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Sample records for localized diffuse large

  1. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Kevin; Desai, Ved; Yim, Brandom; Gabig, Theodore G

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac and a subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass yielded histopathology consistent with DLBCL. Consequently, the patient underwent treatment with R-CHOP therapy. The patient responded well to chemotherapy with a substantial shrinkage in tumor burden and the disease remained localized. Herein, we present a rare case of primary ocular lymphoma, highlight the importance of early diagnosis, and review current treatment modalities.

  2. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Zarrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac and a subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass yielded histopathology consistent with DLBCL. Consequently, the patient underwent treatment with R-CHOP therapy. The patient responded well to chemotherapy with a substantial shrinkage in tumor burden and the disease remained localized. Herein, we present a rare case of primary ocular lymphoma, highlight the importance of early diagnosis, and review current treatment modalities.

  3. Effect of local velocity on diffusion-induced stress in large-deformation electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of local velocity to the resultant flux of lithium in lithium-ion battery is introduced into the diffusion equation to describe the migration of lithium in the active material of electrodes. The effect of the local velocity on the stress evolution in a spherical electrode made of silicon is analyzed, using the derived diffusion equation and nonlinear theory of elasticity. Two boundary conditions at the surface of the electrode, which represent two extreme conditions of real electrode materials, are used in the stress analysis: one is stress-free, and the other is immobile. The numerical results with the stress-free boundary condition suggest that the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of radial stress and hoop stress increases with the increase of time and the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of lithium is relatively small. In comparison with the results without the effect of the local velocity, the effect of the local velocity is negligible for the immobile boundary condition. The numerical result shows that the use of the immobile boundary condition leads to the decrease of von-Mises stress, which likely will retard the mechanical degradation of electrode and improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery.

  4. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Zarrabi; Ved Desai; Brandom Yim; Gabig, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac an...

  5. Predictors of Local Recurrence After Rituximab-Based Chemotherapy Alone in Stage III and IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Guiding Decisions for Consolidative Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegadeesh, Naresh; Rajpara, Raj; Esiashvili, Natia; Shi, Zheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Yuan [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Okwan-Duodu, Derrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Flowers, Christopher R. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) for stage III and IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the era of rituximab is not well defined. There is evidence that some patients with bulky disease may benefit, but patient selection criteria are not well established. We sought to identify a subset of patients who experienced a high local failure rate after receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy alone and hence may benefit from the addition of consolidative RT. Methods and Materials: Two hundred eleven patients with stage III and IV DLBCL treated between August 1999 and January 2012 were reviewed. Of these, 89 had a complete response to systemic therapy including rituximab and received no initial RT. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed, with local recurrence (LR) as the primary outcome. Results: The median follow-up time was 43.9 months. Fifty percent of patients experienced LR at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, tumor ≥5 cm and stage III disease were associated with increased risk of LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 47.4% for patients with ≥5-cm lesions versus 74.7% for patients with <5-cm lesions (P=.01). In patients with <5-cm tumors, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was ≥15 in all patients with LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 100% in SUV<15 versus 68.8% in SUV≥15 (P=.10). Conclusions: Advanced-stage DLBCL patients with stage III disease or with disease ≥5 cm appear to be at an increased risk for LR. Patients with <5-cm disease and SUVmax ≥15 may be at higher risk for LR. These patients may benefit from consolidative RT after chemoimmunotherapy.

  6. Are Aftershocks of Large Californian Earthquakes Diffusing?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Sornette, D; Helmstetter, Agnes; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    We analyze 21 aftershock sequences of California to test for evidence of space-time diffusion. Aftershock diffusion may result from stress diffusion and is also predicted by any mechanism of stress weakening. Here, we test an alternative mechanism to explain aftershock diffusion, based on multiple cascades of triggering. In order to characterize aftershock diffusion, we develop two methods, one based on a suitable time and space windowing that has been calibrated on the ETAS model of triggered seismicity, the other using a wavelet transform adapted to the removal of background seismicity. Both methods confirm that diffusion of seismic activity is very weak, much weaker than reported in previous studies. A possible mechanism explaining the weakness of observed diffusion is the effect of geometry, including the localization of aftershocks on a fractal fault network and the impact of extended rupture lengths which control the typical distances of interaction between earthquakes.

  7. Localized versus diffuse damage: A variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    A variational model based on incremental energy minimization is proposed to describe the evolution of damage in elastic materials. The model accounts for an elastic energy, depending on the damage variable, and for a damage energy, which has a local and a non-local term. The evolution of the displacement and damage fields, representing the problem unknowns, is determined by an incremental energy minimization problem, which is analytically solved in a special one-dimensional case, and numerically in a two-dimensional setting. By properly assigning the shapes of the elastic and damage energies, two different damage modes are reproduced: localized damage, consisting in a stress-softening process, in which damage forms in thin body portions and coalesces in fracture surfaces, and diffuse damage, which is characterized by a stress-hardening response, with damage spreading in large zones of the body. The former mechanism is typical of quasi-brittle materials, while the latter one is proper for ductile materials. Results of numerical simulations are presented, where the behaviors of both quasi-brittle and ductile materials are reproduced.

  8. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  9. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes. PMID:27466216

  10. Local noise in a diffusive conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E S; Shovkun, D V; Ercolani, D; Rossella, F; Rocci, M; Sorba, L; Roddaro, S; Khrapai, V S

    2016-07-28

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  11. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) remains a curable lymphoma, with improved outcome due in large part to incorporation of rituximab in standard regimens. The disease is heterogeneous clinically, morphologically, and molecularly. Recent insights into the molecular heterogeneity of DLBCL are beginning to yield novel therapeutics with significant promise for key subsets of patients. Although CHOP chemotherapy with rituximab remains a standard therapeutic approach for most patients with DLBCL, we anticipate that novel agents will be included in treatment regimens for many patients in the near future. PMID:18954744

  12. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2209 (United States); Khafizov, Marat [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wendt, Brycen L. [Nuclear Science and Engineering, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Ave., Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8060 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representatives of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agreed closely with the literature values. A distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  13. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S.; Khafizov, Marat; Wendt, Brycen L.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representatives of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agreed closely with the literature values. A distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  14. Large molecules in diffuse interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, S.; Dalgarno, A.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Black, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the presence of a substantial component of large molecules on the chemistry of diffuse molecular clouds are explored, and detailed models of the zeta Persei and zeta Ophiuchi clouds are constructed. The major consequence is a reduction in the abundances of singly charged atomic species. The long-standing discrepancy between cloud densities inferred from rotational and fine-structure level populations and from the ionization balance can be resolved by postulating a fractional abundance of large molecules of 1 x 10 to the -7th for zeta Persei and 6 x 10 to the -7th for zeta Ophiuchi. If the large molecules are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing about 50 carbon atoms, they contain 1 percent of the carbon in zeta Persei and 7 percent in zeta Ophiuchi. Other consequences of the possible presence of PAH molecules are discussed.

  15. Quantum state diffusion, localization and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Schack, R; Percival, I C

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulation of individual open quantum systems has proven advantages over density operator computations. Quantum state diffusion with a moving basis (MQSD) provides a practical numerical simulation method which takes full advantage of the localization of quantum states into wave packets occupying small regions of classical phase space. Following and extending the original proposal of Percival, Alber and Steimle, we show that MQSD can provide a further gain over ordinary QSD and other quantum trajectory methods of many orders of magnitude in computational space and time. Because of these gains, it is even possible to calculate an open quantum system trajectory when the corresponding isolated system is intractable. MQSD is particularly advantageous where classical or semiclassical dynamics provides an adequate qualitative picture but is numerically inaccurate because of significant quantum effects. The principles are illustrated by computations for the quantum Duffing oscillator and for second harmonic...

  16. Quenched Large Deviations for Interacting Diffusions in Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luçon, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish a large deviation principle (LDP) for the empirical measure of mean-field interacting diffusions in a random environment. The point is to derive such a result once the environment has been frozen (quenched model). The main theorem states that a LDP holds for every sequence of environment satisfying appropriate convergence condition, with a rate function that does not depend on the disorder and is different from the rate function in the averaged model. Similar results concerning the empirical flow and local empirical measures are provided.

  17. A localized excess of diffuse gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Dwyer, J.; Kaaret, P.

    1995-01-01

    Using archival Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) gamma-ray data and atomic hydrogen (H I) column densities derived from 21 cm radio observations, we have found a large irregular region in the northern Galactic hemisphere extending from (l approximately 90 deg, b approximately 52 deg) to (l approximately 45 deg, b approximately 77 deg) with a significant enhancement in the gamma-ray emissivity compared to the surrounding sky. The region contains no previously identified gamma-ray point sources. The emission may arise from a localized enhancement in cosmic-ray density or from the presence of matter other than H I. If the emission is due to unseen matter, a column density enhancement equivalent to approximately 2 x 10(exp 20) H-atoms/sq cm is required.

  18. General Freidlin-Wentzell large deviations and positive diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Baldi; Caramellino, L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prove Freidlin-Wentzell Large Deviation estimates under rather minimal assumptions. This allows to derive Wentzell-Freidlin Large Deviation estimates for diffusions on the positive half line with coefficients that are neither bounded nor Lipschitz continuous. This applies to models of interest in Finance, i.e. the CIR and the CEV models, which are positive diffusion processes whose diffusion coefficient is only Holder continuous. correspondence: C...

  19. Probing the Local Bubble with Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs)

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Javadi, Atefeh; Bailey, Mandy; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The Sun lies in the middle of an enormous cavity of a million degree gas, known as the Local Bubble. The Local Bubble is surrounded by a wall of denser neutral and ionized gas. The Local Bubble extends around 100 pc in the plane of Galaxy and hundreds of parsecs vertically, but absorption-line surveys of neutral sodium and singly-ionized calcium have revealed a highly irregular structure and the presence of neutral clouds within an otherwise tenuous and hot gas. We have undertaken an all-sky, European-Iranian survey of the Local Bubble in the absorption of a number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to offer a novel view of our neighbourhood. Our dedicated campaigns with ESO's New Technology Telescope and the ING's Isaac Newton Telescope comprise high signal-to-noise, medium-resolution spectra, concentrating on the 5780 and 5797 \\AA\\ bands which trace ionized/irradiated and neutral/shielded environments, respectively; their carriers are unknown but likely to be large carbonaceous molecules. With about 660 s...

  20. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  1. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH): an inter-voxel diffusion MRI metric for assessing inter-subject white matter variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gaolang

    2013-01-01

    Many diffusion parameters and indices (e.g., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) have been derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. These parameters have been extensively applied as imaging markers for localizing white matter (WM) changes under various conditions (e.g., development, degeneration and disease). However, the vast majority of the existing parameters is derived from intra-voxel analyses and represents the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Other types of parameters that characterize inter-voxel relationships have been largely overlooked. In the present study, we propose a novel inter-voxel metric referred to as the local diffusion homogeneity (LDH). This metric quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. It can serve as an additional marker for evaluating the WM microstructural properties of the brain. To assess the distinguishing features between LDH and FA/MD, the metrics were systematically compared across space and subjects. As an example, both the LDH and FA/MD metrics were applied to measure age-related WM changes. The results indicate that LDH reveals unique inter-subject variability in specific WM regions (e.g., cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and splenium). Furthermore, there are regions in which measurements of age-related WM alterations with the LDH and FA/MD metrics yield discrepant results. These findings suggest that LDH and FA/MD have different sensitivities to specific WM microstructural properties. Taken together, the present study shows that LDH is complementary to the conventional diffusion-MRI markers and may provide additional insights into inter-subject WM variability. Further studies, however, are needed to uncover the neuronal mechanisms underlying the LDH.

  2. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH: an inter-voxel diffusion MRI metric for assessing inter-subject white matter variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaolang Gong

    Full Text Available Many diffusion parameters and indices (e.g., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] have been derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. These parameters have been extensively applied as imaging markers for localizing white matter (WM changes under various conditions (e.g., development, degeneration and disease. However, the vast majority of the existing parameters is derived from intra-voxel analyses and represents the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Other types of parameters that characterize inter-voxel relationships have been largely overlooked. In the present study, we propose a novel inter-voxel metric referred to as the local diffusion homogeneity (LDH. This metric quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. It can serve as an additional marker for evaluating the WM microstructural properties of the brain. To assess the distinguishing features between LDH and FA/MD, the metrics were systematically compared across space and subjects. As an example, both the LDH and FA/MD metrics were applied to measure age-related WM changes. The results indicate that LDH reveals unique inter-subject variability in specific WM regions (e.g., cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and splenium. Furthermore, there are regions in which measurements of age-related WM alterations with the LDH and FA/MD metrics yield discrepant results. These findings suggest that LDH and FA/MD have different sensitivities to specific WM microstructural properties. Taken together, the present study shows that LDH is complementary to the conventional diffusion-MRI markers and may provide additional insights into inter-subject WM variability. Further studies, however, are needed to uncover the neuronal mechanisms underlying the LDH.

  3. The local environment as a supportive operator in innovation diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Geenhuizen, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial patterns of technology diffusion determine the capacity of regions and cities to compete in a global market. It is therefore, important to know in what way the local environment can contribute to the attraction of new technology to business locations and what factors differentiate in the sup

  4. Local exact controllability of the diffusion equation in one dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Beceanu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the local exact null controllability of the diffusion equation in one dimension using distributed controls in the case of the Dirichlet boundary value problem. Most of the techniques used in the course of the proof are borrowed from Barbu (2002.

  5. A nonequilibrium diffusion and capture mechanism ensures tip-localization of regulating proteins on dynamic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Diffusive motion of regulatory enzymes on biopolymers with eventual capture at a reaction site is a common feature in cell biology. Using a lattice gas model we study the impact of diffusion and capture for a microtubule polymerase and a depolymerase. Our results show that the capture mechanism localizes the proteins and creates large-scale spatial correlations. We develop an analytic approximation that globally accounts for relevant correlations and yields results that are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our results show that diffusion and capture operates most efficiently at cellular enzyme concentrations which points to in vivo relevance.

  6. Localized modulated wave solutions in diffusive glucose–insulin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mvogo, Alain, E-mail: mvogal_2009@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde (Cameroon); Centre d' Excellence Africain en Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon); Tambue, Antoine [The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) and Stellenbosch University, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg 7945 (South Africa); Center for Research in Computational and Applied Mechanics (CERECAM), and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Ben-Bolie, Germain H. [Centre d' Excellence Africain en Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon); Laboratory of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde (Cameroon); Kofané, Timoléon C. [Centre d' Excellence Africain en Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon); Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2016-06-03

    We investigate intercellular insulin dynamics in an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet β-cells. The cells are connected via gap junction coupling, where nearest neighbor interactions are included. Through the multiple scale expansion in the semi-discrete approximation, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation. The localized solutions of this equation are reported. The results suggest from the biophysical point of view that the insulin propagates in pancreatic islet β-cells using both temporal and spatial dimensions in the form of localized modulated waves. - Highlights: • The dynamics of an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet beta-cells is investigated. • Through the multiple scale expansion, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation. • Localized modulated waves are obtained for the insulin dynamics.

  7. Anthropometrics and Prognosis in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Severinsen, Marianne Tang;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The impact of body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) on survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is controversial. Recent studies show superior outcomes for overweight and obese patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 653 R-CHOP(-like) treated DLBCL patients were included...

  8. Profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Lene Dissing; Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Hansen, Mads;

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a frequent lymphoma subtype with a heterogeneous behavior and a variable response to conventional chemotherapy. This clinical diversity is believed to reflect differences in the molecular pathways leading to lymphomagenesis. In this study, we have analyzed...

  9. Large Purcell enhancement without strong field localization

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnok, Alexander; Petrov, Mihail; Makarov, Sergey; Savelev, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Simovski, Constantin; Kivshar, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The Purcell effect is defined as the modification of spontaneous decay in the presence of a resonator, and in plasmonics it is usually associated with the large local-field enhancement in "hot spots" due to surface plasmon polaritons. Here we propose a novel strategy for enhancing the Purcell effect through engineering the radiation directivity without a strict requirement of the local field enhancement. Employing this approach, we demonstrate how to enhance the Purcell effect by two orders of magnitude in all-dielectric nanostructures recently suggested as building blocks of low-loss nanophotonics and metamaterials. We support our concept by proof-of-principle microwave experiments with arrays of high-index dielectric resonators.

  10. Localized modulated wave solutions in diffusive glucose-insulin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Tambue, Antoine; Ben-Bolie, Germain H.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate intercellular insulin dynamics in an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet β-cells. The cells are connected via gap junction coupling, where nearest neighbor interactions are included. Through the multiple scale expansion in the semi-discrete approximation, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The localized solutions of this equation are reported. The results suggest from the biophysical point of view that the insulin propagates in pancreatic islet β-cells using both temporal and spatial dimensions in the form of localized modulated waves.

  11. Bursty events and incremental diffusion in a local diffusion and multi-scale convection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国盛; 万宝年; 宋梅

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional cellular automaton is defined without the critical gradient rule (△h >△hc) which is essential to the existence of avalanches in self-organized criticality (SOC) models. Instead, only the local diffusion rule is used, however, the characteristics of SOC, such as the bursty behaviour, power-law decay in fluctuation spectra, selfsimilarity over a broad range of scales and long-time correlations, are still observed in these numerical experiments.This numerical model is established to suggest that the bursty events and the incremental diffusion observed universally in fusion experiments do not necessarily imply the submarginal dynamics.

  12. A molecular theory of large-solute diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yoshimori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The limit of a large solute in the molecular theory of diffusion developed by Yamaguchi et al. [Yamaguchi T. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 034504] is studied. By the limit, the Stokes approximation to the hydrodynamic equations is derived in the outside region of a diffusing solute. The limit of a large solute also leads to equations in the inside region of the solute. The analytical solution of the inside equation allows one to derive the boundary condition, which is needed on the surface of the solute when the hydrodynamic equations are calculated. The boundary condition includes stick and slip boundary conditions employed by the Stokes law, in the special case. Besides stick and slip conditions, other conditions can be expressed. The boundary condition depends on properties of a solvent.

  13. Lenalidomide in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Thieblemont; Marie-Hélène Delfau-Larue; Bertrand Coiffier

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adults. Even if the natural history of DLBCL has been improved with the advent of immunochemotherapy, the survival results obtained with current treatment options clearly indicate that new agents or novel approaches are needed. Lenalidomide (Revlimid, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA), an analogue of thalidomide, is an immunomodulatory drug with pleiotropic mechanisms of action potentially add...

  14. FAST Mapping of Diffuse HI Gas in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Pisano, D. J.; Ai, M.; Jiao, Q.

    2016-02-01

    We propose to use the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) to map the diffuse intergalactic HI gas in the local universe at column densities of NHI=1018 cm-2 and below. The major science goal is to study gas accretion during galaxy evolution, and trace cosmic web features in the local universe. We disuss the technical feasibilty of such a deep survey, and have conducted test observations with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. Our preliminary results shows that, with about a few thousand hours of observing time, FAST will be able to map several hundred square degree regions at 1 σ of NHI=2×1017 cm-2 level out to a distance of 5-10 Mpc, and with a volume 1000 larger than that of the Local Group.

  15. The Uneven Diffusion of Collaborative Technology in a Large Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarulaitis, Gasparas

    This paper investigates the large-scale diffusion of a collaborative technology in a range of different business contexts. The empirical data used in the article were obtained from a longitudinal (2007-2009) case study of a global oil and gas company (OGC). Our study reports on ongoing efforts to deploy an inte grated collaborative system that uses Microsoft SharePoint (MSP) technology. We assess MSP as a configurational technology and analyze the diffusion of a metadata standard developed in-house, which forms an embedded component of MSP. We focus on two different organizational contexts, namely research and development (R&D) and oil and gas production (OGP), and illustrate the key differences between the ways in which configurational technology is managed and used in these contexts, which results in an uneven diffusion. In contrast with previous studies, we unravel the organizational and technological complexity involved, and thus empirically illustrate the flexibility of large-scale technology and show how the trajectories of the various components are influenced by multiple modes of ordering.

  16. Asymptotic properties of certain diffusion ratchets with locally negative drift

    CERN Document Server

    Depperschmidt, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    We consider two reflecting diffusion processes $(X_t)_{t \\ge 0}$ with a moving reflection boundary given by a non-decreasing pure jump Markov process $(R_t)_{t \\ge 0}$. Between the jumps of the reflection boundary the diffusion part behaves as a reflecting Brownian motion with negative drift or as a reflecting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. In both cases at rate $\\gamma(X_t -R_t)$ for some $\\gamma \\ge 0$ the reflection boundary jumps to a new value chosen uniformly in $[R_{t-},X_t]$. Since after each jump of the reflection boundary the diffusions are reflected at a higher level we call the processes Brownian ratchet and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck ratchet. Such diffusion ratchets are biologically motivated by passive protein transport across membranes. The processes considered here are generalisations of the Brownian ratchet (without drift) studied in (Depperschmidt and Pfaffelhuber, 2010). For both processes we prove a law of large numbers, in particular each of the ratchets moves to infinity at a positive speed which c...

  17. A localized meshless method for diffusion on folded surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka Chun; Ling, Leevan; Ruuth, Steven J.

    2015-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) on surfaces arise in a variety of application areas including biological systems, medical imaging, fluid dynamics, mathematical physics, image processing and computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a radial basis function (RBF) discretization of the closest point method. The corresponding localized meshless method may be used to approximate diffusion on smooth or folded surfaces. Our method has the benefit of having an a priori error bound in terms of percentage of the norm of the solution. A stable solver is used to avoid the ill-conditioning that arises when the radial basis functions (RBFs) become flat.

  18. Disney animation: Global diffusion and local appropriation of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Belkhyr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Children’s media products reflect the cultural values of their producers as well as the social, political and economic conditions under which they were produced. Watching an animated feature, therefore, cannot be regarded as an innocent and simple act of consumption. It rather involves a complex process of coding/decoding and appropriating cultural meanings. The relation between structured patterns of global communication on the one hand, and the local conditions under which Disney cartoon products are marketed and consumed in the Arab world, on the other, can be perceived as the main axis of globalized diffusion and local appropriation of American cultural values and lifestyle. The consequences of which are difficult to foretell.

  19. Coexistence of energy diffusion and local thermalization in nonequilibrium XXZ spin chains with integrability breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J J; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

    2015-04-01

    In this work we analyze the simultaneous emergence of diffusive energy transport and local thermalization in a nonequilibrium one-dimensional quantum system, as a result of integrability breaking. Specifically, we discuss the local properties of the steady state induced by thermal boundary driving in a XXZ spin chain with staggered magnetic field. By means of efficient large-scale matrix product simulations of the equation of motion of the system, we calculate its steady state in the long-time limit. We start by discussing the energy transport supported by the system, finding it to be ballistic in the integrable limit and diffusive when the staggered field is finite. Subsequently, we examine the reduced density operators of neighboring sites and find that for large systems they are well approximated by local thermal states of the underlying Hamiltonian in the nonintegrable regime, even for weak staggered fields. In the integrable limit, on the other hand, this behavior is lost, and the identification of local temperatures is no longer possible. Our results agree with the intuitive connection between energy diffusion and thermalization.

  20. Diffuse interface models of locally inextensible vesicles in a viscous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Sebastian; Egerer, Sabine; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel

    2014-11-01

    We present a new diffuse interface model for the dynamics of inextensible vesicles in a viscous fluid with inertial forces. A new feature of this work is the implementation of the local inextensibility condition in the diffuse interface context. Local inextensibility is enforced by using a local Lagrange multiplier, which provides the necessary tension force at the interface. We introduce a new equation for the local Lagrange multiplier whose solution essentially provides a harmonic extension of the multiplier off the interface while maintaining the local inextensibility constraint near the interface. We also develop a local relaxation scheme that dynamically corrects local stretching/compression errors thereby preventing their accumulation. Asymptotic analysis is presented that shows that our new system converges to a relaxed version of the inextensible sharp interface model. This is also verified numerically. To solve the equations, we use an adaptive finite element method with implicit coupling between the Navier-Stokes and the diffuse interface inextensibility equations. Numerical simulations of a single vesicle in a shear flow at different Reynolds numbers demonstrate that errors in enforcing local inextensibility may accumulate and lead to large differences in the dynamics in the tumbling regime and smaller differences in the inclination angle of vesicles in the tank-treading regime. The local relaxation algorithm is shown to prevent the accumulation of stretching and compression errors very effectively. Simulations of two vesicles in an extensional flow show that local inextensibility plays an important role when vesicles are in close proximity by inhibiting fluid drainage in the near contact region.

  1. Fast local trust region technique for diffusion tensor registration using exact reorientation and regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junning; Shi, Yonggang; Tran, Giang; Dinov, Ivo; Wang, Danny J J; Toga, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is widely used in brain connectivity research. As more and more studies recruit large numbers of subjects, it is important to design registration methods which are not only theoretically rigorous, but also computationally efficient. However, the requirement of reorienting diffusion tensors complicates and considerably slows down registration procedures, due to the correlated impacts of registration forces at adjacent voxel locations. Based on the diffeomorphic Demons algorithm (Vercauteren , 2009), we propose a fast local trust region algorithm for handling inseparable registration forces for quadratic energy functions. The method guarantees that, at any time and at any voxel location, the velocity is always within its local trust region. This local regularization allows efficient calculation of the transformation update with numeric integration instead of completely solving a large linear system at every iteration. It is able to incorporate exact reorientation and regularization into the velocity optimization, and preserve the linear complexity of the diffeomorphic Demons algorithm. In an experiment with 84 diffusion tensor images involving both pair-wise and group-wise registrations, the proposed algorithm achieves better registration in comparison with other methods solving large linear systems (Yeo , 2009). At the same time, this algorithm reduces the computation time and memory demand tenfold.

  2. Diffusive and localization behavior of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the transport phenomena of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random system which is composed of arrays of electrical dipoles, following the model presented earlier by Erdogan et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 391 (1993)]. A set of self-consistent equations is presented, accounting for the multiple scattering in the system, and is then solved numerically. A strong localization regime is discovered in the frequency domain. The transport properties within, near the edge of, and nearly outside the localization regime are investigated for different parameters such as filling factor and system size. The results show that within the localization regime, waves are trapped near the transmitting source. Meanwhile, the diffusive waves follow an intuitive but expected picture. That is, they increase with traveling path as more and more random scattering incurs, followed by a saturation, then start to decay exponentially when the travelling path is large enough, signifying the localization effect. For the cases where the frequencies are near the boundary of or outside the localization regime, the results of diffusive waves are compared with the diffusion approximation, showing less encouraging agreement as in other systems [Asatryan et al., Phys. Rev. E 67, 036605 (2003)].

  3. Local error estimates for adaptive simulation of the reaction-diffusion master equation via operator splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J.; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps were adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the diffusive finite-state projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity.

  4. Local error estimates for adaptive simulation of the Reaction–Diffusion Master Equation via operator splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps are adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the Diffusive Finite-State Projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity. PMID:26865735

  5. Onset of anomalous diffusion from local motion rules

    CERN Document Server

    de Nigris, Sarah; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion processes, in particular superdiffusive ones, are known to be efficient strategies for searching and navigation by animals and also in human mobility. One way to create such regimes are L\\'evy flights, where the walkers are allowed to perform jumps, the "flights", that can eventually be very long as their length distribution is asymptotically power-law distributed. In our work, we present a model in which walkers are allowed to perform, on a 1D lattice, "cascades" of $n$ unitary steps instead of one jump of a randomly generated length, as in the L\\'evy case. Instead of imposing a length distribution, we thus define our process by its cascade distribution $p_n$. We first derive the connections between the two distributions and show that this local mechanism may give rise to superdiffusion or normal diffusion when $p_n$ is distributed as a power law. We also investigate the interplay of this process with the possibility to be stuck on a node, introducing waiting times that are power-law dist...

  6. Influence of phase space localization on the energy diffusion in a quantum chaotic billiard

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniacki, D A

    1999-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of a chaotic billiard with moving boundary is considered in this work. We found a shape parameter Hamiltonian expansion which enables us to obtain the spectrum of the deformed billiard for deformations so large as the characteristic wave length. Then, for a specified time dependent shape variation, the quantum dynamics of a particle inside the billiard is integrated directly. In particular, the dispersion of the energy is studied in the Bunimovich stadium billiard with oscillating boundary. The results showed that the distribution of energy spreads diffusively for the first oscillations of the boundary (${ =2 D t$). We studied the diffusion contant $D$ as a function of the boundary velocity and found differences with theoretical predictions based on random matrix theory. By extracting highly phase space localized structures from the spectrum, previous differences were reduced significantly. This fact provides the first numerical evidence of the influence of phase space localization on the...

  7. TP53 dysfunction in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting-Xun; Young, Ken H; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The aberrations of TP53 gene and dysregulation of the TP53 pathway are important in the pathogenesis of many human cancers, including malignant lymphomas, especially for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). By regulating many downstream target genes or molecules, TP53 governs major defenses against tumor growth and promotes cellular DNA repair, apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, signaling, transcription, immune or inflammatory responses and metabolism. Dysfunction of TP53, including microRNA regulations, copy number alterations of TP53 pathway and TP53 itself, dysregulation of TP53 regulators, and somatic mutations by abnormal TP53 function modes, play an important role in lymphoma generation, progression and invasion. The role of TP53 in DLBCL has been widely explored recently. In this review, we summarized recent advances on different mechanisms of TP53 in DLBCL and new therapeutic approaches to overcome TP53 inactivation.

  8. Lenalidomide in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thieblemont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL in adults. Even if the natural history of DLBCL has been improved with the advent of immunochemotherapy, the survival results obtained with current treatment options clearly indicate that new agents or novel approaches are needed. Lenalidomide (Revlimid, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA, an analogue of thalidomide, is an immunomodulatory drug with pleiotropic mechanisms of action potentially adding to immunochemotherapy. We present here the biological rational for the use of lenalidomide in DLBCL in light of recent advances in the pathophysiology of the disease and the therapeutic results of the most recent trials published in literature or reported in meetings in relapsed/refractory situations as well as in first-line treatment.

  9. Lenalidomide in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieblemont, Catherine; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adults. Even if the natural history of DLBCL has been improved with the advent of immunochemotherapy, the survival results obtained with current treatment options clearly indicate that new agents or novel approaches are needed. Lenalidomide (Revlimid, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA), an analogue of thalidomide, is an immunomodulatory drug with pleiotropic mechanisms of action potentially adding to immunochemotherapy. We present here the biological rational for the use of lenalidomide in DLBCL in light of recent advances in the pathophysiology of the disease and the therapeutic results of the most recent trials published in literature or reported in meetings in relapsed/refractory situations as well as in first-line treatment.

  10. Small and Large Molecules in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Huang, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Although molecules with a wide range of sizes exist in dense clouds (e.g. H(C≡C)_nC≡N with n = 0 - 5), molecules identified in diffuse clouds are all small ones. Since the initial discovery of CH, CN, and CH^+, all molecules detected in the optical region are diatomics except for H_3^+ in the infrared and C_3 in the visible. Radio observations have been limited up to triatomic molecules except for H_2CO and the ubiquitous C_3H_2. The column densities of all molecules are less than 1014 cm-2 with the two exceptions of CO and H_3^+ as well as CH and C_2 in a few special sightlines. Larger molecules with many carbon atoms have been searched for but have not been detected. On the other hand, the observations of a great many diffuse interstellar bands (380 toward HD 204827 and 414 toward HD 183143) with equivalent widths from 1 to 5700 m Å indicate high column densities of many heavy molecules. If an electronic transition dipole moment of 1 Debye is assumed, the observed equivalent widths translate to column densities from 5 × 1011 cm-2 to 3 × 1015 cm-2. It seems impossible that these large molecules are formed from chemical reactions in space from small molecules. It is more likely that they are fragments of aggregates, perhaps mixed aromatic/aliphatic organic nanoparticles (MAONS). MAONS and their large fragment molecules are stable against photodissociation in the diffuse ISM because the energy of absorbed photons is divided into statistical distributions of vibrational energy and emitted in the infrared rather than breaking a chemical bond. We use a simple Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory to estimate the molecular size required for the stabilization. Snow, T. P. & McCall, B. J. 2006, ARA&A, 44 367 Hobbs, L. M., York, D. G., Snow, T. P., Oka, T., Thorburn, J. A., et al. 2008, ApJ, 680 1256 Hobbs, L. M., York, D. G., Thorburn, J. A., Snow, T. P., Bishof, M., et al. 2009, ApJ, 705 32 Kwok, S. & Zhang, S. 2013, ApJ, 771 5 Freed, K. F., Oka, T., & Suzuki, H

  11. Transition from diffusive to localized regimes in surface corrugated waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Martin, A.; Saenz, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Nieto-Vesperinas, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Exact calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients in surface randomly corrugated waveguides are presented. The elastic scattering of diffuse light classical waves from a rough surface induces a diffusive transport along the waveguide axis. As the length of the corrugated part of the waveguide increases, a transition from the diffusive to the localized regime is observed. This involves an analogy with electron conduction in nano wires, and hence, a concept analogous to that of resistance can be introduced. An oscillatory behavior of different transport properties (elastic mean free path, localization length, enhanced backscattering), versus the wavelength is predicted. An analysis of the transmission coefficients (transmitted speckle) shows that as the length of the corrugated part of the waveguide increases there is a strong preference to forward coupling through the lowest mode. This marks a clear anisotropy in the forward propagation which is absent in the case of volume disorder. The statistics of reflection coefficients is analyzed, first using random matrix theory (Rm) to analytically deduce the probability densities in the localization regime, afterwards exact numerical calculations of the coupling to backward modes in surface corrugated waveguides will be put forward for comparison. We show that the reflected speckle distribution are independent of the transport regime, at variance with the regime transition found in the transmission case. Despite the strong anisotropy, the analysis of the probability distributions of both transmitted and reflected waves confirms the distributions predicted by Random Matrix Theory for volume disorder. [Spanish] Presentamos calculos exactos de los coeficientes de transmision y reflexion en guias de onda con desorden de superficie. La dispersion elastica de luz difusa o de otras ondas clasicas por una superficie rugosa induce un transporte difusivo a lo largo del eje de la guia. A medida que la longitud de la zona

  12. On a common critical state in localized and diffuse failure modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaxiang; Nguyen, Hien N. G.; Nicot, François; Darve, Félix

    2016-10-01

    Accurately modeling the critical state mechanical behavior of granular material largely relies on a better understanding and characterizing the critical state fabric in different failure modes, i.e. localized and diffuse failure modes. In this paper, a mesoscopic scale is introduced, in which the organization of force-transmission paths (force-chains) and cells encompassed by contacts (meso-loops) can be taken into account. Numerical drained biaxial tests using a discrete element method are performed with different initial void ratios, in order to investigate the critical state fabric on the meso-scale in both localized and diffuse failure modes. According to the displacement and strain fields extracted from tests, the failure mode and failure area of each specimen are determined. Then convergent critical state void ratios are observed in failure area of specimens. Different mechanical features of two kinds of meso-structures (force-chains and meso-loops) are investigated, to clarify whether there exists a convergent meso-structure inside the failure area of granular material, as the signature of critical state. Numerical results support a positive answer. Failure area of both localized and diffuse failure modes therefore exhibits the same fabric in critical state. Hence, these two failure modes prove to be homological with respect to the concept of the critical state.

  13. Disney animation: Global diffusion and local appropriation of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Belkhyr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Children’s media products reflect the cultural values of their producers and the social, political and economic conditions under which they were produced. Watching an animated cartoon, therefore, cannot be regarded as an innocent and simple act of consumption. It rather involves a complex process of coding/decoding and appropriating cultural meanings. Disney films are not only global means of entertainment but they can also function as an ideological apparatus. In an era of globalisation where the boundaries and divisions between entertainment and materiel consumption are blurred, Arab audiences are faced with a one-way flow of seemingly alien ideas and values that are disseminated through Disney stories, images and narratives. The relation between structured patterns of communication under globalization, on one hand, and the local conditions under which Disney cartoon products are marketed and consumed in the Arab world, on the other, can be understood as the main axis of globalised diffusion and localised appropriation of American cultural values and lifestyle among Arab societies

  14. Lenalidomide in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Chiappella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas (DLBCL are the most frequent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL. The addition of Rituximab to the standard chemotherapy CHOP improved the outcome in this patients, but so far 40% of patients experienced relapse or progressive disease. Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent, had direct tumoricidal and antiangiogenetic actions on tumor cells and was able to modulate tumor-cell microenvironment, with the restoration of impaired T-cell activity and the formation of immuno-synapsis. Based on these actions, lenalidomide represented an active drug on aggressive relapsed NHL. In this review, the most relevant clinical trials for the use of lenalidomide in DLBCL were reported. Monotherapy with lenalidomide showed an activity in term of overall response rate, with acceptable hematological and extrahematological toxicities in relapsed/refractory aggressive NHL. The role of lenalidomide as salvage therapy in both cell of origin patterns in DLBCL (germinal center B-cell/activated B-cell was reported in preliminary data. Preliminary data regarding the role of lenalidomide in addition to chemoimmunotherapy (R-CHOP in first line clinical trials were discussed; data of safety, feasibility and efficacy were promising.

  15. Multifocal Extranodal Involvement of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Cabuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial involvement of extrapulmonary malignant tumors is uncommon and mostly associated with breast, kidney, colon, and rectum carcinomas. A 68-year-old male with a prior diagnosis of colon non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL was admitted to the hospital with a complaint of cough, sputum, and dyspnea. The chest radiograph showed right hilar enlargement and opacity at the right middle zone suggestive of a mass lesion. Computed tomography of thorax revealed a right-sided mass lesion extending to thoracic wall with the destruction of the third and the fourth ribs and a right hilar mass lesion. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in order to evaluate endobronchial involvement and showed stenosis with mucosal tumor infiltration in right upper lobe bronchus. The pathological examination of bronchoscopic biopsy specimen reported diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and the patient was accepted as the endobronchial recurrence of sigmoid colon NHL. The patient is still under treatment of R-ICE (rituximab-ifosfamide-carboplatin-etoposide chemotherapy and partial regression of pulmonary lesions was noted after 3 courses of treatment.

  16. Epigenomic evolution in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Boi, Michela; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Redmond, David; Nie, Kui; Ladetto, Marco; Chiappella, Annalisa; Cerchietti, Leandro; Shaknovich, Rita; Melnick, Ari M; Inghirami, Giorgio G; Tam, Wayne; Elemento, Olivier

    2015-04-20

    The contribution of epigenomic alterations to tumour progression and relapse is not well characterized. Here we characterize an association between disease progression and DNA methylation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). By profiling genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base pair resolution in thirteen DLBCL diagnosis-relapse sample pairs, we show that DLBCL patients exhibit heterogeneous evolution of tumour methylomes during relapse. We identify differentially methylated regulatory elements and determine a relapse-associated methylation signature converging on key pathways such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor activity. We also observe decreased intra-tumour methylation heterogeneity from diagnosis to relapsed tumour samples. Relapse-free patients display lower intra-tumour methylation heterogeneity at diagnosis compared with relapsed patients in an independent validation cohort. Furthermore, intra-tumour methylation heterogeneity is predictive of time to relapse. Therefore, we propose that epigenomic heterogeneity may support or drive the relapse phenotype and can be used to predict DLBCL relapse.

  17. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Padua U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Pisa /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion weighted MRI in endometrial carcinoma-Relationship with local invasiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Kun, E-mail: kun-cao@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Gao, Min, E-mail: gaominmin202@163.com [Department of Gynecology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Sun, Ying-Shi, E-mail: sunysabc@163.com [Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Li, Yan-Ling, E-mail: yanlingli1982@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Sun, Yu, E-mail: sunyu_bch@163.com [Department of Pathology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Gao, Yu-Nong, E-mail: gaoyunong@vip.sina.com [Department of Gynecology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: zxp@bjcancer.org [Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, 52 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the local invasiveness of endometrial carcinoma. Methods and materials: The MR imaging of seventy-three patients with endometrial carcinoma proved by post-operative pathology and sixty-four patients with healthy uteri were retrospectively reviewed. All MR examinations included axial T2WI and T1WI, sagittal T2WI and diffusion-weighted sequences (b = 0 and b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}). Tumor size, mean ADC value (ADCm) and quartile ADC (ADCq) were acquired on post-processing workstation using voxel-analysis software. Differences between the ADC values among three layers of normal uterine body and endometrial carcinomas were compared by ANOVA test. Groups were divided according to pathologic type, histologic grade, depth of myometrial infiltration, presence of cervical invasion and lymphovascular space invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Tumor size and ADC values were compared and analyzed. Results: ADC values were different in three zones of uterine body (P < 0.001), with the lowest in junctional zone [(1.126 {+-} 0.190) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s] and highest in outer myometrium [(1.496 {+-} 0.196) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s]. Mean ADC value of endometrial carcinomas [(1.011 {+-} 0.121) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s] was lower than the normal uterine body. Quartile ADC and tumor size were greater in groups with more invasive pathologic factors (P < 0.05). Deep myometrial infiltration, cervical invasion, lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis were more common as quartile ADC values and tumor sizes increased. Conclusion: Mean ADC value was lower in endometrial carcinoma was lower than the normal uterus. Quartile ADC, representing the intra-tumor heterogeneity of water movement, had a profound relationship with invasiveness of endometrial carcinomas, while mean ADC value did not. ADC values may serve as a quantitative

  19. Local criticality, diffusion and chaos in generalized Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yingfei; Stanford, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model is a $(0+1)$-dimensional model describing Majorana fermions or complex fermions with random interactions. This model has various interesting properties such as approximate local criticality (power law correlation in time), zero temperature entropy, and quantum chaos. In this article, we propose a higher dimensional generalization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, which is a lattice model with $N$ Majorana fermions at each site and random interactions between them. Our model can be defined on arbitrary lattices in arbitrary spatial dimensions. In the large $N$ limit, the higher dimensional model preserves many properties of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model such as local criticality in two-point functions, zero temperature entropy and chaos measured by the out-of-time-ordered correlation functions. In addition, we obtain new properties unique to higher dimensions such as diffusive energy transport and a "butterfly velocity" describing the propagation of chaos in space. We mainly present res...

  20. Ibrutinib Before and After Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Activated B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  1. Large space-time scale behavior of linearly interacting diffusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation in mathematics is devoted to systems consisting of a countably infinite collection of diffusion processes with a linear attractive interaction. Such systems have been used in population biology as a stochastic model for the distribution of genes over a population, or for the size o

  2. Non local Lotka-Volterra system with cross-diffusion in an heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontbona, Joaquin; Méléard, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a stochastic individual model for the spatial behavior of an animal population of dispersive and competitive species, considering various kinds of biological effects, such as heterogeneity of environmental conditions, mutual attractive or repulsive interactions between individuals or competition between them for resources. As a consequence of the study of the large population limit, global existence of a nonnegative weak solution to a multidimensional parabolic strongly coupled model of competing species is proved. The main new feature of the corresponding integro-differential equation is the nonlocal nonlinearity appearing in the diffusion terms, which may depend on the spatial densities of all population types. Moreover, the diffusion matrix is generally not strictly positive definite and the cross-diffusion effect allows for influences growing linearly with the subpopulations' sizes. We prove uniqueness of the finite measure-valued solution and give conditions under which the solution takes values in a functional space. We then make the competition kernels converge to a Dirac measure and obtain the existence of a solution to a locally competitive version of the previous equation. The techniques are essentially based on the underlying stochastic flow related to the dispersive part of the dynamics, and the use of suitable dual distances in the space of finite measures.

  3. Local structures in ionic liquids probed and characterized by microscopic thermal diffusion monitored with picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kyousuke; Iwata, Koichi; Nishiyama, Yoshio; Kimura, Yoshifumi; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

    2012-03-14

    Vibrational cooling rate of the first excited singlet (S(1)) state of trans-stilbene and bulk thermal diffusivity are measured for seven room temperature ionic liquids, C(2)mimTf(2)N, C(4)mimTf(2)N, C(4)mimPF(6), C(5)mimTf(2)N, C(6)mimTf(2)N, C(8)mimTf(2)N, and bmpyTf(2)N. Vibrational cooling rate measured with picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy reflects solute-solvent and solvent-solvent energy transfer in a microscopic solvent environment. Thermal diffusivity measured with the transient grating method indicates macroscopic heat conduction capability. Vibrational cooling rate of S(1) trans-stilbene is known to have a good correlation with bulk thermal diffusivity in ordinary molecular liquids. In the seven ionic liquids studied, however, vibrational cooling rate shows no correlation with thermal diffusivity; the observed rates are similar (0.082 to 0.12 ps(-1) in the seven ionic liquids and 0.08 to 0.14 ps(-1) in molecular liquids) despite large differences in thermal diffusivity (5.4-7.5 × 10(-8) m(2) s(-1) in ionic liquids and 8.0-10 × 10(-8) m(2) s(-1) in molecular liquids). This finding is consistent with our working hypothesis that there are local structures characteristically formed in ionic liquids. Vibrational cooling rate is determined by energy transfer among solvent ions in a local structure, while macroscopic thermal diffusion is controlled by heat transfer over boundaries of local structures. By using "local" thermal diffusivity, we are able to simulate the vibrational cooling kinetics observed in ionic liquids with a model assuming thermal diffusion in continuous media. The lower limit of the size of local structure is estimated with vibrational cooling process observed with and without the excess energy. A quantitative discussion with a numerical simulation shows that the diameter of local structure is larger than 10 nm. If we combine this lower limit, 10 nm, with the upper limit, 100 nm, which is estimated from the transparency (no light

  4. S-matrix Fluctuations in a model with Classical Diffusion and Quantum Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Borgonovi, F; Borgonovi, Fausto; Guarneri, Italo

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: The statistics of S-matrix fluctuations are numerically investigated on a model for irregular quantum scattering in which a classical chaotic diffusion takes place within the interaction region. Agreement with various random-matrix theoretic predictions is discussed in the various regimes (ballistic, diffusive, localized).

  5. An homeopathic cure to pure Xenon large diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C D R; Freitas, E.D.C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; Santos, J. M. F. Dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT neutrinoless double beta decay experiment will use a high- pressure gas electroluminescence-based TPC to search for the decay of Xe-136. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qbb. The rejection potential associated to the topology reconstruction is limited by our capacity to prop- erly reconstruct the original path of the electrons in the gas. This reconstruction is limited by different factors that include the geometry of the detector, the density of the sensors in the tracking plane and the separation among them, etc. Ultimately, the resolution is limited by the physics of electron diffusion in the gas. In this paper we present a series of molecular additives that can be used in Xenon gas at very low partial pressure to reduce both longitudinal and transverse diffusion. We will show the results of different Monte-Carlo simulations of electron transport in the gas mixtures from wich we have extracted the value of...

  6. Diffuse interface models of locally inextensible vesicles in a viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Aland, Sebastian; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel

    2013-01-01

    We present a new diffuse interface model for the dynamics of inextensible vesicles in a viscous fluid. A new feature of this work is the implementation of the local inextensibility condition in the diffuse interface context. Local inextensibility is enforced by using a local Lagrange multiplier, which provides the necessary tension force at the interface. To solve for the local Lagrange multiplier, we introduce a new equation whose solution essentially provides a harmonic extension of the local Lagrange multiplier off the interface while maintaining the local inextensibility constraint near the interface. To make the method more robust, we develop a local relaxation scheme that dynamically corrects local stretching/compression errors thereby preventing their accumulation. Asymptotic analysis is presented that shows that our new system converges to a relaxed version of the inextensible sharp interface model. This is also verified numerically. Although the model does not depend on dimension, we present numerica...

  7. Measurement of local relative displacements in large structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesauro, Angelo; Eder, Martin Alexander; Nielsen, Magda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel measurement technique to measure local relative displacements between parts of large-scale structures. The measured deformations can be of significant importance for fracture analyses in many different types of structures in general, and for adhesive connections...... in particular. The measurement of small local relative displacements in structures subjected to large global deformations is complex and hardly feasible with conventional measurement methods. Therefore, a Small Displacement Measurement System (SDMS) has been devised. The SDMS is based on stereo photogrammetry...... and capable of measuring 3D local displacements with a high degree of accuracy. In this article, the technique is used to measure local deformations in the vicinity of the adhesive trailing edge joint of a wind turbine rotor blade. The SDMS results correspond well with another independent measurement method....

  8. A RBF Based Local Gridfree Scheme for Unsteady Convection-Diffusion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyasiraju VSS Yedida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a Radial Basis Function (RBF based local gridfree scheme has been presented for unsteady convection diffusion equations. Numerical studies have been made using multiquadric (MQ radial function. Euler and a three stage Runge-Kutta schemes have been used for temporal discretization. The developed scheme is compared with the corresponding finite difference (FD counterpart and found that the solutions obtained using the former are more superior. As expected, for a fixed time step and for large nodal densities, thought the Runge-Kutta scheme is able to maintain higher order of accuracy over the Euler method, the temporal discretization is independent of the improvement in the solution which in the developed scheme has been achived by optimizing the shape parameter of the RBF.

  9. Learning Local Components to Understand Large Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Xiang, Yanping; Cordero, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian networks are known for providing an intuitive and compact representation of probabilistic information and allowing the creation of models over a large and complex domain. Bayesian learning and reasoning are nontrivial for a large Bayesian network. In parallel, it is a tough job for users...... (domain experts) to extract accurate information from a large Bayesian network due to dimensional difficulty. We define a formulation of local components and propose a clustering algorithm to learn such local components given complete data. The algorithm groups together most inter-relevant attributes...... in a domain. We evaluate its performance on three benchmark Bayesian networks and provide results in support. We further show that the learned components may represent local knowledge more precisely in comparison to the full Bayesian networks when working with a small amount of data....

  10. Moderate MAS enhances local (1)H spin exchange and spin diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Saalwächter, Kay; Hempel, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Proton NMR spin-diffusion experiments are often combined with magic-angle spinning (MAS) to achieve higher spectral resolution of solid samples. Here we show that local proton spin diffusion can indeed become faster at low (MAS (Clauss et al., 1993). The enhancement of spin diffusion by slow MAS relies on the modulation of the orientation-dependent dipolar couplings during sample rotation and goes along with transient level crossings in combination with dipolar truncation. The experimental finding and its explanation is supported by density matrix simulations, and also emphasizes the sensitivity of spin diffusion to the local coupling topology. The amplification of spin diffusion by slow MAS cannot be explained by any model based on independent spin pairs; at least three spins have to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flow structures in large-angle conical diffusers measured by PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Flow in two different conical diffusers with large opening angles (30° and 18°) have been measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were done in a cross section just after the exit of the diffuser. The Reynolds number was 100000 based on upstream diameter...

  12. Local decoherence-resistant quantum states of large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Utkarsh; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in

    2015-02-06

    We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states, each of which consists of a “minuscule” and a “large” sector, against local noise. In particular, the content of entanglement and other quantum correlations in the minuscule to large partition is independent of the number of particles in their large sectors, when all the particles suffer passage through local amplitude and phase damping channels. The states of the large sectors are distinct in terms of markedly different amounts of violation of Bell inequality. In case the large sector is macroscopic, such states are akin to the Schrödinger cat. - Highlights: • We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states of large systems. • We work with local noise models. • Decay of entanglement as well as information-theoretic quantum correlations considered. • The states are of the form of the Schrödinger cats, with minuscule and large sectors. • The states of the large sector are distinguishable by their violation of Bell inequality.

  13. Global Optimization Using Diffusion Perturbations with Large Noise Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Yin; K. Yin

    2006-01-01

    This work develops an algorithm for global optimization. The algorithm is of gradient ascent type and uses random perturbations. In contrast to the annealing type procedures, the perturbation noise intensity is large. We demonstrate that by properly varying the noise intensity, approximations to the global maximum can be achieved. We also show that the expected time to reach the domain of attraction of the global maximum,which can be approximated by the solution of a boundary value problem, is finite. Discrete-time algorithms are proposed; recursive algorithms with occasional perturbations involving large noise intensity are developed.Numerical examples are provided for illustration.

  14. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-H. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [Institute of Hydrological Sciences, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, S.-P. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: spteng@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    In this work we used an 'in-diffusion' method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5 mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D{sub a}) increases from 5.52x10{sup -12} (10{sup -7} M) to 2.18x10{sup -11} (10{sup -3} M) m{sup 2}/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D{sub a} and D{sub e} values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL.

  15. Local fractional Laplace series expansion method for diffusion equation arising in fractal heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sheng-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first propose the local fractional Laplace series expansion method, which is a coupling method of series expansion method and Laplace transform via local fractional differential operator. An illustrative example for handling the diffusion equation arising in fractal heat transfer is given.

  16. A non-local non-autonomous diffusion problem: linear and sublinear cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Sousa, Tarcyana S.; Morales-Rodrigo, Cristian; Suárez, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    In this work we investigate an elliptic problem with a non-local non-autonomous diffusion coefficient. Mainly, we use bifurcation arguments to obtain existence of positive solutions. The structure of the set of positive solutions depends strongly on the balance between the non-local and the reaction terms.

  17. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of transport for global disorder.

  18. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Thomas; Okupnik, Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.

  19. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Thomas; Okupnik, Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.

  20. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Wulf@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Okupnik, Alexander [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Schmelcher, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Schmelcher@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.

  1. Global Search and Local Ascent for Large Cournot Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sarasan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equilibria detection in large games is a fundamental problem in computational game theory. A memetic algorithm, Global Search and Local Ascent (GSLA, is proposed. GSLA's performance is evaluated by means of numerical experiments within the framework of a Cournot game involving up to 100 players and by comparison with an evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm adapted for Nash equilibria detection.

  2. Disney animation: Global diffusion and local appropriation of culture

    OpenAIRE

    Souad Belkhyr

    2012-01-01

    Children’s media products reflect the cultural values of their producers and the social, political and economic conditions under which they were produced. Watching an animated feature, therefore, cannot be regarded as an innocent and simple act of consumption. It rather involves a complex process of coding/decoding and appropriating cultural meanings. The relation between structured patterns of communication under globalization, on one hand, and the local conditions under which Disney cartoon...

  3. Inhibition of demethylase KDM6B sensitizes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to chemotherapeutic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rohit; Sehgal, Lalit; Havranek, Ondrej; Köhrer, Stefan; Khashab, Tamer; Jain, Neeraj; Burger, Jan A.; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Davis, R. Eric; Samaniego, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Histone methylation and demethylation regulate B-cell development, and their deregulation correlates with tumor chemoresistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, limiting cure rates. Since histone methylation status correlates with disease aggressiveness and relapse, we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting histone 3 Lys27 demethylase KDM6B, in vitro, using the small molecule inhibitor GSK-J4. KDM6B is overexpressed in the germinal center B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and higher KDM6B levels are associated with worse survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. GSK-J4-induced apoptosis was observed in five (SU-DHL-6, OCI-Ly1, Toledo, OCI-Ly8, SU-DHL-8) out of nine germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Treatment with GSK-J4 predominantly resulted in downregulation of B-cell receptor signaling and BCL6. Cell lines expressing high BCL6 levels or CREBBP/EP300 mutations were sensitive to GSK-J4. Our results suggest that B-cell receptor-dependent downregulation of BCL6 is responsible for GSK-J4-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GSK-J4-mediated inhibition of KDM6B sensitizes germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to chemotherapy agents that are currently utilized in treatment regimens for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:27742770

  4. Anomalous diffusion, localization, aging, and subaging effects in trap models at very low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2003-09-01

    We study in detail the dynamics of the one-dimensional symmetric trap model via a real-space renormalization procedure which becomes exact in the limit of zero temperature. In this limit, the diffusion front in each sample consists of two delta peaks, which are completely out of equilibrium with each other. The statistics of the positions and weights of these delta peaks over the samples allows to obtain explicit results for all observables in the limit T-->0. We first compute disorder averages of one-time observables, such as the diffusion front, the thermal width, the localization parameters, the two-particle correlation function, and the generating function of thermal cumulants of the position. We then study aging and subaging effects: our approach reproduces very simply the two different aging exponents and yields explicit forms for scaling functions of the various two-time correlations. We also extend the real-space renormalization group method to include systematic corrections to the previous zero temperature procedure via a series expansion in T. We then consider the generalized trap model with parameter alpha in [0,1] and obtain that the large scale effective model at low temperature does not depend on alpha in any dimension, so that the only observables sensitive to alpha are those that measure the "local persistence," such as the probability to remain exactly in the same trap during a time interval. Finally, we extend our approach at a scaling level for the trap model in d=2 and obtain the two relevant time scales for aging properties.

  5. Impurity sublattice localization in ZnO revealed by li marker diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarov, A.Yu.; Knutsen, K.E.; Neuvonen, P.T.;

    2013-01-01

    Sublattice localization of impurities in compound semiconductors, e.g., ZnO, determines their electronic and optical action. Despite that the impurity position may be envisaged based on charge considerations, the actual localization is often unknown, limiting our understanding of the incorporatio...... interstitials, related to the lattice localization of the impurities. Furthermore, Cd+O and Mg+O co-doping experiments revealed that implanted O atoms act as an efficient blocking “filter” for fast diffusing Zn interstitials....

  6. Simultaneous measurement of localized diffusion and flow using optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Nicolás; Kalkman, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    We report on the simultaneous and localized measurements of the diffusion coefficient and flow velocity based on the normalized autocorrelation function using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results on a flowing solution of polystyrene spheres show that the flow velocity and the diffusion coefficient can be reliably estimated in a regime determined by the sample diffusivity, the local flow velocity, and the Gaussian beam waist. We experimentally show that a smaller beam waist results in an improvement of the velocity sensitivity at cost of the precision and accuracy of the estimation of the diffusion coefficient. Further, we show that the decay of the OCT autocorrelation due to flow depends only on the Gaussian beam waist irrespective of the sample position with respect to the focus position.

  7. Homogenization of a locally-periodic medium with areas of low and high diffusivity

    CERN Document Server

    van Noorden, T

    2010-01-01

    We aim at understanding transport in porous materials including regions with both high and low diffusivities. For such scenarios, the transport becomes structured (here: {\\em micro-macro}). The geometry we have in mind includes regions of low diffusivity arranged in a locally-periodic fashion. We choose a prototypical advection-diffusion system (of minimal size), discuss its formal homogenization (the heterogenous medium being now assumed to be made of zones with circular areas of low diffusivity of $x$-varying sizes), and prove the weak solvability of the limit two-scale reaction-diffusion model. A special feature of our analysis is that most of the basic estimates (positivity, $L^\\infty$-bounds, uniqueness, energy inequality) are obtained in $x$-dependent Bochner spaces.

  8. Localization and Ballistic Diffusion for the Tempered Fractional Brownian-Langevin Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Xudong; Deng, Weihua

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the tempered fractional Brownian motion (tfBm), its ergodicity, and the derivation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Then we introduce the generalized Langevin equation with the tempered fractional Gaussian noise for a free particle, called tempered fractional Langevin equation (tfLe). While the tfBm displays localization diffusion for the long time limit and for the short time its mean squared displacement (MSD) has the asymptotic form t^{2H}, we show that the asymptotic form of the MSD of the tfLe transits from t^2 (ballistic diffusion for short time) to t^{2-2H}, and then to t^2 (again ballistic diffusion for long time). On the other hand, the overdamped tfLe has the transition of the diffusion type from t^{2-2H} to t^2 (ballistic diffusion). The tfLe with harmonic potential is also considered.

  9. Local and Regional Impacts of Large Scale Wind Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakes, J.; Hammond, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P.; Robinson, M.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. is currently on a path to produce 20% of its electricity from wind energy by 2030, almost a 10-fold increase over present levels of electricity generated from wind. Such high-penetration wind energy deployment will entail extracting elevated energy levels from the planetary boundary layer and preliminary studies indicate that this will have significant but uncertain impacts on the local and regional environment. State and federal regulators have raised serious concerns regarding potential agricultural impacts from large farms deployed throughout the Midwest where agriculture is the basis of the local economy. The effects of large wind farms have been proposed to be both beneficial (drying crops to reduce occurrences of fungal diseases, avoiding late spring freezes, enhancing pollen viability, reducing dew duration) and detrimental (accelerating moisture loss during drought) with no conclusive investigations thus far. As both wind and solar technologies are deployed at scales required to replace conventional technologies, there must be reasonable certainty that the potential environmental impacts at the micro, macro, regional and global scale do not exceed those anticipated from carbon emissions. Largely because of computational limits, the role of large wind farms in affecting regional-scale weather patterns has only been investigated in coarse simulations and modeling tools do not yet exist which are capable of assessing the downwind affects of large wind farms may have on microclimatology. In this presentation, we will outline the vision for and discuss technical and scientific challenges in developing a multi-model high-performance simulation capability covering the range of mesoscale to sub-millimeter scales appropriate for assessing local, regional, and ultimately global environmental impacts and quantifying uncertainties of large scale wind energy deployment scenarios. Such a system will allow continuous downscaling of atmospheric processes on wind

  10. Large deviation functions in a system of diffusing particles with creation and annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, V; Schütz, G M

    2011-08-01

    Large deviation functions for an exactly solvable lattice gas model of diffusing particles on a ring, subject to pair annihilation and creation, are obtained analytically using exact free-fermion techniques. Our findings for the large deviation function for the current are compared to recent results of Appert-Rolland et al. [Phys. Rev. E 78, 021122 (2008)] for diffusive systems with conserved particle number. Unlike conservative dynamics, our nonconservative model has no universal finite-size corrections for the cumulants. However, the leading Gaussian part has the same variance as in the conservative case. We also elucidate some properties of the large deviation functions associated with particle creation and annihilation.

  11. THEMIS Observations of the Magnetopause Electron Diffusion Region: Large Amplitude Waves and Heated Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiangwei; Dombeck, John; Dai, Lei; Wilson, Lynn B; Breneman, Aaron; Hupach, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region at the sub-solar magnetopause using data from one THEMIS satellite. These waves identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, are observed in the same 12-sec waveform capture and in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. The whistler mode waves which are at the electron scale and enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (~30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with T_{e\\perp}/T_{e\\parallel}>1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whi...

  12. Diffusion of CO2 in Large Crystals of Cu-BTC MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Trenton M; Zhao, Junjie; Nunn, William T; Barton, Heather F; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N; LeVan, M Douglas

    2016-09-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption in metal-organic frameworks has been widely studied for applications in carbon capture and sequestration. A critical component that has been largely overlooked is the measurement of diffusion rates. This paper describes a new reproducible procedure to synthesize millimeter-scale Cu-BTC single crystals using concentrated reactants and an acetic acid modulator. Microscopic images, X-ray diffraction patterns, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas, and thermogravimetric analysis results all confirm the high quality of these Cu-BTC single crystals. The large crystal size aids in the accurate measurement of micropore diffusion coefficients. Concentration-swing frequency response performed at varying gas-phase concentrations gives diffusion coefficients that show very little dependence on the loading up to pressures of 0.1 bar. The measured micropore diffusion coefficient for CO2 in Cu-BTC is 1.7 × 10(-9) m(2)/s.

  13. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one-dimensional domain with no-flux boundary conditions. In particular, we consider size-dependent diffusion coefficients, which may degenerate for small and large cluster-sizes. We prove that the entropy-entropy dissipation method applies directly in this inhomogeneous setting. We first show the necessary basic a priori estimates in dimension one, and second we show faster-than-polynomial convergence toward global equilibria for diffusion coefficients which vanish not faster than linearly for large sizes. This extends the previous results of [J.A. Carrillo, L. Desvillettes, and K. Fellner, Comm. Math. Phys., 278 (2008), pp. 433-451], which assumes that the diffusion coefficients are bounded below. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  14. Accurate eikonal-curvature relation for wave fronts in locally anisotropic reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Hans; Bernus, Olivier; Verschelde, Henri

    2011-09-02

    The dependency of wave velocity in reaction-diffusion (RD) systems on the local front curvature determines not only the stability of wave propagation, but also the fundamental properties of other spatial configurations such as vortices. This Letter gives the first derivation of a covariant eikonal-curvature relation applicable to general RD systems with spatially varying anisotropic diffusion properties, such as cardiac tissue. The theoretical prediction that waves which seem planar can nevertheless possess a nonvanishing geometrical curvature induced by local anisotropy is confirmed by numerical simulations, which reveal deviations up to 20% from the nominal plane wave speed.

  15. Large Deviations for Parameter Estimators of Some Time Inhomogeneous Diffusion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Jiang ZHAO; Fu Qing GAO

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study large deviations for estimator and score function of some time inhomogeneous diffusion process.Large deviation in the non-steepness case with explicit rate functions is obtained by using parameter-dependent change of measure.

  16. Ocular Adnexal Diffuse Large B-cell LymphomaA Multicenter International Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Helga D; Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The clinical features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtype of ocular adnexal lymphoma have not previously been evaluated in a large cohort to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of ocular adnexal DLBCL (OA-DLBCL). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANT...

  17. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Coquel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian. Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on

  18. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel; Lindner, Ariel B; Berry, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  19. Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Inahama, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is a kind of potential theory in Malliavin calculus.

  20. Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Inahama, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is one of the deepest parts of Malliavin calculus.

  1. Cluster-in-molecule local correlation method for large systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; LI ShuHua

    2014-01-01

    A linear scaling local correlation method,cluster-in-molecule(CIM)method,was developed in the last decade for large systems.The basic idea of the CIM method is that the electron correlation energy of a large system,within the M ller-Plesset perturbation theory(MP)or coupled cluster(CC)theory,can be approximately obtained from solving the corresponding MP or CC equations of various clusters.Each of such clusters consists of a subset of localized molecular orbitals(LMOs)of the target system,and can be treated independently at various theory levels.In the present article,the main idea of the CIM method is reviewed,followed by brief descriptions of some recent developments,including its multilevel extension and different ways of constructing clusters.Then,some applications for large systems are illustrated.The CIM method is shown to be an efficient and reliable method for electron correlation calculations of large systems,including biomolecules and supramolecular complexes.

  2. Local Large-Scale Structure and the Assumption of Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-10-01

    Our recent estimates of galaxy counts and the luminosity density in the near-infrared (Keenan et al. 2010, 2012) indicated that the local universe may be under-dense on radial scales of several hundred megaparsecs. Such a large-scale local under-density could introduce significant biases in the measurement and interpretation of cosmological observables, such as the inferred effects of dark energy on the rate of expansion. In Keenan et al. (2013), we measured the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance from us to test for such a local under-density. We made this measurement over the redshift range 0.01 0.07, we measure an increasing luminosity density that by z ~ 0.1 rises to a value of ~ 1.5 times higher than that measured locally. This implies that the stellar mass density follows a similar trend. Assuming that the underlying dark matter distribution is traced by this luminous matter, this suggests that the local mass density may be lower than the global mass density of the universe at an amplitude and on a scale that is sufficient to introduce significant biases into the measurement of basic cosmological observables. At least one study has shown that an under-density of roughly this amplitude and scale could resolve the apparent tension between direct local measurements of the Hubble constant and those inferred by Planck team. Other theoretical studies have concluded that such an under-density could account for what looks like an accelerating expansion, even when no dark energy is present.

  3. [Primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells: an experience at a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Gárate, Brady; Morales Luna, Domingo; Quiñones Avila, Pilar; Hurtado de Mendoza, Fernando; Riva Gonzales, Luis; Yabar, Alejandro; Portugal Meza, Karem

    2008-01-01

    Primary colorectal lymphoma is a very rare disease. Primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells is a more frequent subtype representing 1% of all colon diseases. In a retrospective study, the clinical characteristics and treatment course of primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells between 1997 and 2003 were reviewed. According to Dawson's criteria, fourteen cases were identified. The average age was 65 and the ratio of men to women was 1:3. The most frequent signs and symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), diarrhea (49%) and abdominal tumor (35%). The most frequently involved regions were the cecum (42%), ascending colon (21%) and rectum (21%). Six were in Stage I, four in Stage II and four in Stage III. The 5-year survival per stage was 26, 11 and 5 months, respectively. Primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells usually affects the right part of the colon in an aggressive manner.

  4. Breast schwannoma in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihoglu Ayse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schwannomas are mostly benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of the nerve sheaths. Breast schwannomas are very rare and account for only 2.6% of cases. As far as we know this is the first reported case of breast schwannoma discovered in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The breast schwannoma was evaluated with positron emission tomography and it exhibited moderate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. Case presentation We present the case of a breast schwannoma in a 63-year-old Caucasian woman who was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Conclusion Imaging modalities including positron emission tomography-computed tomography failed to distinguish breast schwannoma from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involvement of the breast.

  5. Perturbation Theory of Large-Particle Diffusion in a Binary Solvent Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuka; Yoshimori, Akira; Akiyama, Ryo

    2014-06-01

    We study the diffusion of a large spherical particle immersed in a binary compressive liquid mixture using a perturbation theory. We focus on the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation caused by the microscopic solvation structure of binary solvent particles around a solute particle. In order to consider the solvation structure, we solve multicomponent generalized Langevin equations by singular perturbation expansion. Then, we assume that solvent particles are much smaller than the solute particle. Solving the equations, we express the diffusion coefficient analytically using the radial distribution functions of a binary mixture. The expression shows the breakdown of the SE relation if the density distribution of a binary solvent is inhomogeneous around a solute particle. Actually, we show that the SE relation breaks down when a large hard sphere diffuses in a binary hard-sphere mixture. We observe the large deviation from the SE relation, which is a result specific to the binary solvent.

  6. NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF LOCAL THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY USING BACKSCATTERED ULTRASOUND AND FOCUSED ULTRASOUND HEATING

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Previously, noninvasive methods of estimating local tissue thermal and acoustic properties using backscattered ultrasound have been proposed in the literature. In this article, a noninvasive method of estimating local thermal diffusivity in situ during focused ultrasound heating using beamformed acoustic backscatter data and applying novel signal processing techniques is developed. A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer operating at subablative intensities is employed to create...

  7. Generalized non-local responses and higher harmonic retention in non-local polymerization driven diffusion model based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, J. T.; Kelly, J. V.; O'Brien, G.; Gleeson, M. R.; O'Neill, F. T.

    2004-12-01

    Non-local and non-linear models of photopolymer materials, which include diffusion effects, have recently received much attention in the literature. The material response is described as non-local as it is assumed that monomers are polymerized to form polymer chains and that these chains grow away from a point of initiation. The non-locality is defined in terms of a spatial non-local material response function. The material model is non-linear as a general non-linear material response to the incident light is included. Typically the numerical method of solution has involved retaining only up to four harmonics of the Fourier series of monomer concentration in the calculations. In this paper a general set of coupled first-order differential equations is derived which allow the inclusion of a higher number of harmonics. The resulting effect on the convergence of the algorithm, as the number of harmonics retained is increased, is investigated. Special care is taken to note the effect of physical parameters, i.e. the non-local material variance σ, the power-law degree k, and the rates of diffusion, D, and polymerization, F0.

  8. Efficient construction of nonorthogonal localized molecular orbitals in large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Weihai; Yang, Weitao

    2010-08-26

    Localized molecular orbitals (LMOs) are much more compact representations of electronic degrees of freedom than canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs). The most compact representation is provided by nonorthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs), which are linearly independent but are not orthogonal. Both LMOs and NOLMOs are thus useful for linear-scaling calculations of electronic structures for large systems. Recently, NOLMOs have been successfully applied to linear-scaling calculations with density functional theory (DFT) and to reformulating time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for calculations of excited states and spectroscopy. However, a challenge remains as NOLMO construction from CMOs is still inefficient for large systems. In this work, we develop an efficient method to accelerate the NOLMO construction by using predefined centroids of the NOLMO and thereby removing the nonlinear equality constraints in the original method ( J. Chem. Phys. 2004 , 120 , 9458 and J. Chem. Phys. 2000 , 112 , 4 ). Thus, NOLMO construction becomes an unconstrained optimization. Its efficiency is demonstrated for the selected saturated and conjugated molecules. Our method for fast NOLMO construction should lead to efficient DFT and NOLMO-TDDFT applications to large systems.

  9. Strain localization in usnaturated soils with large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    Strain localization is a ubiquitous feature of granular materials undergoing nonhomogeneous deformation. In unsaturated porous media, how the localized deformation band is formed depends crucially on the degree of saturation, since fluid in the pores of a solid imposes a volume constraint on the deformation of the solid. When fluid flow is involved, the inception of the localized deformation band also depends on the heterogeneity of a material, which is quantified in terms of the spatial variation of density, the degree of saturation, and matric suction. We present a mathematical framework for coupled solid-deformation/fluid-diffusion in unsaturated porous media that takes into account material and geometric nonlinearities [1, 2]. The framework relies on the continuum principle of thermodynamics to identify an effective, or constitutive, stress for the solid matrix, and a water retention law that highlights the interdependence of degree of saturation, suction, and porosity of the material. We discuss the role of heterogeneity, quantified either deterministically or stochastically, on the development of a persistent shear band. We derive bifurcation conditions [3] governing the initiation of such a shear band. This research is inspired by current testing techniques that allow nondestructive and non-invasive measurement of density and the degree of saturation through high-resolution imaging [4]. The numerical simulations under plane strain condition demonstrate that the bifurcation not only manifests itself on the loading response curve and but also in the space of the degree of saturation, specific volume and suction stress. References[1] Song X, Borja RI, Mathematical framework for unsaturated flow in the finite deformation range. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2014; 97: 658-686. [2] Song X, Borja RI, Finite deformation and fluid flow in unsaturated soils with random heterogeneity. Vadose Zone Journal 2014; doi:10.2136/vzj2013.07.0131. [3] Song X, Borja RI, Instability

  10. A new computational method for fractal heat-diffusion via local fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Geng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal heat-conduction problem via local fractional derivative is investigated in this paper. The solution of the fractal heat-diffusion equation is obtained. The characteristic equation method is proposed to find the analytical solution of the partial differential equation in fractal heat-conduction problem.

  11. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA - II. Non-thermal diffuse emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; de Blok, W. J. G.; Massardi, Marcella

    Our closest neighbours, the Local Group dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, are extremely quiescent and dim objects, where thermal and non-thermal diffuse emissions lack, so far, of detection. In order to possibly study the dSph interstellar medium, deep observations are required. They could reveal

  12. Large interface diffusion in endotaxial growth of MnP films on GaP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nateghi, N., E-mail: seyyed-nima.nateghi@polymtl.ca; Ménard, D.; Masut, R. A. [Regroupement québécoise sur les matériaux de pointe (RQMP), Département de Génie Physique, Polytechnique Montréal, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2014-10-07

    The metal organic vapor deposition of MnP films on GaP (100) substrates is shown to have a substantial endotaxial component. A study of the growth time evolution of the endotaxial depths of MnP grains reveals a diffusion-controlled growth with a relatively large diffusion coefficient of Mn in GaP. The value (2.2 ± 1.5) × 10⁻¹⁵ (cm²/s) obtained at 650 °C is at least two orders of magnitude larger than the reported Mn diffusion in bulk GaP. GaP surface mounds provide further indirect evidence that this large diffusion coefficient is concurrent with the out-diffusion of Ga atoms at the growing MnP/GaP interface. No trace of dislocations could be observed at or near this interface, which strongly suggests that Mn diffusion occurs through vacant sites generated by the difference between the crystallographic structures of MnP and GaP.

  13. Large interface diffusion in endotaxial growth of MnP films on GaP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, N.; Ménard, D.; Masut, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    The metal organic vapor deposition of MnP films on GaP (100) substrates is shown to have a substantial endotaxial component. A study of the growth time evolution of the endotaxial depths of MnP grains reveals a diffusion-controlled growth with a relatively large diffusion coefficient of Mn in GaP. The value (2.2 ± 1.5) × 10-15 (cm2/s) obtained at 650 °C is at least two orders of magnitude larger than the reported Mn diffusion in bulk GaP. GaP surface mounds provide further indirect evidence that this large diffusion coefficient is concurrent with the out-diffusion of Ga atoms at the growing MnP/GaP interface. No trace of dislocations could be observed at or near this interface, which strongly suggests that Mn diffusion occurs through vacant sites generated by the difference between the crystallographic structures of MnP and GaP.

  14. Dispersion in Rectangular Networks: Effective Diffusivity and Large-Deviation Rate Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzella, Alexandra; Vanneste, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    The dispersion of a diffusive scalar in a fluid flowing through a network has many applications including to biological flows, porous media, water supply, and urban pollution. Motivated by this, we develop a large-deviation theory that predicts the evolution of the concentration of a scalar released in a rectangular network in the limit of large time t ≫1 . This theory provides an approximation for the concentration that remains valid for large distances from the center of mass, specifically for distances up to O (t ) and thus much beyond the O (t1 /2) range where a standard Gaussian approximation holds. A byproduct of the approach is a closed-form expression for the effective diffusivity tensor that governs this Gaussian approximation. Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles confirm the large-deviation results and demonstrate their effectiveness in describing the scalar distribution when t is only moderately large.

  15. Clear cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahatciu-Meka Vjollca

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic B lymphoid cells with a nuclear size equal to or exceeding the normal macrophage nuclei. We report a case of a clear cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving a lymph node in the neck, which was clinically suspected of being metastatic carcinoma. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian ethnic Albanian man from Kosovo presented with a rapidly enlarging lymph node in his neck, but he also disclosed B symptoms and fatigue. A cytological aspirate of the lymph node revealed pleomorphic features. Our patient underwent a cervical lymph node biopsy (large excision. The mass was homogeneously fish-flesh, pale white tissue replacing almost the whole structure of the lymph node. The lymph node biopsy showed a partial alveolar growth pattern, which raised clinical suspicion that it was an epithelial neoplasm. With regard to morphological and phenotypic features, we discovered large nodules in diffuse areas, comprising large cells with slightly irregular nuclei and clear cytoplasm admixed with a few mononuclear cells. In these areas, there was high mitotic activity, and in some areas there were macrophages with tangible bodies. Staining for cytokeratins was negative. These areas had the following phenotypes: cluster designation marker 20 (CD20 positive, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2-positive, Bcl-6-, CD5-, CD3-, CD21+ (in alveolar patterns, prostate-specific antigen-negative, human melanoma black marker 45-negative, melanoma marker-negative, cytokeratin-7-negative and multiple myeloma marker 1-positive in about 30% of cells, and exhibited a high proliferation index marker (Ki-67, 80%. Conclusion According to the immunohistochemical findings, we concluded that this patient has a clear cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of activated cell type, post-germinal center cell origin. Our patient is undergoing R-CHOP chemotherapy treatment.

  16. Local homeoprotein diffusion can stabilize boundaries generated by graded positional cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñinao, Cristóbal; Prochiantz, Alain; Touboul, Jonathan

    2015-05-15

    Boundary formation in the developing neuroepithelium decides on the position and size of compartments in the adult nervous system. In this study, we start from the French Flag model proposed by Lewis Wolpert, in which boundaries are formed through the combination of morphogen diffusion and of thresholds in cell responses. In contemporary terms, a response is characterized by the expression of cell-autonomous transcription factors, very often of the homeoprotein family. Theoretical studies suggest that this sole mechanism results in the formation of boundaries of imprecise shapes and positions. Alan Turing, on the other hand, proposed a model whereby two morphogens that exhibit self-activation and reciprocal inhibition, and are uniformly distributed and diffuse at different rates lead to the formation of territories of unpredictable shapes and positions but with sharp boundaries (the 'leopard spots'). Here, we have combined the two models and compared the stability of boundaries when the hypothesis of local homeoprotein intercellular diffusion is, or is not, introduced in the equations. We find that the addition of homeoprotein local diffusion leads to a dramatic stabilization of the positioning of the boundary, even when other parameters are significantly modified. This novel Turing/Wolpert combined model has thus important theoretical consequences for our understanding of the role of the intercellular diffusion of homeoproteins in the developmental robustness of and the changes that take place in the course of evolution.

  17. Sample Duplication Method for Monte Carlo Simulation of Large Reaction-Diffusion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红东; 陆建明; 杨玉良

    1994-01-01

    The sample duplication method for the Monte Carlo simulation of large reaction-diffusion system is proposed in this paper. It is proved that the sample duplication method will effectively raise the efficiency and statistical precision of the simulation without changing the kinetic behaviour of the reaction-diffusion system and the critical condition for the bifurcation of the steady-states. The method has been applied to the simulation of spatial and time dissipative structure of Brusselator under the Dirichlet boundary condition. The results presented in this paper definitely show that the sample duplication method provides a very efficient way to sol-’e the master equation of large reaction-diffusion system. For the case of two-dimensional system, it is found that the computation time is reduced at least by a factor of two orders of magnitude compared to the algorithm reported in literature.

  18. The Approximate Solutions of Three-Dimensional Diffusion and Wave Equations within Local Fractional Derivative Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kamil Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the local fractional variational iteration transform method (LFVITM coupled by the local fractional Laplace transform and variational iteration method to solve three-dimensional diffusion and wave equations with local fractional derivative operator. This method has Lagrange multiplier equal to minus one, which makes the calculations more easily. The obtained results show that the presented method is efficient and yields a solution in a closed form. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the high accuracy and fast convergence of this new method.

  19. Non-local thermal spin injection to study spin diffusion in yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Brandon; Yang, Zihao; Jamison, John; Myers, Roberto

    Understanding the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin current is critical for the development of devices that depend on spin transport for information processing and storage. Recent studies have shown that spin transport over long distances is possible in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) through the diffusion of non-equilibrium magnons. Electrically excited magnons have been shown to diffuse up to 40um at room temperature, while thermally injected magnons were detected at ranges greater than 125um at 23K. However, much work is still required to fully understand the processes responsible for magnon diffusion. Here, we present an in-depth study of the diffusion of magnons in YIG. By using the non-local thermal spin detection method, we analyze spin transport as a function of temperature. Spin diffusion maps, which can be used to experimentally determine the spin diffusion length in YIG as a function of temperature, are presented Work supported by the Army Research Office MURI W911NF-14-1-0016.

  20. Reactivation of hepatitis D virus after chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma despite lamivudine prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Gerstoft, Jan; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of reactivation of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in a patient treated with chemotherapy for a diffuse large B cell lymphoma despite lamivudine prophylaxis. This case suggests that previously cleared HDV should be considered when administering chemotherapy to patients with lymphoma....

  1. Frequent disruption of the RB1 pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M B; Kania, Per Walter; Ino, Y

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we analysed 34 de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLCL) from a population-based lymphoma registry for alterations of the RB1 pathway at the genetic (RB1 and CDK4) and protein (pRb, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK4, and E2F-1) level. The results were correlated with the data fr...

  2. Clinical and pathological features of testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a heterogeneous disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, M.J.; Janssen-Heijnen, M.L.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Krol, A.D.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Most testicular lymphomas are of diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) type with an outcome inferior to nodal DLBCL. Within an apparently homogeneous group of testicular DLBCLs, small cell components, plasmacytoid differentiation and lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs), features of extranodal marginal zone

  3. Clinical and pathological features of testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma : a heterogeneous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, Marion J. J.; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Krol, Augustinus D. G.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Coebergh, Jan-Willem W.; van Krieken, J. Han J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Most testicular lymphomas are of diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) type with an outcome inferior to nodal DLBCL. Within an apparently homogeneous group of testicular DLBCLs, small cell components, plasmacytoid differentiation and lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs), features of extranodal marginal zone lymph

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerhan, James R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Wang, Sophia S.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Conde, Lucia; De Bakker, Paul I W; Nieters, Alexandra; Cox, David; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kane, Eleanor; Teras, Lauren R.; Purdue, Mark P.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Spinelli, John J.; Giles, Graham G.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S.; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Novak, Anne J.; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W.; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Veron, Amelie S.; Zelenika, Diana; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry Jo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans Olov; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Tinker, Lesley F.; North, Kari E.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W. Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J.; Villano, Danylo J.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R.; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; Birmann, Brenda M.; Laden, Francine; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Sampson, Joshua; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju Hyun; Chung, Charles C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Slager, Susan L.; Wu, Xifeng; De Sanjose, Silvia; Smedby, Karin E.; Salles, Gilles; Skibola, Christine F.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of Euro

  5. Relationships among hepatitis C virus, hepatocellular carcinoma, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have reported various associations between HCV and the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report the radiologic findings in a rare case of simultaneous occurrence of HCC and diffuse large B cell lymphoma in a HCV carrier.

  6. Expression of human leukocyte antigens in diffuse large B cell lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, Sietske Annette

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of which 40% present at extra-nodal sites including immune privileged sites such as the testis and the central nervous system (CNS). Loss of Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) expression has been described in many different

  7. Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in de novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Y; Chen, Jiayu; Xu-Monette, Ziju

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response, and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of...

  8. Cytomegalovirus enterocolitis in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after chemotherapy with rituximab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason Seewoodhary

    2006-01-01

    Rituximab has been associated with the development of cytomegalovirus enterocolitis in immunosuppressed patients. A 51-year-old patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received a conditioning chemotherapy regimen (RCVP and RICE) consisting of rituximab before bone marrow transplantation went on to develop cytomegalovirus enterocolitis. This supports evidence from previously described cases that rituximab may be associated with cytomegalovirus enterocolitis.

  9. Immunohistochemical classification and prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the immunohistochemical classification and prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL).Methods A total of 148 cases of DLBCL were classified into germinal center B-cell-like(GCB)and non-GCB/activated B-cell-like(ABC)subtypes by Hans,Choi and Tally immunohistochemical stain algorithms.The clinical features and survival data of GCB

  10. Bone marrow biopsy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma : Useful or redundant test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hugo J A; De Klerk, John M H; Fijnheer, Rob; Heggelman, Ben G F; Dubois, Stefan V.; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the additional value of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in the standard staging work-up of patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in terms of risk assessment and treatment planning. Material and methods. A total of 113 consecutive patients with newly diag

  11. Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in De Novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ok, C.Y.; Chen, J.; Xu-Monette, Z.Y.; Tzankov, A.; Manyam, G.C.; Li, L.; Visco, C.; Montes-Moreno, S.; Dybkaer, K.; Chiu, A.; Orazi, A.; Zu, Y.; Bhagat, G.; Richards, K.L.; Hsi, E.D.; Choi, W.W.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Huh, J.; Zhao, X.; Ponzoni, M.; Ferreri, A.J.; Bertoni, F.; Farnen, J.P.; Moller, M.B.; Piris, M.A.; Winter, J.N.; Medeiros, L.J.; Young, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response, and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of ph

  12. Antecedent presentation of aplastic anemia in a patient with diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ting Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunological manifestation occasionally develops concurrently with lymphoid neoplasms, including immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia, but rarely reported acquired aplastic anemia (AA. Here we present a female case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL with antecedent presentation of AA. Recovery of AA was noted after complete response to lymphoma treatment. Literature regarding this issue was reviewed.

  13. Comparison of diffuse infrared and far-ultraviolet emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud: The data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Gautam; Shalima, P.; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Pathak, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Dust scattering is the main source of diffuse emission in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). For several locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite has observed diffuse radiation in the FUV with intensities ranging from 1000 to 3×105 photon units and diffuse fraction between 5% and 20% at 1100 Å. Here, we compare the FUV diffuse emission with the mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) diffuse emission observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope and the AKARI satellite for the same locations. The intensity ratios in the different MIR and FIR bands for each of the locations will enable us to determine the type of dust contributing to the diffuse emission as well as to derive a more accurate 3D distribution of stars and dust in the region, which in turn may be used to model the observed scattering in the FUV. In this work we present the infrared (IR) data for two different regions in LMC, namely N11 and 30 Doradus. We also present the FUV IR correlation for different infrared bands.

  14. Comparison of Diffuse Infrared and Far-Ultraviolet emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud: The Data

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, Gautam; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Pathak, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dust scattering is the main source of diffuse emission in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). For several locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite has observed diffuse radiation in the FUV with intensities ranging from 1000 - 3 X 10^5 photon units and diffuse fraction between 5% - 20% at 1100 {\\deg}A. Here, we compare the FUV diffuse emission with the mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) diffuse emission observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope and the AKARI satellite for the same locations. The intensity ratios in the different MIR and FIR bands for each of the locations will enable us to determine the type of dust contributing to the diffuse emission as well as to derive a more accurate 3D distribution of stars and dust in the region, which in turn may be used to model the observed scattering in the FUV. In this work we present the infrared (IR) data for two different regions in LMC, namely N11 and 30 Doradus. We also present the FUV~IR correlation fo...

  15. Charge polarization with large amplitude hydrogen motion of pyrazinyl radical: implication for the diffusion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiro; Kato, Shigeki

    2001-11-01

    In this Letter we discuss in the case of pyrazinyl radical the effect of the large amplitude motion on the charge polarization. The extra hydrogen of pyrazinyl radical is nonplanar at the equilibrium geometry, whereas it is delocalized in the vibrational ground state along the wagging direction. The large amplitude motion of the hydrogen triply enhances the effective out-of-plane polarizability of the ground state. This augmented charge polarization could play a considerable role in the diffusion dynamics in solutions.

  16. Advection/diffusion of large scale magnetic field in accretion disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. E. Lovelace

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the nuclei of galaxies and stellar mass systems involving disk accretion to black holes is thought to be due to (1 a small-scale turbulent magnetic field in the disk (due to the magneto-rotational instability or MRI which gives a large viscosity enhancing accretion, and (2 a large-scale magnetic field which gives rise to matter outflows and/or electromagnetic jets from the disk which also enhances accretion. An important problem with this picture is that the enhanced viscosity is accompanied by an enhanced magnetic diffusivity which acts to prevent the build up of a significant large-scale field. Recent work has pointed out that the disk's surface layers are non-turbulent and thus highly conducting (or non-diffusive because the MRI is suppressed high in the disk where the magnetic and radiation pressures are larger than the thermal pressure. Here, we calculate the vertical (z profiles of the stationary accretion flows (with radial and azimuthal components, and the profiles of the large-scale, magnetic field taking into account the turbulent viscosity and diffusivity due to the MRI and the fact that the turbulence vanishes at the surface of the disk. We derive a sixth-order differential equation for the radial flow velocity vr(z which depends mainly on the midplane thermal to magnetic pressure ratio β>1 and the Prandtl number of the turbulence P=viscosity/diffusivity. Boundary conditions at the disk surface take into account a possible magnetic wind or jet and allow for a surface current in the highly conducting surface layer. The stationary solutions we find indicate that a weak (β>1 large-scale field does not diffuse away as suggested by earlier work.

  17. Message spreading in networks with stickiness and persistence: Large clustering does not always facilitate large-scale diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Pengbi; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have confirmed the key roles of complex contagion mechanisms such as memory, social reinforcement, and decay effects in information diffusion and behaviour spreading. Inspired by this fact, we here propose a new agent--based model to capture the whole picture of the joint action of the three mechanisms in information spreading, by quantifying the complex contagion mechanisms as stickiness and persistence, and carry out extensive simulations of the model on various networks. By numerical simulations as well as theoretical analysis, we find that the stickiness of the message determines the critical dynamics of message diffusion on tree-like networks, whereas the persistence plays a decisive role on dense regular lattices. In either network, the greater persistence can effectively make the message more invasive. Of particular interest is that our research results renew our previous knowledge that messages can spread broader in networks with large clustering, which turns out to be only tr...

  18. Large-time behavior of solutions to a thermo-diffusion system with Smoluchowski interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiki, Toyohiko; Muntean, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    We prove the large time behavior of solutions to a coupled thermo-diffusion arising in the modeling of the motion of hot colloidal particles in porous media. Additionally, we also ensure the uniqueness of solutions of the target problem. The main mathematical difficulty is due to the presence in the right-hand side of the equations of products between temperature and concentration gradients. Such terms mimic the so-called thermodynamic Soret and Dufour effects. These are cross-coupling terms emphasizing in this context a strong interplay between heat conduction and molecular diffusion.

  19. A Characterization of the Diffuse Galactic Emissions at Large Angular Scales Using the Tenerife Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Macías-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    diffuse emission in the range from 20 to 60 GHz. To discriminate between different models of AME, low frequency microwave data from 10 to 20 GHz are needed. We present here a reanalysis of published and unpublished Tenerife data from 10 to 33 GHz at large angular scales (from 5 to 15 degrees. We cross-correlate the Tenerife data to templates of the main galactic diffuse emissions: synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We find evidence of dust-correlated emission in the Tenerife data that could be explained as spinning dust grain emission.

  20. High throughput tissue microarray analysis of FHIT expression in diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuraya, Khawla; Siraj, Abdul Khalid; Bavi, Prashant; Al-Jomah, Naif; El-Solh, Hassan; Ezzat, Adnan; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Belgaumi, Asim; Al-Kofide, Amani; Sabbah, Rajeh; Sheikh, Salwa; Amr, Samir; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido

    2006-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential prognostic role of alterations of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To evaluate possible mechanisms of FHIT inactivation and to further clarify its potential prognostic relevance, we analyzed a set of 114 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with clinical follow-up information. Tissue microarrays were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for protein expression, and corresponding DNA samples were analyzed for FHIT promotor hypermethlyation. Reduced or absent FHIT expression was found in 75 of 114 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (66%), but was unrelated to clinical tumor stage or patient prognosis. FHIT promotor hypermethylation was observed in 29 of 93 (23%) interpretable diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hypermethylation was not significantly correlated to protein expression loss, which could be explained by competing mechanisms for FHIT inactivation in a substantial fraction of non FHIT hypermethylated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hypermethylation was significantly associated with poor prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients and predominantly seen in nongerminal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (27%), but less frequent (13%) in germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In summary, these data suggest that promotor hypermethylation is responsible for reduced FHIT expression in a substantial subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which is primarily composed of nongerminal center subtype with poor patient prognosis.

  1. Large area local anesthesia (LALA) in submuscular breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Wendy L; Charbonneau, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Large area local anesthesia (LALA) has been recommended for decreasing localized pain and shortening discharge time after breast augmentation surgery. However, quantifiable, objective outcome data for evaluation of the effectiveness of LALA in aesthetic plastic surgery procedures have not yet been reported. We conducted a retrospective patient chart review to determine whether irrigation of the submuscular pocket with bupivacaine in retropectoral breast augmentation procedures quantifiably alters the patient's postoperative course with respect to narcotic requirement, nausea and vomiting, and time to discharge. The findings were evaluated in the context of a critical review of the literature dealing with pain management after breast augmentation, and in particular with the use of LALA. All procedures were performed by the senior author in a private surgical facility. All patients received an identical general anesthetic plus local infiltration of incisions with 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. An inframammary approach was used in all cases; retropectoral dissection was performed with electrocautery dissection followed by hemostasis. In one cohort of patients the submuscular pocket was irrigated with 10 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine before dissection of the contralateral side; in a second control cohort it was not. Postoperative care was the same for both groups. We found a trend toward decreased nausea and vomiting and narcotic use, and a statistically significant decrease in time to discharge, for the cohort that received intraoperative bupivacaine irrigation. LALA is an effective means to decrease recovery time and possibly postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, and narcotic requirements. Because evidence-based medicine is the surest basis for clinical decisions, evaluation of LALA as well as other treatment modalities should include quantifiable outcome measures.

  2. Dispersion in rectangular networks: effective diffusivity and large-deviation rate function

    CERN Document Server

    Tzella, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dispersion of a passive scalar released in a fluid flowing within a rectangular, Manhattan-style network. We use large-deviation theory to approximate the scalar concentration as it evolves under the combined action of advection and diffusion and derive an expression for the rate function that controls the form of the concentration at large times $t$. For moderately large distances $O(t^{1/2})$ from the centre of mass, this form reduces to a Gaussian parameterised by a (tensorial) effective diffusivity given in closed form. Further away, at distances $O(t)$, a more complex form reveals the strong imprint of the network geometry. Our theoretical predictions are verified against Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles.

  3. Diffusion in the presence of a local attracting factor: Theory and interdisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veermäe, Hardi; Patriarca, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In many complex diffusion processes the drift of random walkers is not caused by an external force, as in the case of Brownian motion, but by local variations of fitness perceived by the random walkers. In this paper, a simple but general framework is presented that describes such a type of random motion and may be of relevance in different problems, such as opinion dynamics, cultural spreading, and animal movement. To this aim, we study the problem of a random walker in d dimensions moving in the presence of a local heterogeneous attracting factor expressed in terms of an assigned position-dependent "attractiveness function." At variance with standard Brownian motion, the attractiveness function introduced here regulates both the advection and diffusion of the random walker, thus providing testable predictions for a specific form of fluctuation-relations. We discuss the relation between the drift-diffusion equation based on the attractiveness function and that describing standard Brownian motion, and we provide some explicit examples illustrating its relevance in different fields, such as animal movement, chemotactic diffusion, and social dynamics.

  4. Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations of the Electron Diffusion Region of Large Guide Field Magnetic Reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S; Wilder, F D; Ergun, R E; Schwartz, S J; Cassak, P A; Burch, J L; Chen, L-J; Torbert, R B; Phan, T D; Lavraud, B; Goodrich, K A; Holmes, J C; Stawarz, J E; Sturner, A P; Malaspina, D M; Usanova, M E; Trattner, K J; Strangeway, R J; Russell, C T; Pollock, C J; Giles, B L; Hesse, M; Lindqvist, P-A; Drake, J F; Shay, M A; Nakamura, R; Marklund, G T

    2016-07-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites of a large guide field magnetic reconnection event. The observations suggest that two of the four MMS spacecraft sampled the electron diffusion region, whereas the other two spacecraft detected the exhaust jet from the event. The guide magnetic field amplitude is approximately 4 times that of the reconnecting field. The event is accompanied by a significant parallel electric field (E_{∥}) that is larger than predicted by simulations. The high-speed (∼300  km/s) crossing of the electron diffusion region limited the data set to one complete electron distribution inside of the electron diffusion region, which shows significant parallel heating. The data suggest that E_{∥} is balanced by a combination of electron inertia and a parallel gradient of the gyrotropic electron pressure.

  5. Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations of the Electron Diffusion Region of Large Guide Field Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Schwartz, S. J.; Cassak, P. A.; Burch, J. L.; Chen, Li-Jen; Torbert, R. B.; Phan, T. D.; Lavraud, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites of a large guide field magnetic reconnection event. The observations suggest that two of the four MMS spacecraft sampled the electron diffusion region, whereas the other two spacecraft detected the exhaust jet from the event. The guide magnetic field amplitude is approximately 4 times that of the reconnecting field. The event is accompanied by a significant parallel electric field (E(sub parallel lines) that is larger than predicted by simulations. The high-speed (approximately 300 km/s) crossing of the electron diffusion region limited the data set to one complete electron distribution inside of the electron diffusion region, which shows significant parallel heating. The data suggest that E(sub parallel lines) is balanced by a combination of electron inertia and a parallel gradient of the gyrotropic electron pressure.

  6. Parallel STEPS: Large Scale Stochastic Spatial Reaction-Diffusion Simulation with High Performance Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic, spatial reaction-diffusion simulations have been widely used in systems biology and computational neuroscience. However, the increasing scale and complexity of simulated models and morphologies have exceeded the capacity of any serial implementation. This led to development of parallel solutions that benefit from the boost in performance of modern large-scale supercomputers. In this paper, we describe an MPI-based, parallel Operator-Splitting implementation for stochastic spatial reaction-diffusion simulations with irregular tetrahedral meshes. The performance of our implementation is first examined and analyzed with simulations of a simple model. We then demonstrate its usage in real-world research by simulating the reaction-diffusion components of a published calcium burst model in both Purkinje neuron sub-branch and full dendrite morphologies. Simulation results indicate that our implementation is capable of achieving super-linear speedup for balanced loading simulations with reasonable molecul...

  7. Noninvasive measurement of local thermal diffusivity using backscattered ultrasound and focused ultrasound heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    Previously, noninvasive methods of estimating local tissue thermal and acoustic properties using backscattered ultrasound have been proposed in the literature. In this article, a noninvasive method of estimating local thermal diffusivity in situ during focused ultrasound heating using beamformed acoustic backscatter data and applying novel signal processing techniques is developed. A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer operating at subablative intensities is employed to create a brief local temperature rise of no more than 10 degrees C. Beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data are collected during heating and cooling using a clinical ultrasound scanner. Measurements of the time-varying "acoustic strain", that is, spatiotemporal variations in the RF echo shifts induced by the temperature related sound speed changes, are related to a solution of the heat transfer equation to estimate the thermal diffusivity in the heated zone. Numerical simulations and experiments performed in vitro in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised turkey breast muscle tissue demonstrate agreement between the ultrasound derived thermal diffusivity estimates and independent estimates made by a traditional hot-wire technique. The new noninvasive ultrasonic method has potential applications in thermal therapy planning and monitoring, physiological monitoring and as a means of noninvasive tissue characterization.

  8. Localized numerical impulse solutions in diffuse neural networks modeled by the complex fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Tambue, Antoine; Ben-Bolie, Germain H.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate localized wave solutions in a network of Hindmarsh-Rose neural model taking into account the long-range diffusive couplings. We show by a specific analytical technique that the model equations in the infrared limit (wave number k → 0) can be governed by the complex fractional Ginzburg-Landau (CFGL) equation. According to the stiffness of the system, we propose both the semi and the linearly implicit Riesz fractional finite-difference schemes to solve efficiently the CFGL equation. The obtained fractional numerical solutions for the nerve impulse reveal localized short impulse properties. We also show the equivalence between the continuous CFGL and the discrete Hindmarsh-Rose models for relatively large network.

  9. Control of quantum localization and classical diffusion in laser-kicked molecular rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, M.; Milner, V.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally study a system of quantum kicked rotors—an ensemble of diatomic molecules exposed to a periodic sequence of ultrashort laser pulses. In the regime where the underlying classical dynamics is chaotic, we investigate the quantum phenomenon of dynamical localization by means of state-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy. We examine the dependence of the exponentially localized angular momentum distribution and of the total rotational energy on the time period between the pulses and their amplitude. The former parameter is shown to provide control over the localization center, whereas the latter one controls the localization length. Similar control of the center and width of a nonlocalized rotational distribution is demonstrated in the limit of classical diffusion, established by adding noise to the periodic pulse sequence.

  10. A Case of p63 Positive Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), currently the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), is an aggressive B cell neoplasm that typically presents in older adults as a rapidly enlarging mass. The enlarging mass typically represents a lymph node, although extranodal disease can occur in a significant percentage (40%) of cases. The most common extranodal sites of involvement include the gastrointestinal tract and skin; primary bladder lymphoma represents only 0.2% of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma occurring in the bladder of an 83-year-old gentleman with an initial presentation of hematuria. This neoplasm displayed large, atypical cells with vesicular chromatin and prominent nucleoli that involved the bladder mucosa with invasion into muscularis propria, prostate, and urethra. Positive staining for p63 initially raised suspicion for poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma; however, lack of staining for pancytokeratin and positive staining for LCA, CD20, CD79a, and PAX-5 confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Though it does not occur in all cases, p63 can be positive in a significant percentage of cases of DLBCL; therefore, a diagnosis of lymphoma remains an important entity on the differential diagnosis of aggressive and particularly poorly differentiated neoplasms. PMID:27648316

  11. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  12. Diffuse globally, compute locally: a cyclist approach to modeling long time robot locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel; Cvitanović, Predrag

    2015-03-01

    To advance autonomous robots we are interested to develop a statistical/dynamical description of diffusive self-propulsion on heterogeneous terrain. We consider a minimal model for such diffusion, the 2-dimensional Lorentz gas, which abstracts the motion of a light, point-like particle bouncing within a large number of heavy scatters (e.g. small robots in a boulder field). We present a precise computation (based on exact periodic orbit theory formula for the diffusion constant) for a periodic triangular Lorentz gas with finite horizon. We formulate a new approach to tiling the plane in terms of three elementary tiling generators which, for the first time, enables use of periodic orbits computed in the fundamental domain (that is, 1 / 12 of the hexagonal elementary cell whose translations tile the entire plane). Compared with previous literature, our fundamental domain value of the diffusion constant converges quickly for inter-disk separation/disk radius > 0 . 2 , with the cycle expansion truncated to only a few hundred periodic orbits of up to 5 billiard wall bounces. For small inter-disk separations, with periodic orbits up to 6 bounces, our diffusion constants are close (< 10 %) to direct numerical simulation estimates and the recent literature probabilistic estimates.

  13. Coexistent Nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma With Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Ritesh; Duggal, Rajan; Agrawal, Krati; Goel, Shalini

    2016-02-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis coexistent with lymphomas in the same organ are rare and have been reported in the literature. The most common organs that are involved are small bowel, bronchus, kidney, and lymph nodes. Interestingly, the lymphoma that is commonly present with extrapulmonary tuberculosis is Hodgkin's lymphoma followed by low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In the present study, we report a 60-year-old man with complaints of fever, loss of appetite, and generalized weakness. On investigation, generalized lymphadenopathy was noted, and the biopsy of cervical lymph node revealed coexistence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. This case is the second reported case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the world and the first in India.

  14. A large-scale multicentre cerebral diffusion tensor imaging study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Hans-Peter; R Turner, Martin; Grosskreutz, Julian; Abrahams, Sharon; Bede, Peter; Govind, Varan; Prudlo, Johannes; Ludolph, Albert C.; Filippi, Massimo; Kassubek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Damage to the cerebral tissue structural connectivity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which extends beyond the motor pathways, can be visualized by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The effective translation of DTI metrics as biomarker requires its application across multiple magnetic resonance imaging scanners and patient cohorts. A multi-centre study was undertaken to assess structural connectivity in ALS at a large sample size. Methods: Four-hundred-and-forty-...

  15. Message spreading in networks with stickiness and persistence: Large clustering does not always facilitate large-scale diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengbi; Tang, Ming; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-09-01

    Recent empirical studies have confirmed the key roles of complex contagion mechanisms such as memory, social reinforcement, and decay effects in information diffusion and behavior spreading. Inspired by this fact, we here propose a new agent-based model to capture the whole picture of the joint action of the three mechanisms in information spreading, by quantifying the complex contagion mechanisms as stickiness and persistence, and carry out extensive simulations of the model on various networks. By numerical simulations as well as theoretical analysis, we find that the stickiness of the message determines the critical dynamics of message diffusion on tree-like networks, whereas the persistence plays a decisive role on dense regular lattices. In either network, the greater persistence can effectively make the message more invasive. Of particular interest is that our research results renew our previous knowledge that messages can spread broader in networks with large clustering, which turns out to be only true when they can inform a non-zero fraction of the population in the limit of large system size.

  16. Detection and outcome of occult leptomeningeal disease in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Wilson (Wyndham); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); M. Stetler-Stevenson (Maryalice); S.M. Steinberg (Seth); L. Martin-Martin (Lourdes); C. Muñiz (Carmen); J.M. Sancho (Juan Manuel); L. Caballero; M.A. Davidis (Marjan); R.A. Brooimans (Rik); B. Sanchez-Gonzalez (Blanca); A. Salar (Antonio); E. González-Barca (Eva); J.M. Ribera (Josep Maria); M. Shovlin (Margaret); A. Filie (Armando); K. Dunleavy (Kieron); T. Mehrling (Thomas); M. Spina (Michele); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of intrathecal therapy and systemic rituximab on the outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at risk of central nervous system disease is controversial. Furthermore, the effect of intrathecal treatment and rituximab in diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphoma with occult le

  17. Prognostic impact of concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements and expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Qing; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexandar;

    2016-01-01

    and BCL6 in 898 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab). Neither BCL6 translocation alone (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) nor in combination...

  18. Whole blood EBV-DNA predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisi, Maria Chiara; Cupelli, Elisa; Santangelo, Rosaria; Maiolo, Elena; Alma, Eleonora; Giachelia, Manuela; Martini, Maurizio; Bellesi, Silvia; D'Alò, Francesco; Voso, Maria Teresa; Pompili, Maurizio; Leone, Giuseppe; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Hohaus, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An association between Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection and lymphoproliferative diseases has been reported with EBV + diffuse large B cell-lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly described as a distinct entity. In a cohort of 218 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, we detected EBV-DNA in 25% of whole blood (WB) samples at diagnosis. Presence and viral load in WB, mononuclear cells or plasma did not predict the presence of EBV in the tumor biopsy. Positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology was associated with a higher frequency of EBV in WB. Patients with EBV-DNA in WB had a significantly shorter progression-free (p = 0.02) and overall survival (p = 0.05) after immunochemotherapy with R-CHOP (Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisolone). We conclude that detection of EBV in WB is not a surrogate marker for EBV-association in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, however it associates with worse outcome.

  19. Large deviations for local times and intersection local times of fractional Brownian motions and Riemann-Liouville processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xia; Rosinski, Jan; Shao, Qi-Man

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we prove exact forms of large deviations for local times and intersection local times of fractional Brownian motions and Riemann-Liouville processes. We also show that a fractional Brownian motion and the related Riemann-Liouville process behave like constant multiples of each other with regard to large deviations for their local and intersection local times. As a consequence of our large deviation estimates, we derive laws of iterated logarithm for the corresponding local times. The key points of our methods: (1) logarithmic superadditivity of a normalized sequence of moments of exponentially randomized local time of a fractional Brownian motion; (2) logarithmic subadditivity of a normalized sequence of moments of exponentially randomized intersection local time of Riemann-Liouville processes; (3) comparison of local and intersection local times based on embedding of a part of a fractional Brownian motion into the reproducing kernel Hilbert space of the Riemann-Liouville process.

  20. Weak localization as a definitive test of diffusive models in the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, Andrew; Wilson, Justin; Galitski, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Results from many measurements of the Casimir effect suggest that the metallic plates in these experiments should be modeled with the plasma model of free electrons as opposed to the naive diffusive Drude model, while other experiments seem to indicate the exact opposite, with results more in line with a diffusive model. We study the Casimir effect at low temperatures between a thick disordered plate and purely two-dimensional disordered system where the Drude conductivity decreases logarithmically at low temperatures due to weak localization. This effect can be tuned with either temperature or applied magnetic field leading to a measurable change in the Casimir force. On the other hand, a ballistic model cannot experience such an effect and is only weakly dependent on temperature and magnetic field. As a result, we propose that an experiment would unambiguously differentiate between diffusive and ballistic models by measuring the effect at low temperatures with an applied magnetic field. Additionally, we calculate the impact that fluctuations in the disorder distribution have on the Casimir effect. Assuming the validity of a diffusive model, we find that the Drude model is a good approximation of a more exact treatment of disorder. This work was supported by the DOE-BES (Grant No. DESC0001911) (A.A. and V.G.), the JQI-PFC (J.W.), and the Simons Foundation.

  1. Large positive in-plane magnetoresistance induced by localized states at nanodomain boundaries in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han-Chun; Chaika, Alexander N.; Hsu, Ming-Chien; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Abid, Mourad; Abid, Mohamed; Aristov, Victor Yu; Molodtsova, Olga V.; Babenkov, Sergey V.; Niu, Yuran; Murphy, Barry E.; Krasnikov, Sergey A.; Lübben, Olaf; Liu, Huajun; Chun, Byong Sun; Janabi, Yahya T.; Molotkov, Sergei N.; Shvets, Igor V.; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2017-02-01

    Graphene supports long spin lifetimes and long diffusion lengths at room temperature, making it highly promising for spintronics. However, making graphene magnetic remains a principal challenge despite the many proposed solutions. Among these, graphene with zig-zag edges and ripples are the most promising candidates, as zig-zag edges are predicted to host spin-polarized electronic states, and spin-orbit coupling can be induced by ripples. Here we investigate the magnetoresistance of graphene grown on technologically relevant SiC/Si(001) wafers, where inherent nanodomain boundaries sandwich zig-zag structures between adjacent ripples of large curvature. Localized states at the nanodomain boundaries result in an unprecedented positive in-plane magnetoresistance with a strong temperature dependence. Our work may offer a tantalizing way to add the spin degree of freedom to graphene.

  2. Localization and diffusion of tracer particles in viscoelastic media with active force dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2017-02-01

    Optical tracking in vivo experiments reveal that diffusion of particles in biological cells is strongly enhanced in the presence of ATP and the experimental data for animal cells could previously be reproduced within a phenomenological model of a gel with myosin motors acting within it (Fodor É. et al., EPL, 110 (2015) 48005). Here, the two-fluid model of a gel is considered where active macromolecules, described as force dipoles, cyclically operate both in the elastic and the fluid components. Through coarse-graining, effective equations of motions for idealized tracer particles displaying local deformations and local fluid flows are derived. The equation for deformation tracers coincides with the earlier phenomenological model and thus confirms it. For flow tracers, diffusion enhancement caused by active force dipoles in the fluid component, and thus due to metabolic activity, is found. The latter effect may explain why ATP-dependent diffusion enhancement could also be observed in bacteria that lack molecular motors in their skeleton or when the activity of myosin motors was chemically inhibited in eukaryotic cells.

  3. Scalable and Robust Local Community Detection via Adaptive Subgraph Extraction and Diffusions

    CERN Document Server

    Kloster, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Local community detection, the problem of identifying a set of relevant nodes nearby a small set of input seed nodes, is an important graph primitive with a wealth of applications and research activity. Recent approaches include using local spectral information, graph diffusions, and random walks to determine a community from input seeds. As networks grow to billions of nodes and exhibit diverse structures, it is important that community detection algorithms are not only efficient, but also robust to different structural features. Toward this goal, we explore pre-processing techniques and modifications to existing local methods aimed at improving the scalability and robustness of algorithms related to community detection. Experiments show that our modifications improve both speed and quality of existing methods for locating ground truth communities, and are more robust across graphs and communities of varying sizes, densities, and diameters. Our subgraph extraction method uses adaptively selected PageRank par...

  4. Diffusion Dynamics of Energy Saving Practices in Large Heterogeneous Online Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Neda; Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks are today's fastest growing communications channel and a popular source of information for many, so understanding their contribution to building awareness and shaping public perceptions of climate change is of utmost importance. Today's online social networks are composed of complex combinations of entities and communication channels and it is not clear which communicators are the most influential, what the patterns of communication flow are, or even whether the widely accepted two-step flow of communication model applies in this new arena. This study examines the diffusion of energy saving practices in a large online social network across organizations, opinion leaders, and the public by tracking 108,771 communications on energy saving practices among 1,084 communicators, then analyzing the flow of information and influence over a 28 day period. Our findings suggest that diffusion networks of messages advocating energy saving practices are predominantly led by the activities of dedicated organizations but their attempts do not result in substantial public awareness, as most of these communications are effectively trapped in organizational loops in which messages are simply shared between organizations. Despite their comparably significant influential values, opinion leaders played a weak role in diffusing energy saving practices to a wider audience. Thus, the two-step flow of communication model does not appear to describe the sharing of energy conservation practices in large online heterogeneous networks. These results shed new light on the underlying mechanisms driving the diffusion of important societal issues such as energy efficiency, particularly in the context of large online social media outlets.

  5. Non-local meta-conformal invariance, diffusion-limited erosion and the XXZ chain

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-limited erosion is a distinct universality class of fluctuating interfaces. Although its dynamical exponent $z=1$, none of the known variants of conformal invariance can act as its dynamical symmetry. In $d=1$ spatial dimensions, its infinite-dimensional dynamic symmetry is constructed and shown to be isomorphic to the direct sum of three loop-Virasoro algebras, with the maximal finite-dimensional sub-algebra $\\mathfrak{sl}(2,\\mathbb{R})\\oplus\\mathfrak{sl}(2,\\mathbb{R})\\oplus\\mathfrak{sl}(2,\\mathbb{R})$. The infinitesimal generators are spatially non-local and use the Riesz-Feller fractional derivative. Co-variant two-time response functions are derived and reproduce the exact solution of diffusion-limited erosion. The relationship with the terrace-step-kind model of vicinal surfaces and the integrable XXZ chain are discussed.

  6. Non-Local Meta-Conformal Invariance, Diffusion-Limited Erosion and the XXZ Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion-limited erosion is a distinct universality class of fluctuating interfaces. Although its dynamical exponent z = 1 , none of the known variants of conformal invariance can act as its dynamical symmetry. In d = 1 spatial dimensions, its infinite-dimensional dynamic symmetry is constructed and shown to be isomorphic to the direct sum of three loop-Virasoro algebras. The infinitesimal generators are spatially non-local and use the Riesz-Feller fractional derivative. Co-variant two-time response functions are derived and reproduce the exact solution of diffusion-limited erosion. The relationship with the terrace-step-kind model of vicinal surfaces and the integrable XXZ chain are discussed.

  7. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Tagliaferri, A., E-mail: alberto.tagliaferri@polimi.it [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Nicotra, G. [IMM-CNR, Stradale Primosole 50, I-95121 Catania (Italy); Bollani, M. [CNR-IFN, LNESS, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali and L-NESS, Università Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Capellini, G. [Department of Sciences at the Università Roma Tre, Via Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Roma (Italy); Isella, G. [CNISM, LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano (Polo di Como), Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Osmond, J. [ICFO–The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2015-03-14

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  8. Diffusion of helium in the perfect and non perfect uranium dioxide crystals and their local structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, Ludwik, E-mail: luddab@hotmail.com; Szuta, Marcin

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The nano local structure of UO{sub 2} containing oxygen and uranium vacancies was identified. • We have determined for the first time in the UO{sub 2} the dynamical energy barriers to He migration. • It was found that the migration of helium is along the polylines. • The helium diffusion is accompanied of the emission–absorption of phonons. - Abstract: Local nano structures and their changes relevant with the diffusion of helium was determined by applying the density functional theory (DFT). With its help we calculated deformation of the crystal lattice while wandering helium atoms between octahedral sites. The optimal mutual coordinates of the atoms were determined by minimizing the Hellman–Feyman forces, allowing at the same time precisely specify dynamic height and the shape of the potential barrier. For a crystal containing single oxygen or uranium vacancies, has been described both the deformation associated with the presence of vacancy, as well as additional deformation related to the migration of the helium atom in the lattice. It was found that in the case of vacancies, the migration of helium atoms between the octahedral sites is not along a straight line but along a polyline. In addition, the presence of uranium vacancy causes that helium atoms in the octahedral sites, situated in the I and II coordination shell of uranium vacancy, have different energies. Migration between such positions must be carried out with the participation of the emission–absorption of phonons. Applying two site – model we evaluated the time for an over-barrier jump and diffusion of interstitial He. The obtained values for diffusion coefficient are compared with the experimentally obtained values and with the theoretical values of other authors.

  9. Mathematical modeling of local perfusion in large distensible microvascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Paola; Malgaroli, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Microvessels -blood vessels with diameter less than 200 microns- form large, intricate networks organized into arterioles, capillaries and venules. In these networks, the distribution of flow and pressure drop is a highly interlaced function of single vessel resistances and mutual vessel interactions. In this paper we propose a mathematical and computational model to study the behavior of microcirculatory networks subjected to different conditions. The network geometry is composed of a graph of connected straight cylinders, each one representing a vessel. The blood flow and pressure drop across the single vessel, further split into smaller elements, are related through a generalized Ohm's law featuring a conductivity parameter, function of the vessel cross section area and geometry, which undergo deformations under pressure loads. The membrane theory is used to describe the deformation of vessel lumina, tailored to the structure of thick-walled arterioles and thin-walled venules. In addition, since venules can possibly experience negative transmural pressures, a buckling model is also included to represent vessel collapse. The complete model including arterioles, capillaries and venules represents a nonlinear system of PDEs, which is approached numerically by finite element discretization and linearization techniques. We use the model to simulate flow in the microcirculation of the human eye retina, a terminal system with a single inlet and outlet. After a phase of validation against experimental measurements, we simulate the network response to different interstitial pressure values. Such a study is carried out both for global and localized variations of the interstitial pressure. In both cases, significant redistributions of the blood flow in the network arise, highlighting the importance of considering the single vessel behavior along with its position and connectivity in the network.

  10. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FROM FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; McConnell, D. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Haverkorn, M. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beck, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolleben, M. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, The Park, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Stanimirovic, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Staveley-Smith, L., E-mail: mao@astro.wisc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), carried out using diffuse polarized synchrotron emission data at 1.4 GHz acquired at the Parkes Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observed diffuse polarized emission is likely to originate above the LMC disk on the near side of the galaxy. Consistent negative rotation measures (RMs) derived from the diffuse emission indicate that the line-of-sight magnetic field in the LMC's near-side halo is directed coherently away from us. In combination with RMs of extragalactic sources that lie behind the galaxy, we show that the LMC's large-scale magnetic field is likely to be of quadrupolar geometry, consistent with the prediction of dynamo theory. On smaller scales, we identify two brightly polarized filaments southeast of the LMC, associated with neutral hydrogen arms. The filaments' magnetic field potentially aligns with the direction toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We suggest that tidal interactions between the SMC and the LMC in the past 10{sup 9} years are likely to have shaped the magnetic field in these filaments.

  11. Turbulent Transport by Diffusive Stratified Shear Flows: From Local to Global Models. I. Numerical Simulations of a Stratified Plane Couette Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaud, Pascale; Gagnier, Damien; Verhoeven, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Shear-induced turbulence could play a significant role in mixing momentum and chemical species in stellar radiation zones, as discussed by Zahn. In this paper we analyze the results of direct numerical simulations of stratified plane Couette flows, in the limit of rapid thermal diffusion, to measure the turbulent viscosity and the turbulent diffusivity of a passive tracer as a function of the local shear and the local stratification. We find that the stability criterion proposed by Zahn, namely that the product of the gradient Richardson number and the Prandtl number must be smaller than a critical values {(J\\Pr )}c for instability, adequately accounts for the transition to turbulence in the flow, with {(J\\Pr )}c≃ 0.007. This result recovers and confirms the prior findings of Prat et al. Zahn’s model for the turbulent diffusivity and viscosity, namely that the mixing coefficient should be proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the gradient Richardson number, does not satisfactorily match our numerical data. It fails (as expected) in the limit of large stratification where the Richardson number exceeds the aforementioned threshold for instability, but it also fails in the limit of low stratification where the turbulent eddy scale becomes limited by the computational domain size. We propose a revised model for turbulent mixing by diffusive stratified shear instabilities that properly accounts for both limits, fits our data satisfactorily, and recovers Zahn’s model in the limit of large Reynolds numbers.

  12. Collective ion diffusion and localized single particle dynamics in pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burankova, Tatsiana; Hempelmann, Rolf; Wildes, Andrew; Embs, Jan P

    2014-12-11

    Quasielastic neutron scattering with polarized neutrons allows for an experimental separation of single-particle and collective processes, as contained in the incoherent and coherent scattering contributions. This technique was used to investigate the dynamical processes in the pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide. We observed two diffusion processes with different time scales. The slower diffusional process was present in both the coherent and the incoherent contribution, meaning that this process has at least a partial collective nature. The second faster localized process is only present in the incoherent scattering contribution. We conclude that it is a true single-particle process on a shorter time scale.

  13. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  14. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  15. Localization model description of diffusion and structural relaxation in glass-forming Cu-Zr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jack F.; Pazmino Betancourt, Beatriz A.; Tong, Xuhang; Zhang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    We test the localization model (LM) prediction of a parameter-free relationship between the α-structural relaxation time τ α and the Debye-Waller factor    for a series of simulated glass-forming Cu-Zr metallic liquids having a range of alloy compositions. After validating this relationship between the picosecond (‘fast’) and long-time relaxation dynamics over the full range of temperatures and alloy compositions investigated in our simulations, we show that it is also possible to estimate the self-diffusion coefficients of the individual atomic species (D Cu, D Zr) and the average diffusion coefficient D using the LM, in conjunction with the empirical fractional Stokes-Einstein (FSE) relation linking these diffusion coefficients to τ α . We further observe that the fragility and extent of decoupling between D and τ α strongly correlate with    at the onset temperature of glass-formation T A where particle caging and the breakdown of Arrhenius relaxation first emerge.

  16. Second launch of the Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy (DXL) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Sapkota, Dhaka

    2016-04-01

    The Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy (DXL) is a sounding rocket mission to study the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX) and Local Hot Bubble (LHB) X-ray emission. After a successful launch of December 2012, DXL’s capabilities were expanded by using two additional proportional counters and three unique filters for the launch of December 2015. Employing Be-, B- and C-based plastic filters, DXL mission re-scanned the Helium Focusing Cone for better spectral and positional information (to address the IBEX controversy). In this paper, we will review the upgraded mission hardware and performance, while sharing some preliminary results from the latest observation.Submitted for the DXL Collaboration

  17. Efficacy of rituximab in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide; Leopardo; Giuseppe; Di; Lorenzo; Amalia; De; Renz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of rituximab plus chemotherapy in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma(DLBCL).METHODS:Sixty patients(median age:58 years)with histologically confirmed gastric DLBCL treated at four Italian institutions between 2000 and 2007,were included in this analysis.Patients were selected by stage (Ⅰ-Ⅳ,Lugano staging system),European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status(0-2)and treatment strategies.Treatment strategies were chemotherapy alone(group A,n=30)[schedule...

  18. Interim PET Scans in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Is It Ready for Prime Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshinsky, Maital; Nabhan, Chadi

    2016-12-01

    Prognostication of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has improved in the past decade with a variety of clinical, morphologic, molecular, and radiographic methods. Comparable to data on the value of interim positron emission tomography (I-PET) in Hodgkin lymphoma, several retrospective and prospective studies are attempting to assess the value of I-PET scanning in DLBCL patients. In this review, we briefly describe and analyze the various prognostic methods in DLBCL with specific focus on the value of I-PET scanning in this disease. This is a timely analysis, as tailoring therapies based on prognosis at diagnosis are becoming of increased investigational interest.

  19. Deregulation of COMMD1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, M.; Louhimo, R.; Koivula, S.;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite improved survival for the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the prognosis after relapse is poor. The aim was to identify molecular events that contribute to relapse and treatment resistance in DLBCL. Methods: We analysed 51 prospectively collected pretreatment...... level immunohistochemically in a trial specific tissue microarray series of 70, and in an independent validation series of 146 patients. Results: We identified 31 genes whose expression changes were strongly associated with copy number aberrations. In addition, gains of chromosomes 2p15 and 18q12.2 were...

  20. Rare clinical presentation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma as otitis media and facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiahgari, Sirisha Rani; Yerukula, Pallavi; Lingappa, Lokesh; Moodahadu, Latha S

    2016-01-01

    Extra nodal presentation of Non Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL) is a rare entity, and data available about the NHL that primarily involves of middle ear and mastoid is limited. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in a 2 year 8 month old boy, who developed otalgia and facial palsy. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the left mastoid. Mastoid exploration and histopathological examination revealed DLBCL. This case highlights the importance of considering malignant lymphoma as one of the differential diagnosis in persistent otitis media and/facial palsy.

  1. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

    2014-06-04

    A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management.

  2. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a ...

  3. Microarray-based classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hierarchical clusterings of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) based on gene expression signatures have previously been used to classify DLBCL into Germinal Center B-cell (GCB) and Activated B-cell (ABC) types. To examine if it was feasible to perform a cross-platform validation...... was only expressed in the ABC and in Type-3 samples. The 5-year survival was similar between the groups, but GCB patients showed a better initial response to CHOP or CHOP-like regimens than the remaining patients and tended to have less advanced disease and lower IPI scores. As a next step, an improved set...

  4. Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

  5. Observation of large photoacoustic signal phase changes during a diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Stanley J; Jones, Roger W; McClelland, John F

    2005-11-01

    The phase of the photoacoustic signal is known to be a sensitive and accurate means to investigate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, static multilayer heterogeneous systems. According to theory, the maximum phase delay for a very weakly absorbing homogeneous sample should be within 45 degrees of a very strongly absorbing sample, while for heterogeneous samples the phase delay can be greater than 45 degrees. Here we report the observation of photoacoustic phase delays greater than 350 degrees by extending the use of step-scan phase modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy to study a non-repetitive dynamic system in situ, in real time. These large phase delays correspond to sampling several thermal diffusion lengths into the sample. The model system used in this study consisted of a hydrocarbon grease diffusing through a porous Teflon film. The progress of the diffusion was tracked by monitoring both the photoacoustic signal magnitude and the phase of the hydrocarbon grease after isolation from the Teflon film signal contributions at two different phase modulation frequencies.

  6. The association of osteoarthritis risk factors with localized, regional and diffuse knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L R; Boudreau, R; Newman, A B; Hannon, M J; Chu, C R; Nevitt, M C; Kent Kwoh, C

    2010-10-01

    To identify determinants of different patterns of knee pain with a focus on risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). The Knee Pain Map is an interviewer-administered assessment that asks subjects to characterize their knee pain as localized, regional, or diffuse. A total of 2677 participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were studied. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between risk factors for OA and knee pain patterns. We examined the bivariate and multivariate relationships of knee pain pattern with age, body mass index (BMI), sex, race, family history of total joint replacement, knee injury, knee surgery, and hand OA. We compared 2462 knees with pain to 1805 knees without pain. In the bivariate analysis, age, sex, BMI, injury, surgery, and hand OA were associated with at least one pain pattern. In the multivariate model, all of these variables remained significantly associated with at least one pattern. When compared to knees without pain, higher BMI, injury, and surgery were associated with all patterns. BMI had its strongest association with diffuse pain. Older age was less likely to be associated with localized pain while female sex was associated with regional pain. We have shown that specific OA risk factors are associated with different knee pain patterns. Better understanding of the relationship between OA risk factors and knee pain patterns may help to characterize the heterogeneous subsets of knee OA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. PROBING THE LOCAL BUBBLE WITH DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS. II. THE DIB PROPERTIES IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; Molaeinezhad, Alireza; Tavasoli, Saeed; Habibi, Farhang; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Rezaei, Sara; Saberi, Maryam [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5746 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Bailey, Mandy [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hardy, Liam, E-mail: a.farhang@ipm.ir [Isaac Newton Group, Apartado 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    We present a new high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic survey of the Northern hemisphere to probe the Local Bubble and its surroundings using the λ5780 Å and λ5797 Å diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We observed 432 sightlines to a distance of 200 pc over a duration of three years. In this study, we establish the λ5780 and λ5797 correlations with Na I, Ca II and E {sub B-V}, for both inside and outside the Local Bubble. The correlations show that among all neutral and ionized atoms, the correlation between Ca II and λ5780 is stronger than its correlation with λ5797, suggesting that λ5780 is more associated with regions where Ca{sup +} is more abundant. We study the λ5780 correlation with λ5797, which shows a tight correlation within and outside the Local Bubble. In addition, we investigate the DIB properties in UV irradiated and UV shielded regions. We find that, within and beyond the Local Bubble, λ5797 is located in denser parts of clouds, protected from UV irradiation, while λ5780 is located in the low-density regions of clouds.

  8. PAX8 Distinguishes Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Hirsch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PAX8 is important for embryogenesis of the thyroid, Müllerian system, and upper urinary/renal tract, and expression of PAX8 has been described in carcinomas from each of these sites. The sensitivity and specificity of the polyclonal PAX8 antibody in a large cohort of epithelial tumors as well as lymphomas have been previously determined, the latter because polyclonal PAX8 is known to be immunoreactive in nonneoplastic B-cell lymphocytes which are often used as the positive internal control for immunohistochemistry. In this case report, PAX8 was a diagnostic clue for revising a previous diagnosis of unclassified high grade sarcoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This case report demonstrates a pitfall for PAX8 immunoreactivity and acts as a reminder that lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a PAX8 positive, epithelial cell marker negative tumor of unknown primary origin.

  9. Numerical investigation of high pressure and high Reynolds diffusion flame using Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichkoohi, Ali Lohrasbi; Tousi, Abolghasem Mesgarpour

    2014-10-01

    Today, with nonstop improvement in computational power, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a high demanding research tool for predicting engineering flows. Such flows on high pressure condition like diesel engines is extensively employed in ground and marine transportation, oblige the designer to control and predict toxic pollutants, while maintaining or improving their high thermal efficiency. This becomes one of the main challenging issues in decades. In the present work, numerical investigation of diffusion flame dynamics is performed in the near-field of high-Reynolds jet flow on high pressure condition encountered in diesel engine applications. This work discusses the implementation of Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) combustion model by the approaches of large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation results show that LES, in comparison with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation predicts and captures transient phenomena very well. These phenomena such as unsteadiness and curvature are inherent in the near-field of high Reynolds diffusion flame. The outcomes of this research are compared and validated by other researchers' results. Detailed comparisons of the statistics show good agreement with the corresponding experiments.

  10. Measurement of Large Spiral and Target Waves in Chemical Reaction-Diffusion-Advection Systems: Turbulent Diffusion Enhances Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kameke, A.; Huhn, F.; Muñuzuri, A. P.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.

    2013-02-01

    In the absence of advection, reaction-diffusion systems are able to organize into spatiotemporal patterns, in particular spiral and target waves. Whenever advection is present that can be parametrized in terms of effective or turbulent diffusion D*, these patterns should be attainable on a much greater, boosted length scale. However, so far, experimental evidence of these boosted patterns in a turbulent flow was lacking. Here, we report the first experimental observation of boosted target and spiral patterns in an excitable chemical reaction in a quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flow. The wave patterns observed are ˜50 times larger than in the case of molecular diffusion only. We vary the turbulent diffusion coefficient D* of the flow and find that the fundamental Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov equation, vf∝D*, for the asymptotic speed of a reactive wave remains valid. However, not all measures of the boosted wave scale with D* as expected from molecular diffusion, since the wave fronts turn out to be highly filamentous.

  11. Clinical significance of bcl-2 protein expression and classification algorithm in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of bcl-2 protein expression and three classification algorithms including Hans model,Chan model and Muris model in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL).

  12. Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma developing at the ileocolonic anastomosis site after right hemicolectomy for adenocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hye Yeon; Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Lymphoma is rarely associated with ileocolonic surgery. We report the imaging findings of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising in an ileocolonic anastomosis site, found five years after a right hemicolectomy for adenocarcinoma in the ascending colon.

  13. The diffusion model of fractal heat and mass transfer in fluidized bed a local fractional arbitrary Euler-Lagrange formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, the local fractional arbitrary Euler-Lagrange formula are utilized to address the diffusion model of fractal heat and mass transfer in a fluidized bed based on the Fick's law with local fractional vector calculus. This article has been corrected. Link to the correction 10.2298/TSCI150923149E

  14. Detection and outcome of occult leptomeningeal disease in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wyndham H; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Steinberg, Seth M; Martin-Martin, Lourdes; Muñiz, Carmen; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Caballero, Maria Dolores; Davidis, Marjan A; Brooimans, Rik A; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Blanca; Salar, Antonio; González-Barca, Eva; Ribera, Jose Maria; Shovlin, Margaret; Filie, Armando; Dunleavy, Kieron; Mehrling, Thomas; Spina, Michele; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    The benefit of intrathecal therapy and systemic rituximab on the outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at risk of central nervous system disease is controversial. Furthermore, the effect of intrathecal treatment and rituximab in diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphoma with occult leptomeningeal disease detected by flow cytometry at diagnosis is unknown. Untreated diffuse large B-cell (n=246) and Burkitt (n=80) lymphoma at clinical risk of central nervous system disease and having had pre-treatment cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed by flow cytometry and cytology. Spinal fluid involvement was detected by flow cytometry alone (occult) in 33 (13%) diffuse large B-cell and 9 (11%) Burkitt lymphoma patients, and detected by cytology in 11 (4.5%) and 5 (6%) patients, respectively. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with occult spinal fluid involvement had poorer survival (P=0.0001) and freedom from central nervous system relapse (Pdisease and not control of central nervous system disease was the principal cause of treatment failure. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, systemic rituximab was associated with improved freedom from central nervous system relapse (P=0.003) but not with survival. Our results suggest that patients at risk of central nervous system disease should be evaluated by flow cytometry and that intrathecal prophylaxis/therapy is beneficial.

  15. Clinical and imaging characteristics of localized megalencephaly: a retrospective comparison of diffuse hemimegalencephaly and multilobar cortical dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahashi, Masumi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Yagishita, Akira [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Yoshiaki; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Child Neurology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Natsume, Jun [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Hemimegalencephaly is a well-known congenital malformation. However, localized megalencephaly, which may be one of the subtypes of hemimegalencephaly, has not been separately investigated. In the present study, we attempted to characterize the clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of localized megalencephaly in comparison with ordinary diffuse hemimegalencephaly and multilobar cortical dysplasia. MR findings for 43 patients with hemimegalencephaly and ten with multilobar cortical dysplasia, which is the differential diagnosis of localized megalencephaly, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical findings such as the onset and severity of seizures and imaging findings including the affected area of the brain, structures outside of the hemisphere, and interval morphological changes were examined. Of the 43 patients, 11 showed signs of localized megalencephaly (25.6%). Localized megalencephaly was predominantly seen on the left side (72.7%) and had a tendency toward severe-grade seizures compared to multilobar cortical dysplasia. The frequencies of the extracerebral abnormalities in the diffuse hemimegalencephaly, localized megalencephaly, and multilobar cortical dysplasia groups were 84.4%, 36.4%, and 0.0%, respectively. There were three localized megalencephaly patients whose affected areas shrank and whose images were similar to those of multilobar cortical dysplasia. Localized megalencephaly accounts for one quarter of all hemimegalencephaly cases in this study. The incidence of extracerebral abnormalities in patients with localized hemimegalencephaly was almost half that of patients with diffuse hemimegalencephaly. Extracerebral abnormalities were absent in patients with multilobar cortical dysplasia. Associated extracerebral abnormalities may be a clue to differentiating localized megalencephaly from multilobar cortical dysplasia. (orig.)

  16. Clinical and imaging characteristics of localized megalencephaly: a retrospective comparison of diffuse hemimegalencephaly and multilobar cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Masumi; Sato, Noriko; Yagishita, Akira; Ota, Miho; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Natsume, Jun; Tsushima, Yoshito; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo

    2009-12-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a well-known congenital malformation. However, localized megalencephaly, which may be one of the subtypes of hemimegalencephaly, has not been separately investigated. In the present study, we attempted to characterize the clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of localized megalencephaly in comparison with ordinary diffuse hemimegalencephaly and multilobar cortical dysplasia. MR findings for 43 patients with hemimegalencephaly and ten with multilobar cortical dysplasia, which is the differential diagnosis of localized megalencephaly, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical findings such as the onset and severity of seizures and imaging findings including the affected area of the brain, structures outside of the hemisphere, and interval morphological changes were examined. Of the 43 patients, 11 showed signs of localized megalencephaly (25.6%). Localized megalencephaly was predominantly seen on the left side (72.7%) and had a tendency toward severe-grade seizures compared to multilobar cortical dysplasia. The frequencies of the extracerebral abnormalities in the diffuse hemimegalencephaly, localized megalencephaly, and multilobar cortical dysplasia groups were 84.4%, 36.4%, and 0.0%, respectively. There were three localized megalencephaly patients whose affected areas shrank and whose images were similar to those of multilobar cortical dysplasia. Localized megalencephaly accounts for one quarter of all hemimegalencephaly cases in this study. The incidence of extracerebral abnormalities in patients with localized hemimegalencephaly was almost half that of patients with diffuse hemimegalencephaly. Extracerebral abnormalities were absent in patients with multilobar cortical dysplasia. Associated extracerebral abnormalities may be a clue to differentiating localized megalencephaly from multilobar cortical dysplasia.

  17. Large-eddy structures of turbulent swirling flows and methane-air swirling diffusion combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan Hu; Lixing Zhou; Jian Zhang; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    Turbulent swirling flows and methane-air swirling diffusion combustion are studied by large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid scale turbulence model and a second-order moment (SOM) SGS combustion model, and also by RANS modeling using the Reynolds Stress equation model with the IPCM+wall and IPCM pressure-strain models and SOM combustion model. The LES statistical results for swirling flows give good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the adopted subgrid-scale turbulence model is suitable for swirling flows.The LES instantaneous results show the complex vortex shedding pattern in swirling flows. The initially formed large vortex structures soon break up in swirling flows. The LES statistical results of combustion modeling are near the experimental results and are as good as the RANS-SOM modeling results. The LES results show that the size and range of large vortex structures in swirling combustion are different from those of isothermal swirling flows, and the chemical reaction is intensified by the large-eddy vortex structures.

  18. Local traps as nanoscale reaction-diffusion probes: B clustering in c-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, B. J., E-mail: bartekpawlak72@gmail.com [Globalfoundries, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cowern, N. E. B.; Ahn, C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium and IKS, Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Gwilliam, R. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Nodus Laboratory, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Berkum, J. G. M. van [Philips CFT, Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-01

    A series of B implantation experiments into initially amorphized and not fully recrystallized Si, i.e., into an existing a/c-Si bi-layer material, have been conducted. We varied B dose, energy, and temperature during implantation process itself. Significant B migration has been observed within c-Si part near the a/c-interface and near the end-of-range region before any activation annealing. We propose a general concept of local trapping sites as experimental probes of nanoscale reaction-diffusion processes. Here, the a/c-Si interface acts as a trap, and the process itself is explored as the migration and clustering of mobile BI point defects in nearby c-Si during implantation at temperatures from 77 to 573 K. We find that at room temperature—even at B concentrations as high as 1.6 atomic %, the key B-B pairing step requires diffusion lengths of several nm owing to a small, ∼0.1 eV, pairing energy barrier. Thus, in nanostructures doped by ion implantation, the implant distribution can be strongly influenced by thermal migration to nearby impurities, defects, and interfaces.

  19. Locally advanced rectal cancer: predicting non-responders to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy using apparent diffusion coefficient textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Lv, Han; Liu, Li-Heng; Yang, Zheng-Han; Jin, Er-Hu; Wang, Zhen-Chang

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) textures could identify patient with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who would not respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). Twenty-six patients who underwent MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging at a 3.0 T system before NCRT were enrolled. Texture analysis of pre-therapy ADC mapping was carried out, and a total of 133 ADC textures as well as routine mean ADC value of the primary tumor were extracted for each patient. Texture parameters and mean ADC were compared between responsive group and non-responsive group. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors for non-responders. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was performed to evaluate the predictive performance of the significant parameters. Eighteen of the 133 texture parameters significantly differed between responsive and non-responsive groups (p variance and SdGa47 were identified as independent predictors for non-responders to NCRT; this logistic model achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.908. Texture analysis based on pre-therapy ADC mapping could potentially be helpful to identify patients with LARC who would not respond to NCRT.

  20. Rapid neuroinflammatory response localized to injured neurons after diffuse traumatic brain injury in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Kathryn L; Harris, James P; Browne, Kevin D; Brown, Daniel P; Grovola, Michael R; Mietus, Constance J; Wolf, John A; Duda, John E; Putt, Mary E; Spiller, Kara L; Cullen, D Kacy

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing appreciation of the critical role that neuroinflammatory pathways play in brain injury and neurodegeneration, little is known about acute microglial reactivity following diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) - the most common clinical presentation that includes all concussions. Therefore, we investigated acute microglial reactivity using a porcine model of closed-head rotational velocity/acceleration-induced TBI that closely mimics the biomechanical etiology of inertial TBI in humans. We observed rapid microglial reactivity within 15min of both mild and severe TBI. Strikingly, microglial activation was restrained to regions proximal to individual injured neurons - as denoted by trauma-induced plasma membrane disruption - which served as epicenters of acute reactivity. Single-cell quantitative analysis showed that in areas free of traumatically permeabilized neurons, microglial density and morphology were similar between sham or following mild or severe TBI. However, microglia density increased and morphology shifted to become more reactive in proximity to injured neurons. Microglial reactivity around injured neurons was exacerbated following repetitive TBI, suggesting further amplification of acute neuroinflammatory responses. These results indicate that neuronal trauma rapidly activates microglia in a highly localized manner, and suggest that activated microglia may rapidly influence neuronal stability and/or pathophysiology after diffuse TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PROBING THE LOCAL BUBBLE WITH DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS. III. THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE DATA AND CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: a.farhang@ipm.ir [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ∼200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ∼2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID{sub 1}, and Na ID{sub 2}, including the uncertainties.

  2. Probing the Local Bubble with Diffuse Interstellar Bands. III. The Northern hemisphere data and catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2014-01-01

    We present a new high signal-to-noise (S/N) observations of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of $\\lambda$5780 and $\\lambda$5797 \\AA\\ DIBs up to distance of $\\sim$ 200 pc. All observations have been carried out by using Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) on 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N ratio of $\\sim$ 2000. All $\\lambda$5780 and $\\lambda$5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and the observed values of interstellar parameter; $\\lambda$5780, $\\lambda$5797, Na I D lines including the uncertainties are tabulated.

  3. Non-local meta-conformal invariance in diffusion-limited erosion

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte

    2016-01-01

    The non-stationary relaxation and physical ageing in the diffusion-limited erosion process ({\\sc dle}) is studied through the exact solution of its Langevin equation, in $d$ spatial dimensions. The dynamical exponent $z=1$, the growth exponent $\\beta=\\max(0,(1-d)/2)$ and the ageing exponents $a=b=d-1$ and $\\lambda_C=\\lambda_R=d$ are found. In $d=1$ spatial dimension, a new representation of the meta-conformal Lie algebra, isomorphic to $\\mathfrak{sl}(2,\\mathbb{R})\\oplus\\mathfrak{sl}(2,\\mathbb{R})$, acts as a dynamical symmetry of the noise-averaged {\\sc dle} Langevin equation. Its infinitesimal generators are non-local in space. The exact form of the full time-space dependence of the two-time response function of {\\sc dle} is reproduced for $d=1$ from this symmetry. The relationship to the terrace-step-kink model of vicinal surfaces is discussed.

  4. Non-local meta-conformal invariance in diffusion-limited erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Malte

    2016-12-01

    The non-stationary relaxation and physical ageing in the diffusion-limited erosion process (dle) is studied through the exact solution of its Langevin equation, in d spatial dimensions. The dynamical exponent z = 1, the growth exponent β =\\max (0,(1-d)/2) and the ageing exponents a=b=d-1 and {λ }C={λ }R=d are found. In d = 1 spatial dimension, a new representation of the meta-conformal Lie algebra, isomorphic to {sl}(2,{{R}})\\oplus {sl}(2,{{R}}), acts as a dynamical symmetry of the noise-averaged dle Langevin equation. Its infinitesimal generators are non-local in space. The exact form of the full time-space dependence of the two-time response function of dle is reproduced for d = 1 from this symmetry. The relationship to the terrace-step-kink model of vicinal surfaces is discussed.

  5. Quantitative diffusion and swelling kinetic measurements using large-angle interferometric refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John E; Chen, Hao; Brauer, Chris; Clayton, McGregor; Chen, Weijian; Barnes, Jack A; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2015-12-07

    The uptake and release of sorbates into films and coatings is typically accompanied by changes of the films' refractive index and thickness. We provide a comprehensive model to calculate the concentration of the sorbate from the average refractive index and the film thickness, and validate the model experimentally. The mass fraction of the analyte partitioned into a film is described quantitatively by the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and the Clausius-Mosotti equation. To validate the model, the uptake kinetics of water and other solvents into SU-8 films (d = 40-45 μm) were explored. Large-angle interferometric refractometry measurements can be used to characterize films that are between 15 μm to 150 μm thick and, Fourier analysis, is used to determine independently the thickness, the average refractive index and the refractive index at the film-substrate interface at one-second time intervals. From these values the mass fraction of water in SU-8 was calculated. The kinetics were best described by two independent uptake processes having different rates. Each process followed one-dimensional Fickian diffusion kinetics with diffusion coefficients for water into SU-8 photoresist film of 5.67 × 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1) and 61.2 × 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1).

  6. Large eddy simulation of turbulent diffusion flame combustion using a conserved scalar methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Wang; Z.Yang; J.J.McGuirk

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an LES prediction of turbulent diffusion flame combustion in a simplifled axi-symmetric combustor geometry.The calculations are carried out using a well-tested finite volume incompressible LES code which has been modified to handle variable density and reacting flows.The basic mixture fraction conserved scalar method is.used with the chemical state relationships described by fast chemistry.The turbulence-chemistry interaction is modelled by a sub-grid PDF method and the PDF is assumed to follow a Beta-function shape.The LES predictions have been time-averaged over 3.5 flow-through times to generate the mean radial profiles of mixture fraction,product mass fraction,temperature,axial velocity and axial Fins.The agreement of the LES predictions with the experimental data is good for all the above quantities at four different axial positions with largest differences at the first measurement plane.The LES method also provides information on the unsteady nature of turbulent diffusion combustion.For turbulent reacting flows with large density ratio,it was found necessary to use a relaxation method in order to remove unphysical high-frequency fluctuations and to maintain numerical stability.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation Of Gravitational Effects In Transitional And Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberi, Farhad A.; Givi, Peyman

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gravity on the spatial and the compositional structures of transitional and turbulent hydrocarbon diffusion flames are studies via large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of round and planar jets. The subgrid-scale (SGS) closures in LES are based on the filtered mass density function (FMDF) methodology. The FMDF represents the joint probability density function (PDF) of the SGS scalars, and is obtained by solving its transport equation. The fundamental advantage of LES/FMDF is that it accounts for the effects of chemical reaction and buoyancy exactly. The methodology is employed for capturing some of the fundamental influences of gravity in equilibrium flames via realistic chemical kinetic schemes. Some preliminary investigation of the gravity effects in non-equilibrium flames is also conducted, but with idealized chemical kinetics models.

  8. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady E. Beltran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of seven patients who were human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 carriers and had a pathological diagnosis of de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Interestingly, three of our cases showed positive expression of Epstein-Barr-virus, (EBV- encoded RNA within the tumor cells indicating a possible interaction between these two viruses. Furthermore, our three EBV-positive cases presented with similar clinical characteristics such as early clinical stage and low-risk indices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series describing the characteristics of HTLV-1-positive DLBCL patients. The potential relationship between HTLV-1 and EBV should be further explored.

  9. Numb Chin Syndrome as First Symptom of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Carbone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numb chin syndrome is a rare sensory neuropathy of the mental nerve characterized by numbness, hypoesthesia, paraesthesia, and very rarely pain. Dental causes, especially iatrogenic ones, maxillofacial trauma, or malignant neoplasm are etiologic factors for this rare syndrome. Many malignant and metastatic neoplasms are causing this syndrome, like primary osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mandibular metastasis of primary carcinoma of breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate, and nasopharynx. Haematological malignancies like acute lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and myeloma can cause this neuropathy. The authors report a case of a 71-year-old woman in which the numb chin syndrome was the first symptom of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which caused infiltration and reabsorption of the alveolar ridge and lower mandibular cortex. A biopsy of the mass was performed on fragments of tissue collected from the mandibular periosteum, medullary and cortical mandibular bone, and inferior alveolar nerve.

  10. Conditional survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Pedersen, Niels Tinggaard; Christensen, Bjarne E

    2006-01-01

    a period of time after treatment. Conditional survival data have not been reported for lymphoma patients. METHODS: Conditional survival was estimated for 1209 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) from the population-based LYFO registry of the Danish Lymphoma Group. The Kaplan-Meier method...... was also significant at diagnosis, but 2 years after diagnosis only age had prognostic impact. Multivariate analysis of patients who survived > or = 3 years identified only age as a prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: For patients with DLBCL who have survived more than 1 year after diagnosis, the conditional......BACKGROUND: Prognosis of lymphoma patients is usually estimated at the time of diagnosis and the estimates are guided by the International Prognostic Index (IPI). However, conditional survival estimates are more informative clinically, as they consider those patients only who have already survived...

  11. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the era of precision oncology: How imaging is helpful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Hina J.; Keraliya, Abhishek R.; Lele, Vikram R.; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histological subtype of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. As treatments continues to evolve, so do imaging strategies, and positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as the most important imaging tool to guide oncologists in the diagnosis, staging, response assessment, relapse/recurrence detection,and therapeutic decision making of DLBCL. Other imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and conventional radiography are also used in the evaluation of lymphoma. MRI is useful for nervous system and musculoskeletal system involvement and is emerging as a radiation free alternative to PET/CT. This article provides a comprehensive review of both the functional and morphological imaging modalities, available in the management of DLBCL.

  12. Quantitative image analysis in the assessment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; Martin, David R; Myers, Orrin B; Czuchlewski, David R; Hunt, Kristin E

    2011-12-01

    Proliferation rates in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been associated with conflicting outcomes in the literature, more often with high proliferation associated with poor prognosis. In most studies, the proliferation rate was estimated by a pathologist using an immunohistochemical stain for the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. We hypothesized that a quantitative image analysis algorithm would give a more accurate estimate of the proliferation rate, leading to better associations with survival. In all, 84 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were selected according to the World Health Organization criteria. Ki-67 percentage positivity estimated by the pathologist was recorded from the original report. The same slides were then scanned using an Aperio ImageScope, and Ki-67 percentage positivity was calculated using a computer-based quantitative immunohistochemistry nuclear algorithm. In addition, chart review was performed and survival time was recorded. The Ki-67 percentage estimated by the pathologist from the original report versus quantitative image analysis was significantly correlated (Pquantitative image analysis (P=0.021). There was less agreement at lower Ki-67 percentages. Comparison of Ki-67 percentage positivity versus survival did not show significant association either with pathologist estimate or quantitative image analysis. However, although not significant, there was a trend of worse survival at higher proliferation rates detected by the pathologist but not by quantitative image analysis. Interestingly, our data suggest that the Ki-67 percentage positivity as assessed by the pathologist may be more closely associated with survival outcome than that identified by quantitative image analysis. This may indicate that pathologists are better at selecting appropriate areas of the slide. More cases are needed to assess whether this finding would be statistically significant. Due to the good correlation between pathologist estimate and quantitative image

  13. High dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popp, Henning

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-dose chemotherapy (HDT with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT plays an important role in the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. We report on a retrospective analysis of all patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who were consecutively treated with HDT followed by ASCT at the University Hospital of Bonn, Germany, between 1996 and 2004. Methods: A total of 25 patients were transplanted for biopsy-proven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Eight patients received up-front HDT as first-line therapy, four patients received HDT due to incomplete response to conventional induction chemotherapy, and six patients were treated for primary refractory disease. Seven patients had recurrent lymphoma. Results: A complete remission (CR was achieved in 14 of 25 patients (56%. Estimated 3-year survival for patients treated with upfront HDT, chemosensitive patients with incomplete response to first line therapy, and patients with chemosensitive relapsed disease was 87.5%, 50.0% and 60.0%, respectively. In contrast, no patient with primary refractory disease or relapsed disease lacking chemosensitivity lived longer than 8 months. Chemosensitivity was the only significant prognostic factor for overall survival (OS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Our results confirm that HDT and ASCT is a highly effective therapy in patients with DLBCL leading to long-term survival in a substantial proportion of patients. Patients treated upfront for high-risk disease, incomplete response to conventional first-line therapy, or for chemosensitive relapse have a good prognosis. In contrast, patients with primary chemorefractory disease and patients with relapsed disease lacking chemosensitivity do not benefit from HDT with ASCT.

  14. Secondary infiltration of the central nervous system in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Maira Bueno da Silveira da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of infiltration of the central nervous system after the initial treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 133 patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from January 2001 to April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in respect to the incidence and risk factors of secondary central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. Intrathecal prophylaxis was not a standard procedure for patients considered to be at risk. This analysis includes patients whether they received rituximab as first-line treatment or not. RESULTS: Nine of 133 (6.7% patients developed central nervous system disease after a mean observation time of 29 months. The median time to relapse or progression was 7.9 months after diagnosis and all but one patient died despite the treatment administered. Twenty-six (19.5% patients of this cohort received rituximab as first-line treatment and nine (7.1% received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis. Of the nine patients that relapsed, seven (77.7% had parenchymal central nervous system involvement; seven (77.7% had stage III or IV disease; one (11.1% had bone marrow involvement; two (22.2% had received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis; and 3 (33.3% had taken rituximab. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for this infiltration were being male, previous use of intrathecal chemotherapy and patients that were refractory to initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Central nervous system infiltration in this cohort is similar to that of previous reports in the literature. As this was a small cohort with a rare event, only three risk factors were important for this infiltration

  15. The spatial distribution of ultra diffuse galaxies within large scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe82, we have explored the spatial distribution of ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) within an area of 8x8 Mpc^2 centered around the galaxy cluster Abell 168 (z=0.045). This intermediate massive cluster (sigma=550 km/s) is surrounded by a complex large scale structure, rich in filaments and groups. This allows us to probe the large scale distribution of UDGs and address the question whether the infalling structures fed the cluster with new UDGs. We find that UDGs are located within the large scale structures that comprise the Abell 168 overdensity. Approximately 42% of the UDGs analysed inhabit the cluster region: ~7+-3% in the core and ~35+-7% in the outskirts whereas the remaining UDGs are found outside the main overdensity: ~19+-5% in groups and ~40% in filaments. UDGs structural properties gradually change from the lowest to the densest regions with a decrease of their stellar mass by a factor of ~1.5, an increase of their Sersic index n by a factor of ~1.2...

  16. Massive transcriptional perturbation in subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rosolowski

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that molecular mechanisms involved in cancerogenesis are characterized by groups of coordinately expressed genes, we developed and validated a novel method for analyzing transcriptional data called Correlated Gene Set Analysis (CGSA. Using 50 extracted gene sets we identified three different profiles of tumors in a cohort of 364 Diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL and related mature aggressive B-cell lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma. The first profile had high level of expression of genes related to proliferation whereas the second profile exhibited a stromal and immune response phenotype. These two profiles were characterized by a large scale gene activation affecting genes which were recently shown to be epigenetically regulated, and which were enriched in oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism and nucleoside biosynthesis. The third and novel profile showed only low global gene activation similar to that found in normal B cells but not cell lines. Our study indicates novel levels of complexity of DLBCL with low or high large scale gene activation related to metabolism and biosynthesis and, within the group of highly activated DLBCLs, differential behavior leading to either a proliferative or a stromal and immune response phenotype.

  17. All That Wheezes Is Not Asthma: A Case of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized laryngeal lymphoma is a rare entity with an incidence of less than 1% of all laryngeal neoplasms. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of laryngeal neoplasms. Here, we describe a case of a young 28-year-old female with large B-cell lymphoma who remained undiagnosed for a long time owing to a myriad of nonspecific presentation including “wheezing.” Although primary laryngeal lymphomas constitute a diagnostic challenge since they are rare, one should have a high index of suspicion for lymphoma of the larynx in patients presenting with unresolved wheezing as it can present catastrophically with acute airway obstruction requiring immediate surgical intervention which was observed in this case. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these. We hope that the discussions ensuing from case reports regarding uncommon presentations of laryngeal lymphoma may spur the formation of regional/international databases for the description of lymphomas with unusual presentations. This effort can lead to in-depth study of cases and prompt awareness of “rare and subtle presentations” of laryngeal lymphoma.

  18. Probing the Local Bubble with Diffuse Interstellar Bands. I. Project overview and Southern hemisphere survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Mandy; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib G; Sarre, Peter J; Smith, Keith T

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a high signal-to-noise spectroscopic survey of 670 nearby early-type stars, to map Diffuse Interstellar Band (DIB) absorption in and around the Local Bubble. The project started with a Southern hemisphere survey conducted at the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope and has since been extended to an all-sky survey using the Isaac Newton Telescope. In this first paper in the series, we introduce the overall project and present the results from the Southern hemisphere survey. We make available a catalogue of equivalent-width measurements of the DIBs at 5780, 5797, 5850, 6196, 6203, 6270, 6283 \\& 6614 \\AA, the interstellar Na\\,{\\sc i} D lines at 5890 \\& 5896 \\AA, and the stellar He\\,{\\sc i} line at 5876 \\AA. We find that the 5780 \\AA\\ DIB is relatively strong throughout, as compared to the 5797 \\AA\\ DIB, but especially within the Local Bubble and at the interface with more neutral medium. The 6203 \\AA\\ DIB shows a similar behaviour, but with respect to the 6196 \\AA\\ D...

  19. NORMAL APPEARANCE OF LARGE FIELD DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING ON 3.0T MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Rong; Chun-yan Zhang; Xiao-ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the normal appearance of large field diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) on 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods Twenty healthy volunteers and thirty patients with benign prostate hyperplasia were included in this study. All patients were examined with large field DWI on 3.0T MRI. Normal tissue appearance was analyzed and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal tissue with high signal intensity was measured. The ADC values of bilateral symmetrical tissue were also compared. The ADC values of intervertebral disks of healthy people younger than 50 years and exceeding 50 years were compared.Results Salivary gland, spleen, kidney, gallbladder, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicle, testis, intervertebral disk, liquid in articular cavity and lymph node showed high signal intensity on large field DWI, while lung, liver and bone showed hypo-signal intensity. The mean ADC values of partial hyperintensity tissue were as followed: parotid gland (1.088 ± 0.114)×10-3 mm2/s, submaxillary gland (1.309 ± 0.189) ×10-3 mm2/s, kidney (1.909 ± 0.143)×10-3 mm2/s, seminal vesicle (1.669 ± 0.168) ×10-3 mm2/s, testis (1.028 ± 0.075) ×10-3 mm2/s, spleen (0.963 ± 0.108) ×10-3 mm2/s, bladder (2.898 ± 0.267)×10-3 mm2/s, prostate (1.448 ± 0.132) ×10-3 mm2/s, intervertebral disks (1.360 ± 0.140)×10-3 mm2/s. No statistical significance was found between the ADC values of bilateral symmetrical tissues. The difference of ADC values of intervertebral disks of healthy people younger than 50 years [(1.372 ± 0.142)×10-3 mm2/s] and exceeding 50 years [(1.344 ± 0.134) ×10-3 mm2/s] showed statistical significance (P = 0.040). Conclusion Understanding the high signal intensity of normal tissue on large field DWI may help to differentiate the normal tissues and abnormal ones.

  20. Local near instantaneously dynamically triggered aftershocks of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    Aftershocks are often triggered by static- and/or dynamic-stress changes caused by mainshocks. The relative importance of the two triggering mechanisms is controversial at near-to-intermediate distances. We detected and located 48 previously unidentified large early aftershocks triggered by earthquakes with magnitudes between ≥7 and 8 within a few fault lengths (approximately 300 kilometers), during times that high-amplitude surface waves arrive from the mainshock (less than 200 seconds). The observations indicate that near-to-intermediate-field dynamic triggering commonly exists and fundamentally promotes aftershock occurrence. The mainshocks and their nearby early aftershocks are located at major subduction zones and continental boundaries, and mainshocks with all types of faulting-mechanisms (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) can trigger early aftershocks.

  1. Large Nc from Seiberg–Witten curve and localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Russo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When N=2 gauge theories are compactified on S4, the large Nc limit then selects a unique vacuum of the theory determined by saddle-point equations, which remains determined even in the flat-theory limit. We show that exactly the same equations can be reproduced purely from Seiberg–Witten theory, describing a vacuum where magnetically charged particles become massless, and corresponding to a specific degenerating limit of the Seiberg–Witten spectral curve where 2Nc−2 branch points join pairwise giving aDn=0, n=1,…,Nc−1. We consider the specific case of N=2 SU(Nc SQCD coupled with 2Nf massive fundamental flavors. We show that the theory exhibits a quantum phase transition where the critical point describes a particular Argyres–Douglas point of the Riemann surface.

  2. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-09-25

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10{sup -}10 to 1.10{sup -}12 m{sup 2}/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m{sup 2}/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10{sup -}15 m{sup 2}/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  3. Large-diameter compression arteries as a possible facilitating factor for trigeminal neuralgia: analysis of axial and radial diffusivity

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurovascular compression (NVC) of the trigeminal nerve is associated with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Some arteries that compress the trigeminal nerve are large, while others are small. This study evaluated the influence of diameter of compression arteries (DCA) on NVC with and without TN using axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Methods Fifty TN patients with unilateral NVC, 50 asymptomatic patients with unilateral NVC, and 50 hea...

  4. Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Caused by Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Telci Caklili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a life-threatening emergency which needs urgent intervention. Hematological malignancies are very rare causes of this type of bleeding and they usually originate from duodenum. In this case we present a gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL causing massive upper gastrointestinal system bleeding. A 77-year-old male patient was admitted to emergency clinic with hematemesis and hematochezia. In physical examination patient was pale and sweaty; his vitals were unstable with a heart rate of 110 per minute and a blood pressure of 90/50 mmHg. His hemoglobin level was found 7.5 g/dL and he was transfused with one unit of packed red blood cells. After his vitals were normalized, gastroscopy was performed showing mosaic pattern in corpus and antrum mucosa and multiple ulcers in various sizes, largest being approximately 2 cm in diameter, higher than mucosa covered with exude mostly on corpus and large curvature. Biopsy results were reported as DLBCL. Gastric mucosa is involved in most of the DLBCL cases. Although not listed as a common cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding DLBCL can cause life-threatening situations mostly because of its malignant nature.

  5. Study by neutron diffusion of local order liquid sulfur around the polymerization transition; Etude par diffusion de neutrons de l`ordre local du soufre liquide autour de la transition de polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descotes, L.

    1994-05-01

    We studied the liquid sulfur according to the temperature. The sulfur is one of the most complicated elementary liquid. We experimented the neutron diffusion by the powder orthorhombic sulfur. The complexity at the polymerization transition are only accompanied by weak local structural transfer. 231 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs., 3 annexes.

  6. Induratio penis plastica: Localized or diffusive fibromatosis of tunica albuginea penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nale Đorđe

    2006-01-01

    location that appeared normal macroscopically (χ2 = 27.5; df = 1; p < 0.01 indicated that, in the majority of IPP patients (61.3%, pathological lesion was diffusive with localized phenotypic expression plaque in the tunica albuginea, showing that, in the majority of cases noxa acted diffusely.

  7. A Case of Successful Remission of Extensive Primary Gastric Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: Radiologic, Endoscopic and Pathologic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike M. Bismar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though rare amongst stomach neoplasms, primary gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma is one of the commonest extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. If left untreated, it can have a devastating progression and life-threatening consequences. We present the case of a successfully treated large antral ulcer confirmed to be large B cell lymphoma as evidenced by radiologic, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. A brief discussion about the types of gastric lymphoma, their Helicobacter pylori relation and therapeutic modalities follows.

  8. Localized stationary and traveling reaction-diffusion patterns in a two-layer A +B → oscillator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroni, M. A.; De Wit, A.

    2016-06-01

    When two solutions containing separate reactants A and B of an oscillating reaction are put in contact in a gel, localized spatiotemporal patterns can develop around the contact zone thanks to the interplay of reaction and diffusion processes. Using the Brusselator model, we explore analytically the deployment in space and time of the bifurcation diagram of such an A +B → oscillator system. We provide a parametric classification of possible instabilities as a function of the ratio of the initial reactant concentrations and of the reaction intermediate species diffusion coefficients. Related one-dimensional reaction-diffusion dynamics are studied numerically. We find that the system can spatially localize waves and Turing patterns as well as induce more complex dynamics such as zigzag spatiotemporal waves when Hopf and Turing modes interact.

  9. Pretherapy metabolic tumour volume is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasanelli, Myriam; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Itti, Emmanuel [Paris-Est University, Nuclear Medicine and Lymphoid Malignancies Unit, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Georges-Francois Leclerc Center, Le Bocage Hospital, Dijon (France); Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Siegel, Barry A.; Cashen, Amanda F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vera, Pierre; Tilly, Herve [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Henri Becquerel Center, Rouen (France); Versari, Annibale [Nuclear Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). TMTV was measured in 114 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at baseline before immunochemotherapy. TMTV was computed by summing the volumes of all lymphomatous lesions after applying the local SUVmax threshold of 41 % using semiautomatic software. Prognostic value was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 39 months. Average pretherapy TMTV was 509 ± 568 cm{sup 3}. The 3-year estimates of PFS were 77 % in the low metabolic burden group (TMTV ≤550 cm{sup 3}) and 60 % in the high metabolic burden group (TMTV >550 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.04), and prediction of OS was even better (87 % vs. 60 %, p = 0.0003). Cox regression showed independence of TMTV for OS prediction (p = 0.002) compared with other pretherapy indices of tumour burden, such as tumour bulk and the International Prognostic Index. Pretherapy TMTV is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with DLBCL. (orig.)

  10. Tracheal ulcer due to Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takeo; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Nishio, Suehiro; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a tracheal stenosis circumscribed with soft tissue density and a left pulmonary nodule. Open biopsy of a right submandibular lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and the malignant cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus gene products. Bronchofiberscopy revealed a tracheal necrotizing ulcer. After chemotherapy, the tracheal ulcer resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly with a tracheal ulcer.

  11. Clinical and Biologic Significance of MYC Genetic Mutations in De Novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Deng, Qipan; Manyam, Ganiraju C

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: MYC is a critical driver oncogene in many cancers, and its deregulation in the forms of translocation and overexpression has been implicated in lymphomagenesis and progression of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The MYC mutational profile and its roles in DLBCL are unknown. This st......PURPOSE: MYC is a critical driver oncogene in many cancers, and its deregulation in the forms of translocation and overexpression has been implicated in lymphomagenesis and progression of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The MYC mutational profile and its roles in DLBCL are unknown...

  12. Large local Hall effect in pin-hole dominated multigraphene spin-valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, P K; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Dusari, S; Ballestar, A; Bern, F; Böhlmann, W; Esquinazi, P

    2013-01-11

    We report local and non-local measurements in pin-hole dominated mesoscopic multigraphene spin-valves. Local spin-valve measurements show spurious switching behavior in resistance during magnetic field sweeping similar to the signal observed due to spin injection into multigraphene. The switching behavior has been explained in terms of a local Hall effect due to a thickness irregularity of the tunnel barrier. The local Hall effect appears due to a large local magnetostatic field produced near the roughness in the AlO(x) tunnel barrier. In our samples the resistance change due to the local Hall effect remains negligibly small above 75 K. A strong local Hall effect might hinder spin injection into multigraphene, resulting in no spin signal in non-local measurements.

  13. Low T3 syndrome is a strong prognostic predictor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Liang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Li; Zhu, Hua-Yuan; Wu, Wei; Wu, Jia-Zhu; Xia, Yi; Cao, Lei; Fan, Lei; Yang, Tao; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome on patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A hundred and eighty-eight patients with detailed thyroid hormone levels at diagnosis of DLBCL were enrolled. Low T3 syndrome was defined as a low serum free T3 (FT3) level with low or normal serum free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone levels. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Receiver-operator characteristic curves and the corresponding areas under the curve were calculated to assess the predictive accuracy of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and low T3 syndrome. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with low T3 syndrome, which was associated with worse PFS and OS in the rituximab era. It was an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS, especially for those with IPI 0-2, extranodal sites ≤1 and stage III-IV. Synchronously low FT3 and FT4 had poorer survival outcome compared to only low FT3 and adding criterion of low T3 syndrome improved the prognostic capacity of IPI for predicting PFS and OS in DLBCL. Low T3 syndrome was found to be a strong prognostic predictor in DLBCL.

  14. Antitumor activity of fucoidan against diffuse large B cell lymphoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Qianqiao; Kong, Yuanyuan; Xie, Bingqian; Gao, Minjie; Tao, Yi; Xu, Hongwei; Zhan, Fenghuang; Dai, Bojie; Shi, Jumei; Wu, Xiaosong

    2015-11-01

    Fucoidan is one of the major sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown seaweeds. In this study, we determined the anti-cancer activity of fucoidan on diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells both in vitro and in vivo. Fucoidan inhibited the growth of DLBCL cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and fucoidan treatment provoked G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was accompanied by p21 up-regulation and cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Cdk6 down-regulation. Fucoidan also induced caspase-dependent cell apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines and primary DLBCL cell. In addition, fucoidan treatment caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Fucoidan also potentiated the activities of carfilzomib in killing DLBCL cells. Oral administration of fucoidan effectively inhibited tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. Our findings reveal the novel function of fucoidan as an anti-DLBCL agent, which can be used in the clinical treatment of DLBCL.

  15. Biomarkers of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: impact on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rita Coutinho, John GribbenCentre for Haemato-Onocology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, London, United KingdomAbstract: Introduction of immunochemotherapy as frontline treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL has significantly increased survival. However, patients refractory to rituximab-containing regimens have a very poor survival. These differences in clinical behavior might lie behind the biological heterogeneity well recognized in this disease. Advanced molecular research has helped us to define DLBCL subgroups which harbor distinct oncogenic events and response to immunochemotherapy. The field of biomarker discovery in DLBCL has become more complex over the last decade and a broad up-to-date review on this topic is lacking. The aim for this review was to offer the hematology community a comprehensive overview of clinical and biological markers which have a diagnostic and prognostic potential and that might be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Some well known markers are reassessed in light of recent findings.Keywords: DLBCL, immunochemotherapy, rituximab, biomarkers

  16. Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the upper limb: A fascinating entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Madakshira Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous lymphomas are defined as lymphoid neoplasms that present themselves clinically on the skin and do not have extra-cutaneous disease, when the diagnosis is made or even after 6 months of the diagnosis. Primary cutaneous lymphomas of B-cells are less frequent than lymphomas of T-cells. Primary B-cell lymphomas have a better prognosis than secondary B-cell lymphomas. Primary B-cell cutaneous lymphomas are classified into five types according to the World Health Organization and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification. The primary diffuse large B-cell cutaneous lymphoma - leg type corresponds to approximately 5-10% of the B-cell cutaneous lymphomas. It is predominantly seen in elderly people and has a female preponderance. Skin lesions can be single, multiple, and even grouped. A 5-year survival rate ranges from 36 to 100% of the cases. The expression of Bcl-2, presence of multiple lesions, and involvement of both the upper limbs lead to a worse prognosis. Very few cases have been described in the literature.

  17. Capgras syndrome associated with limbic encephalitis in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herval Ribeiro Soares Neto

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with insidious onset and slowly progressive cognitive impairment, behavioral symptoms, temporal lobe seizures and delusional thoughts typical of delusional misidentification syndromes. Clinical presentation along with extensive diagnostic work-up revealed limbic encephalitis secondary to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient underwent immunotherapy with high-dose corticosteroid but no significant improvement was observed. No specific treatment for lymphoma was performed because the patient died of septic shock following a nosocomial respiratory infection. Delusional misidentification syndromes are an unusual and unique form of cognitive impairment in which a patient consistently misidentifies persons, places, objects, or events. Capgras syndrome is the most common subtype of this disorder, being defined by the recurrent and transient belief that someone close has been substituted by an imposter. These entities are generally associated with neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disturbances. Rare reports of associations between misidentification syndromes and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis have been published, but no papers address a correlation with limbic encephalitis or lymphoma.

  18. [Central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2016-01-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by lymphoma is a complication associated, almost invariably, with a poor prognosis. The knowledge of the risk factors for CNS relapse is important to determine which patients could benefit from prophylaxis. Thus, patients with very aggressive lymphomas (such as lymphoblastic lymphoma or Burkitt's lymphoma) must systematically receive CNS prophylaxis due to a high CNS relapse rate (25-30%), while in patients with indolent lymphoma (such as follicular lymphoma or marginal lymphoma) prophylaxis is unnecessary. However, the question about CNS prophylaxis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of lymphoma, remains controversial. The information available is extensive, mainly based on retrospective and heterogeneous studies. There seems that immunochemotherapy based on rituximab reduces the CNS relapse rate. On the other hand, patients with increased serum lactate dehydrogenase plus more than one extranodal involvement seem to have a higher risk of CNS relapse, but a prophylaxis strategy based only on the presence of these 2 factors does not prevent all CNS relapses. Patients with involvement of testes or breast have high risk of CNS relapse and prophylaxis is mandatory. Finally, CNS prophylaxis could be considered in patients with DLBCL and renal or epidural space involvement, as well as in those cases with MYC rearrangements, although additional studies are necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yu

    2016-10-04

    In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.

  20. Development tuberculous meningitis during chemotherapy for CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Yuki; Kameda, Kazuaki; Kanda, Junya; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Akahoshi, Yu; Komiya, Yusuke; Harada, Naonori; Ugai, Tomotaka; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Wada, Hidenori; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 62-year-old woman with CD5(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with the R-CHOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) was started. On the eleventh day of the third cycle, headache and low grade fever developed. Her consciousness gradually deteriorated. Seven days after symptom onset, she was brought to the emergency department of our hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a white blood cell count of 25/μl, and a protein level of 188 mg/dl. Antibacterial and antiviral agents were administered based on a diagnosis of acute meningitis. She showed no improvement. We performed another lumbar puncture and intrathecal chemotherapy, a combination of methotrexate and dexamethasone, was administered because we suspected central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. She showed transient improvement. On day 12, we started the R-MPV regimen (rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine). However, fever and disturbance of consciousness persisted. On day 20, we empirically started anti-tuberculosis treatment. Four days later, tubercle bacilli were confirmed by CSF culture after a 23-day incubation. We ultimately confirmed a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Impaired cellular immunity in lymphoma patients increases the risk of tuberculosis. It is important to consider tuberculous meningitis in the differential diagnosis of a lymphoma patient presenting with meningitis.

  1. Frequent disruption of the RB1 pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Kania, P W; Ino, Y

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we analysed 34 de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLCL) from a population-based lymphoma registry for alterations of the RB1 pathway at the genetic (RB1 and CDK4) and protein (pRb, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK4, and E2F-1) level. The results were correlated with the data from...... downstream of exon 3 generating a novel splice signal. Seven tumours (21%) showed cyclin D3 overexpression, including all three thyroid lymphomas (P = 0.006). Cyclin D3 overexpression and p16INK4A/pRb aberrations were mutually exclusive, supporting an oncogenic role for cyclin D3 in DLCL. p16INK4A...... expression was associated with treatment failure (P = 0.020), and multivariate analysis of overall survival identified both low E2F-1 expression (relative risk = 6.9; P = 0.0037) and p16INK4A inactivation (relative risk = 3.3; P = 0.0247) as independent prognostic markers. These data support a role of E2F-1...

  2. Is now the time for molecular driven therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Alice; De Angelis, Federico; Ansuinelli, Michela; Foà, Robin; Martelli, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Recent genetic and molecular discoveries regarding alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) deeply changed the approach to this lymphoproliferative disorder. Novel additional predictors of outcomes and new therapeutic strategies are being introduced to improve outcomes. Areas covered: This review aims to analyse the recent molecular discoveries in DLBCL, the rationale of novel molecular driven treatments and their impact on DLBCL prognosis, especially in ABC-DLBCL and High Grade B Cell Lymphoma. Pre-clinical and clinical evidences are reviewed to critically evaluate the novel DLBCL management strategies. Expert commentary: New insights in DLBCL molecular characteristics should guide the therapeutic approach; the results of the current studies which are investigating safety and efficacy of novel 'X-RCHOP' will probably lead, in future, to a cell of origin (COO) based upfront therapy. Moreover, it is necessary to identify early patients with DLBCL who carried MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements double hit lymphomas (DHL) because they should not receive standard R-CHOP but high intensity treatment as reported in many retrospective studies. New prospective trials are needed to investigate the more appropriate treatment of DHL.

  3. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M; Barber, Glen N; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-02-01

    Lymphomas involving the central nervous system are recognized increasingly in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals, and the majority of the cases are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to compare the immunophenotype, clinicopathological features, and association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of DLBCL of the central nervous system (CNS) in 3 different clinical situations: primary, in immunocompetent patients; "primary," in immunosuppressed patients; and in patients with secondary involvement by systemic lymphoma. The authors reviewed the clinicopathological features, morphology, immunophenotype (according to germinal-center B-cell-like and nongerminal B-cell-like subtypes), and association with EBV in 36 cases of DLBCL of the CNS, including 25 primary cases, 5 associated with immunosuppression, and 6 cases with secondary involvement. Survival was evaluated in 15 cases of primary CNS lymphomas. Of the 36 patients, 19 were male and 18 female. Only 2 cases of lymphomas were EBV-positive; both occurred in immunosuppressed patients. Separation into germinal-center and non-germinal center subtypes by an immunohistochemistry panel showed that 68% of primary, 80% of secondary, and 83% of the cases associated with immunosuppression were of non-germinal-center subtype, respectively. Patients with non-germinal-center immunophenotype showed significantly worse survival than those with CNS lymphomas of the germinal-center subtype.

  4. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Liver in a Patient with Sjogren Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Gorodetskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren’s syndrome (SS has the highest incidence of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders transformation among autoimmune diseases. We present a case of extranodal high grade lymphoma of the liver in a 52-year-old patient with long history of SS. Lymphoma manifested with sharp significant pain in the right hypochondrium, weakness, and profuse night sweats. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (CT-scan of the abdomen revealed multiple low density foci with homogeneous structure and clear contours in both lobes of the liver. Histologically, proliferation of medium sized lymphoma cells with round-oval and slightly irregular nuclei with fine chromatin was shown. Immunohistochemical and molecular features of the tumors allowed diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. To exclude secondary liver lesion by non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chest and small pelvis CT-scan, endoscopy of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and study of bone marrow were performed. After 8 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, the complete remission was achieved, which persists after 45 months of follow-up. Primary hepatic lymphomas are extremely rare, and previously only low-grade hepatic lymphomas have been described in SS. To our knowledge, the patient described here represents the first reported case of DLBCL with primary liver involvement in SS.

  5. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Mariano G; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Abbott, Joshua; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D; Melnick, Ari M

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands.

  6. Mutation mismatch repair gene deletions in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couronné, Lucile; Ruminy, Philippe; Waultier-Rascalou, Agathe; Rainville, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Figeac, Martin; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2013-05-01

    To further unravel the molecular pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization on lymph node biopsies from 70 patients. With this strategy, we identified microdeletions of genes involved in the mutation mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in two samples. The first patient presented with a homozygous deletion of MSH2-MSH6 due to duplication of an unbalanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 2. The other case showed a PMS2 heterozygous deletion. PMS2 and MSH2-MSH6 abnormalities, respectively, resulted in a decrease and complete loss of gene expression. However, unlike tumors associated with the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome or immunodeficiency-related lymphomas, no microsatellite instability was detected. Mutational profiles revealed especially in one patient an aberrant hypermutation without a clear activation-induced cytidine deaminase signature, indicating a breakdown of the high-fidelity repair in favor of the error-prone repair pathway. Our findings suggest that in a rare subset of patients, inactivation of the genes of the MMR pathway is likely an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of DLBCL and does not involve the same molecular mechanisms as other common neoplasms with MMR deficiency.

  7. Cell proliferation as a long-term prognostic factor in diffuse large-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, R; Costa, A; Boracchi, P; Giardini, R; Rilke, F

    1993-05-01

    The relevance of cell proliferation rate--defined as the 3H-thymidine labeling index (3H-dT LI)--in predicting response to treatment (complete remission, CR), freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in 86 patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL). The biologic variable was not associated with most of the established clinical factors, such as gender and age of the patient, performance status, B symptoms, tumor bulk, or extranodal disease, but was directly related to stage. 3H-dT LI significantly predicted short- and long-term clinical outcome. In fact, more patients with slowly proliferating DLCL reached CR and had longer median FFP and OS than patients with rapidly proliferating DLCL. Multiple-regression analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of the different biologic and clinical variables in predicting CR, FFP and OS showed that 3H-dT LI and Ann Arbor stage were the only 2 stable factors, which retained their prognostic significance even in the presence of other conventional factors, and that 3H-dT LI was the most powerful as an indicator of risk of death in DLCL patients.

  8. Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Existence of Large, Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Geha, Marla; Merritt, Allison; Villaume, Alexa; Zhang, Jielai

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a population of low surface brightness objects in the field of the z=0.023 Coma cluster, using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Here we present Keck spectroscopy of one of the largest of these "ultra-diffuse galaxies" (UDGs), confirming that it is a member of the cluster. The galaxy has prominent absorption features, including the Ca II H+K lines and the G-band, and no detected emission lines. Its radial velocity of cz=6280 +- 120 km/s is within the 1 sigma velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster. The galaxy has an effective radius of 4.3 +- 0.3 kpc and a Sersic index of 0.89 +- 0.06, as measured from Keck imaging. We find no indications of tidal tails or other distortions, at least out to a radius of ~2 r_e. We show that UDGs are located in a previously sparsely populated region of the size - magnitude plane of quiescent stellar systems, as they are ~6 magnitudes fainter than normal early-type galaxies of the same size. It appears that the luminosity distribution of large quiescent galax...

  9. Diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: a large cohort of patients etiologically related to Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gastrointestinal tract is a rare disorder, often associated with immunodeficiency syndromes. There are no published reports of its association with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods From March 2005 till February 2010, we prospectively followed all patients with diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (DDNLH). Patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with targeted biopsies, colonoscopy, and small bowel video capsule endoscopy. Duodenal nodular lesions were graded from 0 to 4 based on their size and density. Patients were screened for celiac sprue (IgA endomysial antibody), immunoglobulin abnormalities (immunoglobulin levels & serum protein electrophoresis), small intestine bacterial overgrowth (lactulose hydrogen breath test), and Helicobacter pylori infection (rapid urease test, and histological examination of gastric biopsies). Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori received sequential antibiotic therapy and eradication of infection was evaluated by 14C urea breath test. Follow up duodenoscopies with biopsies were performed to ascertain resolution of nodular lesions. Results Forty patients (Males 23, females 17; mean age ± 1SD 35.6 ± 14.6 years) with DDNLH were studied. Patients presented with epigastric pain, vomiting, and weight loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse nodular lesions (size varying from 2 to 5 mm or more) of varying grades (mean score ± 1SD 2.70 ± 0.84) involving postbulbar duodenum. Video capsule endoscopies revealed nodular disease exclusively limited to duodenum. None of the patients had immunoglobulin deficiency or small intestine bacterial overgrowth or positive IgA endomysial antibodies. All patients were infected with Helicobacter pylori infection. Sequential antibiotic therapy eradicated Helicobacter pylori infection in 26 patients. Follow up duodenoscopies in these patients showed significant reduction of duodenal nodular lesions score (2.69 ± 0.79 to 1.50 ± 1

  10. Large spiral and target waves: Turbulent diffusion boosts scales of pattern formation

    CERN Document Server

    von Kameke, A; Muñuzuri, A P; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V

    2012-01-01

    In absence of advection, reaction-diffusion systems are able to organize into spatiotemporal patterns, in particular spiral and target waves. Whenever advection is present and can be parameterised in terms of effective or turbulent diffusion $D_{*}$, these patterns should be attainable on much greater, boosted lengthscale. However, so far, experimental evidence of these boosted patterns in turbulent flow was lacking. Here, we report the first experimental observation of boosted target and spiral patterns in an excitable chemical reaction in a quasi two-dimensional turbulent flow. The wave patterns observed are $\\sim 50$ times larger than in the case of molecular diffusion only. We vary the turbulent diffusion coefficient $D_{*}$ of the flow and find that the fundamental Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (FKPP) equation $v_{f} \\propto \\sqrt{D_{*}}$ for the asymptotic speed of a reactive wave remains valid. However, not all measures of the boosted wave scale with $D_{*}$ as expected from molecular diffusion,...

  11. AKT Hyperactivation and the Potential of AKT-Targeted Therapy in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinfen; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Jabbar, Kausar J

    2017-01-01

    AKT signaling is important for proliferation and survival of tumor cells. The clinical significance of AKT activation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not well analyzed. Here, we assessed expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in 522 DLBCL patients. We found high levels of p-AKT nucl...

  12. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising from a multicentric mixed variant of Castleman′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venizelos I

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a patient with multicentric mixed type Castleman′s disease and concomitant non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of diffuse large B cell type in the neck. Multicentric CD is a systemic illness with disseminated lymphadenopathy; its aggressive and usually fatal course is associated with infectious complications and risk for malignant tumors, such as lymphoma or Kaposi sarcoma.

  13. Investigation of MGMT and DAPK1 methylation patterns in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using allelic MSP-pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach; Asmar, Fazila

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor genes MGMT and DAPK1 become methylated in several cancers including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, allelic methylation patterns have not been investigated in DLBCL. We developed a fast and cost-efficient method for the analysis of allelic methylation based...

  14. Structural profiles of TP53 gene mutations predict clinical outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ken H; Leroy, Karen; Møller, Michael Boe;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to correlate the presence of TP53 gene mutations with the clinical outcome of a cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) assembled from 12 medical centers. TP53 mutations were identified in 102 of 477 patients and the overall survival (OS) of pati...

  15. Expression and prognostic value of regulatory T cells and M2 macrophages in diffuse large Bcell lymphoma tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐原林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the prognostic value of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissues.Methods The expression of CD163 and Foxp3 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 92 cases of DLBCL,and it was

  16. Hypermethylation of DAPK1 is an independent prognostic factor predicting survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Asmar, Fazila; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Improvements in overall survival have been observed with the introduction of rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), however, prognostic markers are ...

  17. Anemia in diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the role of interleukin-6, hepcidin and erythropoietin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tisi, M.C.; Bozzoli, V.; Giachelia, M.; Massini, G.; Ricerca, B.M.; Maiolo, E.; D'Alo, F.; Larocca, L.M.; Piciocchi, A.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Voso, M.T.; Leone, G.; Hohaus, S.

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is a frequent sign in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) at diagnosis. We determined erythropoietin, hepcidin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma samples of 53 patients with DLBCL. The majority of patients (40/53, 75%) showed defective endogenous erythropoietin production, in

  18. Prognostic value of anemia and C-reactive protein levels in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hugo J A; De Klerk, John M H; Fijnheer, Rob; Heggelman, Ben G F; Dubois, Stefan V.; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prognostic value of pretreatment anemia, pretreatment elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and 6-month posttreatment anemia in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and

  19. Clinical relevance of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, M.H.H.; Hermans, J; Wijburg, E; Philippo, K; Geelen, E; van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; de Jong, D; Maartense, E; Schuuring, E; Kluin, P M

    1998-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL) is characterized by a marked degree of morphologic and clinical heterogeneity. We studied 156 patients with de novo DLCL for rearrangements of the BCL2, BCL6, and MYC oncogenes by Southern blot analysis and BCL2 protein expression. We related these data to the pr

  20. Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole genome sequencing | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a genetically heterogeneous cancer comprising at least two molecular subtypes that differ in gene expression and distribution of mutations. Recently, application of genome/exome sequencing and RNA-seq to DLBCL has revealed numerous genes that are recurrent targets of somatic point mutation in this disease.

  1. Routine imaging for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first remission is not associated with better survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, T. C.; Jakobsen, L. H.; Hutchings, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Routine surveillance imaging plays a limited role in detecting recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and the value of routine imaging is controversial. The present population-based study compares the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish DLBCL patients-two neighbour...

  2. Immunohistochemical profiling of caspase signaling pathways predicts clinical response to chemotherapy in primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.J.; Cillessen, S.A.; Vos, W.; Houdt, I.S. van; Kummer, J.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Jiwa, N.M.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Gundy, C.; Meijer, C.J.M.; Oudejans, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We used biopsy specimens of primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to investigate whether the inhibition of caspase 8 and/or 9 apoptosis signaling pathways predicts clinical outcome. Expression levels of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-Flip) and numbers of active caspase 3-positive

  3. Immunohistochemical profiling of caspase signaling pathways predicts clinical response to chemotherapy in primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, JJF; Cillessen, SAGM; Vos, W; van Houdt, IS; Kummer, JA; van Krieken, JHJM; Jiwa, NM; Jansen, PM; Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Ossenkoppele, GJ; Gundy, C; Meijer, CJLM; Oudejans, JJ

    2005-01-01

    We used biopsy specimens of primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to investigate whether the inhibition of caspase 8 and/or 9 apoplosis signaling pathways predicts clinical outcome. Expression levels of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-Flip) and numbers of active caspase 3-positive

  4. Rearrangements of MYC gene facilitate risk stratification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzankov, Alexandar; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Gerhard, Marc;

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the debatable prognostic role of MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, we evaluated MYC rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 563 cases using br...

  5. A Report on Facilitating Educational Change with Local School Districts through the National Diffusion Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Ralph

    The National Diffusion Network was initiated in 1974 by the United States Office of Education (USOE). Thirty states developed state facilitators the first year and 36 states had facilitators the second year. Among the facilitators in the network, there appears to be considerable difference in the approaches that are taken to diffuse the projects…

  6. Large concentration changes due to thermal diffusion effects in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Johannessen, Tue; Jensen, Søren;

    Thermal diffusion, or Sorét diffusion, is shown to cause significant concentration changes and transients in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients. In a silicon microsystem, a temperature gradient of about 100 oC/mm is measured to produce concentration transients of up to 13.......7 % in an argon/helium mixture, when the flow is abruptly changed from a high value to a low value. Finite element simulations of the thermal diffusion in a geometry similar to the experimental setup reproduce the measurements....

  7. A Local Asynchronous Distributed Privacy Preserving Feature Selection Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we develop a local distributed privacy preserving algorithm for feature selection in a large peer-to-peer environment. Feature selection is often used...

  8. A Local Scalable Distributed EM Algorithm for Large P2P Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — his paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  9. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  10. Fermi LAT Observation of Diffuse Gamma-Rays Produced through Interactions Between Local Interstellar Matter and High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U., OKC /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse {gamma}-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200{sup o} to 260{sup o} and latitude |b| from 22{sup o} to 60{sup o}) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of {gamma}-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual {gamma}-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated {gamma}-ray emissivity is (1.63 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} and (0.66 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of {approx}10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within {approx}10%.

  11. Comparative Study on Rituximab Combined with Chemotherapy and Single Chemotherapy for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng FENG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of rituximab combined with chemotherapy and single chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Methods: A total of 97 patients with DLBCL were selected. Patients treated by single chemotherapy were designed as control group, while those by rituximab combined with chemotherapy as observational group. All patients were treated for at least 4 cycles. The short-term and long-term efficacy and related adverse reactions of 2 groups were observed. Results: The rate of complete remission (CR in observational group was significantly higher than in control group (χ2=4.6589, P=0.0309. However, there was no significant difference in objective remission rate (ORR between 2 groups (P=0.3651. The rates of 3-year overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS and disease-free survival (DFS were 80.30% (53/66, 69.70% (46/66 and 59.09% (39/66 in observational group, and 61.29% (19/31, 58.06% (18/31 and 58.06% (18/31 in control group, respectively. The OS in observational group was significantly longer than in control group (P=0.035. However, there was no significant difference in PFS, DFS and rate adverse reactions between 2 groups (P=0.089; P=0.438; χ2=0.1562, P=0.6927. Conclusion: Rituximab combined with chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of DLBCL without increasing the adverse reactions, which can be used as the first-line treatment for DLBCL, thus deserving to be widely applied in clinic.

  12. Low GILT expression is associated with poor patient survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah ePhipps-Yonas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway presents antigenic peptides acquired in the endocytic route for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Multiple cancers express MHC class II, which may influence the anti-tumor immune response and patient outcome. Low MHC class II expression is associated with poor survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, the most common form of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Therefore, we investigated whether gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT, an upstream component of the MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway that is not regulated by the transcription factor class II transactivator, may be important in DLBCL biology. GILT reduces protein disulfide bonds in the endocytic compartment, exposing additional epitopes for MHC class II binding and facilitating antigen presentation. In each of four independent gene expression profiling cohorts with a total of 585 DLBCL patients, low GILT expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival. In contrast, low expression of a classical MHC class II gene, HLA-DRA, was associated with poor survival in one of four cohorts. The association of low GILT expression with poor survival was independent of established clinical and molecular prognostic factors, the International Prognostic Index and the cell of origin classification, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of GILT expression in 96 DLBCL cases demonstrated variation in GILT protein expression within tumor cells which correlated strongly with GILT mRNA expression. These studies identify a novel association between GILT expression and clinical outcome in lymphoma. Our findings underscore the role of antigen processing in DLBCL and suggest that molecules targeting this pathway warrant investigation as potential therapeutics.

  13. Prognostic value of tumor necrosis at CT in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A., E-mail: h.j.a.adams@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Department of Hematology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Department of Pathology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •CT is compulsory for staging newly diagnosed DLBCL. •Approximately 13.7% of DLBCL patients have tumor necrosis at CT. •Tumor necrosis status at CT is not associated with any NCCN-IPI factor. •Patients with tumor necrosis at CT have a significantly worse outcome. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine the prognostic value of tumor necrosis at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 51 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone both unenhanced and intravenous contrast-enhanced CT before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Presence of tumor necrosis was visually and quantitatively assessed at CT. Associations between tumor necrosis status at CT and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors were assessed. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic impact of NCCN-IPI scores and tumor necrosis status at CT. Results: There were no correlations between tumor necrosis status at CT and the NCCN-IPI factors categorized age (ρ = −0.042, P = 0.765), categorized lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ratio (ρ = 0.201, P = 0.156), extranodal disease in major organs (φ = −0.245, P = 0.083), Ann Arbor stage III/IV disease (φ = −0.208, P = 0.141), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (φ = 0.015, P = 0.914). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only tumor necrosis status at CT was an independent predictive factor of progression-free survival (P = 0.003) and overall survival (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the prognostic potential of tumor necrosis at CT in newly diagnosed DLBCL.

  14. Immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics with prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Bellas

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB. BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity.

  15. On the Fermi Large Area Telescope Surplus of Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völk, H. J.; Berezhko, E. G.

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  16. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  17. ON THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SURPLUS OF DIFFUSE GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Völk, H. J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berezhko, E. G., E-mail: Heinrich.Voelk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-10

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this 'Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus' by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  18. Comparative Study on Rituximab Combined with Chemotherapy and Single Chemotherapy for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ji-feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efifcacy and safety of rituximab combined with chemotherapy and single chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods:A total of 97 patients with DLBCL were selected. Patients treated by single chemotherapy were designed as control group, while those by rituximab combined with chemotherapy as observational group. All patients were treated for at least 4 cycles. The short-term and long-term efifcacy and related adverse reactions of 2 groups were observed. Results:The rate of complete remission (CR) in observational group was signiifcantly higher than in control group (χ2=4.6589,P=0.0309). However, there was no signiifcant difference in objective remission rate (ORR) between 2 groups (P=0.3651). The rates of 3-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 80.30% (53/66), 69.70% (46/66) and 59.09% (39/66) in observational group, and 61.29% (19/31), 58.06% (18/31) and 58.06% (18/31) in control group, respectively. The OS in observational group was signiifcantly longer than in control group (P=0.035). However, there was no signiifcant difference in PFS, DFS and rate adverse reactions between 2 groups (P=0.089;P=0.438;χ2=0.1562,P=0.6927). Conclusion: Rituximab combined with chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of DLBCL without increasing the adverse reactions, which can be used as the ifrst-line treatment for DLBCL, thus deserving to be widely applied in clinic.

  19. MYC protein expression in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamraan Z Gill

    Full Text Available Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS DLBCL is a rare, aggressive subtype of DLBCL, the biology of which is poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested a prognostic role of MYC protein expression in systemic DLBCL, but little is known about the frequency and significance of MYC protein expression in CNS DLBCL. Hence, we investigated MYC protein expression profiles of CNS DLBCL and assessed the relationship between MYC expression and a variety of histopathologic, immunophenotypic, genetic, and clinical features. Fifty-nine CNS DLBCL diagnosed at our institution over the past 13 years were evaluated. The majority of cases (80% showed centroblastic morphology, and 12 (20% displayed a perivascular pattern of infiltration. According to the Hans criteria, 41 (69% cases had a non-germinal center B-cell and 18 (31% had a germinal center B-cell cell-of-origin (COO phenotype. Mean MYC protein expression was 50% (median: 50%, range: 10-80%. Forty-three cases (73% showed MYC overexpression (≥ 40%, and 35 (60% showed MYC/BCL2 coexpression. MYC overexpression was seen in the single case harboring MYC translocation and in the cases showing increased copies of MYC (27%; however, no significant difference in mean MYC expression was seen between groups harboring or lacking MYC aberrations. In our series, age was associated with a significantly increased risk of death, and the perivascular pattern of infiltration was associated with a significantly increased risk of disease progression. Neither MYC expression (with or without BCL2 coexpression nor other variables, including COO subtype were predictive of clinical outcome. Our findings indicate that the proportion of CNS DLBCL overexpressing MYC is higher compared to systemic DLBCL, and MYC overexpression appears to be independent of genetic MYC abnormalities. Thus, MYC expression and other immunophenotypic markers used for prognostication of systemic DLBCL might not apply

  20. Construction and analysis of tree models for chromosomal classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yong Jiang; Zhong-Xi Huang; Xue-Feng Zhang; Richard Desper; Tong Zhao

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To construct tree models for classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) by chromosome copy numbers, to compare them with cDNA microarray classification, and to explore models of multi-gene, multi-step and multi-pathway processes of DLBCL tumorigenesis.METHODS: Maximum-weight branching and distance based models were constructed based on the comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data of 123 DLBCL samples using the established methods and software of Desper et al. A maximum likelihood tree model was also used to analyze the data. By comparing with the results reported in literature, values of tree models in the classification of DLBCL were elucidated.RESULTS: Both the branching and the distance-based trees classified DLBCL into three groups. We combined the classification methods of the two models and classified DLBCL into three categories according to their characteristics. The first group was marked by +Xq, +Xp, -17p and +13q; the second group by +3q, +18q and +18p; and the third group was marked by -6q and +6p. This chromosomal classification was consistent with cDNA classification. It indicated that -6q and +3q were two main events in the tumorigenesis of lymphoma.CONCLUSION: Tree models of lymphoma established from CGH data can be used in the classification of DLBCL. These models can suggest multi-gene, multi-step and multi-pathway processes of tumorigenesis.Two pathways, -6q preceding +6q and +3q preceding +18q, may be important in understanding tumorigenesis of DLBCL. The pathway, -6q preceding +6q, may have a close relationship with the tumorigenesis of non-GCB DLBCL.

  1. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Complicated by Small Bowel Obstruction after Radiotherapy: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ari Safitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although the spleen is frequently involved in disseminated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, splenic presentation as the initial or only site of disease is uncommon. Treatment modalities include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The priority of cancer follow up is to perform surveillance for recurrent cancer and evaluation of treatment response. Side effects of treatment are frequently missed or overlooked. A 66-year-old woman was presented to our hospital with a month history of spleen enlargement. On physical examination the spleen was palpated at Schuffner 2. Abdominal MSCT scan was suggestive of lymphoma. Surgery revealed adhesion and obstruction of the stomach. Biopsy and gastrojejunostomy shunting were done, but splenectomy was difficult. The pathology anatomy findings confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse non Hodgkin’s lymphoma large B-cell type. Immunohistochemistry showed positive CD3 and CD20. She underwent 6 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (RCHOP chemotherapy. CT evaluation done 7 months later revealed that the hilus lienalis lymph nodes and spleen has decrease in size. However, a lumbosacral x-ray done due to back pain revealed metastasis on her 1st and 2nd lumbal spine. After a single fraction of radiotherapy, nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension occurred. A 3 position abdominal x-ray revealed signs of small bowel obstruction. After surgery she has received 9 cycles of zoledronic acid and remained in good condition and ambulatory. Splenic presentation as the initial or only site of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL is uncommon. Acute small bowel obstruction and fistula due to palliative radiation therapy for bone metastasis needs prompt and appropriate treatment.

  2. HLA and Risk of Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shehnaz K; Makgoeng, Solomon B; Everly, Matthew J; Goodman, Marc T; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Snyder, Jon; Israni, Ajay; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2016-11-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have heightened risk for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The role of donor-recipient HLA mismatch and recipient HLA type on DLBCL risk are not well established. We examined 172 231 kidney, heart, pancreas, and lung recipients transplanted in the United States between 1987 and 2010, including 902 with DLBCL. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression for DLBCL risk in relation to HLA mismatch, types, and zygosity, adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, year, organ, and transplant number. Compared with recipients who had 2 HLA-DR mismatches, those with zero or 1 mismatch had reduced DLBCL risk, (zero: IRR, 0.76, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.61-0.95; one: IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-1.00). In stratified analyses, recipients matched at either HLA-A, -B, or -DR had a significantly reduced risk of late-onset (>2 years after transplantation), but not early-onset DLBCL, and there was a trend for decreasing risk with decreasing mismatch across all 3 loci (P = 0.0003). Several individual recipient HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ antigens were also associated with DLBCL risk, including DR13 (IRR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93) and B38 (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.93), confirming prior findings that these 2 antigens are associated with risk of infection-associated cancers. In conclusion, variation in HLA is related to susceptibility to DLBCL, perhaps reflecting intensity of immunosuppression, control of Epstein-Barr virus infection among transplant recipients or chronic immune stimulation.

  3. Targetable activating mutations are very frequent in GCB and ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohers, Elodie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Marchand, Vinciane; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Ménard, Anne-Lise; Etancelin, Pascaline; Bertrand, Philippe; Dubois, Sydney; Alcantara, Marion; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive and heterogeneous malignancy that can be divided in two major subgroups, germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC). Activating mutations of genes involved in the BCR and NF-κB pathways (CD79A, CD79B, MYD88, and CARD11) or in epigenetic regulation (EZH2) have been recently reported, preferentially in one of the two DLBCL subtypes. We analyzed the mutational status of these five recurrently mutated genes in a cohort of 161 untreated de novo DLBCL. Overall, 93 mutations were detected, in 61 (38%) of the patients. The L265P MYD88 mutation was the most frequent MYD88 variant (n = 18), observed exclusively in the ABC subtype. CD79A/CD79B ITAM domains were targeted in ABC DLBCL (12/77; 16%), whereas CARD11 mutations were equally distributed in the two subtypes. The EZH2 Y641 substitution was found almost exclusively in the GCB subgroup (15/62; 24%). Twenty cases (12%) displayed two activating mutations, including the most frequent CD79/MYD88 variants combination (n = 8) which is observed exclusively in the ABC subtype. When considering only ABC DLBCL patients treated by rituximab plus chemotherapy, the presence of an activating NF-κB mutation was associated with an unfavorable outcome (3-years OS 26% for mutated cases versus 67% for the cases without mutations, P = 0.0337). Our study demonstrates that activating and targetable mutations are observed at a very high frequency in DLBCL at the time of diagnosis, indicating that sequencing of a limited number of genes could help tailor an optimal treatment strategy in DLBCL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of MYC-driven diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kluk

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. A small subset of DLBCLs has translocations involving the MYC locus and an additional group has a molecular signature resembling Burkitt lymphoma (mBL. Presently, identification of such cases by morphology is unreliable and relies on cytogenetic or complex molecular methods such as gene transcriptional profiling. Herein, we describe an immunohistochemical (IHC method for identifying DLBCLs with increased MYC protein expression. We tested 77 cases of DLBCL and identified 15 cases with high MYC protein expression (nuclear staining in >50% of tumor cells. All MYC translocation positive cases had increased MYC protein expression by this IHC assay. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA of the DLBCL transcriptional profiles revealed that tumors with increased MYC protein expression (regardless of underlying MYC translocation status had coordinate upregulation of MYC target genes, providing molecular confirmation of the IHC results. We then generated a molecular classifier derived from the MYC IHC results in our cases and employed it to successfully classify mBLs from two previously reported independent case series, providing additional confirmation that the MYC IHC results identify clinically important subsets of DLBCLs. Lastly, we found that DLBCLs with high MYC protein expression had inferior overall survival when treated with R-CHOP. In conclusion, the IHC method described herein can be used to readily identify the biologically and clinically distinct cases of MYC-driven DLBCL, which represent a clinically significant subset of DLBCL cases due to their inferior overall survival.

  5. The NOTCH pathway is recurrently mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaini, Luca; Rossi, Davide; Lucioni, Marco; Nicola, Marta; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Fiaccadori, Valeria; Riboni, Roberta; Ramponi, Antonio; Ferretti, Virginia V; Cresta, Stefania; Casaluci, Gloria Margiotta; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gotti, Manuel; Merli, Michele; Maffi, Aldo; Arra, Mariarosa; Varettoni, Marzia; Rattotti, Sara; Morello, Lucia; Guerrera, Maria Luisa; Sciarra, Roberta; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cazzola, Mario; Paulli, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been found to be associated with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, mostly marginal zone lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Deregulation of signaling pathways involved in normal marginal zone development (NOTCH pathway, NF-κB, and BCR signaling) has been demonstrated in splenic marginal zone lymphoma. We studied mutations of NOTCH pathway signaling in 46 patients with hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in 64 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma unrelated to HCV. NOTCH2 mutations were detected in 9 of 46 (20%) hepatitis C virus-positive patients, and NOTCH1 mutations in 2 of 46 (4%). By contrast, only one of 64 HCV-negative patients had a NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 mutation. The frequency of the NOTCH pathway lesions was significantly higher in hepatitis C virus-positive patients (P=0.002). The 5-year overall survival was 27% (95%CI: 5%-56%) for hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients carrying a NOTCH pathway mutation versus 62% (95%CI: 42%-77%) for those without these genetic lesions. By univariate analysis, age over 60 years, NOTCH2 mutation, and any mutation of the NOTCH pathway (NOTCH2, NOTCH1, SPEN) were associated with shorter overall survival. Mutation of the NOTCH pathway retained an independent significance (P=0.029). In conclusion, a subset of patients with hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma displays a molecular signature of splenic marginal zone and has a worse clinical outcome.

  6. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: A numerical test of the additivity principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  7. ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES) - Merging Observations and Laboratory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2016-01-01

    The Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) are a set of 500 absorption bands that are detected in the spectra of stars with interstellar clouds in the line of sight. DIBs are found from the NUV to the NIR in the spectra of reddened stars spanning different interstellar environments in our local, and in other galaxies. DIB carriers are a significant part of the interstellar chemical inventory. They are stable and ubiquitous in a broad variety of environments and play a unique role in interstellar physics/chemistry. It has long been realized that the solving of the DIB problem requires a strong synergy between astronomical observations, laboratory astrophysics, and astrophysical modeling of line-of-sights. PAHs are among the molecular species that have been proposed as DIB carriers. We will present an assessment of the PAH-DIB model in view of the progress and the advances that have been achieved over the past years through a series of studies involving astronomical observations of DIBs, laboratory simulation of interstellar analogs for neutrals and ionized PAHs, theoretical calculations of PAH spectra and the modelization of diffuse and translucent interstellar clouds. We will present a summary of what has been learned from these complementary studies, the constraints that can now be derived for the PAHs as DIB carriers in the context of the PAH-DIB model and how these constraints can be applied to the EDIBLES project. The spectra of several neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the

  8. Effects of non-local diffusion on structural MRI preprocessing and default network mapping: statistical comparisons with isotropic/anisotropic diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Nian Zuo

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging community usually employs spatial smoothing to denoise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, e.g., Gaussian smoothing kernels. Such an isotropic diffusion (ISD based smoothing is widely adopted for denoising purpose due to its easy implementation and efficient computation. Beyond these advantages, Gaussian smoothing kernels tend to blur the edges, curvature and texture of images. Researchers have proposed anisotropic diffusion (ASD and non-local diffusion (NLD kernels. We recently demonstrated the effect of these new filtering paradigms on preprocessing real degraded MRI images from three individual subjects. Here, to further systematically investigate the effects at a group level, we collected both structural and functional MRI data from 23 participants. We first evaluated the three smoothing strategies' impact on brain extraction, segmentation and registration. Finally, we investigated how they affect subsequent mapping of default network based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI data. Our findings suggest that NLD-based spatial smoothing maybe more effective and reliable at improving the quality of both MRI data preprocessing and default network mapping. We thus recommend NLD may become a promising method of smoothing structural MRI images of R-fMRI pipeline.

  9. Excellent Outcome of Immunomodulation or Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition in Highly Refractory Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Eva; Accurso, Joseph; Sluzevich, Jason; Menke, David M; Tun, Han W

    2015-12-29

    Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT) is a rare diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confined to the skin of the legs. The typical presentation is characterized by solitary or multiple growing plaques, usually confined to one leg. We report a case of PCDLBCL-LT of activated B-cell subtype characterized by multiple local relapses in the legs, initially, and systemic relapses about seven years after the diagnosis. Local relapses were sensitive to radiation therapy. Cutaneous and systemic relapses responded well to immunomodulatory therapy with lenalidomide followed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibition with ibrutinib. Ibrutinib is the only treatment that resulted in long-lasting complete remission. Lenalidomide and especially ibrutinib appear to have a significant activity against this lymphoma and should be incorporated in the treatment of this resistant and aggressive lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PCDLBCL-LT reported in the literature exhibiting a complete response to ibrutinib.

  10. The origin of a large apparent tortuosity factor for the Knudsen diffusion inside monoliths of a samaria-alumina aerogel catalyst: a diffusion NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R; Zhang, S; Klink, M; Bäumer, M; Vasenkov, S

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR was applied to measure tortuosity factors for carbon dioxide diffusion in the Knudsen and gas regimes inside monoliths of a samaria-alumina aerogel catalyst, a high porosity material containing micropores in addition to meso- and macropores. The apparent tortuosity factor obtained from PFG NMR measurements for the Knudsen diffusion in the meso- and macropores of the catalyst has an unexpectedly large value of approximately 6 if carbon dioxide adsorption in the micropores and other types of surface adsorption sites of the catalyst is ignored. At the same time, the corresponding apparent tortuosity factor in the gas regime was found to be around 2. Application of a proposed model which describes fast molecular exchange between the surface adsorption sites and the main pore volume of the catalyst yields corrected tortuosity factors which depend only on the pore system geometry. Using this model, the corrected tortuosity factors were found to be around 2 for both diffusion regimes, in agreement with the expectations based on a high porosity of the studied catalyst.

  11. Fast conversion of digital Fresnel hologram to phase-only hologram based on localized error diffusion and redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Jiao, A S M; Poon, T-C

    2014-03-10

    Past research has demonstrated that a digital, complex Fresnel hologram can be converted into a phase-only hologram with the use of the bi-direction error diffusion (BERD) algorithm. However, the recursive nature error diffusion process is lengthy and increases monotonically with hologram size. In this paper, we propose a method to overcome this problem. Briefly, each row of a hologram is partitioned into short non-overlapping segments, and a localized error diffusion algorithm is applied to convert the pixels in each segment into phase only values. Subsequently, the error signal is redistributed with low-pass filtering. As the operation on each segment is independent of others, the conversion process can be conducted at high speed with the graphic processing unit. The hologram obtained with the proposed method, known as the Localized Error Diffusion and Redistribution (LERDR) hologram, is over two orders of magnitude faster than that obtained by BERD for a 2048×2048 hologram, exceeding the capability of generating quality phase-only holograms in video rate.

  12. The Spectrum of the Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Derived From First-Year Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.

    2011-08-19

    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called 'extra-galactic' diffuse {gamma}-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modelling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic {gamma}-ray emission (DGE), the detected LAT sources and the solar {gamma}-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with differential spectral index {gamma} = 2.41 {+-} 0.05 and intensity, I(> 100 MeV) = (1.03 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}, where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.

  13. TRAVELING WAVES IN A BIOLOGICAL REACTION-DIFFUSION MODEL WITH STRONG GENERIC DELAY KERNEL AND NON-LOCAL EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the reaction diffusion equations with strong generic delay kernel and non-local effect,which models the microbial growth in a flow reactor.The existence of traveling waves is established for this model.More precisely,using the geometric singular perturbation theory,we show that traveling wave solutions exist provided that the delay is sufficiently small with the strong generic delay kernel.

  14. Localized, diffuse, and aggregative-adhering Escherichia coli from infants with acute diarrhea and matched-controls

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Magalhães; Amorim,Rosemary J. M.; Yoshifumi Takeda; Teizo Tsukamoto; Maria G. Antas; Seiki Tateno

    1992-01-01

    Of 126 infants under 2 years, enrolled in a study on the etiology of acute diarrhea in Recife, Brazil, we selected 37 from whom no recognized enteropathogens, except classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, were identified. For comparison, we also examined 37 matched-control infants without diarrhea seen at the same hospital setting. This paper had the purpose to determine the prevalence of localized, diffuse, and aggregative-adhering E. coli strains in both groups. Three to five fecal E. c...

  15. Use of large bulls to improve the body weight of local small sized buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Sanh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Swamp buffalo bulls (4 large and 4 local small sized and 240 buffalo cows (120 selected and 120 non-selected were used to evaluate the effects of bull size and selected cows on body weight of calves. Experimental animals were allocated into 4 groups: T1- large sized bulls x selected cows (BSB+SC; T2 - large sized bulls x non-selected cows (BSB+NSC; T3 – local small sized bulls x selected cows (SSB+SC and CT – local small sized bulls x non-selected cows (SSB+NSC as a control group. Each bull was mated with 15 selected cows and 15 non-selected cows. Body weight of calves at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of ages was highest in calves of T1, then T2 and then T3 while the lowest weight was found in the CT group. Calf weight in the large sized bulls and selected cows group was higher by 10-15% than that of calves in the local small bulls and non-selected cows group at all ages. It is concluded that the use of large sized bulls for breeding increased body weight of calves. Using large bulls and selected buffalo cows was the best solution for improving the body weight of the local buffalo.

  16. Improving the light quantification of near infrared (NIR) diffused light optical tomography with ultrasound localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman

    According to the statistics published by the American Cancer Society, currently breast cancer is the second most common cancer after skin cancer and the second cause of cancer death after lung cancer in the female population. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared (NIR) light, guided by ultrasound localization, has shown great promise in distinguishing benign from malignant breast tumors and in assessing the response of breast cancer to chemotherapy. Our ultrasound-guided DOT system is based on reflection geometry, with patients scanned in supine position using a hand-held probe. For patients with chest-wall located at a depth shallower than 1 to 2cm, as in about 10% of our clinical cases, the semi-infinite imaging medium is not a valid assumption and the chest-wall effect needs to be considered in the imaging reconstruction procedure. In this dissertation, co-registered ultrasound images were used to model the breast-tissue and chest-wall as a two-layer medium. The effect of the chest wall on breast lesion reconstruction was systematically investigated. The performance of the two-layer model-based reconstruction, using the Finite Element Method, was evaluated by simulation, phantom experiments and clinical studies. The results show that the two-layer model can improve the accuracy of estimated background optical properties, the reconstructed absorption map and the total hemoglobin concentration of the lesion. For patients' data affected by chest wall, the perturbation, which is the difference between measurements obtained at lesion and normal reference sites, may include the information of background mismatch between these two sites. Because the imaging reconstruction is based on the perturbation approach, the effect of this mismatch between the optical properties at the two sites on reconstructed optical absorption was studied and a guideline for imaging procedure was developed to reduce these effects during data capturing. To reduce the artifacts

  17. Benefit of Consolidative Radiation Therapy for Primary Bone Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Randa; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rodriguez, Alma [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shihadeh, Ferial; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Arzu, Isadora; Reed, Valerie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Oki, Yasuhiro; Westin, Jason R.; Fayad, Luis E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina, E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) differ according to the site of presentation. With effective chemotherapy, the need for consolidative radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. We investigated the influence of primary bone presentation and receipt of consolidative RT on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL. Methods and Materials: We identified 102 patients with primary bone DLBCL treated consecutively from 1988 through 2013 and extracted clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics from the medical records. Survival outcomes were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with factors affecting survival determined by log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done with a Cox regression model. Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 16-87 years). The most common site of presentation was in the long bones. Sixty-five patients (63%) received R-CHOP–based chemotherapy, and 74 (72%) received rituximab. RT was given to 67 patients (66%), 47 with stage I to II and 20 with stage III to IV disease. The median RT dose was 44 Gy (range, 24.5-50 Gy). At a median follow-up time of 82 months, the 5-year PFS and OS rates were 80% and 82%, respectively. Receipt of RT was associated with improved 5-year PFS (88% RT vs 63% no RT, P=.0069) and OS (91% vs 68%, P=.0064). On multivariate analysis, the addition of RT significantly improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.14, P=.014) with a trend toward an OS benefit (HR=0.30, P=.053). No significant difference in PFS or OS was found between patients treated with 30 to 35 Gy versus ≥36 Gy (P=.71 PFS and P=.31 OS). Conclusion: Patients with primary bone lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy followed by RT can have excellent outcomes. The use of consolidative RT was associated with significant benefits in both PFS and OS.

  18. Rituximab maintenance therapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy has significantly improved survival in patients with lymphoma. Recently, maintenance therapy with rituximab has been shown to prevent relapse and provide survival benefits for patients with follicular or mantle cell lymphoma. However, the effects of rituximab in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remain unclear. Two new studies involving rituximab in the treatment of DLBCL were performed this past year. We performed a meta analysis to evaluate the effects of rituximab maintenance treatment of patients with DLBCL. Methods Several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases were reviewed for relevant randomized controlled trials published prior to May, 2016. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies and extracted data independently. The hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event data and relative risks (RRs) for the other data were pooled and estimated. Results Totally 5 studies including 1740 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. Compared to the observation group, patients who received rituximab maintenance therapy had significantly improved event-free survival (EFS) (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65–0.98) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54–0.94). However, there was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.27–1.29). A subgroup analysis suggested that male patients may benefit from rituximab maintenance therapy with a better EFS (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34–0.82-), while this advantage was not observed in female patients (HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.64–1.52). Conclusions Rituximab maintenance may provide survival benefits beyond that afforded by first- and second-line chemotherapy alone, especially in male patients. However, maintenance rituximab treatment may cause more adverse events. It is recommended that both survival benefits and adverse events should

  19. Chronic Inflammation-Related Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Around the Area of Thoracotomy After Decortication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Metin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall tumors consist 5% of all tumors in the thorax. Lymphomas compose of less than 5% of all primary chest wall malignancy.Sixty three years old patient who had an operation for pleural thickness two years ago admitted with complaint of left-sided chest pain.Following the detection of mass lesion radiologically at the place of previous operation area, the patient was operated based on needle biopsy result suggesting Ewing /PNET or pulmonary originated tumor. After the operation, pathological examination confirmed chronic inflammation-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Since it has been rarely reported in the literature, we aimed to present the case of chronic inflammation-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developed within such a short time as two years on the ground of surgical incision scar tissue together with our radiologic, surgical, and pathological findings.

  20. Transformation of a Cutaneous Follicle Center Lymphoma to a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma—An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dias Coelho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL is characterized by a proliferation of follicle center cells in the skin. A definitive diagnosis is frequently delayed because of difficulties in interpretation of the histopathologic findings. It has an excellent prognosis with a 5-year survival over 95% and its risk of transformation has not been established. We describe a case report of man with a gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL referred to our clinic because of nodules in the back that had gradually developed over a period of 10 years. A biopsy performed 3 years before was interpreted as reactive follicular hyperplasia. A new skin biopsy revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements from the initial skin biopsy (PCBCL and the DLBCL gastric biopsy were studied by polymerase chain reaction and an identical clonal rearrangement was detected which was highly suggestive of a transformation lymphoma.

  1. Essential role of MALT1 protease activity in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu; Posvitz-Fejfar, Anita; Rebeaud, Fabien; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Penas, Eva-Maria Murga; Dierlamm, Judith; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Thome, Margot

    2009-01-01

    A key element for the development of suitable anti-cancer drugs is the identification of cancer-specific enzymatic activities that can be therapeutically targeted. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue transformation protein 1 (MALT1) is a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, the least curable subtype of DLBCL. Recent data suggest that MALT1 has proteolytic activity, but it is unknown whether this activity...

  2. CGCI Investigators Reveal Comprehensive Landscape of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Genomes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers from British Columbia Cancer Agency used whole genome sequencing to analyze 40 DLBCL cases and 13 cell lines in order to fill in the gaps of the complex landscape of DLBCL genomes. Their analysis, “Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole genome sequencing,” was published online in Blood on May 22. The authors are Ryan Morin, Marco Marra, and colleagues.  

  3. Prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus DNA detection in pretreatment serum in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akinao; Yanada, Masamitsu; Miura, Hiroki; Inaguma, Yoko; Tokuda, Masutaka; Morishima, Satoko; Kanie, Tadaharu; Yamamoto, Yukiya; Mizuta, Shuichi; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Shigeo; Okamoto, Masataka; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2015-11-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in pretreatment serum has clinical implications for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For this study, we measured EBV DNA load in pretreatment serum from 127 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without any underlying immunodeficiency to evaluate its effects on clinical manifestations and prognosis. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy in combination with rituximab was given as initial therapy for 119 patients (94%). Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in 15 patients (12%), who were older (P = 0.005) and tended to be at a more advanced disease stage (P = 0.053). They showed significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than other patients (P EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization was known for 123 patients; 6 of 8 positive patients (75%) and 9 of 115 negative patients (8%) had detectable EBV DNA in pretreatment serum. While patients positive for EBV-encoded small RNA had significantly worse PFS and OS than negative patients (P = 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively), EBV DNA detection in pretreatment serum was associated with poorer PFS and OS even for the 115 patients negative for EBV-encoded small RNA (P EBV DNA detection in pretreatment serum may have an adverse prognostic impact for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  4. A Unique “Composite” PTLD with Diffuse Large B-Cell and T/Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Components Occurring 17 Years after Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin La Fortune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD comprises a spectrum ranging from polyclonal hyperplasia to aggressive monoclonal lymphomas. The majority of PTLDs are of B-cell origin while T-cell PTLDs and Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLDs are uncommon. Here, we report a unique case of a 56-year-old man in whom a lymphoma with two distinct components developed as a duodenal mass seventeen years following a combined kidney-pancreas transplant. This PTLD, which has features not previously reported in the literature, consisted of one component of CD20 positive and EBV negative monomorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The other component showed anaplastic morphology, expressed some but not all T-cell markers, failed to express most B-cell markers except for PAX5, and was diffusely EBV positive. Possible etiologies for this peculiar constellation of findings are discussed and the literature reviewed for “composite-like” lymphomas late in the posttransplant setting.

  5. Non-local interaction via diffusible resource prevents coexistence of cooperators and cheaters in a lattice model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruce Borenstein

    Full Text Available Many cellular populations cooperate through the secretion of diffusible extracellular resources, such as digestive enzymes or virulence factors. Diffusion of these resources leads to long-range intercellular interactions, creating the possibility of cooperation but also the risk of exploitation by non-producing neighbors. In the past, considerable attention has been given to game-theoretic lattice models of intercellular cooperation. In these models, coexistence is commonly observed between cooperators (corresponding to resource producers and cheaters (corresponding to nonproducers. However, these models consider only interactions between direct competitors. We find that when individuals are allowed to interact non-locally through the diffusion of a shared resource coexistence between cooperators and cheaters is lost. Instead, we find population dynamics similar to simple competition, either neutral or biased, with no balancing selection that would favor coexistence. Our results highlight the importance of an accurate treatment of diffusion of shared resources and argue against the generality of the conclusions of game-theoretic lattice models.

  6. Occurrence of anaplastic large cell lymphoma following IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and cholecystitis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing disease is an established disease entity with characteristic clinicopathological features. Recently, the association between IgG4-related sclerosing disease and the risk of malignancies has been suggested. IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis with pancreatic cancer has been reported. Further, a few cases of extraocular malignant lymphoma in patients with IgG4-related sclerosing disease have also been documented. Herein, we describe the first documented case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) following IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and cholecystitis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 61-year-old Japanese male, with a past history of DLBCL, was detected with swelling of the pancreas and tumorous lesions in the gallbladder. Histopathological study of the resected gallbladder specimen revealed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with fibrosclerosis in the entire gallbladder wall. Eosinophilic infiltration and obliterative phlebitis were also noted. Immunohistochemically, many IgG4-positive plasma cells had infiltrated into the lesion, and the ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive plasma cells was 71.6%. Accordingly, a diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was made. Seven months later, he presented with a painful tumor in his left parotid gland. Histopathological study demonstrated diffuse or cohesive sheet-like proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with rich slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and irregular-shaped large nuclei. These lymphoid cells were positive for CD30, CD4, and cytotoxic markers, but negative for CD3 and ALK. Therefore, a diagnosis of ALK-negative ALCL was made. It has been suggested that the incidence of malignant lymphoma may be high in patients with IgG4-related sclerosing disease, therefore, intense medical follow-up is important in patients with this disorder.

  7. Correlations between functional imaging markers derived from PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchen Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlations between functional imaging markers derived from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL and follicular lymphoma (FL. Further to compare the usefulness of these tumor markers in differentiating diagnosis of the two common types of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive pre-therapy adult patients with proven NHL (23 DLBCL and 11 FL underwent PET/CT and MRI examinations and laboratory tests. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max, metabolic tumor volume (MTV, and metabolic tumor burden (MTB were determined from the PET/CT images. DWI was performed in addition to conventional MRI sequences using two b values (0 and 800 s/mm(2. The minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC(min and ADC(mean were measured on the parametric ADC maps. RESULTS: The SUV(max correlated inversely with the ADC(min (r =  -0.35, p<0.05. The ADC(min, ADC(mean, serum thymidine kinase (TK, Beta 2-microglobulin (B2m, lactate dehydrogenase (LD, and C-reactive protein (CRP correlated with both whole-body MTV and whole-body MTB (p<0.05 or 0.01. The SUV(max, TK, LD, and CRP were significantly higher in the DLBCL group than in the FL group. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that they were reasonable predictors in differentiating DLBCL from FL. CONCLUSIONS: The functional imaging markers determined from PET/CT and DWI are associated, and the SUV(max is superior to the ADC(min in differentiating DLBCL from FL. All the measured serum markers are associated with functional imaging markers. Serum LD, TK, and CRP are useful in differentiating DLBCL from FL.

  8. Diffusion Weighted MRI as a predictive tool for effect of radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars

    Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Patients with advanced cervical cancer are treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. This study evaluates the value of ...

  9. Dentatorubrothalamic tract localization with postmortem MR diffusion tractography compared to histological 3D reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollink, J.; Baarsen, K. van; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Foxley, S.; Miller, K.L.; Jbabdi, S.; Slump, C.H.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Kleinnijenhuis, M.; Cappellen van Walsum, A.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography is a technique with great potential to characterize the in vivo anatomical position and integrity of white matter tracts. Tractography, however, remains an estimation of white matter tracts, and false-positive and false-negative rates are not available.

  10. Localized diffusive motion on two different time scales in solid alkane nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, S. K.; Mamontov, E.; Bai, M.

    2010-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering on three complementary spectrometers has been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion in solid nano- to bulk-sized particles of the alkane n-C32H66. The crystalline-to-plastic and plastic-to-fluid phase transition temperatures are obse...

  11. Diffusion Weighted MRI as a predictive tool for effect of radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars;

    Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Patients with advanced cervical cancer are treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. This study evaluates the value of ...

  12. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented as a perineal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, González-Satué; Ivanna, Valverde Vilamala; Gustavo, Tapia Melendo; Joan, Areal Calama; Javier, Sanchez Macias; Luis, Ibarz Servio

    2012-01-01

    Primary male genital lymphomas may appear rarely in testis, and exceptionally in the penis and prostate, but there is not previous evidence of a lymphoma arising from the corpora cavernosa. We report the first case in the literature of a primary diffuse cell B lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented with low urinary tract symptoms, perineal pain and palpable mass. Diagnosis was based on trucut biopsy, histopathological studies and computed tomographic images. PMID:22919138

  13. Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Hirukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.

  14. Heavy ion fusion: Possible dynamical solution of the problem of the abnormally large diffuseness of the nucleus-nucleus potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chushnyakova, M. V.; Gontchar, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    We attempt to make some progress in the problem of the apparently large diffuseness of the Woods-Saxon strong nucleus-nucleus interaction potential (SnnP) needed to fit a large number of precision fusion excitation functions. This problem has been formulated in Newton [Phys. Lett. B10.1016/j.physletb.2004.02.052 586, 219 (2004);Phys. Rev. C10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024605 70, 024605 (2004)]. We applied the classical dissipative trajectory model to describe the data on fusion (capture) of 16O with 92Zr, 144Sm, and 208Pb. No fluctuations or dynamical deformations of the interacting nuclei are accounted for. The friction force is supposed to be proportional to the squared derivative of the SnnP (the surface friction model). The SnnP is calculated within the framework of the double-folding model with the density-dependent M3Y NN forces. This potential is known to possess rather small diffuseness in contradistinction to what is required by the data analysis in Newton [Phys. Lett. B10.1016/j.physletb.2004.02.052 586, 219 (2004);Phys. Rev. C10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024605 70, 024605 (2004)]. Varying slightly the strength of radial friction (universally for all three reactions) and the diffuseness of the charge density of 208Pb we have obtained satisfactory agreement of the calculated excitation functions with the data.

  15. Enhanced localization, energy anomalous diffusion and resonant mode in harmonic chains with correlated mass-spring disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, S. S.; dos Santos, J. L. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we study the vibrational modes and energy spreading in a harmonic chain model with diluted second-neighbors couplings and correlated mass-spring disorder. While all nearest neighbor masses are coupled by an elastic spring, second neighbors springs are introduced with a probability pD. The masses are randomly distributed according to the site connectivity m_i=m_0≤ft(1+1/n_iα\\right) , where ni is the connectivity of the site i and α is a tunable exponent. We show that maximum localization of the vibrational modes is achieved for α ≃ 3/4. The time-evolution of the energy wave-packet is followed after an initial localized excitation. While the participation number remains finite, the energy spread is shown to be sub-diffusive after a displacement and super-diffusive after an impulse excitation. These features are related to the development of a power-law tail in the wave-packet distribution. Further, we unveil that the spring dilution leads to the emergence of a resonant localized state which is signaled by a van Hove singularity in the density of states.

  16. Local translational diffusion rates of membranous Na+,K(+)-ATPase measured by saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Esmann, M.; Marsh, D.

    1992-01-01

    Diffusion-controlled Heisenberg spin exchange between spin-labeled Na+,K(+)-ATPase [ATP phosphohydrolase (Na+/K(+)-transporting), EC 3.6.1.37] proteins has been studied by saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy in reconstituted membranes. Na+,K(+)-ATPase from the salt gland of Squalus acanthias was solubilized in a polyoxyethylene ether detergent, octa(ethylene glycol) dodecyl monoether. Part of the solubilized enzyme was covalently spin-labeled with a nitroxide derivative of indanedione and re...

  17. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial and Temporal Correlation in Clusters Undergoing 2-Dimensional Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor); Frazier, D. O.; Rogers, J. R.; Witherow, W. K.; Facemire, B. R.; Inguva, R.; Glicksman, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-limited, capillarity-driven, coarsening of precipitates is an important and intensively studied phenomenon. Coarsening can occur among several microstructural constituents ranging from the primary phases to widely dispersed precipitates. Moreover, coarsening of three-dimensional (3-D) phase domains, occurring via mass transport through a two-dimensional (2-D) diffusion field (called mixed-dimensional phase coarsening) is a cooperative phenomenon that is of practical importance, especially in thin film technologies and catalysis. A primary objective of our current work is to focus on the details of evolving microstructures through a study of 'island' formation in heteroepitaxial film/substrate systems. Whereas this work has been designed for space-based coarsening studies, which require long-duration quality microgravity to observe 3-D Ostwald ripening, a significant amount of work has been performed during ground-based studies to observe diffusional coarsening in a liquid-liquid two-phase system. We have performed the experiment at an isopycnic point to maximize exclusion of gravity-based system disturbance. This has allowed observations of 3-D droplets, immobilized by container wall contact, undergoing coarsening by 2-D diffusion for the required long times (approximately 4 months) using a holographic imaging technique. Although such systems may not be as reliant on long-duration microgravity processing as 3-D systems are, they are of direct relevance to so-called mixed-dimensional coarsening and to the study of heterostructures grown by thin-film technique

  18. Localization Algorithm Based on a Spring Model (LASM for Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A navigation method for a lunar rover based on large scale wireless sensornetworks is proposed. To obtain high navigation accuracy and large exploration area, highnode localization accuracy and large network scale are required. However, thecomputational and communication complexity and time consumption are greatly increasedwith the increase of the network scales. A localization algorithm based on a spring model(LASM method is proposed to reduce the computational complexity, while maintainingthe localization accuracy in large scale sensor networks. The algorithm simulates thedynamics of physical spring system to estimate the positions of nodes. The sensor nodesare set as particles with masses and connected with neighbor nodes by virtual springs. Thevirtual springs will force the particles move to the original positions, the node positionscorrespondingly, from the randomly set positions. Therefore, a blind node position can bedetermined from the LASM algorithm by calculating the related forces with the neighbornodes. The computational and communication complexity are O(1 for each node, since thenumber of the neighbor nodes does not increase proportionally with the network scale size.Three patches are proposed to avoid local optimization, kick out bad nodes and deal withnode variation. Simulation results show that the computational and communicationcomplexity are almost constant despite of the increase of the network scale size. The time consumption has also been proven to remain almost constant since the calculation steps arealmost unrelated with the network scale size.

  19. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  20. From gas dynamics with large friction to gradient flows describing diffusion theories

    KAUST Repository

    Lattanzio, Corrado

    2016-12-09

    We study the emergence of gradient flows in Wasserstein distance as high friction limits of an abstract Euler flow generated by an energy functional. We develop a relative energy calculation that connects the Euler flow to the gradient flow in the diffusive limit regime. We apply this approach to prove convergence from the Euler-Poisson system with friction to the Keller-Segel system in the regime that the latter has smooth solutions. The same methodology is used to establish convergence from the Euler-Korteweg theory with monotone pressure laws to the Cahn-Hilliard equation.

  1. An Integer Programming-based Local Search for Large-scale Maximal Covering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junha Hwang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maximal covering problem (MCP is classified as a linear integer optimization problem which can be effectively solved by integer programming technique. However, as the problem size grows, integerprogramming requires excessive time to get an optimal solution. This paper suggests a method for applying integer programming-based local search (IPbLS to solve large-scale maximal covering problems. IPbLS, which is a hybrid technique combining integer programming and local search, is a kind of local search using integer programming for neighbor generation. IPbLS itself is very effective for MCP. In addition, we improve the performance of IPbLS for MCP through problem reduction based on the current solution. Experimental results show that the proposed method considerably outperforms any other local search techniques and integer programming.

  2. Large-amplitude chirped coherent phonons in tellurium mediated by ultrafast photoexcited carrier diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Anija, M.; Sood, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    We report femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity measurements of coherent phonons in tellurium performed over a wide range of temperatures (3-296 K) and pump-laser intensities. A totally symmetric A1 coherent phonon at 3.6 THz responsible for the oscillations in the reflectivity data is observed to be strongly positively chirped (i.e., phonon time period decreases at longer pump-probe delay times) with increasing photoexcited carrier density, more so at lower temperatures. We show that the temperature dependence of the coherent phonon frequency is anomalous (i.e, increasing with increasing temperature) at high photoexcited carrier density due to electron-phonon interaction. At the highest photoexcited carrier density of ˜1.4×1021cm-3 and the sample temperature of 3 K, the lattice displacement of the coherent phonon mode is estimated to be as high as ˜0.24Å . Numerical simulations based on coupled effects of optical absorption and carrier diffusion reveal that the diffusion of carriers dominates the nonoscillatory electronic part of the time-resolved reflectivity. Finally, using the pump-probe experiments at low carrier density of 6×1018cm-3 , we separate the phonon anharmonicity to obtain the electron-phonon coupling contribution to the phonon frequency and linewidth.

  3. Effects of large-scale deforestation on precipitation in the monsoon regions: remote versus local effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, N; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, using idealized climate model simulations, we investigate the biogeophysical effects of large-scale deforestation on monsoon regions. We find that the remote forcing from large-scale deforestation in the northern middle and high latitudes shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward. This results in a significant decrease in precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions (East Asia, North America, North Africa, and South Asia) and moderate precipitation increases in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions (South Africa, South America, and Australia). The magnitude of the monsoonal precipitation changes depends on the location of deforestation, with remote effects showing a larger influence than local effects. The South Asian Monsoon region is affected the most, with 18% decline in precipitation over India. Our results indicate that any comprehensive assessment of afforestation/reforestation as climate change mitigation strategies should carefully evaluate the remote effects on monsoonal precipitation alongside the large local impacts on temperatures.

  4. Large eddies induced by local impulse at wall of boundary layer with pressure gradients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changgen Lu; Weidong Cao; Yanmei Zhang; Jintao Peng

    2008-01-01

    Large eddies induced by local impulse at the wall with pressure gradients in the boundary layer was studied by direct numerical sim-ulations. The results show that the amplitude evolution, the high and low speed stripes, the formation of streamwise vortices, the ejection and sweeping, inflexions and distortion at the mean velocity profiles, as well as other characteristics, are consistent with the experimental and other numerical results. It is also found that large eddies are easy to be excited with adverse pressure gradient in the boundary layer,and the growth of amplitudes, formation of streamwise vortices and the influencing area etc., are much larger than those with favorable pressure gradient in the boundary layer. In contrast, large eddies are hardly to be induced through local impulse disturbance at the wall with favorable pressure gradients in the boundary layer.

  5. Diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the unilateral carotid space in an elderly man: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zou, Chunying; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man presented with a history of repeated syncope and decreased heart rate and blood pressure over the last month. On physical examination, a mass sized ~3×3 cm was palpable in the left submandibular area; the mass was hard, poorly mobile, without tenderness or local skin irritation. The computed tomography angiography examination revealed a soft tissue mass in the neck, at the level of the left carotid bifurcation and above. The left common carotid artery bifurcation and internal and external carotid artery segment were embedded in the mass, and there were multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the left neck. The diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was confirmed by a percutaneous biopsy of the left submandibular mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involvign the carotid space. PMID:28123742

  6. Diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the unilateral carotid space in an elderly man: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zou, Chunying; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man presented with a history of repeated syncope and decreased heart rate and blood pressure over the last month. On physical examination, a mass sized ~3×3 cm was palpable in the left submandibular area; the mass was hard, poorly mobile, without tenderness or local skin irritation. The computed tomography angiography examination revealed a soft tissue mass in the neck, at the level of the left carotid bifurcation and above. The left common carotid artery bifurcation and internal and external carotid artery segment were embedded in the mass, and there were multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the left neck. The diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was confirmed by a percutaneous biopsy of the left submandibular mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involvign the carotid space.

  7. Nuzzer: A Large-Scale Device-Free Passive Localization System for Wireless Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Seifeldin, Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    The widespread usage of wireless local area networks and mobile devices has fostered the interest in localization systems for wireless environments. The majority of research in the context of wireless-based localization systems has focused on device-based active localization, in which a device is attached to tracked entities. Recently, device-free passive localization (DfP) has been proposed where the tracked entity is neither required to carry devices nor participate actively in the localization process. DfP systems are based on the fact that RF signals are affected by the presence of people and objects in the environment. The DfP concept enables a wide range of applications including intrusion detection and tracking, border protection, and smart buildings automation. Previous studies have focused on small areas with direct line of sight and/or controlled environments. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and analysis of Nuzzer, a large-scale device-free passive localization system for real e...

  8. Combined single-molecule manipulation and localization for the study of lac Repressor 1D-diffusion along DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, G.; Mónico, C.; Capitanio, M.; Vanzi, F.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of intact genetic information, as well as the deployment of transcription for specific sets of genes, critically rely on a family of proteins interacting with DNA and recognizing specific sequences or features. The mechanisms by which these proteins search for target DNA are the subject of intense investigations employing a variety of methods in biology. A large interest in these processes stems from the faster-than-diffusion association rates, explained in current models by a combination of 3D and 1D diffusion. Here, we describe the combination of optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence detection for the study of protein-DNA interaction. The method offers the opportunity of investigating interactions occurring in solution (thus avoiding problems due to closeby surfaces as in other single molecule methods), controlling the DNA extension and tracking interaction dynamics as a function of both mechanical parameters and DNA sequence.

  9. Accurate protein structure annotation through competitive diffusion of enzymatic functions over a network of local evolutionary similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Venner

    Full Text Available High-throughput Structural Genomics yields many new protein structures without known molecular function. This study aims to uncover these missing annotations by globally comparing select functional residues across the structural proteome. First, Evolutionary Trace Annotation, or ETA, identifies which proteins have local evolutionary and structural features in common; next, these proteins are linked together into a proteomic network of ETA similarities; then, starting from proteins with known functions, competing functional labels diffuse link-by-link over the entire network. Every node is thus assigned a likelihood z-score for every function, and the most significant one at each node wins and defines its annotation. In high-throughput controls, this competitive diffusion process recovered enzyme activity annotations with 99% and 97% accuracy at half-coverage for the third and fourth Enzyme Commission (EC levels, respectively. This corresponds to false positive rates 4-fold lower than nearest-neighbor and 5-fold lower than sequence-based annotations. In practice, experimental validation of the predicted carboxylesterase activity in a protein from Staphylococcus aureus illustrated the effectiveness of this approach in the context of an increasingly drug-resistant microbe. This study further links molecular function to a small number of evolutionarily important residues recognizable by Evolutionary Tracing and it points to the specificity and sensitivity of functional annotation by competitive global network diffusion. A web server is at http://mammoth.bcm.tmc.edu/networks.

  10. Evaluation of non-local means based denoising filters for diffusion kurtosis imaging using a new phantom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Xiong Zhou

    Full Text Available Image denoising has a profound impact on the precision of estimated parameters in diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI. This work first proposes an approach to constructing a DKI phantom that can be used to evaluate the performance of denoising algorithms in regard to their abilities of improving the reliability of DKI parameter estimation. The phantom was constructed from a real DKI dataset of a human brain, and the pipeline used to construct the phantom consists of diffusion-weighted (DW image filtering, diffusion and kurtosis tensor regularization, and DW image reconstruction. The phantom preserves the image structure while minimizing image noise, and thus can be used as ground truth in the evaluation. Second, we used the phantom to evaluate three representative algorithms of non-local means (NLM. Results showed that one scheme of vector-based NLM, which uses DWI data with redundant information acquired at different b-values, produced the most reliable estimation of DKI parameters in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE, Bias and standard deviation (Std. The result of the comparison based on the phantom was consistent with those based on real datasets.

  11. Accurate protein structure annotation through competitive diffusion of enzymatic functions over a network of local evolutionary similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Eric; Lisewski, Andreas Martin; Erdin, Serkan; Ward, R Matthew; Amin, Shivas R; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2010-12-13

    High-throughput Structural Genomics yields many new protein structures without known molecular function. This study aims to uncover these missing annotations by globally comparing select functional residues across the structural proteome. First, Evolutionary Trace Annotation, or ETA, identifies which proteins have local evolutionary and structural features in common; next, these proteins are linked together into a proteomic network of ETA similarities; then, starting from proteins with known functions, competing functional labels diffuse link-by-link over the entire network. Every node is thus assigned a likelihood z-score for every function, and the most significant one at each node wins and defines its annotation. In high-throughput controls, this competitive diffusion process recovered enzyme activity annotations with 99% and 97% accuracy at half-coverage for the third and fourth Enzyme Commission (EC) levels, respectively. This corresponds to false positive rates 4-fold lower than nearest-neighbor and 5-fold lower than sequence-based annotations. In practice, experimental validation of the predicted carboxylesterase activity in a protein from Staphylococcus aureus illustrated the effectiveness of this approach in the context of an increasingly drug-resistant microbe. This study further links molecular function to a small number of evolutionarily important residues recognizable by Evolutionary Tracing and it points to the specificity and sensitivity of functional annotation by competitive global network diffusion. A web server is at http://mammoth.bcm.tmc.edu/networks.

  12. Diffusion and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge within state and local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I.; Flanary, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art is reviewed concerning current knowledge of processes by which technological innovation and scientific information are disseminated among state and local governments. The effectiveness of various mechanisms, strategies, and approaches by which federal agencies have sought to transfer technology to state, regional, and city governments are assessed. It is concluded that the existing relationships between the state and local governments, and the scientific communities are not adequate.

  13. Local-instantaneous filtering in the integral transform solution of nonlinear diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, E. N.; Cotta, R. M.; Orlande, H. R. B.

    A novel filtering strategy is proposed to be utilized in conjunction with the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), in the solution of nonlinear diffusion problems. The aim is to optimize convergence enhancement, yielding computationally efficient eigenfunction expansions. The proposed filters include space and time dependence, extracted from linearized versions of the original partial differential system. The scheme automatically updates the filter along the time integration march, as the required truncation orders for the user requested accuracy begin to exceed a prescribed maximum system size. A fully nonlinear heat conduction example is selected to illustrate the computational performance of the filtering strategy, against the classical single-filter solution behavior.

  14. Noise Localization Method for Model Tests in a Large Cavitation Tunnel Using a Hydrophone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolsoo Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model tests are performed in order to predict the noise level of a full ship and to control its noise signature. Localizing noise sources in the model test is therefore an important research subject along with measuring noise levels. In this paper, a noise localization method using a hydrophone array in a large cavitation tunnel is presented. The 45-channel hydrophone array was designed using a global optimization technique for noise measurement. A set of noise experiments was performed in the KRISO (Korea Research Institute of Ships & Ocean Engineering large cavitation tunnel using scaled models, including a ship with a single propeller, a ship with twin propellers and an underwater vehicle. The incoherent broadband processors defined based on the Bartlett and the minimum variance (MV processors were applied to the measured data. The results of data analysis and localization are presented in the paper. Finally, it is shown that the mechanical noise, as well as the propeller noise can be successfully localized using the proposed localization method.

  15. Concomitant sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore James C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, also known as Rosai-Dorfman Disease, is a rare and benign source of lymphadenopathy first described in 1969, which mimics neoplastic processes. This disease commonly presents in children and young adults with supra-diaphragmatic lymphadenopathy or extranodal lesions consisting of tissue infiltrates composed of a polyclonal population of histiocytes. Since its description greater than 400 cases have been described, sometimes in patients with a variety of treated and untreated neoplastic diseases. However, the literature contains reports of only 19 cases of Rosai-Dorfman Disease in association with lymphomas, Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's. The majority of these cases have the two diagnoses, malignant lymphoma and Rosai-Dorfman Disease, separated in time. Interestingly, infradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy was a feature in the majority of previously reported cases of Rosai-Dorfman Disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Case presentation This report provides details of a case with co-existing sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This case is the fifth described case of simultaneous Rosai-Dorfman Disease and concurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of a clinically aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma was made at autopsy. The aggressive biological behavior of the diffuse large B cell lymphoma in this patient may have been related to the underlying immune dysregulation believed to be part of the pathophysiology of Rosai-Dorfman Disease. Conclusion Taken together this report and the preceding reports of Rosai-Dorfman Disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma suggests that in cases with a diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman Disease in the setting of prominent infradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for the presence of occult non-Hodgkin's lymphoma especially if the

  16. Identification of Somatic Mutations in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg Type by Massive Parallel Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Sylvain; Pham-Ledard, Anne; Viailly, Pierre Julien; Dubois, Sydney; Bertrand, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Fontanilles, Maxime; Bohers, Elodie; Ruminy, Philippe; Tournier, Isabelle; Courville, Philippe; Lenormand, Bernard; Duval, Anne Bénédicte; Andrieu, Emilie; Verneuil, Laurence; Vergier, Beatrice; Tilly, Hervé; Joly, Pascal; Frebourg, Thierry; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether the mutational profile of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is unique by comparison with other diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes, we analyzed a total cohort of 20 PCLBCL-LT patients by using next-generation sequencing with a lymphoma panel designed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We also analyzed 12 pairs of tumor and control DNA samples by whole-exome sequencing, which led us to perform resequencing of three selected genes not included in the lymphoma panel: TBL1XR1, KLHL6, and IKZF3. Our study clearly identifies an original mutational landscape of PCLBCL-LT with a very restricted set of highly recurrent mutations (>40%) involving MYD88 (p.L265P variant), PIM1, and CD79B. Other genes involved in B-cell signaling, NF-κB activation, or DNA modeling were found altered, notably TBL1XR1 (33%), MYC (26%) CREBBP (26%), and IRF4 (21%) or HIST1H1E (41%). MYD88(L265P) variant was associated with copy number variations or copy neutral loss of heterozygosity in 60% of patients. The most frequent genetic losses involved CDKN2A/2B, TNFAIP3/A20, PRDM1, TCF3, and CIITA. Together, these results show that PCLBCL-LT exhibits a unique mutational landscape, combining highly recurrent hotspot mutations in genes involved in NF-kB and B-cell signaling pathways, which provides a rationale for using selective inhibitors of the B-cell receptor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the parotid gland: Cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainath K Andola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands are rare, accounting for 2-5% of salivary gland tumors and 5% of extranodal lymphomas, frequently seen in the parotid gland. There are single case reports mentioned in the literature. Clinical presentation is not characteristic and the disease is often overlooked with delay in diagnosis and treatment. We are reporting a case of bilateral parotid gland lymphoma in a 55-year-old male, presented with bilateral enlarged parotids. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed bilateral enlarged parotid glands with multiple well-defined intraparotid lesions. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC of both showed mixed population of lymphoid cells with large monocytoid cells with scant cytoplasm, anisonucleosis with prominent nucleoli, and numerous mitoses suggestive of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. Histopathology showed sheets of large lymphoma cells destructing the salivary acini and infiltrating the periparotid fat. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed diffuse CD20 positivity, B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl-6 was focally positive and negative for cluster of differentiation (CD 3, CD5, CD10, and Multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM1 which led to the diagnosis of NHL-Diffuse large B cell type.

  18. Morphologic studies of lymphocyte nuclei in follicular and diffuse mixed small- and large-cell (lymphocytic-histiocytic) lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, I; Caldwell, D R; Moher, D; Jabi, M

    1988-08-01

    Twelve examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma (eight follicular, one follicular and diffuse, and three diffuse) were investigated morphometrically using plastic-embedded tissue in order to study nuclear characteristics of lymphocyte populations in this form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to test morphologic bases for current NHL classification systems. This study illustrates that there are many inaccuracies, illusions, and misconceptions in the morphologic criteria currently used to classify mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma. A principal finding was that lymphocyte nuclear profiles in mixed-cell lymphomas tend to be smaller in size (P less than .005) and more irregular in shape (P = .0001) than the morphologically similar counterparts in germinal centers of lymph nodes with reactive hyperplasia. Intercase comparison of mixed small- and large-cell lymphomas revealed a considerable range of mean nuclear area values, some of which were within the size range of normal, small lymphocytes. At the magnifications used for morphometric assessment, a high proportion of lymphocyte nuclear profiles had shallow invaginations, but only a limited number of profiles (4% to 14%) had deep (cleaved) indentations. Contrary to current definitions for this subtype of NHL, lymphocytes with "small" nuclei had the same proportion of the nuclear diameter occupied by nuclear invaginations as lymphocytes with "large" nuclei and, in fact, mean nuclear invagination depth was shallower in "small" nuclei than in "large" nuclei. Furthermore, regardless of whether it is nuclear area or shape that is evaluated, lymphocytes in mixed-cell lymphoma do not separate into two populations of small-cleaved and large noncleaved cells. Morphometry reveals that only four of the 12 examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma had a proportion of the lymphocytes in the size range of fully transformed germinal center lymphocytes that exceeded 25%, and none of the cases approached 50% even

  19. Algorithm for localized adaptive diffuse optical tomography and its application in bioluminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed A.; Patterson, Michael S.; Wong, John W.

    2014-04-01

    A reconstruction algorithm for diffuse optical tomography based on diffusion theory and finite element method is described. The algorithm reconstructs the optical properties in a permissible domain or region-of-interest to reduce the number of unknowns. The algorithm can be used to reconstruct optical properties for a segmented object (where a CT-scan or MRI is available) or a non-segmented object. For the latter, an adaptive segmentation algorithm merges contiguous regions with similar optical properties thereby reducing the number of unknowns. In calculating the Jacobian matrix the algorithm uses an efficient direct method so the required time is comparable to that needed for a single forward calculation. The reconstructed optical properties using segmented, non-segmented, and adaptively segmented 3D mouse anatomy (MOBY) are used to perform bioluminescence tomography (BLT) for two simulated internal sources. The BLT results suggest that the accuracy of reconstruction of total source power obtained without the segmentation provided by an auxiliary imaging method such as x-ray CT is comparable to that obtained when using perfect segmentation.

  20. Prevalence and clinical implications of cyclin D1 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Young; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexandar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 expression has been reported in a subset of patients with diffuse large B-cell leukemia (DLBCL), but studies have been few and generally small, and they have demonstrated no obvious clinical implications attributable to cyclin D1 expression. METHODS: The authors reviewed 1435...... patients expressed cyclin D2. Gene expression profiling indicated that 17 tumors were of the germinal center type, and 13 were of the activated B-cell type. Genetic aberrations of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL6, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), mouse double minute 2...

  1. FDG-PET/CT after one cycle of chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylam, Karen Juul; Kostakoglu, Lale; Hutchings, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive value of interim positon emission tomography (I-PET) after one course of chemoimmunotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One hundred and twelve patients with DLBCL were enrolled. All patients had PET/computed tomography (CT...... maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) to liver SUVmax were also analyzed. We found no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between PET-negative and PET-positive patients according to IHP and D 5PS>3. The 2-year PFS using D 5PS = 5 was 50.9% in the PET-positive group and 84.8% in the PET...

  2. New strategies in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: translating findings from gene expression analyses into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2011-10-01

    Gene expression profiling has had a major impact on our understanding of the biology and heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using this technology, investigators can identify biologic subgroups of DLBCL that provide unique targets for rational therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes these potential targets and updates the progress of clinical development of exciting novel agents for the treatment of DLBCL. Results of ongoing studies suggest that in the near future, we will be able to use gene expression profiling, or an accurate surrogate, to define the best therapeutic approach for individual patients with DLBCL. ©2011 AACR

  3. Primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma with features intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuyan; Li, Zhimin; Finn, Laura E; Personnet, David A; Edenfield, Brandy; Foran, James M; Jaeckle, Kurt A; Reimer, Ronald; Menke, David M; Ketterling, Rhett P; Tun, Han W

    2012-01-01

    B cell lymphoma with features intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma (DLBCL/BL) is a new lymphoma entity which is recognized in the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2008). We report a case of a primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) with findings consistent with DLBCL/BL. It is characterized by a very aggressive clinical course, and a widespread multifocal involvement of the CNS. Our case shows that a DLBCL/BL can manifest in the CNS alone without any systemic involvement.

  4. Analysis of survival and prognsis in 409 newly diagnosed patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文菁菁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the poor prognostic factors of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL).Methods The clinical data of 409 newly diagnosed patients with DLBCL from January 2000 to December 2010 were collected,and the prognostic factors by univariate and multivariate stratification were analyzed.Results Of the 409 DLBCL patients,244 were males and 165 females,the median age was 56(16-89)years old,the median follow-up time was 23(2-108)months.In univariate analysis,

  5. Synchronous, primary, diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas involving the ethmoid sinus and epiglottis: a rare clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Won-Young; Choi, Young-Jin; Cho, Kyu-Sup

    2013-03-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) affecting the ethmoid sinus and epiglottis is uncommon. Furthermore, synchronous NHLs involving the ethmoid sinus and epiglottis are extremely rare and have not been reported previously. This article reports synchronous, primary, diffuse, large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising in the ethmoid sinus and epiglottis, which was successfully treated by immunochemotherapy. A careful examination of the head and neck is necessary to determine the existence of multiple synchronous primary tumors, because primary synchronous occurrence of DLBCL in the head and neck is unusual and can impact the prognosis adversely.

  6. Strategies for diagnosing and alleviating artifactual attenuation associated with large gradient pulses in PGSE NMR diffusion measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W S; Hayamizu, K; Ide, H; Arata, Y

    1999-08-01

    The generation of phase-based artifacts resulting from mismatch in the effective areas (i.e., the time integrals) of sequential gradient pulses is discussed in the context of large gradient pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR diffusion measurements. Such effects result in artifactual attenuation and distortion in the spectra which, in the first instance, are similar to (and commonly mistaken for) the effects of eddy currents. Small degrees of mismatch cause "unphysical" concave downward curvature in PGSE attenuation plots of freely diffusing species. However, larger mismatches can result in artifactual diffraction peaks in the plots which could easily be confused for true restricted diffusion effects. Although "rectangular" gradient pulses are preferable from a theoretical viewpoint, we found that shaped gradient (e.g., half-sine) pulses, which due to their slower rise and fall times were more tractable for the current amplifier, were more sequentially reproducible. As well as generating fewer phase-based artifacts such shaped pulses also decrease the likelihood of vibration problems.

  7. Tracking timescales of short-term precursors to large basaltic fissure eruptions through Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thor

    2016-04-01

    Petrological constraints on the timescales of pre-eruptive crystal storage and magma degassing provide an important framework for the interpretation of seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring data in volcanically active regions. We have used Fe-Mg diffusion chronometry in 86 olivine macrocrysts from the AD 1783-1784 Laki eruption on Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone to characterise timescales of crystal storage and transport in the lead-up to this eruption. The majority of these olivines have core compositions of Fo 81 olivines record Fe-Mg diffusion timescales of ∼124 days; these crystals are likely to have formed in mid-crustal magma chambers, been transferred to storage at shallower levels and then entrained into the Laki melt prior to eruption. Typical Fe-Mg diffusion timescales of 6-10 days are shorter than the average time interval between discrete episodes of the Laki eruption, indicating variable or pulsed disaggregation of stored crystals into the carrier liquid prior to the onset of each episode. The diffusion timescales coincide with historical accounts of strong and frequent earthquakes in southeast Iceland, which we interpret as being associated with mush disaggregation related to melt withdrawal and the initiation of dyke propagation from a crustal magma reservoir at ∼6 ± 3 km depth to the surface. We calculate pre-eruptive CO2 fluxes of 2-6 Mt d-1, assuming a pre-eruptive CO2 outgassing budget of 189.6 Mt for the Laki eruption and a constant rate of CO2 release in the 6-10 days preceding each eruptive episode. Our dataset indicates that petrological constraints on the timescales of magmatic processes occurring in the days leading up to historic eruptions may enhance our ability to forecast the onset of future large eruptions, both in Iceland and further afield.

  8. Localized abnormalities in the cingulum bundle in patients with schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor tractography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Whitford

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum bundle (CB connects gray matter structures of the limbic system and as such has been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. There is growing evidence to suggest that the CB is actually comprised of a conglomeration of discrete sub-connections. The present study aimed to use Diffusion Tensor tractography to subdivide the CB into its constituent sub-connections, and to investigate the structural integrity of these sub-connections in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Diffusion Tensor Imaging scans were acquired from 24 patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and 26 matched healthy controls. Deterministic tractography was used in conjunction with FreeSurfer-based regions-of-interest to subdivide the CB into 5 sub-connections (I1 to I5. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited subnormal levels of FA in two cingulum sub-connections, specifically the fibers connecting the rostral and caudal anterior cingulate gyrus (I1 and the fibers connecting the isthmus of the cingulate with the parahippocampal cortex (I4. Furthermore, while FA in the I1 sub-connection was correlated with the severity of patients' positive symptoms (specifically hallucinations and delusions, FA in the I4 sub-connection was correlated with the severity of patients' negative symptoms (specifically affective flattening and anhedonia/asociality. These results support the notion that the CB is a conglomeration of structurally interconnected yet functionally distinct sub-connections, of which only a subset are abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, while acknowledging the fact that the present study only investigated the CB, these results suggest that the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia may have distinct neurobiological underpinnings.

  9. Decoupling local mechanics from large-scale structure in modular metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Silverberg, Jesse L

    2017-04-04

    A defining feature of mechanical metamaterials is that their properties are determined by the organization of internal structure instead of the raw fabrication materials. This shift of attention to engineering internal degrees of freedom has coaxed relatively simple materials into exhibiting a wide range of remarkable mechanical properties. For practical applications to be realized, however, this nascent understanding of metamaterial design must be translated into a capacity for engineering large-scale structures with prescribed mechanical functionality. Thus, the challenge is to systematically map desired functionality of large-scale structures backward into a design scheme while using finite parameter domains. Such "inverse design" is often complicated by the deep coupling between large-scale structure and local mechanical function, which limits the available design space. Here, we introduce a design strategy for constructing 1D, 2D, and 3D mechanical metamaterials inspired by modular origami and kirigami. Our approach is to assemble a number of modules into a voxelized large-scale structure, where the module's design has a greater number of mechanical design parameters than the number of constraints imposed by bulk assembly. This inequality allows each voxel in the bulk structure to be uniquely assigned mechanical properties independent from its ability to connect and deform with its neighbors. In studying specific examples of large-scale metamaterial structures we show that a decoupling of global structure from local mechanical function allows for a variety of mechanically and topologically complex designs.

  10. Use of Local Health Department Websites: A Study of E-Government Adoption and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Pamela Massie

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct but converging activities have the potential to alter the way local public health departments conduct business. These activities are the emergence of e-government and the addition of preparedness as a basic function of the public health system. Preparedness implies timely collaboration with government entities, community partners and…

  11. Stochastic locality and master-field simulations of very large lattices arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    In lattice QCD and other field theories with a mass gap, the field variables in distant regions of a physically large lattice are only weakly correlated. Accurate stochastic estimates of the expectation values of local observables may therefore be obtained from a single representative field. Such master-field simulations potentially allow very large lattices to be simulated, but require various conceptual and technical issues to be addressed. In this talk, an introduction to the subject is provided and some encouraging results of master-field simulations of the SU(3) gauge theory are reported.

  12. Semi-supervised eigenvectors for large-scale locally-biased learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    -based machine learning and data analysis tools. At root, the reason is that eigenvectors are inherently global quantities, thus limiting the applicability of eigenvector-based methods in situations where one is interested in very local properties of the data. In this paper, we address this issue by providing......In many applications, one has side information, e.g., labels that are provided in a semi-supervised manner, about a specific target region of a large data set, and one wants to perform machine learning and data analysis tasks nearby that prespecified target region. For example, one might...... a methodology to construct semi-supervised eigenvectors of a graph Laplacian, and we illustrate how these locally-biased eigenvectors can be used to perform locally-biased machine learning. These semi-supervised eigenvectors capture successively-orthogonalized directions of maximum variance, conditioned...

  13. Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing with large area of gold nanoholes fabricated by nanosphere lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Gansheng; Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2010-03-09

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has been extensively studied as potential chemical and biological sensing platform due to its high sensitivity to local refractive index change induced by molecule adsorbate. Previous experiments have demonstrated the LSPR generated by gold nanoholes and its biosensing. Here, we realize large uniform area of nanoholes on scale of cm2 on glass substrate by nanosphere lithography which is essential for mass production. The morphology of the nanoholes is characterized using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoholes to local refractive index is measured to be 36 nm/RIU. However, the chip has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in biosensing: bovine serum albumin adsorption is detected with LSPR peak redshift of 27 nm, and biotin-streptavidin immunoassay renders a LSPR redshift of 11 nm. This work forms a foundation toward the cost-effective, high-throughput, reliable and robust chip-based LSPR biosensor.

  14. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing with Large Area of Gold Nanoholes Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR has been extensively studied as potential chemical and biological sensing platform due to its high sensitivity to local refractive index change induced by molecule adsorbate. Previous experiments have demonstrated the LSPR generated by gold nanoholes and its biosensing. Here, we realize large uniform area of nanoholes on scale of cm2 on glass substrate by nanosphere lithography which is essential for mass production. The morphology of the nanoholes is characterized using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoholes to local refractive index is measured to be 36 nm/RIU. However, the chip has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in biosensing: bovine serum albumin adsorption is detected with LSPR peak redshift of 27 nm, and biotin-streptavidin immunoassay renders a LSPR redshift of 11 nm. This work forms a foundation toward the cost-effective, high-throughput, reliable and robust chip-based LSPR biosensor.

  15. Scalable and Fully Distributed Localization in Large-Scale Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a novel connectivity-based localization algorithm, well suitable for large-scale sensor networks with complex shapes and a non-uniform nodal distribution. In contrast to current state-of-the-art connectivity-based localization methods, the proposed algorithm is highly scalable with linear computation and communication costs with respect to the size of the network; and fully distributed where each node only needs the information of its neighbors without cumbersome partitioning and merging process. The algorithm is theoretically guaranteed and numerically stable. Moreover, the algorithm can be readily extended to the localization of networks with a one-hop transmission range distance measurement, and the propagation of the measurement error at one sensor node is limited within a small area of the network around the node. Extensive simulations and comparison with other methods under various representative network settings are carried out, showing the superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Simultaneous large band gaps and localization of electromagnetic and elastic waves in defect-free quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianbao; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Nianhua; Liao, Qinghua

    2016-04-18

    We report numerically large and complete photonic and phononic band gaps that simultaneously exist in eight-fold phoxonic quasicrystals (PhXQCs). PhXQCs can possess simultaneous photonic and phononic band gaps over a wide range of geometric parameters. Abundant localized modes can be achieved in defect-free PhXQCs for all photonic and phononic polarizations. These defect-free localized modes exhibit multiform spatial distributions and can confine simultaneously electromagnetic and elastic waves in a large area, thereby providing rich selectivity and enlarging the interaction space of optical and elastic waves. The simulated results based on finite element method show that quasiperiodic structures formed of both solid rods in air and holes in solid materials can simultaneously confine and tailor electromagnetic and elastic waves; these structures showed advantages over the periodic counterparts.

  17. Dose dense (CEOP-14) vs dose dense and rituximab (CEOP-14 +R) in high-risk diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, Agustin; Nambo, María J; Neri, Natividad; Cleto, Sergio; Castañeda, Claudia; Huerta-Guzmàn, Judith; Murillo, Edgar; Contreras, Margarita; Talavera, Alejandra; González, Martha

    2007-01-01

    To assess efficacy and toxicity of rituximab and dose chemotherapy in high-risk diffuse large cell lymphoma, we conducted a controlled clinical trial to assess efficacy and toxicity of a dose-dense regimen CEOP- 14 (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vincristine, and prednisone every 14 d) compared to CEOP-14 plus rituximab. One hundred and ninety-six patients were randomized to received CEOP-rituximab (cyclophosphamide 1500 mg/m2, epirubicin 120 mg/m2, vincristine, and prednisone at standard dose and rituximab at 375 mg/m2) compared with the same chemotherapy administered every 14 d (CEOP-14). In an intent-to-treat analysis all patients were available for efficacy and toxicity. Complete response in CEOP-14 was observed in 73 cases (74%) and in 75 patients (76%) in the CEOP-R regimen (76%) (p = 0.8). With a median follow-up of 53.4 mo, median has not been reached in time to tumor-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Actuarial curves at 5 yr showed that TTP and OS in patients treated with CEOP-R were 74% and 67%, respectively, that were not statistical different when compared to CEOP-14, 72% and 65%, respectively (p = 0.8). Acute toxicity was mild and well tolerated. The use of a dense-dose regimen is useful and well tolerated in patients with very high risk diffuse large cell lymphoma. The addition of rituximab did not improve outcome in these setting of patients.

  18. Mutational profile and prognostic significance of TP53 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Wu, Lin; Visco, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    TP53 mutation is an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) therapy. However, its prognostic value in the rituximab immunochemotherapy era remains undefined. ...

  19. Global/Local iterative homogenization methods for neutron diffusion nodal theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hark Rho

    1994-02-15

    The objective of this research is to develop efficient spatial homogenization methods for coarse-mesh nodal analysis of the light water reactors in which the reference solutions are not known. The methods developed are the global/local iterative procedures, including procedures based on variational principles. The nodal expansion method (NEM) with generalized equivalence theory is employed in coarse-mesh nodal analysis. The finite difference method (FDM) is used in fine-mesh local assembly calculation. To achieve fast and stable convergence in local assembly calculation, the mixed boundary condition is imposed at the assembly surface, where the surface flux is modulated. The assembly wise fundamental mode eigenfunction is used as the modulating function. Two direct methods are developed for the global/local iterative homogenization : G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}·G{sub 1} procedure is based on the rigorous definition of the flux-weighted constants (FWCs) and G{sub 2} procedure preserves the reaction rate ratio. Three variational principles are also proposed for the assembly homogenization. The basic form is inferred from the Pomraning's variational principle. Since the two variational methods, F{sub 0} and F{sub 2}, are based on the ratio of reaction rates, these are insensitive to the amplitude of the flux and hence they are of the Lagrangian form. On the while, the other variational principle F{sub 1} is based on the reaction rate and this requires a normalization due to its property that is sensitive to the amplitude of the flux. Thus the resulting form of F{sub 1} becomes the Swinger type. The homogenization methods developed were applied to the LWR problems. In the PWR problems we treated, there is no strong need for a global/local iterative homogenization procedure, since the heterogeneity between the fuel assemblies is relatively weak. Using the assembly discontinuity factor(ADF), the nodal analysis was improved with reasonable accuracy, while no significant

  20. Variation in apparent diffusion coefficient measurements among women with locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwish, Adam P; Han, Kathy; Foltz, Warren D

    2015-12-01

    ADC variability from mixed data sets acquired from women with locally advanced cervical cancer appears to be predominantly of biologic origin. Intra-histology ADC variance was similar when pooled across technical factors. Inter-histology pooling increased ADC variance. Normalization to urine ADC improved intra-histology variance and receiver-operator curve test performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expert system for automated selection of local trajectories in diffusion MRI images

    OpenAIRE

    Frau Pascual, Aina

    2012-01-01

    Local estimation of the optimal trajectory for brain connectomics [ANGLÈS] Connectomics is a relatively new field which aims at mapping the whole brain connectivity network. The brain function comprehension is one of the main interests of neuroscience researchers in this century, as it remains unknown. The advantages of knowing the exact function of the brain and the mapping of all brain connections would be of immeasurable value. Connectomics aims at constructing the human brain network, ...

  2. Accelerating inference for diffusions observed with measurement error and large sample sizes using approximate Bayesian computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picchini, Umberto; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, dynamical modelling has been provided with a range of breakthrough methods to perform exact Bayesian inference. However, it is often computationally unfeasible to apply exact statistical methodologies in the context of large data sets and complex models. This paper considers...... a nonlinear stochastic differential equation model observed with correlated measurement errors and an application to protein folding modelling. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-MCMC algorithm is suggested to allow inference for model parameters within reasonable time constraints. The ABC algorithm...... applications. A simulation study is conducted to compare our strategy with exact Bayesian inference, the latter resulting two orders of magnitude slower than ABC-MCMC for the considered set-up. Finally, the ABC algorithm is applied to a large size protein data. The suggested methodology is fairly general...

  3. Large deviations and a Kramers’ type law for self-stabilizing diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Samuel; Imkeller, Peter; Peithmann, Dierk

    2008-01-01

    We investigate exit times from domains of attraction for the motion of a self-stabilized particle traveling in a geometric (potential type) landscape and perturbed by Brownian noise of small amplitude. Self-stabilization is the effect of including an ensemble-average attraction in addition to the usual state-dependent drift, where the particle is supposed to be suspended in a large population of identical ones. A Kramers' type law for the particle's exit from the potential's domains of attrac...

  4. Diffusion and Localization of Relative Strategy Scores in The Minority Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Mats; Perez-Diaz, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    We study the equilibrium distribution of relative strategy scores of agents in the asymmetric phase (α ≡ P/N≳ 1) of the basic Minority Game using sign-payoff, with N agents holding two strategies over P histories. We formulate a statistical model that makes use of the gauge freedom with respect to the ordering of an agent's strategies to quantify the correlation between the attendance and the distribution of strategies. The relative score xin Z of the two strategies of an agent is described in terms of a one dimensional random walk with asymmetric jump probabilities, leading either to a static and asymmetric exponential distribution centered at x=0 for fickle agents or to diffusion with a positive or negative drift for frozen agents. In terms of scaled coordinates x/√{N} and t / N the distributions are uniquely given by α and in quantitative agreement with direct simulations of the game. As the model avoids the reformulation in terms of a constrained minimization problem it can be used for arbitrary payoff functions with little calculational effort and provides a transparent and simple formulation of the dynamics of the basic Minority Game in the asymmetric phase.

  5. An approach to the damping of local modes of oscillations resulting from large hydraulic transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrijevic, D.M.; Jankovic, M.V.

    1999-09-01

    A new method of damping of local modes of oscillations under large disturbance is presented in this paper. The digital governor controller is used. Controller operates in real time to improve the generating unit transients through the guide vane position and the runner blade position. The developed digital governor controller, whose control signals are adjusted using the on-line measurements, offers better damping effects for the generator oscillations under large disturbances than the conventional controller. Digital simulations of hydroelectric power plant equipped with low-head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons between the digital governor control and the conventional governor control are presented. Simulation results show that the new controller offers better performances, than the conventional controller, when the system is subjected to large disturbances.

  6. Local and global approaches of affinity propagation clustering for large scale data

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Dingyin; Zhang, Xuqing; Zhuang, Yueting

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new clustering algorithm called 'affinity propagation' (AP) has been proposed, which efficiently clustered sparsely related data by passing messages between data points. However, we want to cluster large scale data where the similarities are not sparse in many cases. This paper presents two variants of AP for grouping large scale data with a dense similarity matrix. The local approach is partition affinity propagation (PAP) and the global method is landmark affinity propagation (LAP). PAP passes messages in the subsets of data first and then merges them as the number of initial step of iterations; it can effectively reduce the number of iterations of clustering. LAP passes messages between the landmark data points first and then clusters non-landmark data points; it is a large global approximation method to speed up clustering. Experiments are conducted on many datasets, such as random data points, manifold subspaces, images of faces and Chinese calligraphy, and the results demonstrate that the two...

  7. Adsorption configuration effects on the surface diffusion of large organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, F.; Legoas, S.B.; Hummelink, F.

    2010-01-01

    Violet Lander (C108H104) is a large organic molecule that when deposited on Cu(110) surface exhibits lock-and-key like behavior [Otero et al., Nature Mater. 3, 779 (2004)]. In this work, we report a detailed fully atomistic molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics study of this phenomenon. Our...... results show that it has its physical basis on the interplay of the molecular hydrogens and the Cu(110) atomic spacing, which is a direct consequence of the matching between molecule and surface dimensions. This information could be used to find new molecules capable of displaying lock-and-key behavior...

  8. Crossover from localized to diffusive water dynamics in carbon nanohorns: A comprehensive quasielastic neutron-scattering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire; Kaneko, Katsumi; Ohba, Tomonori; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Soininen, Antti J; Wuttke, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Incoherent neutron scattering by water confined in carbon nanohorns was measured with the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES and analyzed in exemplary breadth and depth. Quasielastic spectra admit δ-plus-Kohlrausch fits over a wide q and T range. From the q and T dependence of fitted amplitudes and relaxation times, however, it becomes clear that the fits do not represent a uniform physical process, but that there is a crossover from localized motion at low T to diffusive α relaxation at high T. The crossover temperature of about 210 to 230 K increases with decreasing wave number, which is incompatible with a thermodynamic strong-fragile transition. Extrapolated diffusion coefficients D(T) indicate that water motion is at room temperature about 2.5 times slower than in the bulk; in the supercooled state this factor becomes smaller. At even higher temperatures, where the α spectrum is essentially flat, a few percentages of the total scattering go into a Lorentzian with a width of about 1.6μeV, probably due to functional groups on the surface of the nanohorns.

  9. Local Discontinuous Galerkin Methods Coupled with Implicit Integration Factor Methods for Solving Reaction-Cross-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new numerical method for solving nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems with cross-diffusion which are often taken as mathematical models for many applications in the biological, physical, and chemical sciences. The two-dimensional system is discretized by the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG method on unstructured triangular meshes associated with the piecewise linear finite element spaces, which can derive not only numerical solutions but also approximations for fluxes at the same time comparing with most of study work up to now which has derived numerical solutions only. Considering the stability requirement for the explicit scheme with strict time step restriction (Δt=O(hmin2, the implicit integration factor (IIF method is employed for the temporal discretization so that the time step can be relaxed as Δt=O(hmin. Moreover, the method allows us to compute element by element and avoids solving a global system of nonlinear algebraic equations as the standard implicit schemes do, which can reduce the computational cost greatly. Numerical simulations about the system with exact solution and the Brusselator model, which is a theoretical model for a type of autocatalytic chemical reaction, are conducted to confirm the expected accuracy, efficiency, and advantages of the proposed schemes.

  10. A Local Integral Equation Formulation Based on Moving Kriging Interpolation for Solving Coupled Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanittha Yimnak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The meshless local Pretrov-Galerkin method (MLPG with the test function in view of the Heaviside step function is introduced to solve the system of coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations in two-dimensional spaces subjected to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on a square domain. Two-field velocities are approximated by moving Kriging (MK interpolation method for constructing nodal shape function which holds the Kronecker delta property, thereby enhancing the arrangement nodal shape construction accuracy, while the Crank-Nicolson method is chosen for temporal discretization. The nonlinear terms are treated iteratively within each time step. The developed formulation is verified in two numerical examples with investigating the convergence and the accuracy of numerical results. The numerical experiments revealing the solutions by the developed formulation are stable and more precise.

  11. The Future of the Local Large Scale Structure: the roles of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Yehuda; Yepes, Gustavo; Dover, Yaniv

    2007-01-01

    We study the distinct effects of Dark Matter and Dark Energy on the future evolution of nearby large scale structures using constrained N-body simulations. We contrast a model of Cold Dark Matter and a Cosmological Constant (LCDM) with an Open CDM (OCDM) model with the same matter density Omega_m =0.3 and the same Hubble constant h=0.7. Already by the time the scale factor increased by a factor of 6 (29 Gyr from now in LCDM; 78 Gyr from now in OCDM) the comoving position of the Local Group is frozen. Well before that epoch the two most massive members of the Local Group, the Milky Way and Andromeda (M31), will merge. However, as the expansion rates of the scale factor in the two models are different, the Local Group will be receding in physical coordinates from Virgo exponentially in a LCDM model and at a roughly constant velocity in an OCDM model. More generally, in comoving coordinates the future large scale structure will look like a sharpened image of the present structure: the skeleton of the cosmic web ...

  12. The impact of changes in parameterizations of surface drag and vertical diffusion on the large-scale circulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feiyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Shaoqing; Jacob, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) are used to analyze the sensitivity of the large-scale circulation to changes in parameterizations of orographic surface drag and vertical diffusion. Many GCMs and NWP models use enhanced turbulent mixing in stable conditions to improve simulations, while CAM5 cuts off all turbulence at high stabilities and instead employs a strong orographic surface stress parameterization, known as turbulent mountain stress (TMS). TMS completely dominates the surface stress over land and reduces the near-surface wind speeds compared to simulations without TMS. It is found that TMS is generally beneficial for the large-scale circulation as it improves zonal wind speeds, Arctic sea level pressure and zonal anomalies of the 500-hPa stream function, compared to ERA-Interim. It also alleviates atmospheric blocking frequency biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Using a scheme that instead allows for a modest increase of turbulent diffusion at higher stabilities only in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) appears to in some aspects have a similar, although much smaller, beneficial effect as TMS. Enhanced mixing throughout the atmospheric column, however, degrades the CAM5 simulation. Evaluating the simulations in comparison with detailed measurements at two locations reveals that TMS is detrimental for the PBL at the flat grassland ARM Southern Great Plains site, giving too strong wind turning and too deep PBLs. At the Sodankylä forest site, the effect of TMS is smaller due to the larger local vegetation roughness. At both sites, all simulations substantially overestimate the boundary layer ageostrophic flow.

  13. The utility of lactate dehydrogenase in the follow up of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem Magdy William

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lactate dehydrogenase is a non-specific marker for lymphoma whose prognostic significance is well established for both indolent and aggressive lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The performance characteristics of this enzyme in predicting relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has not been well studied. Methods: This study compared serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in 27 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who relapsed after sustaining a complete response versus 87 patients who did not relapse. For relapsed patients, the serum lactate dehydrogenase level at relapse was compared with the level three months before (considered baseline. For non-relapsed patients, the last two levels during follow-up were compared. For statistical analysis the T-test was used to compare differences in mean values between groups. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for serum lactate dehydrogenase in detecting relapse compared to confirmatory imaging were calculated. Results: At relapse, only 33% patients had increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase above the upper limit of normal. The mean increase was 1.2-fold above the upper limit of normal for relapsed vs. 0.83 for those who did not relapse (p-value = 0.59. The mean increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase, from baseline, was 1.1-fold in non-relapsed vs. 1.3 in relapsed patients (p-value = 0.3. The likelihood ratio of relapse was 4.65 for patients who had 1.5-fold increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase above baseline (p-value = 0.03. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 1.5-fold increases for detecting relapse, compared to clinical and imaging findings were 0.18, 0.95, 0.55, and 0.79, respectively. Conclusion: A 1.5-fold increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase, over a period of 3 months, is associated with increased likelihood of relapse from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  14. Muscle activation described with a differential equation model for large ensembles of locally coupled molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Sam

    2014-10-01

    Molecular motors, by turning chemical energy into mechanical work, are responsible for active cellular processes. Often groups of these motors work together to perform their biological role. Motors in an ensemble are coupled and exhibit complex emergent behavior. Although large motor ensembles can be modeled with partial differential equations (PDEs) by assuming that molecules function independently of their neighbors, this assumption is violated when motors are coupled locally. It is therefore unclear how to describe the ensemble behavior of the locally coupled motors responsible for biological processes such as calcium-dependent skeletal muscle activation. Here we develop a theory to describe locally coupled motor ensembles and apply the theory to skeletal muscle activation. The central idea is that a muscle filament can be divided into two phases: an active and an inactive phase. Dynamic changes in the relative size of these phases are described by a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). As the dynamics of the active phase are described by PDEs, muscle activation is governed by a set of coupled ODEs and PDEs, building on previous PDE models. With comparison to Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the theory captures the behavior of locally coupled ensembles. The theory also plausibly describes and predicts muscle experiments from molecular to whole muscle scales, suggesting that a micro- to macroscale muscle model is within reach.

  15. Local properties of the large-scale peaks of the CMB temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we study the largest structures of the CMB temperature measured by Planck in terms of the most prominent peaks on the sky, which, in particular, are located in the southern galactic hemisphere. Besides these large-scale features, the well-known Cold Spot anomaly is included in the analysis. All these peaks would contribute significantly to some of the CMB large-scale anomalies, as the parity and hemispherical asymmetries, the dipole modulation, the alignment between the quadrupole and the octopole, or in the case of the Cold Spot, to the non-Gaussianity of the field. The analysis of the peaks is performed by using their multipolar profiles, which characterize the local shape of the peaks in terms of the discrete Fourier transform of the azimuthal angle. In order to quantify the local anisotropy of the peaks, the distribution of the phases of the multipolar profiles is studied by using the Rayleigh random walk methodology. Finally, a direct analysis of the 2-dimensional field around the peaks is performed in order to take into account the effect of the galactic mask. The results of the analysis conclude that, once the peak amplitude and its first and second order derivatives at the centre are conditioned, the rest of the field is compatible with the standard model. In particular, it is observed that the Cold Spot anomaly is caused by the large value of curvature at the centre.

  16. Large deviations for self-intersection local times of stable random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Clément

    2010-01-01

    Let $(X_t,t\\geq 0)$ be a random walk on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. Let $ l_T(x)= \\int_0^T \\delta_x(X_s)ds$ the local time at the state $x$ and $ I_T= \\sum\\limits_{x\\in\\mathbb{Z}^d} l_T(x)^q $ the q-fold self-intersection local time (SILT). In \\cite{Castell} Castell proves a large deviations principle for the SILT of the simple random walk in the critical case $q(d-2)=d$. In the supercritical case $q(d-2)>d$, Chen and M\\"orters obtain in \\cite{ChenMorters} a large deviations principle for the intersection of $q$ independent random walks, and Asselah obtains in \\cite{Asselah5} a large deviations principle for the SILT with $q=2$. We extend these results to an $\\alpha$-stable process (i.e. $\\alpha\\in]0,2]$) in the case where $q(d-\\alpha)\\geq d$.

  17. Engineering and localization of quantum emitters in large hexagonal boron nitride layers

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sumin; ElBadawi, Christopher; Lobo, Charlene; Wang, Xuewen; Juodkazis, Saulius; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide bandgap van der Waals material that has recently emerged as promising platform for quantum photonics experiments. In this work we study the formation and localization of narrowband quantum emitters in large flakes (up to tens of microns wide) of hBN. The emitters can be activated in as-grown hBN by electron irradiation or high temperature annealing, and the emitter formation probability can be increased by ion implantation or focused laser irradiation of the as-grown material. Interestingly, we show that the emitters are always localized at edges of the flakes, unlike most luminescent point defects in 3D materials. Our results constitute an important step on the road map of deploying hBN in nanophotonics applications.

  18. Semi-supervised eigenvectors for large-scale locally-biased learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    In many applications, one has side information, e.g., labels that are provided in a semi-supervised manner, about a specific target region of a large data set, and one wants to perform machine learning and data analysis tasks nearby that prespecified target region. For example, one might...... machine learning and data analysis tools. At root, the reason is that eigenvectors are inherently global quantities, thus limiting the applicability of eigenvector-based methods in situations where one is interested in very local properties of the data. In this paper, we address this issue by providing...... be interested in the clustering structure of a data graph near a prespecified seed set of nodes, or one might be interested in finding partitions in an image that are near a prespecified ground truth set of pixels. Locally-biased problems of this sort are particularly challenging for popular eigenvector-based...

  19. Semi-supervised eigenvectors for large-scale locally-biased learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    -based machine learning and data analysis tools. At root, the reason is that eigenvectors are inherently global quantities, thus limiting the applicability of eigenvector-based methods in situations where one is interested in very local properties of the data. In this paper, we address this issue by providing......In many applications, one has side information, e.g., labels that are provided in a semi-supervised manner, about a specific target region of a large data set, and one wants to perform machine learning and data analysis tasks nearby that prespecified target region. For example, one might...... be interested in the clustering structure of a data graph near a prespecified seed set of nodes, or one might be interested in finding partitions in an image that are near a prespecified ground truth set of pixels. Locally-biased problems of this sort are particularly challenging for popular eigenvector...

  20. MapReduce Based Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing for Similarity Joins on Large Scale Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Lin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) has been proposed as an efficient technique for similarity joins for high dimensional data. The efficiency and approximation rate of LSH depend on the number of generated false positive instances and false negative instances. In many domains, reducing the number of false positives is crucial. Furthermore, in some application scenarios, balancing false positives and false negatives is favored. To address these problems, in this paper we propose Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing (PLSH), where a new banding scheme is embedded to tailor the number of false positives, false negatives, and the sum of both. PLSH is implemented in parallel using MapReduce framework to deal with similarity joins on large scale data. Experimental studies on real and simulated data verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed PLSH technique, compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  1. ALK-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: two more cases and a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Zbigniew; Rucińska, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Wojciech; Skotnicki, Aleksander B; Maramorosz-Kurianowicz, Magdalena; Mruk, Andrzej; Piróg, Krystyna; Utych, Graźyna; Bodzioch, Piotr; Srebro-Stariczyk, Maria; Włodarska, Iwona; Stachura, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare, recently defined tumor distinct in many aspects from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We present two additional cases of ALK+DLBCL recently diagnosed in our department and a review of literature. A 48-year old man presented with a large upper neck mass growing slowly over 18 months. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as an ALK-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. with plasmablastic features. Large, frequently intrasinusoidal tumor cells expressed CD138, EMA, weakly IgA and kappa, but were negative for other B-cell markers, T-cell markers and CD30. The ALK staining was cytoplasmic with the increased intensity in the Golgi area. At the diagnosis the patient manifested with the stage IIIB. Three courses of CHOP resulted in partial and only transient remission. The patient died of massive bleeding from his decomposing tumor 3 months after the diagnosis. A 49-year old man complaining of abdominal pain revealed abdominal lymphadenomegaly and a gastric infiltrate, involving the deep portions of the gastric wall. The tumor showed immunoblastic/anaplastic morphology, with some Reed-Sternberg-like cells positive for ALK. ALK immunostaining was cytoplasmic, weak in a routine immunostain, enhanced with double (proteinase + pressure cooker) antigen retrieval. FISH was consistent with the t(2;5)/nucleophosmin(NPM)-ALK rearrangement. The tumor demonstrated similar "null" B/T phenotype with positivity for IgA, lambda, EMA and LCA. The patient (stage IVB) currently undergoes chemotherapy. ALK-positive DLBCL affects mostly middle-aged men, shows generally poor but stage-dependent prognosis (at least 60% mortality rate), presents typically as a lymph node-based disseminated disease, and very rarely involves the bone marrow. Genetic studies showed that the majority of ALK+DLBCL cases are characterized by the clathrin (CLTC)-ALK fusion and in a few cases the NPM

  2. Multifocal Gastric Ulcers Caused by Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma in a Patient With Significant Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gromski MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastrointestinal (GI lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with varied clinical presentations. The stomach is the most common GI site and accounts for 70% to 75% of GI lymphomas. We present a patient with gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL who presented with significant weight loss, early satiety, and multifocal ulcerated gastric lesions. Esophagoduodenoscopy should be performed in patients presenting with warning symptoms as in our case. Diagnosis is usually made by endoscopic biopsies. Multiple treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used. Advancements in endoscopic and pathologic technology decrease turnaround time for diagnosis and treatment initiation, thus reducing the need for surgery. Health care providers should maintain a high level of suspicion and consider gastric DLBCL as part of the differential diagnosis, especially in those with warning symptoms such as weight loss and early satiety with abnormal endoscopic findings.

  3. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient’s case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term.

  4. Gastric infiltration of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Endoscopic diagnosis and improvement of lesions after chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histologic subtype of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) accounting for about 40% of all NHLs. This is a case report about the endoscopic appearance of a DLBCL with infiltration to the stomach in a 39-year-old female. She had a 6-me history of lumbar and left upper quadrant pain with intermittent episodes of melena. A computer tomograghy (CT) scan showed mural thickening of the gastric antrum. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple gastric ulcers. Definite diagnosis could be made by endoscopic biopsies and the patient had a good response to chemotherapy. This response correlated well with a further endoscopic follow-up. A follow-up endoscopic examination could be considered to evaluate a good response to chemotherapy in DLBCL patients with secondary gastric dissemination.

  5. Numerical and analytical approaches to an advection-diffusion problem at small Reynolds number and large P\\'eclet number

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Nathaniel J

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a detailed understanding of the physical interactions between a cell and its environment often requires information about the flow of fluid surrounding the cell. Cells must be able to effectively absorb and discard material in order to survive. Strategies for nutrient acquisition and toxin disposal, which have been evolutionarily selected for their efficacy, should reflect knowledge of the physics underlying this mass transport problem. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we consider a two-dimensional advection-diffusion problem at small Reynolds number and large P\\'eclet number. We discuss the problem of mass transport for a circular cell in a uniform far-field flow. We approach the problem numerically, and also analytically through a rescaling of the concentration boundary layer. A biophysically motivated first-passage problem for the absorption of material by the cell demonstrates quantitative agreement between the numerical and analytical approaches.

  6. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor enhances the effect of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Linn; Laursen, Maria Bach; Schmitz, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    . Accordingly, the fraction of apoptotic/dead cells significantly increased following addition of plerixafor to rituximab treatment. Furthermore, exposure of DLBCL cells to plerixafor resulted in a significant decrease in CXCR4 fluorescence intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, implying that the anti......BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease with variable clinical outcome, accounting for at least 25-30 % of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Approximately one third of DLBCL patients are not cured by the currently used treatment regimen, R-CHOP. Hence, new treatment......-proliferative/pro-apoptotic effect of rituximab on DLBCL cells can be synergistically enhanced by the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor, addition of plerixafor to the R-CHOP regimen can be suggested to improve treatment outcome for DLBCL patients....

  7. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the prostate: A report of two cases with diagnostic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Kakkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostatic lymphomas are extremely unusual neoplasms. Their rarity and nonspecific symptomatology at presentation usually prompt a clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia or chronic prostatitis, leading to significant delay in diagnosis. Clinical examination, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS are not of much utility in differential diagnosis, and histological examination is the gold standard. We report two cases of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of prostate, diffuse large B-cell type, diagnosed on TRUS-guided prostatic biopsies. Correct diagnosis is of crucial importance as the therapeutic strategy for lymphoma is radically different from that for carcinoma, and early detection of prostatic lymphoma can be potentially curative. Thus, knowledge of this rare entity, inclusion in differential diagnosis of lower urinary tract obstruction, and application of an appropriate immunohistochemical panel are essential so as not to miss this unusual diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  8. Routine imaging for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first remission is not associated with better survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Routine surveillance imaging plays a limited role in detecting recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and the value of routine imaging is controversial. The present population-based study compares the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish DLBCL patients......-two neighbouring countries with comparable treatment guidelines but with completely different traditions for routine surveillance imaging. Methods: Patients enroled in the Danish (LYFO) and Swedish population-based lymphoma registries were included by following criteria: (a) newly diagnosed DLBCL in the period...... (HR 2.3, P 2 (HR 1.8, P = 0.04) at diagnosis were associated with inferior post-remission OS in multivariate Cox analysis, whereas an imaging-based FU strategy (country of FU) was not prognostic. An imaging-based FU strategy also had...

  9. Molecular subtyping of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: update on biology, diagnosis and emerging platforms for practising pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Grace K; Gill, Anthony J; Stevenson, William S

    2016-01-01

    Molecular classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is critical. Numerous methodologies have demonstrated that DLBCL is biologically heterogeneous despite morphological similarities. This underlies the disparate outcomes of treatment response or failure in this common non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This review will summarise historical approaches to lymphoma classifications, current diagnosis of DLBCL, molecular techniques that have primarily been used in the research setting to distinguish and subclassify DLBCL, evaluate contemporary diagnostic methodologies that seek to translate lymphoma biology into clinical practice, and introduce novel diagnostic platforms that may overcome current issues. The review concludes with an overview of key molecular lesions currently identified in DLBCL, all of which are potential targets for drug treatments that may improve survival and cure.

  10. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  11. Lack of topoisomerase copy number changes in patients with de novo and relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Ø; Poulsen, Tim S; Gang, Anne O

    2015-01-01

    Topoisomerase (TOP) gene copy number changes may predict response to treatment with TOP-targeting drugs in cancer treatment. This was first described in patients with breast cancer and is currently being investigated in other malignant diseases. TOP-targeting drugs may induce TOP gene copy number...... changes at relapse, with possible implications for relapse therapy efficacy. TOP gene alterations in lymphoma are poorly investigated. In this study, TOP1 and TOP2A gene alterations were investigated in patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n = 33) and relapsed DLBCL treated...... with chemotherapy regimens including TOP2-targeting drugs (n = 16). No TOP1 or TOP2A copy number changes were found. Polysomy of chromosomes 20 and 17 was seen in 3 of 25 patients (12%) and 2 of 32 patients (6%) with de novo DLBCL. Among relapsed patients, chromosome polysomy was more frequently observed in 5 of 13...

  12. Cross-correlation of diffuse synchrotron and large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shea; Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence

    2010-02-01

    We explore for the first time the method of cross-correlation of radio synchrotron emission and tracers of large-scale structure in order to detect the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). We performed a cross-correlation of a 34° × 34° area of Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) galaxies for two redshift slices (0.03 Bonn survey. For this analysis, we assumed that the synchrotron surface brightness is linearly proportional to surface density of galaxies. We also sampled the cross-correlation function (CCF) using 24 distant fields of the same size from the Bonn survey, to better assess the noise properties. Though we obtained a null result, we found that by adding a signal weighted by the 2MASS image with a filament (peak) surface brightness of 1 (7) and 7 (49) mK would produce a 3σ positive correlation for the 0.03 Bonn survey, and demonstrates the power of this technique and its utility for upcoming sensitive continuum surveys such as those planned with the Murchison Widefield Array.

  13. Representation of solutions and large-time behavior for fully nonlocal diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jukka; Siljander, Juhana; Zacher, Rico

    2017-07-01

    We study the Cauchy problem for a nonlocal heat equation, which is of fractional order both in space and time. We prove four main theorems: a representation formula for classical solutions a quantitative decay rate at which the solution tends to the fundamental solution optimal L2-decay of mild solutions in all dimensions L2-decay of weak solutions via energy methods. The first result relies on a delicate analysis of the definition of classical solutions. After proving the representation formula we carefully analyze the integral representation to obtain the quantitative decay rates of (ii). Next we use Fourier analysis techniques to obtain the optimal decay rate for mild solutions. Here we encounter the critical dimension phenomenon where the decay rate attains the decay rate of that in a bounded domain for large enough dimensions. Consequently, the decay rate does not anymore improve when the dimension increases. The theory is markedly different from that of the standard caloric functions and this substantially complicates the analysis. Finally, we use energy estimates and a comparison principle to prove a quantitative decay rate for weak solutions defined via a variational formulation. Our main idea is to show that the L2-norm is actually a subsolution to a purely time-fractional problem which allows us to use the known theory to obtain the result.

  14. Rotational Diffusion of a New Large Non Polar Dye Molecule in Alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Radha; Gupta, Ritu; Kulkarni, Giridhar U; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2015-11-01

    Rotational reorientation times of a newly synthesized 2,5-bis(phenylethynyl)1,4-bis(dodecyloxy) benzene (DDPE) are experimentally determined in series of n-alkanes by employing steady state and time resolved fluorescence depolarization technique with a view to understand rotational dynamics of large non-polar solute molecule in non-polar solvents and few general solvents of different sizes and varying viscosity. It is observed that rotational reorientation times vary linearly as function of viscosity. The hydrodynamic stick condition describes the experimental results at low viscosities while the results tend to deviate significantly from it at higher viscosities. This is attributed to the possibility of long chains in solvents hosting a variety of chain defects (end-gauche, double-gauche, all-trans, kink, etc.) thereby reducing the effective length of the molecule, leading to a slightly reduced friction. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory as well as the quasi-hydrodynamic theories of Gierer-Wirtz (GW) and Dote-Kivelson-Shwartz (DKS). The predictions from these theories underestimate τr in the solvents employed in the study.

  15. A photonic-crystal optical antenna for extremely large local-field enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Se-Heon; Lee, Yong-Hee; Kartalov, Emil P; Scherer, Axel

    2010-11-08

    We propose a novel design of an all-dielectric optical antenna based on photonic-band-gap confinement. Specifically, we have engineered the photonic-crystal dipole mode to have broad spectral response (Q~70) and well-directed vertical-radiation by introducing a plane mirror below the cavity. Considerably large local electric-field intensity enhancement~4,500 is expected from the proposed design for a normally incident planewave. Furthermore, an analytic model developed based on coupled-mode theory predicts that the electric-field intensity enhancement can easily be over 100,000 by employing reasonably high-Q (~10,000) resonators.

  16. A Single Field Inflation Model with Large Local Non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Sasaki, Misao

    2013-01-01

    A detection of large local form non-Gaussianity is considered to be able to rule out all single field inflation models. This statement is based on a single field consistency condition. Despite the awareness of some implicit assumptions in the derivation of this condition and the demonstration of corresponding examples that illustrate these caveats, to date there is still no explicit and self-consistent model which can serve as a counterexample to this statement. We present such a model in this Letter.

  17. Spontaneous Remission of Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mizuno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 94-year-old female patient presented with anorexia and left axillar lymphadenopathy on admission. Her past history was angina pectoris at 83 years of age and total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer at 87 years. The family history revealed that her son had had a malignant lymphoma, the histopathological diagnosis of which was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A physical examination showed both cervical, axillar, and inguinal lymphadenopathy without tenderness. She had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R. Whole-body computed tomography confirmed the cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Gallium-68 imaging revealed positive accumulation in these superficial lymph nodes. A right inguinal lymph node biopsy showed features of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder. Immunohistological studies on this lymph node biopsy showed CD20-positive large cells, CD3-positive small cells, and CD30-partly-positive large cells. In situ hybridization showed Epstein-Barr virus-positive, LMP-partly-positive, and EBNA2-negative cells. She refused chemotherapy as her son had died from hematemesis during chemotherapy. She received intravenous hyperalimentation for 1 month after admission. No palpable lymph nodes were identified by physical examination or computed tomography 3 months after admission, and regression of lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and sIL-2R was observed. She recovered from anorexia and was discharged. She died from pneumonia 10 months later after initial symptoms of anorexia. The autopsy showed no superficial lymphadenopathy.

  18. Large deviations for the local times of a random walk among random conductances

    CERN Document Server

    König, Wolfgang; Wolff, Tilman

    2011-01-01

    We derive an annealed large deviation principle for the normalised local times of a continuous-time random walk among random conductances in a finite domain in $\\Z^d$ in the spirit of Donsker-Varadhan \\cite{DV75}. We work in the interesting case that the conductances may assume arbitrarily small values. Thus, the underlying picture of the principle is a joint strategy of small values of the conductances and large holding times of the walk. The speed and the rate function of our principle are explicit in terms of the lower tails of the conductance distribution. As an application, we identify the logarithmic asymptotics of the lower tails of the principal eigenvalue of the randomly perturbed negative Laplace operator in the domain.

  19. The HI Content of Galaxies as a Function of Local Density and Large-Scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreen, Henry; Cantwell, Kelly; Maloney, Erin; Cane, Thomas; Brough Morris, Theodore; Flory, Oscar; Raskin, Mark; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    We examine the HI content of galaxies as a function of environment, based on a catalogue of 41527 galaxies that are part of the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We use nearest-neighbor methods to characterize local environment, and a modified version of the algorithm developed for the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to classify large-scale environment as group, filament, tendril, or void. We compare the HI content in these environments using statistics that include both HI detections and the upper limits on detections from ALFALFA. The large size of the sample allows to statistically compare the HI content in different environments for early-type galaxies as well as late-type galaxies. This work is supported by NSF grants AST-1211005 and AST-1637339, the Skidmore Faculty-Student Summer Research program, and the Schupf Scholars program.

  20. Improved cluster-in-molecule local correlation approach for electron correlation calculation of large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2014-10-02

    An improved cluster-in-molecule (CIM) local correlation approach is developed to allow electron correlation calculations of large systems more accurate and faster. We have proposed a refined strategy of constructing virtual LMOs of various clusters, which is suitable for basis sets of various types. To recover medium-range electron correlation, which is important for quantitative descriptions of large systems, we find that a larger distance threshold (ξ) is necessary for highly accurate results. Our illustrative calculations show that the present CIM-MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesser perturbation theory, MP2) or CIM-CCSD (coupled cluster singles and doubles, CCSD) scheme with a suitable ξ value is capable of recovering more than 99.8% correlation energies for a wide range of systems at different basis sets. Furthermore, the present CIM-MP2 scheme can provide reliable relative energy differences as the conventional MP2 method for secondary structures of polypeptides.

  1. [Effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in diffuse peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, N Dzh; Nasirov, M Ia; Sushkov, S V; Klimova, E M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in 111 patients with diffuse peritonitis. It was shown, that combined sequential local and systemic cytokine and ozone therapy allows correcting the expression of endogenous intoxication and lipid peroxidation in diffuse peritonitis. This method suppresses an inflammation in the abdominal cavity. At the same time, it accelerates the elimination of intestine atony and thereby potentiates the possibilities of traditional methods of treatment.

  2. Indoor localization based on cellular telephony RSSI fingerprints containing very large numbers of carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussar Yacine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new approach to indoor localization is presented, based upon the use of Received Signal Strength (RSS fingerprints containing data from very large numbers of cellular base stations--up to the entire GSM band of over 500 channels. Machine learning techniques are employed to extract good quality location information from these high-dimensionality input vectors. Experimental results in a domestic and an office setting are presented, in which data were accumulated over a 1-month period in order to assure time robustness. Room-level classification efficiencies approaching 100% were obtained, using Support Vector Machines in one-versus-one and one-versus-all configurations. Promising results using semi-supervised learning techniques, in which only a fraction of the training data is required to have a room label, are also presented. While indoor RSS localization using WiFi, as well as some rather mediocre results with low-carrier count GSM fingerprints, have been discussed elsewhere, this is to our knowledge the first study to demonstrate that good quality indoor localization information can be obtained, in diverse settings, by applying a machine learning strategy to RSS vectors that contain the entire GSM band.

  3. Glueballs in large-N YM by localization on critical points

    CERN Document Server

    Bochicchio, Marco

    2011-01-01

    By exploiting in large-N YM the change of variables from the gauge connection to the ASD part of its curvature by a non-SUSY version of the Nicolai map, we show that certain twistor Wilson loops supported on a Lagrangian submanifold of twistor space are localized on lattices of surface operators of Z(N) holonomy that form translational invariant sectors labelled by the magnetic charge k=1,2,...,N-1 at a point. The localization is obtained reducing the loop equation in the ASD variables in the holomorphic gauge, regularized by analytic continuation to Minkowski space-time, to a critical equation, by exploiting the invariance of the twistor Wilson loops by deformations for the addition of backtracking arcs ending with cusps on the singular divisor of surface operators. Alternatively localization is obtained contracting the YM measure in the ASD variables on the fixed points of a semigroup that acts on the fiber of the Lagrangian twistor fibration which twistor Wilson loops are supported on and leaves invariant ...

  4. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a local distributed algorithm for expectation maximization in large peer-to-peer environments. The algorithm can be used for a variety of well-known data mining tasks in a distributed environment such as clustering, anomaly detection, target tracking to name a few. This technology is crucial for many emerging peer-to-peer applications for bioinformatics, astronomy, social networking, sensor networks and web mining. Centralizing all or some of the data for building global models is impractical in such peer-to-peer environments because of the large number of data sources, the asynchronous nature of the peer-to-peer networks, and dynamic nature of the data/network. The distributed algorithm we have developed in this paper is provably-correct i.e. it converges to the same result compared to a similar centralized algorithm and can automatically adapt to changes to the data and the network. We show that the communication overhead of the algorithm is very low due to its local nature. This monitoring algorithm is then used as a feedback loop to sample data from the network and rebuild the model when it is outdated. We present thorough experimental results to verify our theoretical claims.

  5. Large deviations for self-intersection local times in subcritical dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Clément

    2010-01-01

    Let $(X_t,t\\geq 0)$ be a random walk on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. Let $ l_t(x)= \\int_0^t \\delta_x(X_s)ds$ be the local time at site $x$ and $ I_t= \\sum\\limits_{x\\in\\mathbb{Z}^d} l_t(x)^p $ the p-fold self-intersection local time (SILT). Becker and K\\"onig have recently proved a large deviations principle for $I_t$ for all $(p,d)\\in\\mathbb{R}^d\\times\\mathbb{Z}^d$ such that $p(d-2)<2$. We extend these results to a broader scale of deviations and to the whole subcritical domain $p(d-2)large deviations principle using a method introduced by Castell for the critical case $p(d-2)=d$ and developed by Laurent for the critical and supercritical case $p(d-\\alpha)\\geq d$ of $\\alpha$-stable random walk.

  6. MDM2 phenotypic and genotypic profiling, respective to TP53 genetic status, in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Møller, Michael; Tzankov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    MDM2 is a key negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, however, the prognostic significance of MDM2 overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been defined convincingly. In a p53-genetically defined large cohort of de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherap...

  7. Loss of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 function contributes to poor prognosis for activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Y; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Tzankov, A

    2017-01-01

    PRDM1/BLIMP-1, a master regulator of plasma-cell differentiation, is frequently inactivated in activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Little is known about its genetic aberrations and relevant clinical implications. A large series of patients with de novo DLBC...

  8. Beam localization in HIFU temperature measurements using thermocouples, with application to cooling by large blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subhashish; Banerjee, Rupak K; Hariharan, Prasanna; Myers, Matthew R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies of thermal effects in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures are often performed with the aid of fine wire thermocouples positioned within tissue phantoms. Thermocouple measurements are subject to several types of error which must be accounted for before reliable inferences can be made on the basis of the measurements. Thermocouple artifact due to viscous heating is one source of error. A second is the uncertainty regarding the position of the beam relative to the target location or the thermocouple junction, due to the error in positioning the beam at the junction. This paper presents a method for determining the location of the beam relative to a fixed pair of thermocouples. The localization technique reduces the uncertainty introduced by positioning errors associated with very narrow HIFU beams. The technique is presented in the context of an investigation into the effect of blood flow through large vessels on the efficacy of HIFU procedures targeted near the vessel. Application of the beam localization method allowed conclusions regarding the effects of blood flow to be drawn from previously inconclusive (because of localization uncertainties) data. Comparison of the position-adjusted transient temperature profiles for flow rates of 0 and 400ml/min showed that blood flow can reduce temperature elevations by more than 10%, when the HIFU focus is within a 2mm distance from the vessel wall. At acoustic power levels of 17.3 and 24.8W there is a 20- to 70-fold decrease in thermal dose due to the convective cooling effect of blood flow, implying a shrinkage in lesion size. The beam-localization technique also revealed the level of thermocouple artifact as a function of sonication time, providing investigators with an indication of the quality of thermocouple data for a given exposure time. The maximum artifact was found to be double the measured temperature rise, during initial few seconds of sonication.

  9. A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity-plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform.

  10. Re-examination of the dates of large blade technology in China: a comparison of Shuidonggou Locality 1 and Locality 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Kuhn, Steven L; Gao, Xing; Chen, Fu-You

    2013-02-01

    The presence and age of large blade technology at the Shuidonggou site is a pivotal issue in discussions of the spread of blade technology in East Eurasia. Madsen and colleagues' influential work uses the dates (24,000-29,000 rcy BP [radiocarbon years before present]) they obtained from Shuidonggou Locality 2 to estimate the age of blade technology in this region, and suggested a very late arrival of Levallois-like blade technology from the north. This paper re-examines the evidence for the age of blade technology at Shuidonggou by comparing the lithic assemblages from the new excavations at Locality 2 with those from Locality 1. Several important points are demonstrated: (1) the lithic industry of cultural layers 1 through 4 at Locality 2 is not based on large blades, so reported dates from these layers cannot be an indicator of the age of large blade technology; (2) comparing Locality 1 and 2, the age of large blade technology appears to be around 34,000-38,000 calendar years BP (before present) in this region, suggesting a relatively rapid technology dispersal from the west and/or north; (3) the so-called 'Shuidonggou lower cultural layer' at Locality 1 includes both large blade and simple flake industries.

  11. Expression of PD-1 (CD279) and FoxP3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, Matthew J; Bhuller, Kaljit; Hew, Roger; Ibrahim, Hazem; Naresh, Kikkeri; Wagner, Simon D

    2014-09-01

    The role of the microenvironment in high-grade lymphoma is not well defined. In this report, we employ immunohistochemistry to characterise programmed death-1 (PD-1/CD279) and FoxP3 expression in 70 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PD-1 is a surface marker characteristic of follicular helper T-cells whilst FoxP3 is characteristic of Tregs. We demonstrate variable infiltration with CD4(+) T-cells (50 % of all lymph node cells) and PD-1(hi) cells (0.1 to 1.5 % of all cells). CD4(+) T-cells can be distributed in clusters or more diffusely and PD-1(hi) cells, but not FoxP3(+) cells, are found in rosettes around lymphoma cells. Cases with high CD4(+) T-cell numbers tended to have higher numbers of both PD-1(hi) and FoxP3(+) cells. Cases with total CD4(+) T-cell, PD-1(hi) and FoxP3(+) numbers above the median associate with better clinical outcome. Overall, we demonstrate that infiltration by CD4(+) T-cells, including both FoxP3(+) and PD-1(hi) subsets, correlates with prognosis in DLBCL. In distinction to previous reported series, patients (91 %) were treated with rituximab-containing regimens, suggesting that the effects of CD4+ T-cell infiltration are maintained in the rituximab era. This work suggests that determinants of total CD4(+) T-cell infiltration, either molecular characteristics of the lymphoma or the patients' immune system, and not individual T-cell subsets, correlate with clinical outcome.

  12. On The Evidence For Large-Scale Galactic Conformity In The Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Larry P. T.; Lilly, Simon J.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.

    2017-07-01

    We re-examine the observational evidence for large-scale (4 Mpc) galactic conformity in the local Universe, as presented in Kauffmann et al. We show that a number of methodological features of their analysis act to produce a misleadingly high amplitude of the conformity signal. These include a weighting in favour of central galaxies in very high density regions, the likely misclassification of satellite galaxies as centrals in the same high-density regions and the use of medians to characterize bimodal distributions. We show that the large-scale conformity signal in Kauffmann et al. clearly originates from a very small number of central galaxies in the vicinity of just a few very massive clusters, whose effect is strongly amplified by the methodological issues that we have identified. Some of these 'centrals' are likely misclassified satellites, but some may be genuine centrals showing a real conformity effect. Regardless, this analysis suggests that conformity on 4 Mpc scales is best viewed as a relatively short-range effect (at the virial radius) associated with these very large neighbouring haloes, rather than a very long-range effect (at tens of virial radii) associated with the relatively low-mass haloes that host the nominal central galaxies in the analysis. A mock catalogue constructed from a recent semi-analytic model shows very similar conformity effects to the data when analysed in the same way, suggesting that there is no need to introduce new physical processes to explain galactic conformity on 4 Mpc scales.

  13. Local and global approaches of affinity propagation clustering for large scale data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-yin XIA; Fei WU; Xu-qing ZHANG; Yue-ting ZHUANG

    2008-01-01

    Recently a new clustering algorithm called 'affinity propagation' (AP) has been proposed, which efficiently clustered sparsely related data by passing messages between data points. However, we want to cluster large scale data where the similarities are not sparse in many cases. This paper presents two variants of AP for grouping large scale data with a dense similarity matrix.The local approach is partition affinity propagation (PAP) and the global method is landmark affinity propagation (LAP). PAP passes messages in the subsets of data first and then merges them as the number of initial step of iterations; it can effectively reduce the number of iterations of clustering. LAP passes messages between the landmark data points first and then clusters non-landmarkdata points; it is a large global approximation method to speed up clustering. Experiments are conducted on many datasets, such as random data points, manifold subspaces, images of faces and Chinese calligraphy, and the results demonstrate that the two ap-proaches are feasible and practicable.

  14. Failure of fluid-saturated granular materials: a unified approach to capture diffuse and localized instability mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Constance; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Granular materials are susceptible to a wide variety of failure and deformation mechanisms, especially because of their interaction with the pore fluids and the surrounding environment. An adequate modeling of their mechanical response is therefore essential for understanding a number of geological processes, such as the onset of rapid landslides, hillslope denudation and sediment transport, or even the mechanics of fault gauges. Depending on the type of material, the groundwater conditions and the surrounding kinematic constraints, both diffuse and localized mechanisms are possible, and these may occur under either drained or undrained conditions. In the geomechanics literature, failure modes are usually explained and modeled with the tools of continuum mechanics, such as the mathematical theory of plasticity. Due to the complexity of granular material behavior, however, most classical models for frictional strength are unable to capture the variety of instability mechanisms observed for such class of geomaterials (e.g., liquefaction, shear banding, etc.). Sophisticated strain-hardening plasticity models are therefore required for numerical modeling purposes, thus making the evaluation of critical failure conditions less straightforward than in perfect plasticity theories. Here we propose a mathematical strategy that can be adapted to any elastoplastic model and allows the onset of failure in elastoplastic geomaterials to be expressed in a more general manner. More specifically, our theory expresses the failure conditions as a function of local kinematics and solid-fluid interactions. The stability criterion used in this study is based on the so-called stability modulus, a scalar index of failure that was formulated by linking the physical concept controllability to the mathematical notion of plastic admissibility upon an incremental loading path [Buscarnera et al, 2011]. In this contribution, different loading constraints are considered, accounting for the

  15. Clinicopathological study of gene rearrangement and immunohistochemical pattern of primary intracranial diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han X

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinicopathological and imaging characteristics of primary intracranial diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PIC-DLBCL. Imaging, histopathological findings, and immunohistochemical staining characteristics were analyzed, and the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement of 25 PIC-DLBCL cases was examined. MicroRNA was extracted from 10 cases each of PIC-DLBCL, extracerebral germinal center DLBCL (GC-DLBCL, and extracerebral non-GC-DLBCL (NGC-DLBCL; we conducted chip hybridization and comparatively analyzed the difference among the three. PIC-DLBCLs typically involved no less than two cerebral lobes (10/25; the frontal lobe was affected most often (6/25. Target-shaped structures were observed in all PIC-DLBCLs due to the proliferation of centroblast-like large lymphocytes surrounding the vessels. There was strong and diffuse immunostaining for CD20 and CD79a, and negative immunostaining for CD3, CD5, CD23, and cyclin D1 for all PIC-DLBCLs. The percentage of cells with nuclear positivity for anti-Ki67 antibody ranged 50-90% (mean, 80%. Three, 19, and 22 PIC-DLBCLs were CD10-, Bcl-6-, and melanoma ubiquitous mutated 1-positive, respectively. Twenty-four PIC-DLBCLs were B-cell monoclonal. MicroRNA hybridization showed that 788 PIC-DLBCL microRNAs/segments increased to at least twice of that of NGC-DLBCLs, and 401 PIC-DLBCL microRNAs/segments declined to less than half of that of NGC-DLBCLs. Six hundred and eleven PIC-DLBCL microRNAs/segments increased to at least twice that of GC-DLBCLs, and 229 PIC-DLBCL microRNAs/segments declined to less than half of that in GC-DLBCLs. PIC-DLBCL typically affected multiple sites, tended to occur in older men, arose from activated B cells, had high B-cell monoclonality; its microRNA expression differed from that of NGC-DLBCL and GC-DLBCL.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Event-Free Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Immunochemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquieres, Hervé; Slager, Susan L.; Jardin, Fabrice; Veron, Amelie S.; Asmann, Yan W.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Fest, Thierry; Habermann, Thomas M.; Bene, Marie C.; Novak, Anne J.; Mareschal, Sylvain; Haioun, Corinne; Lamy, Thierry; Ansell, Stephen M.; Tilly, Herve; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Dogan, Ahmet; Cunningham, Julie M.; Olswold, Curtis L.; Molina, Thierry Jo; Link, Brian K.; Milpied, Noel; Cox, David G.; Salles, Gilles A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed a multistage genome-wide association study to identify inherited genetic variants that predict outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with immunochemotherapy. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association study data sets, one from the LNH2003B trial (N = 540), a prospective clinical trial from the Lymphoma Study Association, and the other from the Molecular Epidemiology Resource study (N = 312), a prospective observational study from the University of Iowa–Mayo Clinic Lymphoma Specialized Program of Research Excellence. Top single nucleotide polymorphisms were then genotyped in independent cohorts of patients from the Specialized Program of Research Excellence (N = 391) and the Groupe Ouest-Est des Leucémies Aiguës et Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) -075 randomized trial (N = 294). We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) using a log-additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, and age-adjusted International Prognostic Index. Results In a meta-analysis of the four studies, the top loci for EFS were marked by rs7712513 at 5q23.2 (near SNX2 and SNCAIP; HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.57; P = 2.08 × 10−7), and rs7765004 at 6q21 (near MARCKS and HDAC2; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.57; P = 7.09 × 10−7), although they did not reach conventional genome-wide significance (P = 5 × 10−8). Both rs7712513 (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.72; P = 3.53 × 10−8) and rs7765004 (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.71; P = 5.36 × 10−7) were also associated with OS. In exploratory analyses, a two–single nucleotide polymorphism risk score was highly predictive of EFS (P = 1.78 × 10−12) and was independent of treatment, IPI, and cell-of-origin classification. Conclusion Our study provides encouraging evidence for associations between loci at 5q23.2 and 6q21 with EFS and OS in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy

  17. Experimental Study on Local Scour Around A Large Circular Cylinder Under Irregular Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益人; 陈国平

    2004-01-01

    A series of physical model tests are conducted for local scour around a circular cylinder of a relatively large diameter (0.15 < D/L < 0.5) under the action of irregular waves. The laws of change of the topography around the cylinder are systematically studied. The effects of wave height, wave period, water depth, sediment grain size and cylinder diameter are taken into account. The mechanism of formation of the topography around the cylinder is analyzed. A detailed analysis is given to bed sediment grain size, and it is considered that the depth of scour around the cylinder under wave action is not inversely proportional to the sediment grain diameter. On such a basis, an equation is proposed for calculation of the maximum depth of scour around a cylinder as well as its position under the action of irregular waves.

  18. Local and commissural IC neurons make axosomatic inputs on large GABAergic tectothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L

    2014-10-15

    Large GABAergic (LG) neurons are a distinct type of neuron in the inferior colliculus (IC) identified by their dense vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-containing axosomatic synaptic terminals. Yet the sources of these terminals are unknown. Since IC glutamatergic neurons express VGLUT2, and IC neurons are known to have local collaterals, we tested the hypothesis that these excitatory, glutamatergic axosomatic inputs on LG neurons come from local axonal collaterals and commissural IC neurons. We injected a recombinant viral tracer into the IC which enabled Golgi-like green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling in both dendrites and axons. In all cases, we found terminals positive for both GFP and VGLUT2 (GFP+/VGLUT2+) that made axosomatic contacts on LG neurons. One to six axosomatic contacts were made on a single LG cell body by a single axonal branch. The GFP-labeled neurons giving rise to the VGLUT2+ terminals on LG neurons were close by. The density of GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals on the LG neurons was related to the number of nearby GFP-labeled cells. On the contralateral side, a smaller number of LG neurons received axosomatic contacts from GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals. In cases with a single GFP-labeled glutamatergic neuron, the labeled axonal plexus was flat, oriented in parallel to the fibrodendritic laminae, and contacted 9-30 LG cell bodies within the plexus. Our data demonstrated that within the IC microcircuitry there is a convergence of inputs from local IC excitatory neurons on LG cell bodies. This suggests that LG neurons are heavily influenced by the activity of the nearby laminar glutamatergic neurons in the IC.

  19. Real-time Image-based 6-DOF Localization in Large-Scale Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Hyon; Cohen, Michael; Uyttendaele, Matt

    2012-01-01

    We present a real-time approach for image-based localization within large scenes that have been reconstructed offline using structure from motion (Sfm). From monocular video, our method continuously computes a precise 6-DOF camera pose, by efficiently tracking natural features and matching them to 3D points in the Sfm point cloud. Our main contribution lies in efficiently interleaving a fast keypoint tracker that uses inexpensive binary feature descriptors with a new approach for direct 2D-to-3D matching. The 2D-to-3D matching avoids the need for online extraction of scale-invariant features. Instead, offline we construct an indexed database containing multiple DAISY descriptors per 3D point extracted at multiple scales. The key to the efficiency of our method lies in invoking DAISY descriptor extraction and matching sparingly during localization, and in distributing this computation over a window of successive frames. This enables the algorithm to run in real-time, without fluctuations in the latency over lo...

  20. Extreme Associated Functions: Optimally Linking Local Extremes to Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Panja, Debabrata

    2007-01-01

    We present a new statistical method to optimally link local weather extremes to large-scale atmospheric circulation structures. The method is illustrated using July-August daily mean temperature at 2m height (T2m) time-series over the Netherlands and 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500) time-series over the Euroatlantic region of the ECMWF reanalysis dataset (ERA40). The method identifies patterns in the Z500 time-series that optimally describe, in a precise mathematical sense, the relationship with local warm extremes in the Netherlands. Two patterns are identified; the most important one corresponds to a blocking high pressure system leading to subsidence and calm, dry and sunny conditions over the Netherlands. The second one corresponds to a rare, easterly flow regime bringing warm, dry air into the region. The patterns are robust; they are also identified in shorter subsamples of the total dataset. The method is generally applicable and might prove useful in evaluating the performance of climate models in s...

  1. Large-Scale Point-Cloud Visualization through Localized Textured Surface Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Murat; Preiner, Reinhold; Scheiblauer, Claus; Jeschke, Stefan; Wimmer, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel scene representation for the visualization of large-scale point clouds accompanied by a set of high-resolution photographs. Many real-world applications deal with very densely sampled point-cloud data, which are augmented with photographs that often reveal lighting variations and inaccuracies in registration. Consequently, the high-quality representation of the captured data, i.e., both point clouds and photographs together, is a challenging and time-consuming task. We propose a two-phase approach, in which the first (preprocessing) phase generates multiple overlapping surface patches and handles the problem of seamless texture generation locally for each patch. The second phase stitches these patches at render-time to produce a high-quality visualization of the data. As a result of the proposed localization of the global texturing problem, our algorithm is more than an order of magnitude faster than equivalent mesh-based texturing techniques. Furthermore, since our preprocessing phase requires only a minor fraction of the whole data set at once, we provide maximum flexibility when dealing with growing data sets.

  2. THORACO - ABDOMINAL FLAP FOR RESURFACING LARGE POST MASTECTOMY DEFECTS IN LOCALLY ADVANCED CA. BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Covering of large wounds after mastectomy in locally advanced Ca breast with skin that can withstand radiotherapy is a challenge to the surgeon. Here this study we used a local advancement flap from the adjacent area called Thoraco - A bdominal F la p (TA flap for such giant defects. This is based on superficial and lumbar arteries and is thick to with stand consequent RT . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the total 107 cases of LABC 32 had post mastectomy defects of larger than 12 cm and could not be closed by simple approximation. Among the 32 cases 17 cases are covered by split thickness skin grafting. 15 cases are covered by TA flap. These cases are assessed for mean operating time, mean blood loss, post - operative stay, flap necrosis and viability of the f lap after radiotherapy. RESULTS: There is minimal extra time or blood loss in these cases . All the flaps healed well except for small edge necrosis in 4 cases. In all the patients we could start radiotherapy in the fourth week of surgery and all the flaps withstood RT well. After further evaluation probably this can be recommended as procedure for giant post mastectomy defects particularly for those who require RT early

  3. The value of diffusion kurtosis magnetic resonance imaging for assessing treatment response of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Qing; Song, Jia-Cheng; Li, Yan; Dai, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Shi, Hai-Bin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Huang, Dong-Ya [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Nanjing (China); Li, Yang [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Pathology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and value of diffusion kurtosis (DK) imaging in assessing treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Forty-one patients were included. All patients underwent pre- and post-CRT DCE-MRI on a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Imaging indices (D{sub app}, K{sub app} and ADC values) were measured. Change value (∇X) and change ratio (r ∇X) were calculated. Pathological tumour regression grade scores (Mandard) were the standard reference (good responders: pTRG 1-2; poor responders: pTRG 3-5). Diagnostic performance was compared using ROC analysis. For the pre-CRT measurements, pre-D{sub app-10th} was significantly lower in the good responder group than that of the poor responder group (p = 0.036). For assessing treatment response to neoadjuvant CRT, pre-D{sub app-10th} resulted in AUCs of 0.753 (p = 0.036) with a sensitivity of 66.67 % and a specificity of 77.78 %. The r ∇D{sub app} had a relatively high AUC (0.859) and high sensitivity (100 %) compared with other image indices. DKI is feasible for selecting good responders for neoadjuvant CRT for LARC. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion properties of single FoF1-ATP synthases in a living bacterium unraveled by localization microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Renz, Marc; Boersch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthases in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria are membrane-bound enzymes which use an internal proton-driven rotary double motor to catalyze the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). According to the 'chemiosmotic hypothesis', a series of proton pumps generate the necessary pH difference plus an electric potential across the bacterial plasma membrane. These proton pumps are redox-coupled membrane enzymes which are possibly organized in supercomplexes, as shown for the related enzymes in the mitochondrial inner membrane. We report diffusion measurements of single fluorescent FoF1-ATP synthases in living E. coli by localization microscopy and single enzyme tracking to distinguish a monomeric enzyme from a supercomplex-associated form in the bacterial membrane. For quantitative mean square displacement (MSD) analysis, the limited size of the observation area in the membrane with a significant membrane curvature had to be considered. The E. coli cells had a diameter of about 500 nm and a length o...

  5. Prognostic Significance of B-cell Differentiation Genes Encoding Proteins in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma Grade 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovečki, Ana; Korać, Petra; Nola, Marin; Ivanković, Davor; Jakšić, Branimir; Dominis, Mara

    2008-01-01

    Aim To define prognostic significance of B-cell differentiation genes encoding proteins and BCL2 and BCL6 gene abnormalities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern. Methods In 53 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 20 patients with follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern the following was performed: 1) determination of protein expression of BCL6, CD10, MUM1/IRF4, CD138, and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry; 2) subclassification into germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) groups according to the results of protein expression; 3) detection of t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IgH-BCL2 and BCL6 abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern as well as in GCB and ABC groups; and 4) assessment of the influence of the analyzed characteristics and clinical prognostic factors on overall survival. Results Isolated BCL6 expression was more frequently found in follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (P = 0.030). There were no differences in BCL2 and BCL6 gene abnormalities between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern patients were equally distributed in GCB and ABC groups. t(14;18)(q32;q21) was more frequently recorded in GCB group, and t(14;18)(q32;q21) with BCL2 additional signals or only BCL2 and IgH additional signals in ABC group (P = 0.004). The GCB and ABC groups showed no difference in BCL6 gene abnormalities. There was no overall survival difference between the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern, however, GCB group had longer overall survival than ABC group (P

  6. Sensitivity of local air quality to the interplay between small- and large-scale circulations: a large-eddy simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Grosse, Tobias; Esau, Igor; Reuder, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Street-level urban air pollution is a challenging concern for modern urban societies. Pollution dispersion models assume that the concentrations decrease monotonically with raising wind speed. This convenient assumption breaks down when applied to flows with local recirculations such as those found in topographically complex coastal areas. This study looks at a practically important and sufficiently common case of air pollution in a coastal valley city. Here, the observed concentrations are determined by the interaction between large-scale topographically forced and local-scale breeze-like recirculations. Analysis of a long observational dataset in Bergen, Norway, revealed that the most extreme cases of recurring wintertime air pollution episodes were accompanied by increased large-scale wind speeds above the valley. Contrary to the theoretical assumption and intuitive expectations, the maximum NO2 concentrations were not found for the lowest 10 m ERA-Interim wind speeds but in situations with wind speeds of 3 m s-1. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated empirical relationships between the large-scale forcing and the local wind and air quality parameters. We conducted 16 large-eddy simulation (LES) experiments with the Parallelised Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) for atmospheric and oceanic flows. The LES accounted for the realistic relief and coastal configuration as well as for the large-scale forcing and local surface condition heterogeneity in Bergen. They revealed that emerging local breeze-like circulations strongly enhance the urban ventilation and dispersion of the air pollutants in situations with weak large-scale winds. Slightly stronger large-scale winds, however, can counteract these local recirculations, leading to enhanced surface air stagnation. Furthermore, this study looks at the concrete impact of the relative configuration of warmer water bodies in the city and the major transport corridor. We found that a relatively small local water

  7. Sensitivity of local air quality to the interplay between small- and large-scale circulations: a large-eddy simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wolf-Grosse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Street-level urban air pollution is a challenging concern for modern urban societies. Pollution dispersion models assume that the concentrations decrease monotonically with raising wind speed. This convenient assumption breaks down when applied to flows with local recirculations such as those found in topographically complex coastal areas. This study looks at a practically important and sufficiently common case of air pollution in a coastal valley city. Here, the observed concentrations are determined by the interaction between large-scale topographically forced and local-scale breeze-like recirculations. Analysis of a long observational dataset in Bergen, Norway, revealed that the most extreme cases of recurring wintertime air pollution episodes were accompanied by increased large-scale wind speeds above the valley. Contrary to the theoretical assumption and intuitive expectations, the maximum NO2 concentrations were not found for the lowest 10 m ERA-Interim wind speeds but in situations with wind speeds of 3 m s−1. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated empirical relationships between the large-scale forcing and the local wind and air quality parameters. We conducted 16 large-eddy simulation (LES experiments with the Parallelised Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM for atmospheric and oceanic flows. The LES accounted for the realistic relief and coastal configuration as well as for the large-scale forcing and local surface condition heterogeneity in Bergen. They revealed that emerging local breeze-like circulations strongly enhance the urban ventilation and dispersion of the air pollutants in situations with weak large-scale winds. Slightly stronger large-scale winds, however, can counteract these local recirculations, leading to enhanced surface air stagnation. Furthermore, this study looks at the concrete impact of the relative configuration of warmer water bodies in the city and the major transport corridor. We found that a

  8. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  9. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    CERN Document Server

    Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

  10. Constraints on local primordial non-Gaussianity from large scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Slosar, Anze; Seljak, Uros; Ho, Shirley; Padmanabhan, Nikhil

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the local non-Gaussianity parameter f_nl induces a scale-dependent large scale structure bias, whose amplitude is growing with scale. Here we first rederive this result within the context of peak-background split formalism and show that it only depends on the assumption of universality of mass function, assuming halo bias only depends on mass. We then use extended Press-Schechter formalism to argue that this assumption may be violated and the scale dependent bias will depend on other properties, such as merging history of halos. In particular, in the limit of recent mergers we find the effect is suppressed. Next we use these predictions in conjunction with a compendium of large scale data to put a limit on the value of $\\fnl$. When combining all data assuming that halo occupation depends only on halo mass, we get a limit of -29(-57)

  11. Panobinostat acts synergistically with ibrutinib in diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells with MyD88 L265 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Patrizia; Brea, Elliott J.; De Stanchina, Elisa; Toska, Eneda; Chang, Aaron Y.; Fennell, Myles; Seshan, Venkatraman; Garippa, Ralph; Scheinberg, David A.; Baselga, José; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) frequently harbors genetic alterations that activate the B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR pathways, which converge to activate NF-κB. While selective inhibition of BTK with ibrutinib causes clinical responses in relapsed DLBCL patients, most responses are partial and of a short duration. Here, we demonstrated that MyD88 silencing enhanced ibrutinib efficacy in DLBCL cells harboring MyD88 L265P mutations. Chemical downregulation of MyD88 expression with HDAC inhibitors also synergized with ibrutinib. We demonstrate that HDAC inhibitor regulation of MyD88 expression is mediated by STAT3. In turn, STAT3 silencing caused a decrease in MyD88 mRNA and protein levels, and enhanced the ibrutinib antilymphoma effect in MyD88 mutant DLBCL cells. Induced mutations in the STAT3 binding site in the MyD88 promotor region was associated with a decrease in MyD88 transcriptional activity. We also demonstrate that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat decreased phosphorylated STAT3 binding to the MyD88 promotor. Accordingly, combined treatment with panobinostat and ibrutinib resulted in enhanced inhibition of NF-κB activity and caused regression of DLBCL xenografts. Our data provide a mechanistic rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors and ibrutinib for the treatment of DLBCL. PMID:28352655

  12. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Cerebellopontine Angle in a Patient with Sudden Hearing Loss and Facial Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ting Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA is rare in the central nervous system. To our knowledge, there have only been 14 cases reported worldwide so far. Here, we report our findings in a 57-year-old man, who presented with bilateral sudden hearing loss followed by left facial palsy within 1 month. Radiologic study and magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogeneous enhancing mass, 1.6 × 0.5 × 1.1 cm in size, in the left CPA cistern region with mild extension to the left internal auditory canal. The tumor was removed through left retromastoid craniectomy, and the histopathologic diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed as diffuse large B-cell type malignant lymphoma. After a series of tumor surveys, there was no evidence of other original lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (including intra-Ommaya injection with methotrexate and Ara-C and systemic injection with vincristine, methotrexate and ifosfamide for the primary CPA lymphoma. He was still alive 19 months after the initial treatment.

  13. Prognostic role of pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with RCHOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Min; Xu, Jing-Yan; Yang, Yong-Gong; Zhang, Qi-Guo; Zhou, Rong-Fu; Chen, Bing; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an independent predictor in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients in the rituximab era. Data from newly diagnosed DLBCL patients at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from 2006 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to generate the optimal cutoff value for NLR. Among those 156 patients enrolled, the NLR was < 3.0 in 46.8% (73/156) of the patients, and the remaining 53.2% (83/156) had an NLR ≥ 3.0. Patients with higher pretreatment NLR were found to correlate with poorer OS and PFS than these with lower NLR (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43–4.97, P = 0.002 and HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.05–3.07, P = 0.034, respectively). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis further showed that high NLR was found independently predictive of poor OS (HR = 0.40; CI = 0.19–0.84, P = 0.015) and PFS (HR = 0.57; CI = 0.33–0.98, P = 0.042). Consequently, pretreatment NLR was an independent prognostic predictor in patients with DLBCL in the rituximab era. PMID:27661033

  14. Similar prognosis of transformed and de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in patients treated with immunochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorigue, Marc; Garcia, Olga; Baptista, Maria Joao; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José Luis; Feliu, Evarist; Navarro, José-Tomás; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2017-03-22

    The prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) transformed from indolent lymphoma (TL) has been considered poorer than that of de novo DLBCL. However, it seems to have improved since the introduction of rituximab. We compared the characteristics (including the cell-of-origin), and the prognosis of 29 patients with TL and 101 with de novo DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy. Patients with TL and de novo DLBCL had similar characteristics. All TL cases evolving from follicular lymphoma were germinal-center B-cell-like, while those TL from marginal zone lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia were non-germinal-center B-cell-like. The complete response rate was similar in TL and de novo DLBCL (62 vs. 66%, P=.825). The 5-year overall and progression-free survival probabilities (95% CI) were 59% (40-78) and 41% (22-60) for TL and 63% (53-73) and 60% (50-70) for de novo DLBCL, respectively (P=.732 for overall survival and P=.169 for progression-free survival). In this study, the prognosis of TL and de novo DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy was similar. The role of intensification with stem cell transplantation in the management of TL may be questionable in the rituximab era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Clonal expanded TRA and TRB subfamily T cells in peripheral blood from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huo; Ye, Jingmei; Luo, Xiaodan; Chen, Shaohua; Yin, Qingsong; Yang, Lijian; Li, Yangqiu

    2010-04-01

    T cell immunodeficiency is a common feature in cancer patients and may be a contributing factor to the initiation and development of the tumor. In order to characterize the immune status in a group of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL), the repertoires of T cell receptor alpha and beta variable regions (TRAV and TRBV) were analyzed. The CDR3 of 29 TRAV and 24 TRBV subfamily genes were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six cases with DLBL using RT-PCR and GeneScan technique. Six normal individuals served as controls. Marked restriction of TRBV repertoire was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from DLBL. Clonal expanded T cells were found frequently in PBMCs from all DLBL patients; the oligoclonality was most frequent in TRAV6, TRAV8, TRAV12, TRAV21, TRAV22 and TRAV25 subfamilies. Similarly, clonally expanded TRBV subfamily T cells were found in all DLBL patients. The oligoclonality was most frequent in TRBV3, TRBV13 and TRBV15 subfamilies, which could be detected in four out of six cases. In conclusion, the frequent and restricted clonal expansion alphabeta(+) T cells were thought to be the specific immune response to lymphoma-associated antigen.

  16. Diffuse X-ray emission from the superbubbles N70 and N185 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Velázquez, P. F. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70–543, D.F. México (Mexico); Rosado, M.; Sánchez-Cruces, M. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70–264, C.P. 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Ambrocio-Cruz, P. [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Km 4.5 Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo, Col. Carboneras, C.P. 42184, Mineral de la Reforma, Hgo. (Mexico)

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of the diffuse X-ray emission from superbubbles (SBs) N70 (DEM L301) and N185 (DEM L25) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on data from the XMM-Newton Satellite. We obtained spectra and images of these objects in the soft X-ray energy band. These X-ray spectra were fitted by a thermal plasma model, with temperatures of 2.6×10{sup 6} K and 2.3×10{sup 6} K, for N70 and N185, respectively. For N70, images show that X-ray emission comes from the inner regions of the SB when we compare the distribution of the X-ray and the optical emission, while for N185, the X-ray emission is partially confined by the optical shell. We suggest that the observed X-ray emission is caused by shock-heated gas, inside of the optical shells. We also obtained X-ray luminosities which exceed the values predicted by the standard analytical model. This fact shows that, in addition to the winds of the interior stars, it is necessary to consider another ingredient in the description, such as a supernova explosion, as has been proposed in previous numerical models.

  17. Targeted PET imaging strategy to differentiate malignant from inflamed lymph nodes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Salloum, Darin; Carney, Brandon; Brand, Christian; Kossatz, Susanne; Sadique, Ahmad; Lewis, Jason S; Weber, Wolfgang A; Wendel, Hans-Guido; Reiner, Thomas

    2017-09-05

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in adults. DLBCL exhibits highly aggressive and systemic progression into multiple tissues in patients, particularly in lymph nodes. Whole-body (18)F-fluodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) imaging has an essential role in diagnosing DLBCL in the clinic; however, [(18)F]FDG-PET often faces difficulty in differentiating malignant tissues from certain nonmalignant tissues with high glucose uptake. We have developed a PET imaging strategy for DLBCL that targets poly[ADP ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1), the expression of which has been found to be much higher in DLBCL than in healthy tissues. In a syngeneic DLBCL mouse model, this PARP1-targeted PET imaging approach allowed us to discriminate between malignant and inflamed lymph nodes, whereas [(18)F]FDG-PET failed to do so. Our PARP1-targeted PET imaging approach may be an attractive addition to the current PET imaging strategy to differentiate inflammation from malignancy in DLBCL.

  18. Significance of stromal-1 and stromal-2 signatures and biologic prognostic model in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Asaad, Nancy; Kandil, Mona; Shabaan, Mohammed; Shams, Asmaa

    2017-01-01

    Objective : Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of tumors with different biological and clinical characteristics that have diverse clinical outcomes and response to therapy. Stromal-1 signature of tumor microenvironment of DLBCL represents extracellular matrix deposition and histiocytic infiltrate, whereas stromal-2 represents angiogenesis that could affect tumor progression. Methods : The aim of the present study is to assess the significance of stromal-1 signature using SPARC-1 and stromal-2 signature using CD31 expression and then finally to construct biologic prognostic model (BPM) in 60 cases of DLBCL via immunohistochemistry. Results : Microvessel density (PBPM showed that 42 cases (70%) were of low biologic score (0–1) and 18 cases (30%) were of high biologic score (2–3). Low BPM cases showed less probability for splenic involvement (P=0.04) and a higher rate of complete response to therapy compared with high score cases (P=0.08). Conclusions : The DLBCL microenvironment could modulate tumor progression behavior since angiogenesis and SPARC positive stromal cells promote dissemination by association with spleen involvement and capsular invasion. Biologic prognostic models, including modified BPM, which considered cell origin of DLBCL and stromal signature pathways, could determine DLBCL progression and response to therapy. PMID:28607806

  19. Epstein-Barr virus as a prognostic factor in de novo nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Domingo; Beltran, Brady; De Mendoza, Fernando Hurtado; Riva, Luis; Yabar, Alejandro; Quiñones, Pilar; Butera, James N; Castillo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Although the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score is a valuable prognostic tool in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), other risk-stratifying factors may be of value. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic value of EBV expression in de novo nodal DLBCL. Seventy-four cases were selected between January 2002 and December 2007. Clinical data were reviewed and tissue samples were evaluated for expression of CD20, CD10, bcl-6, MUM1, and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER). Of 74 evaluated cases, 53 cases (72%) were of non-germinal center-like subtype and 11 cases (15%) were positive for EBER. In a univariate analysis of the 57 patients who received chemotherapy, factors associated with survival were EBV status, performance status, LDH level, and IPI score. Using a multivariate analysis, a prognostic model was developed using IPI score and EBV status, which showed statistical significance. Our study supports EBV status as a powerful prognostic factor in de novo nodal DLBCL. Prospective studies should be carried to validate this hypothesis.

  20. R-CHOP with dose-attenuated radiation therapy could induce good prognosis in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment strategy for gastric diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLBCL has not been standardized in such as to the cycles of chemotherapy, dose of radiation, or necessity for the surgery. Although the results of CHOP or R-CHOP treatments have demonstrated the good prognosis, the treatments have been controversial in many cases. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 40 gastric DLBCL patients receiving chemotherapy with or without radiation in our institute. Those in stages II-IV were treated with six cycles of R-CHOP without radiation; for those in stage I, we administered three cycles of R-CHOP with radiation. Results The three-year overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS rates were 95.2 and 91.8%, respectively. Those in stage I obtained 100% of OS. The radiation dose prescribed was 30.6 Gy for CR cases and 39.6 to 40 Gy for PR after chemotherapy. Although survival rates tended to correlate with staging groups or age-adjusted IPI classifications, multivariate statistical analysis did not show clear differences. All 14 patients with initial bleeding were successfully managed without surgery during treatment. Conclusion R-CHOP therapy was very effective for gastric DLBCL. It may be not necessary to use more than 30.6 Gy of radiotherapy in the highly chemo-sensitive cases. Less toxic treatments should be made available to gastric DLBCL patients.

  1. [MGMT expression in primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma and its relationship with prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q Y; Feng, X; Wang, J J; Wang, X; Bao, W; Ma, J; Shi, Q L

    2016-12-08

    Objective: To study the correlation between MGMT expression, clinicopathologic features and post-chemotherapy prognosis in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL). Methods: MGMT expression was detected in 76 cases of PCNS-DLBCL by EnVision method with immunohistochemical staining.Follow-up data including treatment response and overall survival time, were analyzed. Results: The rate of MGMT expression in PCNS-DLBCL was 67.1%(51/76). The MGMT expression rate in male patients was higher than that in female(PMGMT and aged over 60 years was shorter after chemotherapy than those without chemotherapy (P=0.022). In the patients aged over 60 years, the prognosis of MGMT-positive patients was significantly better than MGMT-negative patients (P=0.044). Conclusions: The expression of MGMT is more commonly found in male patients. In the patients aged over 60 years with the same therapy, the prognosis is better in the MGMT-negative ones. Detection of MGMT protein expression can provide some guidance in choice of treatment modalities in PCNS-DLBCL patients.

  2. Protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin selectively inhibits the growth of CD79 mutant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Tara L; Tang, Huaping; Ratsch, Boris A; Enns, Andreas; Loo, Alice; Chen, Liqing; Lenz, Peter; Waters, Nigel J; Schuler, Walter; Dörken, Bernd; Yao, Yung-Mae; Warmuth, Markus; Lenz, Georg; Stegmeier, Frank

    2011-04-01

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) correlates with poor prognosis. The ABC subtype of DLBCL is associated with constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway, and oncogenic lesions have been identified in its regulators, including CARD11/CARMA1 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11), A20/TNFAIP3, and CD79A/B. In this study, we offer evidence of therapeutic potential for the selective PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitor sotrastaurin (STN) in preclinical models of DLBCL. A significant fraction of ABC DLBCL cell lines exhibited strong sensitivity to STN, and we found that the molecular nature of NF-κB pathway lesions predicted responsiveness. CD79A/B mutations correlated with STN sensitivity, whereas CARD11 mutations rendered ABC DLBCL cell lines insensitive. Growth inhibitory effects of PKC inhibition correlated with NF-κB pathway inhibition and were mediated by induction of G₁-phase cell-cycle arrest and/or cell death. We found that STN produced significant antitumor effects in a mouse xenograft model of CD79A/B-mutated DLBCL. Collectively, our findings offer a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of STN in ABC DLBCL patients who harbor CD79 mutations also illustrating the necessity to stratify DLBCL patients according to their genetic abnormalities.

  3. Combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition augments killing of CD79 mutant diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Kutzner, Kerstin; Vincendeau, Michelle; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-12-08

    Survival of activated B cell-subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is driven by chronic B cell receptor (BCR) signaling that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway. Inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib has been shown to kill ABC DLBCL cells that carry activating mutations in the BCR adaptor CD79. However, mutations in BTK or in downstream components such as CARMA1/CARD11 can render lymphomas Ibrutinib resistant. Therefore, we assessed here the simultaneous inhibition of BTK and the protease MALT1 that acts downstream of CARMA1 and is essential for ABC DLBCL tumor growth. We show that in CD79 mutant cells BTK is a crucial upstream regulator of MALT1, but dispensable in CARMA1 mutant ABC DLBCL. Combined inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib and MALT1 by S-Mepazine additively impaired MALT1 cleavage activity and expression of NF-κB pro-survival factors. Thereby, combinatorial Ibrutinib and S-Mepazine treatment enhanced killing of CD79 mutant ABC DLBCL cells. Moreover, while expression of oncogenic CARMA1 in CD79 mutant cells conferred Ibrutinib resistance, double mutant cells were still sensitive to MALT1 inhibition by S-Mepazine. Thus, based on the genetic background combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition may improve effectiveness of therapeutic treatment and reduce the chances for the development of drug resistances.

  4. Essential role of MALT1 protease activity in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu; Posvitz-Fejfar, Anita; Rebeaud, Fabien; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Penas, Eva-Maria Murga; Dierlamm, Judith; Chan, Wing C; Staudt, Louis M; Thome, Margot

    2009-11-24

    A key element for the development of suitable anti-cancer drugs is the identification of cancer-specific enzymatic activities that can be therapeutically targeted. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue transformation protein 1 (MALT1) is a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, the least curable subtype of DLBCL. Recent data suggest that MALT1 has proteolytic activity, but it is unknown whether this activity is relevant for tumor growth. Here we report that MALT1 is constitutively active in DLBCL lines of the ABC but not the GCB subtype. Inhibition of the MALT1 proteolytic activity led to reduced expression of growth factors and apoptosis inhibitors, and specifically affected the growth and survival of ABC DLBCL lines. These results demonstrate a key role for the proteolytic activity of MALT1 in DLBCL of the ABC subtype, and provide a rationale for the development of pharmacological inhibitors of MALT1 in DLBCL therapy.

  5. Rituximab and escalated chemotherapy in elderly patients with aggressive diffuse large-cell lymphoma: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, Agustin; Nambo, María Jesus; Castañeda, Claudia; Cleto, Sergio; Neri, Natividad; Murillo, Edgar; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith; Contreras, Margarita

    2007-04-01

    The treatment of elderly patients with aggressive malignant lymphoma has not been defined. The addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy has been reported to improve the outcome, but most patients have good prognostic factors (performance status < 2, no severe associated diseases, low or low-intermediate clinical risk). Thus, we developed a combined regimen, including escalated doses of anthracycline and rituximab. The endpoint was to improve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival. Two hundred and four (204) patients were randomly assigned to receive an escalated chemotherapy regimen (CEOP) with escalated dose of epirubicin, compared to the same regimen and addition of rituximab. All patients had poor prognostic factors: high- or high-intermediate clinical risk, poor performance status, bulky disease, and more than 2 with extranodal involvement. In an intent-to-treat analysis, all patients were evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. The complete response rates were similar in both arms: 74% in chemotherapy and 78% in the rituximab + chemotherapy program. EFS and overall survival were similar: 77% and 84%, respectively, in combined chemotherapy and 75% and 81% in the rituximab-chemotherapy regimen. Toxicity was mild and well tolerated. In elderly patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma and poor prognostic factors, rituximab did not improve their outcome.

  6. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  7. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  8. Diffuse X-ray emission from the superbubbles N 70 and N 185 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Iturbide., Jorge; Rodríguez-González., Ary; Velázquez., Pablo F; Sánchez-Cruces, Mónica; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the diffuse X-ray emission from superbubbles N 70 (DEM L301) and N 185 (DEM L25) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on data from the XMM-Newton Satellite. We obtained spectra and images of these objects in the soft X-ray energy band. These X-ray spectra were fitted by a thermal plasma model, with temperatures of $2.6 \\times 10^{6}$ K and $2.3 \\times 10^{6}$ K, for N 70 and N 185, respectively. For N 70, images show that X-ray emission comes from the inner regions of the superbubble, when we compare the distribution of the X-ray and the optical emission; while for N 185, the X-ray emission is partially confined by the optical shell. We suggest that the observed X-ray emission is caused by shock-heated gas, inside of the optical shells. We also obtained X-ray luminosities which exceed the values predicted by the standard analytical model. This fact shows that, in addition to the winds of the interior stars, it is necessary to consider another ingredient in the description, such a...

  9. Next generation sequencing and the management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: from whole exome analysis to targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of lymphoma, accounting for 30-40% of newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Historically, DLBCL has been thought to involve recurrent translocations of the IGH gene and the deregulation of rearranged oncogenes. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) have provided a vast and comprehensive catalogue of cancer genes involved in DLBCL pathogenesis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) of more than two hundred DLBCLs has completely redefined the genetic landscape of the disease by identifying recurrent single nucleotide variants and providing new therapeutic opportunities for the germinal center B-cell like (GCB), activated B-cell like (ABC), or primary mediastinal B-cell (PMBL) molecular subtypes. Some of these somatic mutations target genes that play a crucial role in B-cell function (BCR signaling, NF-κB pathway, NOTCH signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, and the PI3K pathway), immunity, cell cycle/apoptosis, or chromatin modification. In this review, we present an overview of the mutations recently discovered by NGS in DLBCL and discuss their biological relevance and possible impacts on clinical management.

  10. Application of the cghRA framework to the genomic characterization of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Alcantara, Marion; Villenet, Céline; Figeac, Martin; Dubois, Sydney; Bertrand, Philippe; Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Penther, Dominique; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-05-08

    Although sequencing-based technologies are becoming the new reference in genome analysis, comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH) still constitute a simple and reliable approach for copy number analysis. The most powerful algorithms to analyse such data have been freely provided by the scientific community for many years, but combining them is a complex scripting task. The cghRA framework combines a user-friendly graphical interface and a powerful objectoriented command-line interface to handle a full aCGH analysis, as is illustrated in an original series of 107 Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas. New algorithms for copy-number calling, polymorphism detection and minimal common region (MCR) prioritization were also developed and validated. While their performances will only be demonstrated with aCGH, these algorithms could actually prove useful to any copy-number analysis, whatever the technique used. R package and source for Linux, MS Windows and MacOS are freely available at http://bioinformatics.ovsa.fr/cghRA . mareschal@ovsa.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Evaluation of the diffuse contamination of soils caused by residues coming from the large scale production of phosphate fertilisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.; Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The obtaining of phosphate fertilizers results in large amounts of residues that are frequently accumulated in deposits or pools occupying a wide area. These residues are acidic, and contain variable amounts of trace elements and radionuclides. The potentially polluting agents can be leached by rainwater, and so transferred to the surface waters and then to the groundwater after soil infiltration. Since the distribution and thickness of the residue deposits are variable, the contaminants cannot be easily traced back to a single, well defined source, and so a diffuse contamination (nonpoint source pollution) of the surrounding soils and waters occurs. This communication reports the results obtained in the study of soils close to the phosphogypsum deposits placed near Rio Tinto (Huelva, Spain). The zone is affected not only by the mentioned residues but also by the tides due to the vicinity of the sea. The samples studied had a low organic content and a low acidity with average values of 30 mS/cm for the EC. The mineralogical study allowed illite, goethite, quartz, gypsum and kaolinite to be identified as the main mineralogical components. Although the arsenic level was relatively high (about 600 mg/Kg) the data proved that this element is not mobilized into water. Analytical data for 238U , 234U, 235U, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, 40K , 137Cs were also obtained.

  12. Emergence of large-scale cell morphology and movement from local actin filament growth dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine I Lacayo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Variations in cell migration and morphology are consequences of changes in underlying cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. We investigated how these large-scale cellular events emerge as direct consequences of small-scale cytoskeletal molecular activities. Because the properties of the actin cytoskeleton can be modulated by actin-remodeling proteins, we quantitatively examined how one such family of proteins, enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP, affects the migration and morphology of epithelial fish keratocytes. Keratocytes generally migrate persistently while exhibiting a characteristic smooth-edged "canoe" shape, but may also exhibit less regular morphologies and less persistent movement. When we observed that the smooth-edged canoe keratocyte morphology correlated with enrichment of Ena/VASP at the leading edge, we mislocalized and overexpressed Ena/VASP proteins and found that this led to changes in the morphology and movement persistence of cells within a population. Thus, local changes in actin filament dynamics due to Ena/VASP activity directly caused changes in cell morphology, which is coupled to the motile behavior of keratocytes. We also characterized the range of natural cell-to-cell variation within a population by using measurable morphological and behavioral features--cell shape, leading-edge shape, filamentous actin (F-actin distribution, cell speed, and directional persistence--that we have found to correlate with each other to describe a spectrum of coordinated phenotypes based on Ena/VASP enrichment at the leading edge. This spectrum stretched from smooth-edged, canoe-shaped keratocytes--which had VASP highly enriched at their leading edges and migrated fast with straight trajectories--to more irregular, rounder cells migrating slower with less directional persistence and low levels of VASP at their leading edges. We developed a mathematical model that accounts for these coordinated cell-shape and

  13. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  14. Functional imaging of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in women with locally advanced breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hany; Yaffe, Martin J; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    Functional imaging with tomographic near infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) can quantitatively measure tissue parameters such as the concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb), oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2), percent water (%water), and scattering power (SP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between DOS functional parameters with pathologic outcomes. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were recruited to this study (n = 10). Five scans were conducted per patient: a baseline scan was taken up to 3 days prior to treatment and at 1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and after neoadjuvant treatment prior to surgery. At each scan the patient lay prone with the breast suspended between immobilization plates in optical coupling medium. Pulsed near-infrared laser light was used to scan the breast at four different wavelengths and data was used for tomographic reconstruction. Volume-of-interest (VOI) weighted tissue Hb, HbO2, %water, and SP corresponding to the tumour was calculated and compared to clinical and pathological response as determined from full mount mastectomy pathology. For all 10 patients the tumour-based VOI was significantly different than background tissue for all functional parameters (pOne patient initially had a poor clinical response to chemotherapy but after a change in chemotherapy had a good clinical and radiographic response. Responders and non-responders were significantly different for all of the functional parameters (pdrop in Hb, HbO2, %water, and SP from baseline to the 4-week scan was 70.4% (SD = 18.6), 66.5% (SD = 24.5), 59.6% (SD = 30.9), and 60.7% (SD = 29.2), respectively. In contrast, the 4 non-responders had a mean drop of 17.7% (SD = 9.8), 18.0% (SD = 20.8), 15.4% (SD = 11.7), and 12.6% (SD = 10.2), for Hb, HbO2, %water and SP, respectively. Functional imaging using tomographic diffuse optical spectroscopy parameters of Hb, HbO2, %water and SP could be used as

  15. Heavy (or large) ions in a fluid in an electric field: The diffusion equation exactly following from the Fokker-Planck equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Leonardo

    2008-07-28

    The problem of the derivation of the diffusion equation exactly following from the Fokker-Planck (or Klein-Kramers) equation for heavy (or large) particles in a fluid in an external force field is solved in the case in which the particles are ions subject to a uniform (but in general time-varying) electric field. It is found that such a diffusion equation maintains memory of the initial ion velocity distribution, unless sufficiently large values of time are considered. In such temporal asymptotic limit, the diffusion equation exactly becomes (i) the Smoluchowski equation when the electric field is constant in time, and (ii) a new equation generalizing the Smoluchowski equation, when the electric field is arbitrarily time varying. Finally, it is shown that the obtained exact (or asymptotic) results make questionable the procedures and the results of approximate theories developed in the past to get a "corrected" Smoluchowski equation when the external force can also be, in general, position dependent.

  16. Measuring localization and diffusion coefficients of basolateral proteins in lateral versus basal membranes using functionalized substrates and kICS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Pedersen, Gitte Albinus

    2014-01-01

    -cadherin and 0.037 ± 0.009 μm2/sec on collagen, thus, diffusion did not differ between substrates. Cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) reduced the AQP3-EGFP diffusion coefficient by 43 % from 0.024 ± 0.007 μm2/sec (water) to 0.014 ± 0.003 μm2/sec (MBCD) (p ...Micropatterning enabled semiquantitation of basolateral proteins in lateral and basal membranes of the same cell. Lateral diffusion coefficients of basolateral aquaporin-3 (AQP3-EGFP) and EGFP-AQP4 were extracted from “lateral” and “basal” membranes using identical live-cell imaging and k...... principal cells AQP3 localize lateral and basal whereas AQP4 localize mainly basal. On alternating stripes of E-cadherin and collagen, AQP3-EGFP was predominantly localized to “lateral” compared to “basal” membranes, whereas Orange-AQP4 was evenly distributed. Average diffusion coefficients were extracted...

  17. Light Condensation and Localization in Disordered Photonic Media: Theory and Large Scale ab initio Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Toth, Laszlo Daniel

    2013-05-07

    Disordered photonics is the study of light in random media. In a disordered photonic medium, multiple scattering of light and coherence, together with the fundamental principle of reciprocity, produce a wide range of interesting phenomena, such as enhanced backscattering and Anderson localization of light. They are also responsible for the existence of modes in these random systems. It is known that analogous processes to Bose-Einstein condensation can occur in classical wave systems, too. Classical condensation has been studied in several contexts in photonics: pulse formation in lasers, mode-locking theory and coherent emission of disordered lasers. All these systems have the common theme of possessing a large ensemble of waves or modes, together with nonlinearity, dispersion or gain. In this work, we study light condensation and its connection with light localization in a disordered, passive dielectric medium. We develop a theory for the modes inside the disordered resonator, which combines the Feshbach projection technique with spin-glass theory and statistical physics. In particular, starting from the Maxwell’s equations, we map the system to a spherical p-spin model with p = 2. The spins are replaced by modes and the temperature is related to the fluctuations in the environment. We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the system in a general framework and show that two distinct phases exist: a paramagnetic phase, where all the modes are randomly oscillating and a condensed phase, where the energy condensates on a single mode. The thermodynamic quantities can be explicitly interpreted and can also be computed from the disorder-averaged time domain correlation function. We launch an ab initio simulation campaign using our own code and the Shaheen supercomputer to test the theoretical predictions. We construct photonic samples of varying disorder and find computationally relevant ways to obtain the thermodynamic quantities. We observe the phase transition

  18. Effects of approach and injection volume on diffusion of mepivacaine hydrochloride during local analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claunch, Kevin M; Eggleston, Randy B; Baxter, Gary M

    2014-11-15

    To compare the effects of 2 approaches and 2 injection volumes on diffusion of mepivacaine hydrochloride for local analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve (DBLPN) in horses. Experimental study. 16 adult horses. Either 2 mL (low volume) or 8 mL (high volume) of mepivacaine hydrochloride-iohexol (50:50 mixture) was injected by means of 1 of 2 techniques to produce analgesia of the DBLPN. For technique 1, the needle was inserted 15 mm distal to the head of the fourth metatarsal bone and directed perpendicular to the limb. For technique 2, the needle was inserted 20 mm distal to the head of the fourth metatarsal bone and was directed in a proximodorsal direction. Lateromedial radiographs were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Radiographs were evaluated to determine the proximal and distal extent of diffusion of the contrast solution and presumably anesthetic agent and whether contrast agent appeared to be present in the tarsal sheath or tarsometatarsal joint. A high degree of variability in contrast solution diffusion was noted among injections. High-volume injections diffused significantly further proximally and distally than did low-volume injections. Contrast agent was documented within the tarsal sheath in 5 of 32 (16%) injections and within the tarsometatarsal joint in 2 of 32 (6%) injections. No significant difference was found for risk of inadvertent tarsal sheath or tarsometatarsal joint injection between the 2 techniques or the 2 volumes of anesthetic used. Mepivacaine diffused significantly further distally with technique 1 than with technique 2 but diffused significantly further proximally with technique 2 than with technique 1. For both techniques, diffusion in the distal but not the proximal direction significantly increased over time. Results indicated that the proximal and distal diffusion of the mepivacaine-iohexol solution was quite variable following either DBLPN nerve block technique.

  19. Reciprocal expression of the endocytic protein HIP1R and its repressor FOXP1 predicts outcome in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, K K; Gascoyne, D M; Brown, P J

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified autoantibodies to the endocytic-associated protein Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1R) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. HIP1R regulates internalization of cell surface receptors via endocytosis, a process relevant to many therapeutic strateg...

  20. Matched unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation provides comparable long-term outcome to HLA-identical sibling transplantation in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avivi, I.; Canals, C.; Vernant, J.P.; Wulf, G.; Nagler, A.; Hermine, O.; Petersen, E.; Yakoub-Agha, I.; Craddock, C.; Schattenberg, A.V.; Niederwieser, D.; Thomson, K.; Blaise, D.; Attal, M.; Pfreundschuh, M.; Passweg, J.; Russell, N.; Dreger, P.; Sureda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective analysis was to compare outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who received either a matched sibling (sib) or an unrelated donor (URD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Long-term outcome of 172 DLBCL patients receiv

  1. FOXP2-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas exhibit a poor response to R-CHOP therapy and distinct biological signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Kah Keng; Gascoyne, Duncan M; Soilleux, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    FOXP2 shares partially overlapping normal tissue expression and functionality with FOXP1; an established diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) oncogene and marker of poor prognosis. FOXP2 is expressed in the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma but has not been studied in DLBCL, where a poor p...

  2. The value of routine bone marrow biopsy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma staged with PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzahrani, M; El-Galaly, T C; Hutchings, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The added diagnostic and prognostic value of routine bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) undergoing positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) staging is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly d...

  3. Clinical features, tumor biology, and prognosis associated with MYC rearrangement and Myc overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2015-01-01

    MYC dysregulation, including MYC gene rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, is of increasing clinical importance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the roles of MYC and the relative importance of rearrangement vs overexpression remain to be refined. Gaining knowledge about...

  4. Prevalence and clinical implications of epstein-barr virus infection in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV(+)) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a variant of DLBCL with worse outcome that occurs most often in East-Asian countries and is uncommon in the Western hemisphere. We studied the largest cohort of EBV(+) DLBCL, independent of age, ...

  5. CD30 expression defines a novel subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis and distinct gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi

    2013-01-01

    CD30, originally identified as a cell-surface marker of Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is also expressed by several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the prognostic and biological importance of CD3...

  6. Differential Expression of miR-155 and miR-21 in Tumor and Stroma Cells in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Helga D; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Sjö, Lene D;

    2015-01-01

    OncomiRs miR-21 and miR-155 have been linked to lymphomagenesis, but information on their implication in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is limited. Here, we used locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization (ISH) detection techniques on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissue...

  7. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L;

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC ...

  8. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC ...

  9. Two sides of the medallion: poor treatment tolerance but better survival by standard chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, S.A. van de; Wymenga, A.N.; Spronsen, D.J. van; Schouten, H.C.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Janssen-Heijnen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated treatment of unselected elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and its subsequent impact on treatment tolerance and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from all 419 advanced-stage DLBCL patients, aged 75 or older and newly diagnosed between 1997 and

  10. Cell of origin predicts outcome to treatment with etoposide-containing chemotherapy in young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Mette Ø; Knudsen, Helle;

    2015-01-01

    Addition of etoposide to the R-CHOP chemotherapy regimen with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab (R-CHOEP) has resulted in improved survival in young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is not known whether biological factors can...

  11. Early Failure of Frontline Rituximab-Containing Chemo-immunotherapy in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Does Not Predict Futility of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamadani, Mehdi; Hari, Parameswaran N.; Zhang, Ying; Carreras, Jeanette; Akpek, G??rg??n; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Ayala, Ernesto; Bachanova, Veronika; Chen, Andy I.; Chen, Yi Bin; Costa, Luciano J.; Fenske, Timothy S.; Freytes, C??sar O.; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark S.; Holmberg, Leona A.; Inwards, David J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Kanfer, Edward J.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Marks, David I.; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard; Reddy, Nishitha M.; Rizzieri, David A.; Savani, Bipin N.; Solh, Melhem; Vose, Julie M.; Wirk, Baldeep; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Montoto, Silvia; Saber, Wael

    2014-01-01

    The poor prognosis for patients with diffuse large Bcell lymphoma (DLBCL) who relapse within 1year of initial diagnosis after first-line rituximab-based chemo-immunotherapy has created controversy about the role of autologous transplantation (HCT) in this setting. We compared autologous HCT outcomes

  12. Mutations in the HLA class II genes leading to loss of expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordanova, ES; Philippo, K; Giphart, MJ; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2003-01-01

    Loss of expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules on tumor cells affects the onset and modulation of the immune response through lack of activation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Previously, we showed that the frequent loss of expression of HLA class II in diffuse large B-cell lymphom

  13. The number of extranodal sites assessed by PET/CT scan is a powerful predictor of CNS relapse for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Villa, Diego; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Development of secondary central nervous system involvement (SCNS) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor outcomes. The CNS International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) has been proposed for identifying patients at greatest risk, but the optimal model is unknow...

  14. Addition of rituximab to chemotherapy overcomes the negative prognostic impact of cyclin E expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, E; Visco, C; Xu-Monette, Z Y;

    2013-01-01

    High levels of cyclin E (CCNE) are accompanied by shorter survival in cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone (CHOP)-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), independent of the international prognostic index (IPI). Data on the prognostic role of CCNE in the 'rituximab...

  15. Addition of rituximab to chemotherapy overcomes the negative prognostic impact of cyclin E expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, E.; Visco, C.; Xu-Monette, Z.Y.; Dirnhofer, S.; Dybkaer, K.; Orazi, A.; Bhagat, G.; Hsi, E.D.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Ponzoni, M.; Go, R.S.; Piris, M.A.; Moller, M.B.; Young, K.H.; Tzankov, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High levels of cyclin E (CCNE) are accompanied by shorter survival in cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone (CHOP)-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), independent of the international prognostic index (IPI). Data on the prognostic role of CCNE in the '

  16. Functional imaging using diffuse optical spectroscopy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in women with locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hany; Gunasekara, Anoma; Rycroft, Mary; Zubovits, Judit; Dent, Rebecca; Spayne, Jacqueline; Yaffe, Martin J; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2010-05-01

    Functional imaging with tomographic near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) can measure tissue concentration of deoxyhemoglobin (Hb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), percent water (%water), and scattering power (SP). In this study, we evaluated tumor DOS parameters and described their relationship to clinical and pathologic outcome in patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Ten patients were enrolled and intended to undergo five scans each. Scans were taken up to 3 days before treatment and at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. Changes in volume of interest weighted tissue Hb, HbO2, %water, and SP corresponding to the tumor were compared with clinical and pathologic response. All patients' tumor volumes of interest were significantly different compared with background tissue for all parameters. Five patients had a good pathologic response. Four patients were considered nonresponders. One patient initially did not respond to chemotherapy but, after a change in chemotherapy, had a good response. In the five patients with a good response, the mean drop in Hb, HbO2, %water, and SP from baseline to the 4-week scan was 67.6% (SD = 20.8), 58.9% (SD = 20.3), 51.2% (SD = 28.3), and 52.6% (SD = 26.4), respectively. In contrast, the four nonresponders had a mean drop of 17.7% (SD = 9.8), 18.0% (SD = 20.8), 15.4% (SD = 11.7), and 12.6% (SD = 10.2) for Hb, HbO2, %water, and SP, respectively. Responders and nonresponders were significantly different for all functional parameters at the 4-week scan, except for %water, which approached significance. Thus, DOS could be used as an early detector of tumor response. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  17. Constraints on local primordial non-Gaussianity from large scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slosar, Anze [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hirata, Christopher [Caltech M/C 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seljak, Uros [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Ho, Shirley [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil, E-mail: anze@berkeley.edu, E-mail: chirata@tapir.caltech.edu, E-mail: seljak@physik.unizh.ch, E-mail: shirley@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: npadmanabhan@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Recent work has shown that the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} induces a scale dependent bias, whose amplitude is growing with scale. Here we first rederive this result within the context of the peak-background split formalism and show that it only depends on the assumption of universality of the mass function, assuming that the halo bias only depends on the mass. We then use the extended Press-Schechter formalism to argue that this assumption may be violated and that the scale dependent bias will depend on other properties, such as the merging history of halos. In particular, in the limit of recent mergers we find that the effect is suppressed. Next we use these predictions in conjunction with a compendium of large scale data to put a limit on the value of f{sub NL}. When combining all data assuming that the halo occupation depends only on the halo mass, we get a limit of -29 (-65)large scale structure simulations with realistic quasar and galaxy formation models, our results indicate that this is a competitive method relative to the cosmic microwave background one and should be further pursued both observationally and theoretically.

  18. Occurrence factors of large vacant lots in central districts and their utilization by local governments in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kobayashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, local cities experience a number of problems related to deterioration of residential environment, quality of public service, and vitalization of commercial land. Specifically, the presence of large vacant lots behind sizable stores, office buildings, hospitals, and factories devitalize urban activity and its landscape. Many local cities are seeking to actualize a sustainable compact city with an integrated population, commerce, traffic and other public services in ways that promote a low carbon and energy-conserving society. Against the backdrop of these issues, this study examines the occurrence of large vacant lots and their utilization by local governments in Japan based on a questionnaire and field survey. It highlights several cases in which a large vacant lot is used to forward the development of a compact city by a local government.

  19. The backward Îto method for the Lagrangian simulation of transport processes with large space variations of the diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Spivakovskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Random walk models are a powerful tool for the investigation of transport processes in turbulent flows. However, standard random walk methods are applicable only when the flow velocities and diffusivity are sufficiently smooth functions. In practice there are some regions where the rapid but continuous change in diffusivity may be represented by a discontinuity. The random walk model based on backward Îto calculus can be used for these problems. This model was proposed by LaBolle et al. (2000. The latter is best suited to the problems under consideration. It is then applied to two test cases with discontinuous diffusivity, highlighting the advantages of this method.

  20. The backward Îto method for the Lagrangian simulation of transport processes with large space variations of the diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Deleersnijder

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Random walk models are a powerful tool for the investigation of transport processes in turbulent flows. However, standard random walk methods are applicable only when the flow velocities and diffusivity are sufficiently smooth functions. In practice there are some regions where the rapid but continuous change in diffusivity may be represented by a discontinuity. The random walk model based on backward Îto calculus can be used for these problems. This model was proposed by LaBolle et al. (2000. The latter is best suited to the problems under consideration. It is then applied for two test cases with discontinuous diffusivity, highlighting the advantages of this method.

  1. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary sourc

  2. Local Condensation Curve from Dropwise to Glacial Region on Large Vertical Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Tadao; Shimada, Ryohachi; Takeyama, Toshiro

    The existence of several regimes of condensation heat transfer is well known. Regimes are given academic names as dropwise, transition, film and glacial condensation along the condensation curve showing the relationship between heat flux and surface subcooling. In case of comparatively large vertical surface, the lower part on the gravitational direction is affected by condensate from the upper part, and will be covered by water stream like a rivulet. It has no longer an existence as dropwise condition, and it is absolutely impossible that heat transfer problems under constant temperature or constant heat flux take place. The reason is why as follows, heat transfer of film condensation is some orders of magnitude less than dropwise condensation, and various regimes exist together simultaneously. In the present paper we shall try to observe the coexisting appearance of regimes in steam condensation at atmospheric pressure and make researches in the local condensation curve from top to bottom on the same surface, that is divided into eight parts in the rear side. The main results are shown as follows (1) Enhancement of heat transfer by wiping of drops appears toward somewhat lower position from top. (2) Frazil ice is observed in the supercooled liquid film flowing down on glacial condensation. (3) The regime of glacial condensation describes a thermal hysteresis loop.

  3. Clustering of Local Group distances: publication bias or correlated measurements? I. The Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Bono, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) represents a key local rung of the extragalactic distance ladder. Yet, the galaxy's distance modulus has long been an issue of contention, in particular in view of claims that most newly determined distance moduli cluster tightly - and with a small spread - around the "canonical" distance modulus, (m-M)_0 = 18.50 mag. We compiled 233 separate LMC distance determinations published between 1990 and 2013. Our analysis of the individual distance moduli, as well as of their two-year means and standard deviations resulting from this largest data set of LMC distance moduli available to date, focuses specifically on Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable-star tracer populations, as well as on distance estimates based on features in the observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We conclude that strong publication bias is unlikely to have been the main driver of the majority of published LMC distance moduli. However, for a given distance tracer, the body of publications leading ...

  4. C-MYC and BCL2 translocation frequency in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: A study of 97 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Akkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements have been reported in a proportion of DLBCLs, where they may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of MYC and BCL2 translocations in DLBCL and assess the prognostic impact in DLBCL patients. Materials and Methods:   In the present study, we evaluated the expression patterns of CD 10, BCL6, and MUM 1 by immunohistochemistry in 121 cases with DLBCL in tissue microarray (TMA: 62 cases in germinal center B-cells (GCBs; and 59 cases in activated B-cells (ABCs of which 60 were females and 61 were males. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on TMAs in 97 DLBCLs. Result: MYC rearrangements were observed in 11 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features, including age, sex, and nodal/extranodal disease. MYC rearrangement was associated with significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.01. BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 14 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features including age and sex. BCL2 rearrangement had a worse outcome (P < 0.01. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 3 of 97 cases with the age of  53 (female, 53, 63 years old, respectively, died in 24, 18, and 35 months after the diagnosis. Two cases had primary nodal and one case primary extranodal presentations. All these patients had stage IV disease. Conclusion: We concluded that C-MYC and BCL2 may contribute to aggressive transformation, and more mechanism-based therapy should be explored. Targeted therapies involving these rearrangements and its associated pathways may change the fate of DLBCLs. Analysis of MYC gene rearrangement along with BCL2 is critical in the identification of high-risk patients with poor prognosis.

  5. Lack of topoisomerase copy number changes in patients with de novo and relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette Ø; Poulsen, Tim S; Gang, Anne O; Knudsen, Helle; Lauritzen, Anne F; Pedersen, Michael; Nielsen, Signe L; Brown, Peter; Høgdall, Estrid; Nørgaard, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Topoisomerase (TOP) gene copy number changes may predict response to treatment with TOP-targeting drugs in cancer treatment. This was first described in patients with breast cancer and is currently being investigated in other malignant diseases. TOP-targeting drugs may induce TOP gene copy number changes at relapse, with possible implications for relapse therapy efficacy. TOP gene alterations in lymphoma are poorly investigated. In this study, TOP1 and TOP2A gene alterations were investigated in patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n = 33) and relapsed DLBCL treated with chemotherapy regimens including TOP2-targeting drugs (n = 16). No TOP1 or TOP2A copy number changes were found. Polysomy of chromosomes 20 and 17 was seen in 3 of 25 patients (12%) and 2 of 32 patients (6%) with de novo DLBCL. Among relapsed patients, chromosome polysomy was more frequently observed in 5 of 13 patients (38%) and 4 of 16 patients (25%) harboring chromosome 20 and 17 polysomy, respectively; however, these differences only tended to be significant (p = 0.09 and p = 0.09, respectively). The results suggest that TOP gene copy number changes are very infrequent in DLBCL and not likely induced by TOP2-targeting drugs. Increased polyploidy of chromosomes 17 and 20 among patients with relapsed DLBCL may reflect genetic compensation in the tumor cells after TOP2 inhibition, but is more likely due to the increased genetic instability often seen in progressed cancers. Therefore, it is unlikely that TOP1 and TOP2A gene alterations can be used as predictive markers for response to treatment with TOP2-targeting drugs in patients with DLBCL.

  6. Prognostic value of interim 18F-FDG PET/CT in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhitao Ying; Xuejuan Wang; Yuqin Song; Wen Zheng; Xiaopei Wang; Yan Xie; Ningjing Lin

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease.The prognostic factor currently used is not accurate enough to predict the outcomes of patients with DLBCL.The prognostic significance of interim PET/CT in DLBCL remains controversial.The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of interim 18F-FDG PET/CT after first-line treatment in patients with DLBCL.Methods:Thirty-two patients with DLBCL underwent baseline,interim and post-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT scans.Imaging results were analyzed for the survival of patients via software SPSS 13.0,retrospectively.Results:Thirty-one of the 32 patients were treated with R-CHOP regimen,and interim 18F-FDG PET/CT of 24 patients was performed after 2 cycles of treatment.After a median follow-up period of 16.7 months,the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were significandy different between the groups above and below SUVmax cut-off value of 2.5 (P=0.039).No significant differences were found in the 2-year PFS rates if SUVmax cut-offvalues were set as 2.0 and 3.0,respectively (P=0.360; P=0.113).Conclusions:Interim PET/CT could predict the prognosis of DLBCL patients with the SUVmax cut-off value of 2.5,but more clinical data should be concluded to confirm this conclusion.

  7. Nonregenerative immune-mediated anemia associated with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a captive jaguar (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztes, Monika A; Henrich, Manfred; Baloi, Penelope; Gerst, Sascha; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Langenstein, Judith; Moritz, Andreas; Bauer, Natali

    2017-09-13

    An 18-year-old male castrated jaguar (Panthera onca) was presented with anorexia and continuous bleeding from the oral cavity after a history of fighting with the partner animal. Clinical evaluation revealed ulcerating lesions on the gingiva and hard palate and a hematoma on the tongue. Computed tomography of the head and endoscopic examination of the esophagus and stomach were unremarkable. Hematology and clinical chemistry revealed severe nonregenerative anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and moderate azotemia. Several PCRs for feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma haemofelis, M heamominutium, M turicensis), Babesia felis, and Bartonella spp., as well as an FeLV antigen test were negative. The cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate was consistent with ineffective erythropoiesis, most likely due to immune-mediated destruction of the erythroid precursor cells. Prednisolone therapy was initiated (1.25 mg/kg/day), and the CBC returned to normal 16 days after the initiation of the therapy. Anemia relapsed after 4 months and severe splenomegaly was noted. A repeat bone marrow aspirate revealed active erythropoiesis in the presence of erythroid precursor phagocytosis suggesting an immune-mediated process. Splenic fine-needle aspiration and tissue biopsies were taken, and all findings including histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Five days later, the clinical condition deteriorated and the jaguar died. Histopathology following necropsy showed infiltration with neoplastic lymphoblasts in the spleen, liver, and abdominal lymph nodes. This case report describes a nonregenerative immune-mediated anemia associated with a DLBCL in a jaguar. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosia, Ann; Njue, Annete; Trask, Peter C; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Police, Rachel; Wang, Jianmin; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Awan, Farrukh

    2014-10-01

    This systematic literature review was designed to assess information on the clinical efficacy and safety of interventions used in the treatment of refractory or relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL) and to perform a meta-analysis if possible. We searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for articles from 1997 to August 2, 2012 reported in English), conference abstracts, bibliographic reference lists, and the ClinicalTrials.gov database for phase II to IV studies with results. Studies had to report on patients with R/R DLBCL who were not eligible to receive high-dose therapy (HDT) with stem cell transplantation (SCT) (autologous or allogeneic). Mixed-type non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) studies were required to report R/R DLBCL outcomes separately. We identified 55 studies that presented outcomes data separately for patients with R/R DLBCL. Of 7 comparative studies, only 4 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In the 2 RCTs with a common regimen, the patient populations differed too greatly to perform a valid meta-analysis. The 48 single-arm studies identified were typically small (n < 50 in most), with 31% reporting median progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) specifically for the R/R DLBCL population. In these studies, median OS ranged from 4 to 13 months. The small number of RCTs in R/R DLBCL precludes identifying optimal treatments. Small sample size, infrequent reporting of OS and PFS separated by histologic type, and limited information on patient characteristics also hinder comparison of results. Randomized studies are needed to demonstrate which current therapies have advantages for improving survival and other important clinical outcomes in patients with R/R DLBCL.

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Highlights Molecular Divergence and Therapeutic Opportunities: a LYSA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sydney; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bohers, Elodie; Bertrand, Philippe; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Peyrouze, Pauline; Figeac, Martin; Molina, Thierry J; Desmots, Fabienne; Fest, Thierry; Haioun, Corinne; Lamy, Thierry; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Brière, Josette; Petrella, Tony; Canioni, Danielle; Fabiani, Bettina; Coiffier, Bertrand; Delarue, Richard; Peyrade, Frédéric; Bosly, André; André, Marc; Ketterer, Nicolas; Salles, Gilles; Tilly, Hervé; Leroy, Karen; Jardin, Fabrice

    2016-06-15

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has detailed the genomic characterization of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by identifying recurrent somatic mutations. We set out to design a clinically feasible NGS panel focusing on genes whose mutations hold potential therapeutic impact. Furthermore, for the first time, we evaluated the prognostic value of these mutations in prospective clinical trials. A Lymphopanel was designed to identify mutations in 34 genes, selected according to literature and a whole exome sequencing study of relapsed/refractory DLBCL patients. The tumor DNA of 215 patients with CD20(+)de novo DLBCL in the prospective, multicenter, and randomized LNH-03B LYSA clinical trials was sequenced to deep, uniform coverage with the Lymphopanel. Cell-of-origin molecular classification was obtained through gene expression profiling with HGU133+2.0 Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. The Lymphopanel was informative for 96% of patients. A clear depiction of DLBCL subtype molecular heterogeneity was uncovered with the Lymphopanel, confirming that activated B-cell-like (ABC), germinal center B-cell like (GCB), and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) are frequently affected by mutations in NF-κB, epigenetic, and JAK-STAT pathways, respectively. Novel truncating immunity pathway, ITPKB, MFHAS1, and XPO1 mutations were identified as highly enriched in PMBL. Notably, TNFAIP3 and GNA13 mutations in ABC patients treated with R-CHOP were associated with significantly less favorable prognoses. This study demonstrates the contribution of NGS with a consensus gene panel to personalized therapy in DLBCL, highlighting the molecular heterogeneity of subtypes and identifying somatic mutations with therapeutic and prognostic impact. Clin Cancer Res; 22(12); 2919-28. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Lim and Elenitoba-Johnson, p. 2829. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Immunohistochemical and genomic profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: Implications for targeted EZH2 inhibitor therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sydney; Mareschal, Sylvain; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Bohers, Elodie; Cornic, Marie; Bertrand, Philippe; Veresezan, Elena Liana; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Marchand, Vinciane; Lanic, Hélène; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) plays an essential epigenetic role in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) development. Recurrent somatic heterozygous gain-of-function mutations of EZH2 have been identified in DLBCL, most notably affecting tyrosine 641 (Y641), inducing hyper-trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3). Novel EZH2 inhibitors are being tested in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials but no study has examined which patients would most benefit from this treatment. We evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) methylation profiles of 82 patients with DLBCL, as well as the mutational profiles of 32 patients with DLBCL using NGS analysis of a panel of 34 genes involved in lymphomagenesis. A novel IHC score based on H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 expression was developed, capable of distinguishing patients with wild-type (WT) EZH2 and patients with EZH2 Y641 mutations (p = 10−5). NGS analysis revealed a subclonal EZH2 mutation pattern in EZH2 mutant patients with WT-like IHC methylation profiles, while associated mutations capable of upregulating EZH2 were detected in WT EZH2 patients with mutant-like IHC methylation profiles. IHC and mutational profiles highlight in vivo hyper-H3K27me3 and hypo-H3K27me2 status, pinpoint associated activating mutations and determine EZH2 mutation clonality, maximizing EZH2 inhibitor potential by identifying patients most likely to benefit from treatment. PMID:25762637

  11. Implications of infiltrating immune cells within bone marrow of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Juhyeon; Oh, Eun Ji; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Sun Och

    2017-06-01

    The implications of infiltrating immune cells, especially T cells and macrophages, in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have rarely been studied. We aimed to investigate the significance of infiltrating immune cells in the BM microenvironment as a prognostic factor for DLBCL patients. Using the initial pretreatment BM biopsy obtained from 198 DLBCL patients, we semiquantitatively evaluated CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages that infiltrate into the paratrabecular and interstitial areas of BM by immunohistochemistry and analyzed their clinicopathological and prognostic implications. Levels of infiltrating CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages were significantly higher in BM with DLBCL involvement (BMI-positive group) than in that without DLBCL involvement (BMI-negative group). Infiltration of CD8+ T cells significantly increased in cases with advanced Ann Arbor stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, extranodal site involvement ≥2 sites, higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and higher International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk. High levels of CD3+ T cells were significantly associated with age ≤60, and high levels of CD163+ macrophages were associated with advanced Ann Arbor stage and higher IPI risk. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells was significantly related to inferior overall and recurrence-free survival rate, even in the BMI-negative group. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells within the pretreatment BM was related to poor prognosis, and might be a useful prognostic factor of DLBCL patients. Therefore, evaluation of CD8+ T cells is helpful for predicting prognosis in initial pretreatment BM biopsy of DLBCL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Routine use of ancillary investigations in staging diffuse large B-cell lymphoma improves the International Prognostic Index (IPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadbolt Bruce

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Prognostic Index (IPI is used to determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. One of the determinants of IPI is the stage of disease with bone marrow involvement being classified as stage IV. For the IPI, involvement on bone marrow is traditionally defined on the basis of histology with ancillary investigations used only in difficult cases to aid histological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of the routine use of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in bone marrow staging upon the IPI. Results Bone marrow trephines of 156 histologically proven DLBCL cases at initial diagnosis were assessed on routine histology, and immunohistochemistry using two T-cell markers (CD45RO and CD3, two B-cell markers (CD20 and CD79a and kappa and lambda light chains. Raw flow cytometry data on all samples were reanalysed and reinterpreted blindly. DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy samples was used for immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene rearrangement analysis. Using immunophenotyping (flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, 30 (19.2% cases were upstaged to stage IV. A further 8 (5.1% cases were upstaged using molecular studies. A change in IPI was noted in 18 cases (11.5% on immunophenotyping alone, and 22 (14.1% cases on immunophenotyping and molecular testing. Comparison of two revised IPI models, 1 using immunophenotyping alone, and 2 using immunophenotyping with molecular studies, was performed with baseline IPI using a Cox regression model. It showed that the revised IPI model using immunophenotyping provides the best differentiation between the IPI categories. Conclusion Improved bone marrow staging using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry improves the predictive value of the IPI in patients with DLBCL and should be performed routinely in all cases.

  13. DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b protein overexpression as a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

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    Amara, Khaled; Ziadi, Sonia; Hachana, Mohamed; Soltani, Nabil; Korbi, Sadok; Trimeche, Mounir

    2010-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are the most common type of aggressive lymphomas, with considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation, molecular characteristics, and outcome. Previous studies have showed significant correlations between DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) overexpression and unfavorable prognosis in human cancers. Therefore, we investigated in this study the biological and prognostic significance of DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b protein expression in DLBCL. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 81 DLBCL cases and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate survival rates, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to evaluate the prognostic impact of DNMT expression. Our results showed that overexpression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b were detected in 48%, 13%, and 45% of investigated cases, respectively. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3b overexpression was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stages (P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). Moreover, concomitant expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was significantly correlated with resistance to treatment (P = 0.015). With regard to survival rates, although data was available only for 40 patients, DNMT3b overexpression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.006) and progression-free survival (P = 0.016). Interestingly, multivariate analysis demonstrated that DNMT3b overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for predicting shortened overall survival (P = 0.004) and progression-free survival (P = 0.024). In conclusion, DNMT3b overexpression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for predicting shortened survival of patients with DLBCL and could be, therefore, useful in identifying patients who would benefit from aggressive therapy.

  14. Immunohistochemical and genomic profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: implications for targeted EZH2 inhibitor therapy?

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    Dubois, Sydney; Mareschal, Sylvain; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Bohers, Elodie; Cornic, Marie; Bertrand, Philippe; Veresezan, Elena Liana; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Marchand, Vinciane; Lanic, Hélène; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-06-30

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) plays an essential epigenetic role in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) development. Recurrent somatic heterozygous gain-of-function mutations of EZH2 have been identified in DLBCL, most notably affecting tyrosine 641 (Y641), inducing hyper-trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3). Novel EZH2 inhibitors are being tested in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials but no study has examined which patients would most benefit from this treatment. We evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) methylation profiles of 82 patients with DLBCL, as well as the mutational profiles of 32 patients with DLBCL using NGS analysis of a panel of 34 genes involved in lymphomagenesis. A novel IHC score based on H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 expression was developed, capable of distinguishing patients with wild-type (WT) EZH2 and patients with EZH2 Y641 mutations (p = 10-5). NGS analysis revealed a subclonal EZH2 mutation pattern in EZH2 mutant patients with WT-like IHC methylation profiles, while associated mutations capable of upregulating EZH2 were detected in WT EZH2 patients with mutant-like IHC methylation profiles. IHC and mutational profiles highlight in vivo hyper-H3K27me3 and hypo-H3K27me2 status, pinpoint associated activating mutations and determine EZH2 mutation clonality, maximizing EZH2 inhibitor potential by identifying patients most likely to benefit from treatment.

  15. Immunoglobulin heavy chain/light chain pair measurement is associated with survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

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    Jardin, Fabrice; Delfau-Larue, Marie Hélène; Molina, Thierry Jo; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Brière, Josette; Petrella, Tony; Canioni, Danielle; Fabiani, Bettina; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Figeac, Martin; Leroy, Karen; Mareschal, Sylvain; Salles, Gilles André; Coiffier, Bertrand; Delarue, Richard; Peyrade, Frédéric; Bosly, André; André, Marc; Ketterer, Nicolas; Haioun, Corinne; Tilly, Hervé

    2013-09-01

    Elevated serum free light chains (FLCs) have been associated with an unfavorable prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical relevance of a quantitative assessment of intact circulating immunoglobulin (Ig), using serum Ig heavy chain/light chain pair (HLC) measurements in patients with DLBCL. FLC and HLC were measured in 409 serum samples of patients with DLBCL included in the LNH03-B clinical trial program of the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA). Patients with an abnormal IgMκ/IgMλ ratio or an abnormal FLC ratio more frequently displayed adverse clinical characteristics. Patients with abnormal IgMκ/IgMλ ratios had inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as compared to patients with a normal ratio in the overall cohort (5-year PFS 44.9% vs. 69.3%, p = 0.0003 and 5-year OS 50.8% vs. 78.1%, p = 0.0003) and in the R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) cohort (5-year OS 43.5% vs. 70.3%, p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, including elevated FLC/HLC and International Prognostic Index (IPI), an abnormal IgMκ/IgMλ ratio (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.3, p = 0.03) remained predictive of shorter progression-free survival. Gene expression profile experiments and immunohistochemistry indicate that this measurement is at least partially related to tumor cell secretion. Both elevated serum FLCs and an abnormal IgMκ/IgMλ ratio are associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with DLBCL treated by R-CHOP.

  16. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.

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    Lanic, Hélène; Kraut-Tauzia, Jerôme; Modzelewski, Romain; Clatot, Florian; Mareschal, Sylvain; Picquenot, Jean Michel; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 25-35% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are older than 70 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of depletion of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) in elderly patients with DLBCL. This retrospective analysis included 82 patients with DLBCL older than 70 years and treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, Oncovin, prednisone) or R-miniCHOP. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of stored computed tomography (CT) images at the L3 level at baseline. The surface of the muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the lumbar L3 skeletal muscle index (LSMI, in cm(2)/m(2)). The mean age of the population was 78 years. According to the defined cut-offs for LSMI, 45 patients with DLBCL were considered sarcopenic. Sarcopenic patients displayed a higher revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) compared with patients without sarcopenia, and were older, with a mean age of 80 years and 77 years, respectively (p = 0.006). With a median follow-up of 39 months, the 2-year overall survival in the sarcopenic population was 46% compared with 84% in the non-sarcopenic group (HR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.73-5.98; p = 0.0002). In a multivariate analysis, sarcopenia remained predictive of outcome (p = 0.005). Sarcopenia is a relevant and predictive factor in elderly patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.

  17. Bryostatin 1 down-regulates mdr1 and potentiates vincristine cytotoxicity in diffuse large cell lymphoma xenografts.

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    Al-Katib, A M; Smith, M R; Kamanda, W S; Pettit, G R; Hamdan, M; Mohamed, A N; Chelladurai, B; Mohammad, R M

    1998-05-01

    The down-regulation of multidrug resistance (mdr1) gene expression as detected by competitive reverse transcription-PCR and the antitumor activity of bryostatin 1 (Bryo1) are investigated in a newly established cell line from a patient with relapsed diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL). The cell line (WSU-DLCL2) grows in liquid culture and forms s.c. tumors in mice with severe combined immune deficiency. WSU-DLCL2 is a mature B-cell line (IgG lambda) that is negative for EBV nuclear antigen, expresses the multidrug resistance phenotype, and has t(14;18)(q32;q21) plus other chromosomal aberrations. Exposure of the WSU-DLCL2 cells to Bryo1 in culture reversed the multidrug resistance phenotype within 24 h. A functional assay revealed a 4-fold increase in [3H]vincristine accumulation in Bryo1-treated cells compared with control. Vincristine (VCR), doxorubicin, Bryo1, and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine showed no clinically significant activity when given alone to WSU-DLCL2-bearing severe combined immune deficiency mice. However, when given 24 h before each cytotoxic agent, Bryo1 substantially increased the antitumor activity of VCR but not 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. There was a statistically significant (P animals compared with untreated controls. In vivo, a competitive reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed decreased mdr1 RNA expression 24 h after Bryo1 treatment. These findings taken together indicate that Bryo1-induced down-regulation of mdr1 might be one mechanism by which Bryo1 potentiates VCR activity. The sequential use of both agents resulted in clinically significant antitumor activity in this lymphoma model.

  18. Oxidative stress and redox state-regulating enzymes have prognostic relevance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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    Peroja Pekka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and redox-regulating enzymes may have roles both in lymphomagenesis and resistance to lymphoma therapy. Previous studies from the pre-rituximab era suggest that antioxidant enzyme expression is related to prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, although these results cannot be extrapolated to patient populations undergoing modern treatment modalities. In this study we assessed expression of the oxidative stress markers 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine and the antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin (Trx, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL via immunohistochemistry in 106 patients with DLBCL. All patients were treated with CHOP-like therapy combined with rituximab. Immunostaining results were correlated with progression-free survival, disease-specific survival and traditional prognostic factors of DLBCL. Results Strong 8-OHdG immunostaining intensity was associated with extranodal involvement (p = 0.00002, a high International Prognostic Index (p = 0.002 and strong Trx (p = 0.011 and GCL (p = 0.0003 expression. Strong Trx staining intensity was associated with poor progression-free survival (p = 0.046 and poor disease-specific survival (p = 0.015. Strong GCL immunostaining intensity predicted poor progression-free survival (p = 0.049. Patients with either strong Trx or strong nitrotyrosine expression showed significantly poorer progression-free survival (p = 0.003 and disease-specific survival (p = 0.031 compared with the other patients. Conclusions The redox state-regulating enzymes GCL and Trx are promising markers in the evaluation of DLBCL prognosis in the era of modern immunochemotherapy.

  19. RelA NF-κB subunit activation as a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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    Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexandar; Wang, Jing; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W.L.; Han van Krieken, J.; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J.M.; Møller, Michael B.; Parsons, Ben M.; Winter, Jane N.; Piris, Miguel A.; Jeffrey Medeiros, L.; Pham, Lan V.; Young, Ken H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established that nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation is important for tumor cell growth and survival. RelA/p65 and p50 are the most common NF-κB subunits and involved in the classical NF-κB pathway. However, the prognostic and biological significance of RelA/p65 is equivocal in the field. In this study, we assessed RelA/p65 nuclear expression by immunohistochemistry in 487 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and studied the effects of molecular and pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB on cell viability. We found RelA/p65 nuclear expression, without associations with other apparent genetic or phenotypic abnormalities, had unfavorable prognostic impact in patients with stage I/II DLBCL. Gene expressionprofiling analysis suggested immune dysregulation and antiapoptosis may be relevant for the poorer prognosis associated with p65 hyperactivation in germinal center B-cell–like (GCB) DLBCL and in activated B-cell–like (ABC) DLBCL, respectively. We knocked down individual NF-κB subunits in representative DLBCL cells in vitro, and found targeting p65 was more effective than targeting other NF-κB subunits in inhibiting cell growth and survival. In summary, RelA/p65 nuclear overexpression correlates with significant poor survival in early-stage DLBCL patients, and therapeutic targeting RelA/p65 is effective in inhibiting proliferation and survival of DLBCL with NF-κB hyperactivation. PMID:27941215

  20. Extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Experience from a tertiary care oncology center in South India

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    K. C. Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL with frequent extra nodal (EN presentation. The overall occurrence of lymphomas has been increasing; however, those of EN-NHL have been increasing much more rapidly. There is limited data found on EN-DLBCL in the Indian population and hence we carried out this retrospective observational study of primary EN-DLBCL at our center in Southern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 consecutive cases diagnosed as EN-DLBCL (according to the standard criteria by tissue biopsy confirmed by immunohistochemistry between 2007 and 2011 were included. Staging workup including computed tomography of neck, thorax and abdomen and pelvis, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was done and International Prognostic Index (IPI calculated. Staging was according to Cotswold′s modification of Ann Arbor. The actuarial survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier. Data were analyzed using the SPSS (version 16 statistical software. Results: The median age in this study was 49 years (18-88 with results showing EN-DLBCL to be 1.36 times more common in males. Advanced stages were seen in 15 subjects (16.6% and bulky disease in 13 subjects (14.4%. CD20 was positive in 89 (98.8% while 32 had high serum lactate dehydrogenase. According to the IPI most were low-risk-56 (66.6%. Overall response rate for the various combination chemotherapies was 85.7% with complete response in 62.3%. The overall survival range spanned from 2 to 123 months. Univariate analysis showed only bulky disease was associated with inferior survival. Conclusions: EN-DLBCL was present at an early age compared to nodal DLBCL, present more often in early stage and low IPI score. Chemoimmunotherapy with radiotherapy to the EN or bulky site is the standard treatment at present.