket Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, D. R.; Lessard, M.; Lynch, K. A.; Hysell, D. L.; Hampton, D. L.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Varney, R. H.; Oksavik, K.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Hecht, J. H.; Clemmons, J. H.; Fritz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The RENU2 sounding rocket (launched from Andoya rocket range on December 13th, 2015) observed Poleward Moving Auroral Forms within the dayside cusp. The ISINGLASS rockets (launched from Poker Flat rocket range on February 22, 2017 and March 2, 2017) both observed aurora during a substorm event. Despite observing very different events, both campaigns witnessed a high degree of small scale structuring within the larger auroral boundary, including Alfvenic signatures. These observations suggest a method of coupling large-scale energy input to fine scale structures within aurorae. During RENU2, small (sub-km) scale drivers persist for long (10s of minutes) time scales and result in large scale ionospheric (thermal electron) and thermospheric response (neutral upwelling). ISINGLASS observations show small scale drivers, but with short (minute) time scales, with ionospheric response characterized by the flight's thermal electron instrument (ERPA). The comparison of the two flights provides an excellent opportunity to examine ionospheric and thermospheric response to small scale drivers over different integration times.

  15. Spectroscopic observation of the middle ultraviolet earth albedo by S-520-4 rocket and mesospheric ozone density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuhisa; Ogawa, Toshihiro.

    1982-01-01

    The ozone Hartey absorption band in the middle ultraviolet range is commonly adopted for the ozone measurement by rocket and satellite observations. In Japan, since 1965 the ozone absorption in the solar ultraviolet radiation has been observed by rocket-borne uv photometers. On the other hand the spectroscopic measurements of the scattered solar ultraviolet radiation from the terrestrial atmosphere will be performed by the EXOS-C satellite which will be launched in 1984. We tested the spectrometer for this satellite experiment by S-520-4 rocket launched on 5 September 1981. This instrument observed the scattered radiation of 2500 A -- 3300 A and the visible earth albedo of 4030 A. The spectrometer is consisted of a concave grating and has about 10 A wavelength resolution. A photomultiplier having a Cs-Te photocathode is used as a uv detector. The visible albedo is measured by a photometer consisting of an interference filter and a phototube. We estimated the atmospheric ozone profile, comparing the uv spectrum obtained by this experiment with the model calculations. The estimated ozone density profile higher than 30 km altitude has good agreement with the profile obtained by the previous uv photometer experiments at Uchinoura. There are differences between the observed spectrum and the calculated one in = 3100 A. We can explain them by the effect of Mie scattering and the uv stray light. In the present experiment we could successfully test the functions of the instrument in the space. rocket, spectrometer, solar ultraviolet radiation, earth albedo, ozone (author)

  16. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  17. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  18. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  19. Mapping of auroral x-rays from rocket overflights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.A.; Barcus, J.R.; Treinish, L.A.; Vondrak, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    In March 1978, two Nike Tomahawk payloads were launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, to observe the structure of bremsstrhlung x rays and precipitating particles during both nighttime and daytime observe x rays in four spectral ranges (5--10 keV, 10--20 keV, 20--40 keV, and >40 keV). Particle contamination of the detectors was avoided with broom magnet shielding techniques. By virtue of the payloads' approximate 20 0 coning angle (about 10.5-s period), the detectors scanned wide regions on either side of the trajectory paths. This has permitted construction (using computer color graphics) of the time averaged (approx.4 min) x ray source regions near 100 km, a height consistent with Chatanika radar electron density maps obtained during each flight period. X ray image maps for both flights exhibit enhanced source regions well outside the rocket trajectory planes. For the nighttime overflight, Chatanika radar scan data and Fort Yukon riometer data were used to verify the presence of an x ray imaged enhancement of electron precipitation, approximately 30 km to the east of the rocket trajectory plane. The daytime x ray data also exhibited several regions of enhanced emission, but outside the region scanned by Chatanika radar. A comparison of the x ray emissions from the two events shows the daytime x ray spectral distributions to be significantly harder but less intense that the nighttime distributions. Furthermore, for both events, spectra compared within and nearby each enhanced emitting region exhibit characteristics of a two component spectrum, such that the bright regions show an increased flux primarily in the low-energy component. Electron fluxes measured on each of the two flights with Geiger tubes are mainly isotropic over the downward hemisphere at night but show anisotropic pitch angle characteristics by day, consistent with the concept that the enhancement of the low-energy x ray flux component is predominantly induced by electrons filling the loss cone

  20. Rocket observations at the northern edge of the eastward electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1980-01-01

    A Nike-Tomahawk rocket was launched north over two quiet, late evening auroral arcs in March 1975. A northward magnetic disturbance was observed on the ground under the rocket trajectory. South of the arcs the northward electric field was 60 mV/m, indicating strong westward plasma flow. An eastward electrojet current layer was penetrated in the upward flight. Precipitating electrons were observed over each arc. The electric field decreased to below 20 mV/m over each arc and recovered to 50 mV/m between the arcs. Using the observed electron flux and a model of the ionosphere, the Hall and Pedersen conductivities were calculated. These conductivities were used, with the observed electric field, to calculate the eastward and northward components of the horizontal ionospheric currents. The eastward current calculated south of the first arc agreed well with the observed eastward electrojet current. The power dissipated by the Pedersen current Σ/sub p/EPSILON 2 was also calculated and compared with the power carried by the precipitating electrons. The Joule power decreased abruptly in the auroral arcs, as the pricipitating electron power increased. The total dissipated power was approximately the same inside the arcs, between them, and south of the luminosity. North of the aurora the electric field and dissipated power remained low. Field-aligned currents carried by the observed electrons were about a factor of 3 lower than those inferred from the magnetic field measurements. Likewise, current continuity arguments to keep the auroral current system divergence free required a larger field-aligned current than that obtained from the particle detectors

  1. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  2. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  3. SLS Launched Missions Concept Studies for LUVOIR Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-meter Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-meter class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-meter class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  4. Ares V: Game Changer for National Security Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Morris, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to vastly expand exploration of the Moon begun in the Apollo program and enable the exploration of Mars and beyond. As the largest launcher in history, Ares V also represents a national asset offering unprecedented opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping-stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V consists of a Core Stage, two Reusable Solid Rocket Boosters (RSRBs), Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and a payload shroud. For lunar missions, the shroud would cover the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The Ares V Core Stage is 33 feet in diameter and 212 feet in length, making it the largest rocket stage ever built. It is the same diameter as the Saturn V first stage, the S-IC. However, its length is about the same as the combined length of the Saturn V first and second stages. The Core Stage uses a cluster of five Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-68B rocket engines, each supplying about 700,000 pounds of thrust

  5. Modeling of "Stripe" Wave Phenomena Seen by the CHARM II and ACES Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two recent sounding-rocket missions—CHARM II and ACES—have been launched from Poker Flat Research Range, carrying the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE) among their primary instruments. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) E-field waveform measurements up to 5 MHz. The CHARM II sounding rocket was launched 9:49 UT on 15 February 2010 into a substorm, while the ACES mission consisted of two rockets, launched into quiet aurora at 9:49 and 9:50 UT on 29 January 2009. At approximately 350 km on CHARM II and the ACES High-Flyer, the HFE detected short (~2s) bursts of broadband (200-500 kHz) noise with a 'stripe' pattern of nulls imposed on it. These nulls have 10 to 20 kHz width and spacing, and many show a regular, non-linear frequency-time relation. These events are different from the 'stripes' discussed by Samara and LaBelle [2006] and Colpitts et al. [2010], because of the density of the stripes, the non-linearity, and the appearance of being an absorptive rather than emissive phenomenon. These events are similar to 'stripe' features reported by Brittain et al. [1983] in the VLF range, explained as an interference pattern between a downward-traveling whistler-mode wave and its reflection off the bottom of the ionosphere. Following their analysis method, we modeled our stripes as higher-frequency interfering whistlers reflecting off of a density gradient. This model predicts the near-hyperbolic frequency-time curves and high density of the nulls, and therefore shows promise at explaining the new observations.

  6. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  7. Holographic elements and curved slit used to enlarge field of view in rocket detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Mélanie; Fortin, Jean; Lessard, Roger A.; Châteauneuf, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Rocket detection over a wide field of view is an important issue in the protection of light armored vehicle. Traditionally, the detection occurs in UV band, but recent studies have shown the existence of significant emission peaks in the visible and near infrared at rocket launch time. The use of the visible region is interesting in order to reduce the weight and cost of systems. Current methods to detect those specific peaks involve use of interferometric filters. However, they fail to combine wide angle with wavelength selectivity. A linear array of volume holographic elements combined with a curved exit slit is proposed for the development of a wide field of view sensor for the detection of solid propellant motor launch flash. The sensor is envisaged to trigger an active protection system. On the basis of geometric theory, a system has been designed. It consists of a collector, a linear array of holographic elements, a curved slit and a detector. The collector is an off-axis parabolic mirror. Holographic elements are recorded subdividing a hologram film in regions, each individually exposed with a different incidence angle. All regions have a common diffraction angle. The incident angle determines the instantaneous field of view of the elements. The volume hologram performs the function of separating and focusing the diffracted beam on an image plane to achieve wavelength filtering. Conical diffraction property is used to enlarge the field of view in elevation. A curved slit was designed to correspond to oblique incidence of the holographic linear array. It is situated at the image plane and filters the diffracted spectrum toward the sensor. The field of view of the design was calculated to be 34 degrees. This was validated by a prototype tested during a field trial. Results are presented and analyzed. The system succeeded in detecting the rocket launch flash at desired fields of view.

  8. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  9. Development of nuclear rocket engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission, the USAF, and NASA (later on) in the area of nuclear rocket propulsion is discussed. It was found that a graphite reactor, loaded with highly concentrated Uranium 235, can be used to heat high pressure liquid hydrogen to temperatures of about 4500 R, and to expand the hydrogen through a high expansion ratio rocket nozzle assembly. The results of 20 reactor tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site between July 1959 and June 1969 are analyzed. On the basis of these results, the feasibility of solid graphite reactor/nuclear rocket engines is revealed. It is maintained that this technology will support future space propulsion requirements, using liquid hydrogen as the propellant, for thrust requirements ranging from 25,000 lbs to 250,000 lbs, with vacuum specific impulses of at least 850 sec and with full engine throttle capability. 12 refs

  10. Metallic Hydrogen: A Game Changing Rocket Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Isaac F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to produce metallic hydrogen in the laboratory using an innovative approach, and to study its metastability properties. Current theoretical and experimental considerations expect that extremely high pressures of order 4-6 megabar are required to transform molecular hydrogen to the metallic phase. When metallic hydrogen is produced in the laboratory it will be extremely important to determine if it is metastable at modest temperatures, i.e. remains metallic when the pressure is released. Then it could be used as the most powerful chemical rocket fuel that exists and revolutionize rocketry, allowing single-stage rockets to enter orbit and chemically fueled rockets to explore our solar system.

  11. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  12. Rocket and radar investigation of background electrodynamics and bottom-type scattering layers at the onset of equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sounding rocket experiments were conducted during the NASA EQUIS II campaign on Kwajalein Atoll designed to elucidate the electrodynamics and layer structure of the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere prior to the onset of equatorial spread F (ESF. Experiments took place on 7 and 15 August 2004, each comprised of the launch of an instrumented and two chemical release sounding rockets. The instrumented rockets measured plasma number density, vector electric fields, and other parameters to an apogee of about 450 km. The chemical release rockets deployed trails of trimethyl aluminum (TMA which yielded wind profile measurements. The Altair radar was used to monitor coherent and incoherent scatter in UHF and VHF bands. Electron density profiles were also measured with rocket beacons and an ionosonde. Strong plasma shear flow was evident in both experiments. Bottom-type scattering layers were observed mainly in the valley region, below the shear nodes, in westward-drifting plasma strata. The layers were likely produced by wind-driven interchange instabilities as proposed by Kudeki and Bhattacharyya (1999. In both experiments, the layers were patchy and distributed periodically in space. Their horizontal structure was similar to that of the large-scale plasma depletions that formed later at higher altitude during ESF conditions. We argue that the bottom-type layers were modulated by the same large-scale waves that seeded the ESF. A scenario where the large-scale waves were themselves produced by collisional shear instabilities is described.

  13. A Proposed Criterion for Launch Ramp Availability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalzell, J

    2003-01-01

    The project under which the present report was produced has as an objective the development of methods for the evaluation and comparison of stem-launch and side-launch systems for small boat deployment from USCG cutters...

  14. Launch of Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 (Spacecraft 103/Saturn 503) space vehicle launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 7:51 a.m., December 21, 1968. In this view there is water in the foreground and seagulls.

  15. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  16. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  17. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  18. Simultaneous observations of E- and B-ULF waves aboard a sounding rocket payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloecker, N.; Luehr, H.; Grabowski, R.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic and electric field variations in the frequency range of 0.5 to 4 Hz were made on a payload flown within the IMS sounding rocket campaign 'Substormphenomena'. The payload was launched into an auroral break-up. The waves show amplitudes up to 100 nT in B and 100 mV/m in E. Mutual correlation of B and E as well as correlation with electron precipitation are observed. The energy flux of the waves and the particles are equally directed and of the same order of magnitude. (Auth.)

  19. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

    2005-01-01

    Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or

  1. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - Time to Launch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission is scheduled to launch in mid-July 2008, right around the time of this COSPAR meeting. IBEX will make the first global observations of the heliosphere's interaction with the interstellar medium. IBEX achieves these breakthrough observations by traveling outside of the Earth's magnetosphere in a highly elliptical orbit and taking global Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) images with two very large aperture single pixel ENA cameras. IBEX-Lo makes measurements in 8 contiguous energy pass bands covering from ˜10 eV to 2 keV; IBEX-Hi similarly covers from ˜300 eV to 6 keV in 6 contiguous pass bands. IBEX's high-apogee (˜50RE ) orbit enables heliospheric ENA measurements by providing viewing from far outside the earth's relatively bright magnetospheric ENA emissions. The IBEX cameras view perpendicular to the spacecraft's sun-pointed spin axis. Each six months, the spacecraft spin and progression of the sun-pointing spin axis as the Earth moves around the Sun lead naturally to global, all-sky images. IBEX is the first mission to achieve a high altitude from a standard Pegasus launch vehicle. We accomplish this by adding the propulsion from an IBEX-supplied solid rocket motor and the spacecraft's hydrazine propulsion system. Additional information on IBEX is available at www.ibex.swri.edu. This talk, on behalf of the IBEX science and engineering teams, will summarize the IBEX science and mission and will provide an up-to-the-minute update on the status of the mission, including any new information on the launch and commissioning status.

  2. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.S.; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Sanders, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight

  3. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, F.S. E-mail: frederick.s.porter@gsfc.nasa.gov; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Sanders, W.T

    2000-04-07

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight.

  4. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  5. Ozone Depletion Caused by Rocket Engine Emissions: A Fundamental Limit on the Scale and Viability of Space-Based Geoengineering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. N.; Toohey, D.

    2008-12-01

    Emissions from solid and liquid propellant rocket engines reduce global stratospheric ozone levels. Currently ~ one kiloton of payloads are launched into earth orbit annually by the global space industry. Stratospheric ozone depletion from present day launches is a small fraction of the ~ 4% globally averaged ozone loss caused by halogen gases. Thus rocket engine emissions are currently considered a minor, if poorly understood, contributor to ozone depletion. Proposed space-based geoengineering projects designed to mitigate climate change would require order of magnitude increases in the amount of material launched into earth orbit. The increased launches would result in comparable increases in the global ozone depletion caused by rocket emissions. We estimate global ozone loss caused by three space-based geoengineering proposals to mitigate climate change: (1) mirrors, (2) sunshade, and (3) space-based solar power (SSP). The SSP concept does not directly engineer climate, but is touted as a mitigation strategy in that SSP would reduce CO2 emissions. We show that launching the mirrors or sunshade would cause global ozone loss between 2% and 20%. Ozone loss associated with an economically viable SSP system would be at least 0.4% and possibly as large as 3%. It is not clear which, if any, of these levels of ozone loss would be acceptable under the Montreal Protocol. The large uncertainties are mainly caused by a lack of data or validated models regarding liquid propellant rocket engine emissions. Our results offer four main conclusions. (1) The viability of space-based geoengineering schemes could well be undermined by the relatively large ozone depletion that would be caused by the required rocket launches. (2) Analysis of space- based geoengineering schemes should include the difficult tradeoff between the gain of long-term (~ decades) climate control and the loss of short-term (~ years) deep ozone loss. (3) The trade can be properly evaluated only if our

  6. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 2: spacecraft, sunshield, observatory, and launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Schweiss, Andrea; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Patel, Jignasha; Macias, Matthew; McGregor, R. Daniel; Farmer, Greg; Schmeitzky, Olivier; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Romero, Beatriz; Breton, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    This paper will continue from Part 1 of JWST contamination control implementation. In addition to optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing, JWST also requires contamination control for a spacecraft that must be vented carefully in order to maintain solar array and thermal radiator thermal properties; a tennis court-sized sunshield made with 1-2 mil Kapton™ layers that must be manufactured and maintained clean; an observatory that must be integrated, stowed and transported to South America; and a rocket that typically launches commercial payloads without contamination sensitivity. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for the JWST spacecraft, sunshield, observatory and launch vehicle will be presented.

  7. Ionospheric disturbances induced by a missile launched from North Korea on 12 December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Chen, Chia-Hung; Watanabe, Shigeto; Lin, Charles; Liu, Jenn-Yanq; Habu, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    disturbances caused by a missile launched from North Korea on 12 December 2012 were investigated by using the GPS total electron content (TEC). The spatial characteristic of the front edge of V-shaped disturbances produced by missiles and rockets was first determined. Considering the launch direction and the height of estimated ionospheric points at which GPS radio signal pierces the ionosphere, the missile passed through the ionosphere at heights of 391, 425, and 435 km at 0056:30, 0057:00, and 0057:30 UT, respectively. The observed velocities of the missile were 2.8 and 3.2 km/s at that time, which was estimated from the traveling speed of the front edge of V-shaped disturbances. Westward and eastward V-shaped disturbances propagated at 1.8-2.6 km/s. The phase velocities of the westward and eastward V-shaped disturbances were much faster than the speed of acoustic waves reported in previous studies, suggesting that sources other than acoustic waves may have played an important role. Furthermore, the plasma density depletion that is often observed following missile and rocket launches was not found. This suggests that the depletion resulting from the missile's exhaust was not strong enough to be observed in the TEC distribution in the topside ionosphere.

  8. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-01

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented

  9. Flow-Structural Interaction in Solid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdock, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The static test failure of the Titan solid rocket motor upgrade (SRMU) that occurred on 1 April, 1991, demonstrated the importance of flow-structural modeling in the design of large, solid rocket motors...

  10. Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, B.R.; Crannell, C.J.; Desai, U.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures

  11. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio

    2017-12-01

    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  12. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio

    2018-06-01

    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  13. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  14. Government Relations: It's Not Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radway, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Many people in the early childhood education field are afraid of government relations work, intimidated by politicians, and believe the whole process is unseemly. The author asserts that they should not be afraid nor be intimidated because government relations is not rocket science and fundamentally officeholders are no different from the rest of…

  15. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  16. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  17. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  18. Evaluation of Geopolymer Concrete for Rocket Test Facility Flame Deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Montes, Carlos; Islam, Rashedul; Allouche, Erez

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents results from a combined research effort by Louisiana Tech University (LTU) and NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a new alumina-silicate based cementitious binder capable of acting as a high performance refractory material with low heat ablation rate and high early mechanical strength. Such a binder would represent a significant contribution to NASA's efforts to develop a new generation of refractory 'hot face' liners for liquid or solid rocket plume environments. This project was developed as a continuation of on-going collaborations between LTU and SSC, where test sections of a formulation of high temperature geopolymer binder were cast in the floor and walls of Test Stand E-1 Cell 3, an active rocket engine test stand flame trench. Additionally, geopolymer concrete panels were tested using the NASA-SSC Diagnostic Test Facility (DTF) thruster, where supersonic plume environments were generated on a 1ft wide x 2ft long x 6 inch deep refractory panel. The DTF operates on LOX/GH2 propellants producing a nominal thrust of 1,200 lbf and the combustion chamber conditions are Pc=625psig, O/F=6.0. Data collected included high speed video of plume/panel area and surface profiles (depth) of the test panels measured on a 1-inch by 1-inch giving localized erosion rates during the test. Louisiana Tech conducted a microstructure analysis of the geopolymer binder after the testing program to identify phase changes in the material.

  19. Rocketing into the future the history and technology of rocket planes

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Rocketing into the Future journeys into the exciting world of rocket planes, examining the exotic concepts and actual flying vehicles that have been devised over the last one hundred years. Lavishly illustrated with over 150 photographs, it recounts the history of rocket planes from the early pioneers who attached simple rockets on to their wooden glider airplanes to the modern world of high-tech research vehicles. The book then looks at the possibilities for the future. The technological and economic challenges of the Space Shuttle proved insurmountable, and thus the program was unable to fulfill its promise of low-cost access to space. However, the burgeoning market of suborbital space tourism may yet give the necessary boost to the development of a truly reusable spaceplane.

  20. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review-launch site boundary. 420.21 Section 420.21 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... travels given a worst-case launch vehicle failure in the launch area. An applicant must clearly and...

  1. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and

  3. The Alabama Space and Rocket Center: The Second Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckbee, Edward O.

    1983-01-01

    The Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, the world's largest rocket and space museum, includes displays illustrating American rocket history, exhibits and demonstrations on rocketry principles and experiences, and simulations of space travel. A new project includes an integrated recreational-educational complex, described in the three…

  4. 14 CFR 437.67 - Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket. 437... a reusable suborbital rocket. A permittee must— (a) During permitted flight, measure in real time the position and velocity of its reusable suborbital rocket; and (b) Provide position and velocity...

  5. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  6. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  7. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  8. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  9. NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Emily Colvin; Paul G. Cummings

    2009-06-01

    During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current cost estimates show that the complete mission cost for an NTR-enhanced assembly of Delta-IV and Atlas V vehicles may cost 47-86% more than the estimated Ares V launch cost of $1.5B; however, development costs for the current NASA architecture have not been assessed. The additional cost of coordinating the rendezvous of four to six launch vehicles with an in-orbit assembly facility also needs more thorough analysis and review. Future trends in launch vehicle use will also significantly impact the results from this comparison. The utility of multiple launch vehicles allows for the development of a more robust and lower risk exploration architecture.

  10. NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Colvin, Emily; Cummings, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current cost estimates show that the complete mission cost for an NTR-enhanced assembly of Delta-IV and Atlas V vehicles may cost 47-86% more than the estimated Ares V launch cost of $1.5B; however, development costs for the current NASA architecture have not been assessed. The additional cost of coordinating the rendezvous of four to six launch vehicles with an in-orbit assembly facility also needs more thorough analysis and review. Future trends in launch vehicle use will also significantly impact the results from this comparison. The utility of multiple launch vehicles allows for the development of a more robust and lower risk exploration architecture

  11. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  12. Efficient solid rocket propulsion for access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Filippo; Bandera, Alessio; Galfetti, Luciano; De Luca, Luigi T.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2010-06-01

    Space launch activity is expected to grow in the next few years in order to follow the current trend of space exploitation for business purpose. Granting high specific thrust and volumetric specific impulse, and counting on decades of intense development, solid rocket propulsion is a good candidate for commercial access to space, even with common propellant formulations. Yet, some drawbacks such as low theoretical specific impulse, losses as well as safety issues, suggest more efficient propulsion systems, digging into the enhancement of consolidated techniques. Focusing the attention on delivered specific impulse, a consistent fraction of losses can be ascribed to the multiphase medium inside the nozzle which, in turn, is related to agglomeration; a reduction of agglomerate size is likely. The present paper proposes a model based on heterogeneity characterization capable of describing the agglomeration trend for a standard aluminized solid propellant formulation. Material microstructure is characterized through the use of two statistical descriptors (pair correlation function and near-contact particles) looking at the mean metal pocket size inside the bulk. Given the real formulation and density of a propellant, a packing code generates the material representative which is then statistically analyzed. Agglomerate predictions are successfully contrasted to experimental data at 5 bar for four different formulations.

  13. Rocket Detection of Argon in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.; Festou, M. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; Slater, D. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    1998-12-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 30.2 March 1997 (UT) from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 A. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.915 AU from the Sun, 1.340 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 12 A, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 A as yet achieved, and contains signatures of both the 1048.2 A and 1066.7 A Ar I resonance lines. These features represent the first-ever detections of any noble gas in a comet. The spectrum also includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 A 0 II, 972 A Lyman gamma, 989 A O I, the 1026 A H I Lyman beta/O I. We will discuss the Ar features, retrieve the Ar column in the coma, and discuss the implications of the total Ar/O abundance ratio in Hale-Bopp for the comet's origin.

  14. Animals in Space From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research. Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods empl...

  15. Rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses are made of planar, cylindrical and spherical-electrode two-field time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A method is introduced which can improve the resolving power of these instruments by a factor of 7.5. Potential barrier gating in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is also analyzed. Experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical-electrode and a hemispherical-electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer are presented. Their sensitivity and ability to operate at D-region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D-region ion composition measurements. A sounding rocket experiment package carrying a cylindrical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer was launched. The data indicate that essentially 100% of the positive electric charge on positive ions is carried by ions with mass-to-charge ratios greater than 500 below an altitude of 92 km. These heavy charge carriers were present at altitudes up to about 100 km.

  16. Rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.F.

    1976-08-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses are made of planar-, cylindrical- and spherical-electrode two-field time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A method is introduced which can improve the resolving power of these instruments by a factor of 7.5. Potential barrier gating in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is also analyzed. Experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical-electrode and a hemispherical-electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer are presented. Their sensitivity and ability to operate at D-region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D-region ion composition measurements. A sounding rocket experiment package carrying a cylindrical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer was launched. The data indicate that essentially 100% of the positive electric charge on positive ions is carried by ions with mass-to-charge ratios greater than 500 below an altitude of 92 km. These heavy charge carriers were present at altitudes up to about 100 km

  17. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (rights reserved.

  18. Some Problems of Rocket-Space Vehicles' Characteristics co- ordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    of the XX century suffered a reverse. The designers of the United States' firms and enterprises of aviation and rocket-space industry (Boeing, Rocketdyne, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, etc.) and NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center and Lewis Research Center and others) could not correctly co-ordinate the characteristics of a propulsion system and a space vehicle for elaboration of the "Single-Stage-To-Orbit" reusable vehicle (SSTO) as an integral whole system, which is would able to inject a payload into an orbit and to return back on the Earth. jet nozzle design as well as the choice of propulsion system characteristics, ensuring the high ballistic efficiency, are considered in the present report. The efficiency criterions for the engine and launch system parameters optimization are discussed. The new methods of the nozzle block optimal parameters' choice for the satisfaction of the object task of flight are suggested. The family of SSTO with a payload mass from 5 to 20 ton and initial weight under 800 ton is considered.

  19. DAQ: Software Architecture for Data Acquisition in Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Tran, Thanh; Nichols, Heidi; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    A multithreaded software application was developed by Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) to collect a set of correlated imagery, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS data for a Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) sounding rocket flight. The data set will be used to advance Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) technology algorithms being researched at JPL. This paper describes the software architecture and the tests used to meet the timing and data rate requirements for the software used to collect the dataset. Also discussed are the challenges of using commercial off the shelf (COTS) flight hardware and open source software. This includes multiple Camera Link (C-link) based cameras, a Pentium-M based computer, and Linux Fedora 11 operating system. Additionally, the paper talks about the history of the software architecture's usage in other JPL projects and its applicability for future missions, such as cubesats, UAVs, and research planes/balloons. Also talked about will be the human aspect of project especially JPL's Phaeton program and the results of the launch.

  20. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  1. Rocket Engine Turbine Blade Surface Pressure Distributions Experiment and Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flow fields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with miniature surface mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in two respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. A three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis was also used to blindly predict the unsteady flow field in the turbine at the design operating conditions and at +15 degrees relative incidence to the first-stage rotor. The predicted time-averaged and unsteady pressure distributions show good agreement with the experimental data. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools are contributing significantly to current Space Launch Initiative turbine airflow test and blade surface pressure prediction efforts.

  2. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  3. Nonlinear acoustic propagation of launch vehicle and military jet aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.

    2010-10-01

    The noise from launch vehicles and high-performance military jet aircraft has been shown to travel nonlinearly as a result of an amplitude-dependent speed of sound. Because acoustic pressure compressions travel faster than rarefactions, the waveform steepens and shocks form. This process results in a very different (and readily audible) noise signature and spectrum than predicted by linear models. On-going efforts to characterize the nonlinearity using statistical and spectral measures are described with examples from recent static tests of solid rocket boosters and the F-22 Raptor.

  4. On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam

    2018-04-01

    While the majority of operating suborbital rockets use solid rocket propulsion, recent advancements in the field of hybrid rocket motors lead to renewed interest in their use in sounding rockets. This paper presents results of optimisation of sounding rockets using hybrid propulsion. An overview of vehicles under development during the last decade, as well as heritage systems is provided. Different propellant combinations are discussed and their performance assessment is given. While Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Acid have been widely tested with various solid fuels in flight, Hydrogen Peroxide remains an oxidiser with very limited sounding rocket applications. The benefits of hybrid propulsion for sounding rockets are given. In case of hybrid rocket motors the thrust curve can be optimised for each flight, using a flow regulator, depending on the payload and mission. Results of studies concerning the optimal burn duration and nozzle selection are given. Specific considerations are provided for the Polish ILR-33 "Amber" sounding rocket. Low regression rates, which up to date were viewed as a drawback of hybrid propulsion may be used to the benefit of maximising rocket performance if small solid rocket boosters are used during the initial flight period. While increased interest in hybrid propulsion is present, no up-to-date reference concerning use of hybrid rocket propulsion for sounding rockets is available. The ultimate goal of the paper is to provide insight into the sensitivity of different design parameters on performance of hybrid sounding rockets and delve into the potential and challenges of using hybrid rocket technology for expendable suborbital applications.

  5. Oriented movement of statoliths studied in a reduced gravitational field during parabolic flights of rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, D; Buchen, B; Hejnowicz, Z; Tewinkel, M; Sievers, A

    1991-09-01

    During five rocket flights (TEXUS 18, 19, 21, 23 and 25), experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of statoliths in rhizoids of the green alga Chara globularia Thuill. and in statocytes of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) roots, when the gravitational field changed to approx. 10(-4) · g (i.e. microgravity) during the parabolic flight (lasting for 301-390 s) of the rockets. The position of statoliths was only slightly influenced by the conditions during launch, e.g. vibration, acceleration and rotation of the rocket. Within approx. 6 min of microgravity conditions the shape of the statolith complex in the rhizoids changed from a transversely oriented lens into a longitudinally oriented spindle. The center of the statolith complex moved approx. 14 μm and 3.6 μm in rhizoids and root statocytes, respectively, in the opposite direction to the originally acting gravity vector. The kinetics of statolith displacement in rhizoids demonstrate that the velocity was nearly constant under microgravity whereas it decreased remarkably after inversion of rhizoids on Earth. It can be concluded that on Earth the position of statoliths in both rhizoids and root statocytes depends on the balance of two forces, i.e. the gravitational force and the counteracting force mediated by microfilaments.

  6. Structured waves near the plasma frequency observed in three auroral rocket flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samara

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of waves at and just above the plasma frequency (fpe from three high frequency electric field experiments on three recent rockets launched to altitudes of 300–900 km in active aurora. The predominant observed HF waves just above fpe are narrowband, short-lived emissions with amplitudes ranging from <1 mV/m to 20 mV/m, often associated with structured electron density. The nature of these HF waves, as determined from frequency-time spectrograms, is highly variable: in some cases, the frequency decreases monotonically with time as in the "HF-chirps" previously reported (McAdams and LaBelle, 1999, but in other cases rising frequencies are observed, or features which alternately rise and fall in frequency. They exhibit two timescales of amplitude variation: a short timescale, typically 50–100 ms, associated with individual discrete features, and a longer timescale associated with the general decrease in the amplitudes of the emissions as the rocket moves away from where the condition f~fpe holds. The latter timescale ranges from 0.6 to 6.0 s, corresponding to distances of 2–7 km, assuming the phenomenon to be stationary and using the rocket velocity to convert time to distance.

  7. Observation of cosmic hard x-ray by L-3H-9 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Sachio; Makino, Fumiyoshi; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukada, Yutaka.

    1978-01-01

    It has been considered that the isotropic constituents of cosmic hard X-ray have their origins outside the galactic system. As the spectra are uncertain, the generation mechanism of X-ray has not been clearly known yet. It was attempted to make more reliable observation by shutter method and the technique removing charged particles, using the L-3H-8 rocket. The equipment consists of NaI scintillation counter, a front counter, a Xenon counter, a UV sensor, a collimator, a shutter and a shutter-driving device. The L-3H-9 rocket was launched on August 16, 1977, and reached height of 310 km in about 300 seconds. Then the observation was started, but it was not able to observe the isotropic constituents of hard X-ray which were aimed at, as the shutter didn't work normally. It is expected to make another observation with the K-9M-64 rocket in August, 1978, after investigating the action of the shutter and employing and improved driving device. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Structured waves near the plasma frequency observed in three auroral rocket flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samara

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of waves at and just above the plasma frequency (fpe from three high frequency electric field experiments on three recent rockets launched to altitudes of 300–900 km in active aurora. The predominant observed HF waves just above fpe are narrowband, short-lived emissions with amplitudes ranging from <1 mV/m to 20 mV/m, often associated with structured electron density. The nature of these HF waves, as determined from frequency-time spectrograms, is highly variable: in some cases, the frequency decreases monotonically with time as in the "HF-chirps" previously reported (McAdams and LaBelle, 1999, but in other cases rising frequencies are observed, or features which alternately rise and fall in frequency. They exhibit two timescales of amplitude variation: a short timescale, typically 50–100 ms, associated with individual discrete features, and a longer timescale associated with the general decrease in the amplitudes of the emissions as the rocket moves away from where the condition f~fpe holds. The latter timescale ranges from 0.6 to 6.0 s, corresponding to distances of 2–7 km, assuming the phenomenon to be stationary and using the rocket velocity to convert time to distance.

  9. Design and qualification of an UHV system for operation on sounding rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Jens, E-mail: jens.grosse@dlr.de; Braxmaier, Claus [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), University of Bremen, Bremen, 28359, Germany and German Aerospace Center (DLR) Bremen, Bremen, 28359 (Germany); Seidel, Stephan Tobias; Becker, Dennis; Lachmann, Maike Diana [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover, 30167 (Germany); Scharringhausen, Marco [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Bremen, Bremen, 28359 (Germany); Rasel, Ernst Maria [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover, 30167, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The sounding rocket mission MAIUS-1 has the objective to create the first Bose–Einstein condensate in space; therefore, its scientific payload is a complete cold atom experiment built to be launched on a VSB-30 sounding rocket. An essential part of the setup is an ultrahigh vacuum system needed in order to sufficiently suppress interactions of the cooled atoms with the residual background gas. Contrary to vacuum systems on missions aboard satellites or the international space station, the required vacuum environment has to be reached within 47 s after motor burn-out. This paper contains a detailed description of the MAIUS-1 vacuum system, as well as a description of its qualification process for the operation under vibrational loads of up to 8.1 g{sub RMS} (where RMS is root mean square). Even though a pressure rise dependent on the level of vibration was observed, the design presented herein is capable of regaining a pressure of below 5 × 10{sup −10} mbar in less than 40 s when tested at 5.4 g{sub RMS}. To the authors' best knowledge, it is the first UHV system qualified for operation on a sounding rocket.

  10. Preliminary Report: DESiGN and Test Result of KSR-3 Rocket Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Min Kim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind contributes to the formation of unique space environment called the Earth's magnetosphere by various interactions with the Earth's magnetic field. Thus the solar-terrestrial environment affects the Earth's magnetic field, which can be observed with an instrument for the magnetic field measurement, the magnetometer usually mounted on the rocket and the satellite and based on the ground observatory. The magnetometer is a useful instrument for the spacecraft attitude control as well as the Earth's magnetic field measurements for a scientific purpose. In this paper, we present the preliminary design and test results of the two onboard magnetometers of KARI's (Korea Aerospace Research Institute sounding rocket, KSR-3, which will be launched four times during the period of 2001-02. The KSR-3 magnetometers consist of the fluxgate magnetometer, MAG/AIM (Attitude Information Magnetometer for acquiring the rocket flight attitude information, and of the search-coil magnetometer, MAG/SIM (Scientific Investigation Magnetometer for the observation of the Earth's magnetic field fluctuations. With the MAG/AIM, the 3-axis attitude information can be acquired by the comparison of the resulting dc magnetic vector field with the IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The Earth's magnetic field fluctuations ranging from 10 to 1,000 Hz can also be observed with the MAG/SIM measurement.

  11. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  12. Determination of the availability of appropriate aged flight rocket motors. [captive tests to determine case bond separation and grain bore cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A program to identify surplus solid rocket propellant engines which would be available for a program of functional integrity testing was conducted. The engines are classified as: (1) upper stage and apogee engines, (2) sounding rocket and launch vehicle engines, and (3) jato, sled, and tactical engines. Nearly all the engines were available because their age exceeds the warranted shelf life. The preference for testing included tests at nominal flight conditions, at design limits, and to establish margin limits. The principal failure modes of interest were case bond separation and grain bore cracking. Data concerning the identification and characteristics of each engine are tabulated. Methods for conducting the tests are described.

  13. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTR for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse (approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration. However, "NUCLEAR" is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. Communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTR. Why is there a fear of nuclear? A bomb that can level a city is a scary weapon. The first and only times the Nuclear Bomb was used in a war was on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War 2. The "Little Boy" atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the "Fat Man" on Nagasaki 3 days later on August 9th. Within the first 4 months of bombings, 90- 166 thousand people died in Hiroshima and 60-80 thousand died in Nagasaki. It is important to note for comparison that over 500 thousand people died and 5 million made homeless due to strategic bombing (approximately 150 thousand tons) of Japanese cities and war assets with conventional non-nuclear weapons between 1942- 1945. A major bombing campaign of "firebombing" of Tokyo called "Operation Meetinghouse" on March 9 and 10 consisting of 334 B-29's dropped approximately1,700 tons of bombs around 16 square mile area and over 100 thousand people have been estimated to have died. The declaration of death is very

  15. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  16. Analysis of rocket flight stability based on optical image measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuhua; Liu, Junhu; Shen, Si; Wang, Min; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Based on the abundant optical image measurement data from the optical measurement information, this paper puts forward the method of evaluating the rocket flight stability performance by using the measurement data of the characteristics of the carrier rocket in imaging. On the basis of the method of measuring the characteristics of the carrier rocket, the attitude parameters of the rocket body in the coordinate system are calculated by using the measurements data of multiple high-speed television sets, and then the parameters are transferred to the rocket body attack angle and it is assessed whether the rocket has a good flight stability flying with a small attack angle. The measurement method and the mathematical algorithm steps through the data processing test, where you can intuitively observe the rocket flight stability state, and also can visually identify the guidance system or failure analysis.

  17. Trends in the commercial launch services industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Ethan E.

    2001-02-01

    The market for space launch services has undergone significant development in the last two decades and is poised to change even further. With the introduction of new players in the market, and the development of new vehicles by existing providers, competition has increased. At the same time, customer payloads have been changing as satellites grow in size and capability. Amidst these changes, launch delays have become a concern in the industry, and launch service providers have developed different solutions to avoid delays and satisfy customer needs. This analysis discusses these trends in the launch services market and their drivers. Focus is given to the market for medium, intermediate, and heavy launch services which generally includes launches of GEO communication satellites, large government payloads, and NGSO constellations. .

  18. Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Pawel; Okninski, Adam; Pakosz, Michal; Cieslinski, Dawid; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Wolanski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development of a 6000 Newton-class solid rocket motor for suborbital applications. The design configuration and results of interior ballistics calculations are given. The initial use of the motor as the main propulsion system of the H1 experimental in-flight test platform, within the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program, is presented. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental performance are shown. Both on-ground and in-flight tests are discussed. A novel composite-case manufacturing technology, which enabled to reach high propellant mass fractions, was validated and significant cost-reductions were achieved. This paper focuses on the process of adapting the design for use as the booster stage of the ILR-33 sounding rocket, under development at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Parallel use of two of the flight-proven rocket motors along with the main stage is planned. The process of adapting the rocket motor for booster application consists of stage integration, aerothermodynamics and reliability analyses. The separation mechanism and environmental impact are also discussed within this paper. Detailed performance analysis with focus on propellant grain geometry is provided. The evolution of the design since the first flights of the H1 rocket is covered and modifications of the manufacturing process are described. Issues of simultaneous ignition of two motors and their non-identical performance are discussed. Further applications and potential for future development are outlined. The presented results are based on the initial work done by the Rocketry Group of the Warsaw University of Technology Students' Space Association. The continuation of the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program on a larger scale at the Institute of Aviation proves the value of the outcomes of the initial educational project.

  19. Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

  20. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket