WorldWideScience

Sample records for local resource competition

  1. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage.

  2. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well......: production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  3. Resource competition: a bifurcation theory approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.W.; Dutta, P.S.; Feudel, U.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a framework for analysing the outcome of resource competition based on bifurcation theory. We elaborate our methodology by readdressing the problem of competition of two species for two resources in a chemostat environment. In the case of perfect-essential resources it has been

  4. Local competition increases people’s willingness to harm others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Why should organisms incur a cost in order to inflict a (usually greater) cost on others? Such costly harming behavior may be favored when competition for resources occurs locally, because it increases individuals' fitness relative to close competitors. However, there is no explicit experimental...... evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games. In these experiments, players could spend money to make others lose more. We...... manipulated the scale of competition by awarding cash prizes to the players with the highest payoffs per set of social partners (local competition) or in all the participants in a session (global competition). We found that, as predicted, people were more harmful to others when competition was local (study 1...

  5. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  6. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  7. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-01-01

    Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears...

  8. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  9. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species.

  10. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  11. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study's basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, SYSTEMS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raduan Che Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective that business organisations in particular should strive to attain is achieving a competitive advantage position relative to their competitors.. This research empirically examined the importance of and emphasis placed on organisational resources, capabilities and systems in their relationships with competitive advantage. The overall findings indicated significant, positive effects of organisational resources, capabilities and systems collectively on competitive advantage, providing support and corroboration to the resource-based view (RBV. The total variance in competitive advantage accounted for by the multiple linear regression (MLR model was 56.2%. In short, the findings from this study have not only contributed to the literature on the issue of the relationship between organisational resources, capabilities, systems and competitive advantage, but also provided vital information to both practitioners and policy makers on the subject matter.

  13. Sustainable building and local resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Forlani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research comes from the deepest reasons of the crisis, in order to recognize in such reasons themselves the direction to come out, the new needs and the new challenges. The local resources (material and immaterial were reconsidered as patrimony, precious but limited, of each specific area to trace out a path of supportability able to rebuild new relations between project/production and environmental culture. The industrial production becomes a driving force for the economic renewal through an iterative cycle between research/science and economics aiming to smart building, meant as practice in evolution. This practise is careful to the local, environmental, cultural and economic situation, whose parameters are identity, energy, environment, mobility and economics that give back different scale answers.

  14. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  15. Winning the competition for supplier resources: The role of preferential resource allocation from suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the competition between buying firms for the supplier’s competitive resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine how indirect capabilities – the ability to access external resources – can help in obtaining preferential resource allocation from suppliers.

  16. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 501 (2014), s. 1-21 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invoasions * resource competition * dominance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  17. Factors Determining Bank Competitive Strategy: An Empirical Study on Local Development Banks (LDBS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad IRFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been investigating determinants of the company's competitive strategy. Nevertheless, there have insufficient studies conducted to investigate the determinants of competitive strategy on banking industry, particularly on Local development banks (LDBS. This study is aimed at filling in the literature. This study surveyed top executives of twenty-six local development banks in Indonesia and employed PLS approach to answer the research questions. The result shows that three groups of variables, i.e., innovation management, company resource management, and adoption of technology influence the development of competitive strategy in local development banks.

  18. Comparative local advantages and technological competitiveness for Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniela; Zini, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Italian manufacturing sector's competitiveness over the past ten years and the role played bu the local technology-based comparative advantages in shaping national competitiveness. Data obtained with local-based econometric techniques point to a gradual weakening of core know-how in high-tech industries strongly rooted in the Northwest [it

  19. Managing the relationship between strategic resources and competitive priorities through the resource-based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fabiana Gohr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms should develop and improve strategic resources that are important for the competitive priorities, especially those that are important to customers. Using resource-based view of the firm as a theoretical perspective, this paper aims to analyze how strategic resources can contribute to the competitive priorities of an organization that operates in the logistic sector. The research method used was the case study using as the main technique of data collection semi-structured and structured interviews; and, systematic observations. The resources that contribute effectively to competitive priorities that need improvement are sales control, loyal customer base, partners experience and agile feedback to customers. However, only the experience of the partners provides to the company sustainable competitive advantage. Others resources identified in the field research provide only a competitive parity, despite this, support important competitive priorities.

  20. Competition for nutrients and light: testing advances in resource competition with a natural phytoplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, Amanda; Stomp, Maayke; Greenwell, Emma; Grosse, Julia; Huisman, Jef

    2018-05-01

    A key challenge in ecology is to understand how nutrients and light affect the biodiversity and community structure of phytoplankton and plant communities. According to resource competition models, ratios of limiting nutrients are major determinants of species composition. At high nutrient levels, however, species interactions may shift to competition for light, which might make nutrient ratios less relevant. The "nutrient-load hypothesis" merges these two perspectives, by extending the classic model of competition for two nutrients to include competition for light. Here, we test five key predictions of the nutrient-load hypothesis using multispecies competition experiments. A marine phytoplankton community sampled from the North Sea was inoculated in laboratory chemostats provided with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to induce either single resource limitation or co-limitation of N, P, and light. Four of the five predictions were validated by the experiments. In particular, different resource limitations favored the dominance of different species. Increasing nutrient loads caused changes in phytoplankton species composition, even if the N:P ratio of the nutrient loads remained constant, by shifting the species interactions from competition for nutrients to competition for light. In all treatments, small species became dominant whereas larger species were competitively excluded, supporting the common view that small cell size provides a competitive advantage under resource-limited conditions. Contrary to expectation, all treatments led to coexistence of diatoms, cyanobacteria and green algae, resulting in a higher diversity of species than predicted by theory. Because the coexisting species comprised three phyla with different photosynthetic pigments, we speculate that niche differentiation in the light spectrum might play a role. Our results show that mechanistic resource competition models that integrate nutrient-based and light-based approaches

  1. Resources based factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyja Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.

  2. The impact of marketing resources on corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Gyulavári

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the association between marketing resources and corporate competitiveness. Empirical data were collected by a survey of 300 domestic organizations and the results were compared to the ones of a similar research conducted five years before. We have found that all the marketing resources investigated have a significant effect on marketing performance. Among them the most marketing-related resource dimension, called market management, excels regarding the strength of the association with competitiveness. Clusters of companies were formulated and analyzed. A small group of the companies investigated (12% managed to advance in the development and possession of marketing resources whilst maintaining competitive product supply and price. The proportion of successful companies among them is highly significant.

  3. Performance Competition in Local Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Revelli Federico

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tax and public service performance on English local government popularity by using data on local property taxes, service performance ratings and local election results after the introduction of a system of evaluation of local government performance (Comprehensive Performance Assessment). The evidence emerging from estimation of a reelection equation offers a somewhat more rounded portrait of the voter than the conventional fiscal conservative icon, by hig...

  4. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnna Briazkalo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is to study and generalize scientific approaches to the determination of essence, content and components of financial resources of local authorities. The methodology is the use of various general scientific and special methods of research. So, during the study the following methods were used: dialectic method, with the help of which the essence of financial resources of local authorities was determined; methods of comparative analysis of scientific thoughts about the category “financial resources”, “financial resources of local authorities”; systematization of main characteristics of financial resources at the level of state and local authorities; structuralfunctional method in order to classify financial resources. Study results are represented by determination of economic essence of financial resources, their main features, and it is proposed an improvement of the concept “financial resources”, “financial resources of local authorities”. Financial resources are an aggregate of resources (monetary and non-monetary, which are creating and forming owning to distribution and redistribution of gross domestic product by economic entities, households, state and local authorities and are in fund and non-fund form with the aim to ensure their purposeful productive use for the benefit of natural and legal persons as well as society in general. Thus, the financial resources of local authorities – are an aggregate of monetary resources created as a result of the distribution and redistribution of the gross domestic product (some of which are in the appropriate funds, required by local authorities to perform their functions and tasks in order to ensure economic and sociocultural development of the local community. Taking into attention the features of functioning of the main subjects of local finance for thorough study of the essence of local authorities’ financial resources, their main components are considered

  5. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  6. Natural resources management by local associations in Ifedore local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of natural resource by local associations not only in its socio ecological but also in its socio economic context will go a long way in reducing environmental degradation in some local communities. This study examined the operational capacity for natural resource management by local associations in Ifedore ...

  7. The relative importance of seed competition, resource competition and perturbations on community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities. Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE (Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation, a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition. The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence. Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.

  8. Character convergence under competition for nutritionally essential resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Vasseur, David A

    2008-11-01

    Resource competition is thought to drive divergence in resource use traits (character displacement) by generating selection favoring individuals able to use resources unavailable to others. However, this picture assumes nutritionally substitutable resources (e.g., different prey species). When species compete for nutritionally essential resources (e.g., different nutrients), theory predicts that selection drives character convergence. We used models of two species competing for two essential resources to address several issues not considered by existing theory. The models incorporated either slow evolutionary change in resource use traits or fast physiological or behavioral change. We report four major results. First, competition always generates character convergence, but differences in resource requirements prevent competitors from evolving identical resource use traits. Second, character convergence promotes coexistence. Competing species always attain resource use traits that allow coexistence, and adaptive trait change stabilizes the ecological equilibrium. In contrast, adaptation in allopatry never preadapts species to coexist in sympatry. Third, feedbacks between ecological dynamics and trait dynamics lead to surprising dynamical trajectories such as transient divergence in resource use traits followed by subsequent convergence. Fourth, under sufficiently slow trait change, ecological dynamics often drive one of the competitors to near extinction, which would prevent realization of long-term character convergence in practice.

  9. Pricing local distribution services in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duann, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    Unbundling and restructuring of local distribution services is the focus of the natural gas industry. As a result of regulatory reforms, a competitive local distribution market has emerged, and the validity of traditional cost-based regulation is being questioned. One alternative is to completely unbundle local distribution services and transform the local distribution company into a common carrier for intrastate transportation services. Three kinds of alternative pricing mechanisms are examined. For firm intrastate transportation services, cost-based pricing is the preferred method unless it can be shown that a competitive secondary market can be established and maintained. Pricing interruptible transportation capacity is discussed

  10. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  11. Achieving competitive advantage through strategic human resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Phillips, R L; Blair, J D; Duran, C A

    1990-01-01

    The framework presented here challenges health care executives to manage human resources strategically as an integral part of the strategic planning process. Health care executives should consciously formulate human resource strategies and practices that are linked to and reinforce the broader strategic posture of the organization. This article provides a framework for (1) determining and focusing on desired strategic outcomes, (2) identifying and implementing essential human resource management actions, and (3) maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage. The strategic approach to human resource management includes assessing the organization's environment and mission; formulating the organization's business strategy; assessing the human resources requirements based on the intended strategy; comparing the current inventory of human resources in terms of numbers, characteristics, and human resource management practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines; formulating the human resource strategy based on the differences between the assessed requirements and the current inventory; and implementing the appropriate human resource practices to reinforce the strategy and attain competitive advantage.

  12. Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning for Global Supply Chain Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, A. V.; Sahu, Dasarathi; Mohan, V. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Strategic Enterprise Resource planning (SERP) systems are networked and integrated information mechanisms which are developed to achieve competitive advantage for organizations operating in global scale. It plays a vital role in Integrating various stake holders and channel partners involved in day to day operations. In the present Globalized…

  13. Hospital competition, resource allocation and quality of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwanziger Jack

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of approaches have been used to contain escalating hospital costs. One approach is intensifying price competition. The increase in price based competition, which changes the incentives hospitals face, coupled with the fact that consumers can more easily evaluate the quality of hotel services compared with the quality of clinical care, may lead hospitals to allocate more resources into hotel rather than clinical services. Methods To test this hypothesis we studied hospitals in California in 1982 and 1989, comparing resource allocations prior to and following selective contracting, a period during which the focus of competition changed from quality to price. We estimated the relationship between clinical outcomes, measured as risk-adjusted-mortality rates, and resources. Results In 1989, higher competition was associated with lower clinical expenditures levels compared with 1982. The trend was stronger for non-profit hospitals. Lower clinical resource use was associated with worse risk adjusted mortality outcomes. Conclusions This study raises concerns that cost reductions may be associated with increased mortality.

  14. Building an Information Resource Center for Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. Sperling

    1992-01-01

    Outlines considerations in the design of a Competitive Intelligence Information Resource Center (CIIRC), which is needed by business organizations for effective strategic decision making. Discussed are user needs, user participation, information sources, technology and interface design, operational characteristics, and planning for implementation.…

  15. An investigation of the competitiveness hypothesis of the resource curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Serino (Leandro)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper I investigate the competitiveness explanation of the resource curse: to what extent slow growth in primary producer countries is related to the properties of this pattern of trade specialization. To address this hypothesis that has not been adequately explored in the

  16. Territory, competitive advantages and local productive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Monarca U.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at analyzing if, as often indicated by theoretical and empirical literature, the "territory" variable shows local development dynamics. A review of the districts phenomenon has favoured the attempt to integrate modern economical trends in this consolidated productive model, with particular emphasis on firm internationalization, market globalisation and the IT developments, including business services as well. The work underlines two implication of this innovative approach: the ...

  17. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, L. Andrew; Koirala, Binod; Scholten, Daniel; Facchinetti, Emanuele; Lilliestam, Johan; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization concentrates competition at the wholesale level, local energy management at the distribution level is likely to impose new roles and responsibilities on existing and/or new actors. This paper prov...

  18. Resource quality or competition: why increase resource acceptance in the presence of conspecifics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremy M; Nufio, César R; Papaj, Daniel R

    2011-07-01

    Some animal species increase resource acceptance rates in the presence of conspecifics. Such responses may be adaptive if the presence of conspecifics is a reliable indicator of resource quality. Similarly, these responses could represent an adaptive reduction in choosiness under high levels of scramble competition. Although high resource quality and high levels of scramble competition should both favor increased resource acceptance, the contexts in which the increase occurs should differ. In this paper, we tested the effect of social environment on egg-laying and aggressive behavior in the walnut fly, Rhagoletis juglandis, in multiple contexts to determine whether increased resource acceptance in the presence of conspecifics was better viewed as a response to increased host quality or increased competition. We found that grouped females oviposit more readily than isolated females when provided small (low-quality) artificial hosts but not when provided large (high-quality) artificial hosts, indicating that conspecific presence reduces choosiness. Increased resource acceptance was observed even when exposure to conspecifics was temporally or spatially separate from exposure to the resource. Finally, we found that individuals showed reduced aggression after being housed in groups, as expected under high levels of scramble competition. These results indicate that the pattern of resource acceptance in the presence of conspecifics may be better viewed as a response to increased scramble competition rather than as a response to public information about resource quality.

  19. Optimal resource states for local state discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Halder, Saronath; Nathanson, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We study the problem of locally distinguishing pure quantum states using shared entanglement as a resource. For a given set of locally indistinguishable states, we define a resource state to be useful if it can enhance local distinguishability and optimal if it can distinguish the states as well as global measurements and is also minimal with respect to a partial ordering defined by entanglement and dimension. We present examples of useful resources and show that an entangled state need not be useful for distinguishing a given set of states. We obtain optimal resources with explicit local protocols to distinguish multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and graph states and also show that a maximally entangled state is an optimal resource under one-way local operations and classical communication to distinguish any bipartite orthonormal basis which contains at least one entangled state of full Schmidt rank.

  20. Competition for nutrients and light: testing advances in resource competition with a natural phytoplankton community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burson, A.; Stomp, M.; Greenwell, E.; Grosse, J.; Huisman, J.

    2018-01-01

    A key challenge in ecology is to understand how nutrients and light affect the biodiversity and community structure of phytoplankton and plant communities. According to resource competition models, ratios of limiting nutrients are major determinants of species composition. At high nutrient levels,

  1. Zero-sum bias: perceived competition despite unlimited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel V Meegan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.

  2. Zero-sum bias: perceived competition despite unlimited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Daniel V

    2010-01-01

    Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students' grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.

  3. Human Resources and Competitiveness. Report of the Committee on Human Resources, The President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness. Research Report Series RR-87-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Competitiveness is a function of a nation's resources and how effectively those resources are used relative to that nation's competitors. The people of a nation, with their knowledge, skills, and attitudes, determine how effectively technology, capital, and trade will be used to the nation's competitive advantage. The competitive challenge to the…

  4. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  5. LOCAL GOVERNMENT TAX COMPETITION IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA 1918-1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates tax competition among local governments in Czechoslovakia during the interwar period. Using correlation and regression analysis it proves that (1 local politicians took into account the tax policies of neighbouring jurisdictions when imposing additional tax rates on top of the direct central taxes, (2 there were some regional differences, (3 migration played its role in tax rate setting and (4 the "race-to-the-bottom" did not take place.

  6. Strategy community development based on local resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.

  7. Innovating for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    Transport is vital to the economic prosperity and social integration of Europe. EU-transport policy is directed to developing a smart, efficient transport system with reduced dependency on fossil fuels and less environmental impacts that will enhance mobility in Europe and will underpin Europe's competitiveness in global markets. This includes the transport sector itself, which is an important part of the EU economy. In contributing to achieving these ambitious goals, extensive investments are made in research and development for sustainable and innovative solutions. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research, development, and innovation in securing a competitive and resource-efficient transport system in Europe.

  8. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Barker

    Full Text Available Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic "tug-of-war" model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

  9. Local Competition-Based Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm in Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technologies have been widely applied in urban environments’ monitoring, synthesis and modeling. Incorporating spatial information in perceptually coherent regions, superpixel-based approaches can effectively eliminate the “salt and pepper” phenomenon which is common in pixel-wise approaches. Compared with fixed-size windows, superpixels have adaptive sizes and shapes for different spatial structures. Moreover, superpixel-based algorithms can significantly improve computational efficiency owing to the greatly reduced number of image primitives. Hence, the superpixel algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, is more and more popularly used in remote sensing and many other fields. In this paper, we propose a superpixel segmentation algorithm called Superpixel Segmentation with Local Competition (SSLC, which utilizes a local competition mechanism to construct energy terms and label pixels. The local competition mechanism leads to energy terms locality and relativity, and thus, the proposed algorithm is less sensitive to the diversity of image content and scene layout. Consequently, SSLC could achieve consistent performance in different image regions. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF, which is estimated by Kernel Density Estimation (KDE with the Gaussian kernel, is introduced to describe the color distribution of superpixels as a more sophisticated and accurate measure. To reduce computational complexity, a boundary optimization framework is introduced to only handle boundary pixels instead of the whole image. We conduct experiments to benchmark the proposed algorithm with the other state-of-the-art ones on the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset (BSD and remote sensing images. Results demonstrate that the SSLC algorithm yields the best overall performance, while the computation time-efficiency is still competitive.

  10. Local Competition-Based Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm in Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayin; Tang, Zhenmin; Cui, Ying; Wu, Guoxing

    2017-06-12

    Remote sensing technologies have been widely applied in urban environments' monitoring, synthesis and modeling. Incorporating spatial information in perceptually coherent regions, superpixel-based approaches can effectively eliminate the "salt and pepper" phenomenon which is common in pixel-wise approaches. Compared with fixed-size windows, superpixels have adaptive sizes and shapes for different spatial structures. Moreover, superpixel-based algorithms can significantly improve computational efficiency owing to the greatly reduced number of image primitives. Hence, the superpixel algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, is more and more popularly used in remote sensing and many other fields. In this paper, we propose a superpixel segmentation algorithm called Superpixel Segmentation with Local Competition (SSLC), which utilizes a local competition mechanism to construct energy terms and label pixels. The local competition mechanism leads to energy terms locality and relativity, and thus, the proposed algorithm is less sensitive to the diversity of image content and scene layout. Consequently, SSLC could achieve consistent performance in different image regions. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF), which is estimated by Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) with the Gaussian kernel, is introduced to describe the color distribution of superpixels as a more sophisticated and accurate measure. To reduce computational complexity, a boundary optimization framework is introduced to only handle boundary pixels instead of the whole image. We conduct experiments to benchmark the proposed algorithm with the other state-of-the-art ones on the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset (BSD) and remote sensing images. Results demonstrate that the SSLC algorithm yields the best overall performance, while the computation time-efficiency is still competitive.

  11. Competition between global and local online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2016-04-01

    The overwhelming success of online social networks, the key actors in the Web 2.0 cosmos, has reshaped human interactions globally. To help understand the fundamental mechanisms which determine the fate of online social networks at the system level, we describe the digital world as a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity in network fitnesses on the competition between an international network, such as Facebook, and local services. The higher fitness of international networks is induced by their ability to attract users from all over the world, which can then establish social interactions without the limitations of local networks. In other words, inter-country social ties lead to increased fitness of the international network. To study the competition between an international network and local ones, we construct a 1:1000 scale model of the digital world, consisting of the 80 countries with the most Internet users. Under certain conditions, this leads to the extinction of local networks; whereas under different conditions, local networks can persist and even dominate completely. In particular, our model suggests that, with the parameters that best reproduce the empirical overtake of Facebook, this overtake could have not taken place with a significant probability.

  12. Competition between global and local online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2016-04-27

    The overwhelming success of online social networks, the key actors in the Web 2.0 cosmos, has reshaped human interactions globally. To help understand the fundamental mechanisms which determine the fate of online social networks at the system level, we describe the digital world as a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity in network fitnesses on the competition between an international network, such as Facebook, and local services. The higher fitness of international networks is induced by their ability to attract users from all over the world, which can then establish social interactions without the limitations of local networks. In other words, inter-country social ties lead to increased fitness of the international network. To study the competition between an international network and local ones, we construct a 1:1000 scale model of the digital world, consisting of the 80 countries with the most Internet users. Under certain conditions, this leads to the extinction of local networks; whereas under different conditions, local networks can persist and even dominate completely. In particular, our model suggests that, with the parameters that best reproduce the empirical overtake of Facebook, this overtake could have not taken place with a significant probability.

  13. Competition for labor resources: losses of the Amur region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vasilyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define labor losses of the Amur region because of the competition of regions. Each region, directly or indirectly, seeks to attract and keep in its territory highly skilled labor force. Shortage of labor force slows down development of the economy of the region. Thus, because of the depopulation, the demand for the produced and consumed goods and services in the region is decreasing. The decrease in demand influences tax reduction and non-tax revenues in budgets of various levels, reduction of employment of labor resources, increase in unemployment, increase in cost of products and rendered services, reduction of the gross regional product, growth of social tension in the society.Under conditions of the competition between regions for labor resources, other things being equal, the outflow of labor resources occurs from regions with a rather low level of compensation to regions with a rather high level of the salary. At the same time, the population leaves, as a rule, the provincial and less developed regions and concentrates in the largest metropolitan areas. In the competition for labor resources some regions win and get essential advantages in social and economic development, others sustain considerable losses. Statistical methods of analyzing social and economic phenomena and processes were used as tools for carrying out the research: indexes of dynamics, structure, and tabular and graphic methods of visualization of quantitative data.As a result of the conducted statistical research, it was found out that the population of the Amur region decreases annually, at the same time the decline in the population of the region is long-term and steady in nature. Over 25 years the Amur region lost population amounting to the population of the whole city. The present work shows that the tendency of demographic aging of the population characteristic of many regions of the country is observed in the Amur region. Decrease

  14. Best practices for assessing forage fish fisheries-seabird resource competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Bennison, Ashley; Bertrand, Sophie; Boersch-Supan, Philipp; Boyd, Charlotte; Bransome, Nicole C.; Crawford, Robert J.M.; Daunt, Francis; Furness, Robert W.; Gianuca, Dimas; Gladics, Amanda; Koehn, Laura; Lang, Jennifer W.; Loggerwell, Elizabeth; Morris, Taryn L.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Provencher, Jennifer; Punt, André E..; Saraux, Claire; Shannon, Lynne; Sherley, Richard B.; Simeone, Alejandro; Wanless, Ross M.; Wanless, Sarah; Zador, Stephani

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, in recent years capture fisheries targeting lower-trophic level forage fish and euphausiid crustaceans have been substantial (∼20 million metric tons [MT] annually). Landings of forage species are projected to increase in the future, and this harvest may affect marine ecosystems and predator-prey interactions by removal or redistribution of biomass central to pelagic food webs. In particular, fisheries targeting forage fish and euphausiids may be in competition with seabirds, likely the most sensitive of marine vertebrates given limitations in their foraging abilities (ambit and gape size) and high metabolic rate, for food resources. Lately, apparent competition between fisheries and seabirds has led to numerous high-profile conflicts over interpretations, as well as the approaches that could and should be used to assess the magnitude and consequences of fisheries-seabird resource competition. In this paper, we review the methods used to date to study fisheries competition with seabirds, and present “best practices” for future resource competition assessments. Documenting current fisheries competition with seabirds generally involves addressing two major issues: 1) are fisheries causing localized prey depletion that is sufficient to affect the birds? (i.e., are fisheries limiting food resources?), and 2) how are fisheries-induced changes to forage stocks affecting seabird populations given the associated functional or numerical response relationships? Previous studies have been hampered by mismatches in the scale of fisheries, fish, and seabird data, and a lack of causal understanding due to confounding by climatic and other ecosystem factors (e.g., removal of predatory fish). Best practices for fisheries-seabird competition research should include i) clear articulation of hypotheses, ii) data collection (or summation) of fisheries, fish, and seabirds on matched spatio-temporal scales, and iii) integration of observational and experimental

  15. Local integrated resource planning (LIRP); Planejamento integrado em ambiente de planejamento local (LIRP) - geracao, transmissao e distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontoura Filho, R N; Schilling, M T [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, J L.R. [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil); Aires, J C.O. [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work makes a description of the current process for planning of power systems. It also presents a proposal that permit the definition of systems with homogeneity of risks, ideal to the local integrated resources planning (LIRP) , mainly, in a competition environment between electric utilities. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Management Policy to provide for a committee system to oversee the different stages. Such committee system must, moreover, consist of at least a bid specification committee, a bid evaluation committee and a bid adjudication committee. Until recently, little attention has been given by the courts to the roles and composition of the different committees in the committee system. It is only after government, and in particular, municipalities have begun to implement the committee system in their procurement processes that it is evident that problems are arising. In recent months, the courts have increasingly had to deal with issues pertaining to the implementation of the committee system.In this article, the relevant legislative provisions on the committee system for competitive bids in local government are discussed. The functions of each committee are explained and all the cases that have thus far involved the implementation of the committee system are critically analysed. Much attention is given to the cases since they serve as a warning to municipalities to uphold and comply with the rules relating to the roles and composition of the different committees. The cases illustrate how important it is for municipalities to ensure that the different committees are properly constituted and that decisions at meetings are properly taken. They also highlight the importance of the supervisory role of the municipal manager over the different committees. In light of the

  17. ROLE OF RESOURCE-BASED ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF TRADITIONALLY WOVEN SARONG CREATIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyah Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to describe position of traditionally woven sarong creative industry in Donggala in business competition based on both internal aspects (strength and weakness and external ones (opportunity and threats, and role of resource-based entrepreneurship development to improve competitiveness of the traditionally woven sarong creative industry in Donggala. In order to meet the objectives, the study used SWOT and Moderating Regression Analysis (MRA. The findings showed that the strength of the Donggala woven sarong industry was the sarong had indigenous Central Sulawesi pattern, it was part of the rural society and was traditionally made. The weaknesses were the sarong pattern and design had yet been touched by modern technology, its color faded away easily during laundry and it was only sold in the local areas. The opportunities were the sarong may become alternative souvenir from Central Sulawesi and development of creative economy was widely discussed recently. The threat was there were various types and patterns of sarong in the market; and entrepreneurship was moderating variables between resource-based strategy and competitiveness of Donggala woven sarong creative industry; the level of significance was 0.001 and the R-Square was 0.803.

  18. How Readers and Advertisers Benefit from Local Newspaper Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Shu-Ling Chen; Everett, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Explores relations among three competitive schemes with respect to newspapers' price structures, including advertising rates and prices to consumers. Finds that readers get some benefit from greater competition, but that advertisers do not. (MM)

  19. State, Local and Tribal Resources for Creating Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page will be a combination of three current pages on resources - ‘Resources for Healthier Schools’, ‘Schools: Student Curricula for Healthier School’ and ‘Schools: Regional, Tribal, State and Local Resources for Healthier Schools’ pages

  20. Local Culture and Rules as Competitive Strategic Predictor and the Impact on Real Estate Industry Performance in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Putu Selawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resources and operational environment of a company are known to have important role in its competitive strategic formulation. These three variables also found influencing business performance. However, little is known about the influence of an understanding toward local culture and rules where a company operated on competitive strategic formulation and the impact on business performance. This research is aimed to find out about the influence of an understanding and implementation of Tri Hita Karana as one of intangible strategic resources and the influence of local rules either in form of regional regulation or customary rules on competitive strategic formulation of real estate company operated in Indonesia, whcih is in Bali Province.In order to harmonize company with its environment through three dimensions based on Hindu philosophy (parahyangan as the manifestation of God dimension, pawongan as the manifestation of humanity dimension and palemahan as the manifestation of natural environment dimension, it is proven that understanding and implementation of Tri Hita Kirana have the highest influence from seven strategic resources formulation of a company. In addition, local rules also proven to significantly influence environmental dynamic faced by real estate companies operated in Bali. The research verified that resources owned by and environmental dynamics of a company have significant influence on competitive strategic that further influence business performance measured using Balance Score Card method.

  1. Origins of altruism diversity I: The diverse ecological roles of altruistic strategies and their evolutionary responses to local competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyken, J David; Wade, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Nature abounds with a rich variety of altruistic strategies, including public resource enhancement, resource provisioning, communal foraging, alarm calling, and nest defense. Yet, despite their vastly different ecological roles, current theory typically treats diverse altruistic traits as being favored under the same general conditions. Here, we introduce greater ecological realism into social evolution theory and find evidence of at least four distinct modes of altruism. Contrary to existing theory, we find that altruistic traits contributing to "resource-enhancement" (e.g., siderophore production, provisioning, agriculture) and "resource-efficiency" (e.g., pack hunting, communication) are most strongly favored when there is strong local competition. These resource-based modes of helping are "K-strategies" that increase a social group's growth yield, and should characterize species with scarce resources and/or high local crowding caused by low mortality, high fecundity, and/or mortality occurring late in the process of resource-acquisition. The opposite conditions, namely weak local competition (abundant resource, low crowding), favor survival (e.g., nest defense) and fecundity (e.g., nurse workers) altruism, which are "r-strategies" that increase a social group's growth rate. We find that survival altruism is uniquely favored by a novel evolutionary force that we call "sunk cost selection." Sunk cost selection favors helping that prevents resources from being wasted on individuals destined to die before reproduction. Our results contribute to explaining the observed natural diversity of altruistic strategies, reveal the necessary connection between the evolution and the ecology of sociality, and correct the widespread but inaccurate view that local competition uniformly impedes the evolution of altruism. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Separation of allelopathy from resource competition using rice/barnyardgrass mixed-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Bin He

    Full Text Available Plant-plant interference is the combined effect of allelopathy, resource competition, and many other factors. Separating allelopathy from resource competition is almost impossible in natural systems but it is important to evaluate the relative contribution of each of the two mechanisms on plant interference. Research on allelopathy in natural and cultivated plant communities has been hindered in the absence of a reliable method that can separate allelopathic effect from resource competition. In this paper, the interactions between allelopathic rice accession PI312777, non-allelopathic rice accession Lemont and barnyardgrass were explored respectively by using a target (rice-neighbor (barnyardgrass mixed-culture in hydroponic system. The relative competitive intensity (RCI, the relative neighbor effect (RNE and the competitive ratio (CR were used to quantify the intensity of competition between each of the two different potentially allelopathic rice accessions and barnyardgrass. Use of hydroponic culture system enabled us to exclude any uncontrolled factors that might operate in the soil and we were able to separate allelopathy from resource competition between each rice accession and barnyardgrass. The RCI and RNE values showed that the plant-plant interaction was positive (facilitation for PI312777 but that was negative (competition for Lemont and barnyardgrass in rice/barnyardgrass mixed-cultures. The CR values showed that one PI312777 plant was more competitive than 2 barnyardgrass plants. The allelopathic effects of PI312777 were much more intense than the resource competition in rice/barnyardgrass mixed cultures. The reverse was true for Lemont. These results demonstrate that the allelopathic effect of PI312777 was predominant in rice/barnyardgrass mixed-cultures. The most significant result of our study is the discovery of an experimental design, target-neighbor mixed-culture in combination with competition indices, can successfully

  3. Competition partition of soil and solar radiation resources between soybean cultivars and concurrent genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.A.; Fleck, N.G.; Dillenburg, L.R.

    2006-01-01

    Plants compete for environmental resources located below and over soil surface. Physical separation of competition allows understanding the relative importance of each fraction, as well as identifying possible differences among species. The aim of this research was to separate the individual effects resulting from competition for soil or solar radiation resources, between soybean and concurrent plants. Thus, experiments using pots were carried out at UFRGS, in Porto Alegre-RS, in 2001 and 2002. The treatments tested resulted from the combinations of two concurrent genotypes (crop and competitor) and four competition conditions (absence of competition, competition for soil and solar radiation, competition for soil resources, and competition for solar radiation). Soybean cultivars IAS 5 and FEPAGRO RS 10 represented the crop, whereas radish forage and the soybean cultivar FUNDACEP 33 were the competitors tested. Morpho-physiological variables were evaluated in the soybean plants and radish forage. Growth of the soybean plants was most affected by soil resources competition, with RS 10 cultivar being more competitive than IAS 5.Radish forage did not interfere in the growth of soybean cultivars but it benefited from soybean presence. (author) 6

  4. The Committee System For Competitive Bids In Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt ...

  5. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  6. Niche filtering, not interspecific resource competition, explains the co-occurrence of butterfly species across the Japanese archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakadai, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Koya

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of interspecific resource competition in the context of community assembly by herbivorous insects is a well-known topic in ecology. Most previous studies focused on local species assemblies, that shared host plants. Few studies evaluated species pairs within a single taxon when investigating the effects of host plant sharing at the regional scale. Herein, we explore the effect of plant sharing on the geographical co-occurrence patterns of 229 butterflies distributed across the J...

  7. Human Resources as a Competitive Advantage of Travel Agencies in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksa Vučetić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resources in travel agencies represent an especially valuable resource, which possesses the multidisciplinary and highly specialized knowledge and skills in the field of selective tourism. Human resources enable the agencies to create the services and products of superior value for the consumers within market niches, and thereby significantly contribute to increase in profitability of agencies, thereby becoming an important factor in competitive advantage of the agencies. Research results enable identification of the relation between human resources and servicing of travel agencies market niches. The paper presents an analysis of travel agencies’ human resources from the aspect of competitive advantage, with a special overview of their role in the domain of offer development and servicing of consumers in various types of selective tourism. The goal of the research is to prove, on a scientific basis, that the human resources represent a very important factor of competitive advantage of travel agencies.

  8. Disturbance-mediated competition between perennial plants along a resource supply gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Stephen. Brewer

    2011-01-01

    Traditional views of ecological disturbance emphasize the role that physical disturbances play in reducing competition between populations and maintaining species coexistence. I present an alternative view that employs a simple Lotka–Volterra model to demonstrate how disturbance resistance, disturbance resilience and resource storage can increase competition between...

  9. Testing VRIN framework: Resource value and rareness as sources of competitive advantage and above average performance

    OpenAIRE

    Talaja, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In this study, structural equation model that analyzes the impact of resource and capability characteristics, more specifically value and rareness, on sustainable competitive advantage and above average performance is developed and empirically tested. According to the VRIN framework, if a company possesses and exploits valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable resources and capabilities, it will achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Although the above mentioned statement is widely...

  10. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-01-01

    Background Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in ...

  11. Finding synergy between local competitiveness and global sustainability to provide a future to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The world's future energy needs will require a mix of energy conversion technologies matched to the local energy market needs while also responding to both local and global socio-political concerns, e.g. energy security, environmental impact, safety and non-proliferation. There is growing recognition worldwide that nuclear energy should not only be part of the solution but maybe as well play a larger share in future's energy supply. The sustainability of future nuclear energy systems is hereby important and a variety of studies have already shown that sustainability of nuclear energy from a resource perspective is achievable via the nuclear fuel cycle though where economic sustainability is essentially defined by the nuclear power plants. The main challenge in deploying sustainable nuclear energy systems will be to find synergies between this local competitiveness of nuclear power plants and the global resource sustainability defined via the nuclear fuel cycle. Both may go hand-in-hand in the long-term but may need government guidance in starting the transition towards such future sustainable nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  12. Local Foods and Food Cooperatives: Ethics, Economics and Competition Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.; Woods, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer interest in locally produced foods marketed through local food networks has been increasing. Local food networks utilize local supply chains such as direct market sales to consumers through CSAs, farmers markets, farm stands, and other alternative outlets. Our goal is to examine the role of food cooperatives in strengthening the local food networks and distributing locally produced products. We utilize data from a national study which includes case studies with three leading food co-...

  13. THE RESOURCE POTENTIAL AND THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN BUSINESS STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okolnishnikova Irina Yurievna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is the development of theoretical approaches to the study of the essence and structure of the resource potential of entrepreneurship in the context of the development strategy of the competitive advantages in business structure. As the research methodology the complex of principles and tools of system and axiological approaches is used. According to the results of the conducted research, possessing the scientific novelty, the conceptual apparatus is clarified and the author's definition of the resource potential of the enterprise is given, a model of the resource potential structure in commercial organization is analyzed and the mechanism of strategy formation for sustainable competitive advantages provision of the organization on the basis of the effective use of its resource potential is identified. Area of application of the research results is the control of competitiveness in general and resource potential of entrepreneurial structures, in particular at all levels of the socio-economic system of society.

  14. How to Organize for Local Resource Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrom, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The generation of resources is a central issue for the sustainability of companies. The purpose of this paper is to deal with two research questions: "Is decentralized generation of resources a possible way to reach sustainability in modern work life?" and "What prerequisites must be formed by organizations and managers to reach…

  15. Resource availability and competition shape the evolution of survival and growth ability in a bacterial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Pekkonen

    Full Text Available Resource availability is one of the main factors determining the ecological dynamics of populations or species. Fluctuations in resource availability can increase or decrease the intensity of resource competition. Resource availability and competition can also cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits. We studied how community structure and resource fluctuations affect the evolution of fitness related traits using a two-species bacterial model system. Replicated populations of Serratia marcescens (copiotroph and Novosphingobium capsulatum (oligotroph were reared alone or together in environments with intergenerational, pulsed resource renewal. The comparison of ancestral and evolved bacterial clones with 1 or 13 weeks history in pulsed resource environment revealed species-specific changes in life-history traits. Co-evolution with S. marcescens caused N. capsulatum clones to grow faster. The evolved S. marcescens clones had higher survival and slower growth rate then their ancestor. The survival increased in all treatments after one week, and thereafter continued to increase only in the S. marcescens monocultures that experienced large resource pulses. Though adaptive radiation is often reported in evolution studies with bacteria, clonal variation increased only in N. capsulatum growth rate. Our results suggest that S. marcescens adapted to the resource renewal cycle whereas N. capsulatum was more affected by the interspecific competition. Our results exemplify species-specific evolutionary response to both competition and environmental variation.

  16. Competition explains limited attention and perceptual resources: implications for perceptual load and dilution theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige E. Scalf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.

  17. Competition explains limited attention and perceptual resources: implications for perceptual load and dilution theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalf, Paige E; Torralbo, Ana; Tapia, Evelina; Beck, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.

  18. Effects of combination of leaf resources on competition in container mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Zarrabi, A A; Lounibos, L P

    2012-08-01

    Resource diversity is critical to fitness in many insect species, and may determine the coexistence of competitive species and the function of ecosystems. Plant material provides the nutritional base for numerous aquatic systems, yet the consequences of diversity of plant material have not been studied in aquatic container systems important for the production of mosquitoes. To address how diversity in leaf detritus affects container-inhabiting mosquitoes, we examined how leaf species affect competition between two container inhabiting mosquito larvae, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that co-occur in many parts of the world. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species changes the outcome of intra- and interspecific competition between these mosquito species, and that combinations of leaf species affect competition in a manner not predictable based upon the response to each leaf species alone (i.e. the response to leaf combinations is non-additive). We find support for our first hypothesis that leaf species can affect competition, evidence that, in general, leaf combination alters competitive interactions, and no support that leaf combination impacts interspecific competition differently than intraspecific competition. We conclude that combinations of leaves increase mosquito production non-additively such that combinations of leaves act synergistically, in general, and result in higher total yield of adult mosquitoes in most cases, although certain leaf combinations for A. albopictus are antagonistic. We also conclude that leaf diversity does not have a different effect on interspecific competition between A. aegypti and A. albopictus, relative to intraspecific competition for each mosquito.

  19. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  20. From resources to value and back: Competition between and within organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.M.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the relationship between the competitive processes between and within organizations, we use selection system theory to link resource value to product value. We identify three dimensions (in-selection, before-selection and after-selection) that facilitate determining the value of resources

  1. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  2. EXISTS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-IOANA MUNTEANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is purely theoretical, having as starting points both existing information in the literature and their correlations. The text does not have a generalized, but represent personal opinions and conclusions. Critically analyzing the definitions given in the literature the term "strategic human resource management ", we found that most of them referred to the involvement he has it in obtaining competitive advantage of an organization. Also, starting from the study of different approaches to strategic management of human resources, we can see that besides the role that obtain competitive advantage, it supports innovative activity of a company. So we can talk about a link between strategic management of human resources, innovation and achieving competitive advantage. By presenting how strategic human resource management can be implemented in an organization, its high performance practices for human resources, it demonstrates that they support employee creativity through free expression of ideas, involvement in decision making, resulting in the way to innovation and thus to obtain competitive advantage. This work, theoretical, was completed by a presentation that show the interdependencies that exist between the three think elements: strategic human resources management, innovation, competitive advantage.

  3. Tax Competition – Beneficial or Harmful? How Various Tax Measures Affect the Allocation of Resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Violeta Trandafir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal competition has been in the news ever since the OECD launched a campaign against “harmful tax competition” in 1996. Nor is it likely to disappear any time soon. Instead, it is likely to intensify, as more and more governments resort to lower taxes to stimulate their economies. Is all tax competition harmful, or is it possible to distinguish between harmful and beneficial tax competition? In this paper, in its first part, I try to present the difference between benefit and harmful tax competition. Also, the paper try to establish how really is tax competition – “harmful” or “beneficial”. The second parts of this paper analyze the impact and efficiency of different tax measures in allocation of public resources.

  4. Understanding Sustainable Competitive Advantage: The Role of Positioning, Resources and Organisational Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Collis

    1998-01-01

    This paper applies the value-based framework (Brandenburger and Stuart 1994) to the strategic management concepts of positioning, resources and organisational capabilities. It observes that each is a discrete level in the analysis of sustainable competitive advantage which can rigorously be interpreted as the determinants of location and speed of movement in value space. It concludes that strategic management will never find the ultimate explanation of competitive advantage because all orders...

  5. A resource based view to small firms' sustainable competitive advantages: A case of Iranian small firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Babakhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the importance of small firms as one of the main economical parts in each country has been proved. Considering to the resources limitation in one hand, and the competitive global market in the other hand, it is very important that firms can obtain sustainable competitive advantages (SCAs to compete with other rivals. This paper, at the first step, tries to explore the potentially SCAs of Qom's small firms by using of Structural Equation Model (SEM. Then, the real current situation of firms in using these competitive advantages has been examined. The results tell that except firms' location, other potentially SCAs do not have acceptable condition.

  6. Best Practices in Human Resource Management: The Source of Excellent Performance and Sustained Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Šikýř

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on summarizing the results of the global research on human resource management and the author’s dissertation research on best practices in human resource management, the paper attempts to explain the essence of the positive relationship between best practices in human resource management and organizational performance and competitiveness. It supports the assumption that the essence is the optimal system of human resource management, based on proven best practices in job design, employee selection, performance management, employee compensation or employee training, that enables managers to achieve expected organizational performance and competitiveness by achieving desired employee abilities, motivation and performance. The author's dissertation research verified the theoretical assumptions about application of best practices in human resources management and through a questionnaire survey examined the views of executives and HR managers from Czech TOP 100 companies or the best employers in the Czech Republic.

  7. New nuclear plant development - balancing localization with competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M.; Thompson, T.S. [MZ Consulting Inc., ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are large infrastructure projects that require government support and approval. This paper will highlight and contrast the larger, mostly government-desired, nuclear program localization objectives with the more utility-specific requirements for successful project implementation. Governments are concerned about sustainable industrial development, particularly manufacturing, and job creation while utilities are focused on delivering reliable electricity to consumers at the lowest cost. Numerous countries emphasize local content as a key requirement when procuring a station. For countries like China and Korea that have large programs, their strategy has been to localize to the point of having their own indigenous design. However, developing a workable localization strategy that truly benefits the local economy for others including existing nuclear markets like Canada, the UK, South Africa and Brazil as well as in newly developing markets such as Vietnam and Malaysia is more challenging. These countries may not look to indigenize a new design, rather they would localize elements of the nuclear program that best fit their strengths. The paper will discuss the issues related to developing successful localization and industrialization strategies in a changing nuclear world. (author)

  8. New nuclear plant development - balancing localization with competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Thompson, T.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are large infrastructure projects that require government support and approval. This paper will highlight and contrast the larger, mostly government-desired, nuclear program localization objectives with the more utility-specific requirements for successful project implementation. Governments are concerned about sustainable industrial development, particularly manufacturing, and job creation while utilities are focused on delivering reliable electricity to consumers at the lowest cost. Numerous countries emphasize local content as a key requirement when procuring a station. For countries like China and Korea that have large programs, their strategy has been to localize to the point of having their own indigenous design. However, developing a workable localization strategy that truly benefits the local economy for others including existing nuclear markets like Canada, the UK, South Africa and Brazil as well as in newly developing markets such as Vietnam and Malaysia is more challenging. These countries may not look to indigenize a new design, rather they would localize elements of the nuclear program that best fit their strengths. The paper will discuss the issues related to developing successful localization and industrialization strategies in a changing nuclear world. (author)

  9. Resource-Based View of Information Systems: Sustainable and Transient Competitive Advantage Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource-based view (RBV, or resource-based theory, is one of the oldest and most influential theories in the field of information systems. This paper contends that it is timely to revisit, reflect on, and reposition RBV to ensure its continued disciplinary relevance and progress. In doing so, this paper (i provides a succinct and sharp evaluation of the conventional RBV of information systems that firms use to establish sustainable competitive advantage, and (ii makes an original contribution by introducing a contemporary RBV of information systems that firms can use to establish transient competitive advantage. Both these contributions should advance the current and future understanding of information systems as (a an internal firm resource, (b a source of competitive advantage, and (c a driver of firm performance.

  10. Understanding predicted shifts in diazotroph biogeography using resource competition theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the sensitivity of the biogeography of nitrogen fixers to a warming climate and increased aeolian iron deposition in the context of a global earth system model. We employ concepts from the resource-ratio theory to provide a simplifying and transparent interpretation of the results. First we demonstrate that a set of clearly defined, easily diagnosed provinces are consistent with the theory. Using this framework we show that the regions most vulnerable to province shifts and changes in diazotroph biogeography are the equatorial and South Pacific, and central Atlantic. Warmer and dustier climates favor diazotrophs due to an increase in the ratio of supply rate of iron to fixed nitrogen. We suggest that the emergent provinces could be a standard diagnostic for global change models, allowing for rapid and transparent interpretation and comparison of model predictions and the underlying mechanisms. The analysis suggests that monitoring of real world province boundaries, indicated by transitions in surface nutrient concentrations, would provide a clear and easily interpreted indicator of ongoing global change.

  11. China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Andrew L.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Xun, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Historically, resource conflicts have often centered on fuel minerals (particularly oil). Future resource conflicts may, however, focus more on competition for nonfuel minerals that enable emerging technologies. Whether it is rhenium in jet engines, indium in flat panel displays, or gallium in smart phones, obscure elements empower smarter, smaller, and faster technologies, and nations seek stable supplies of these and other nonfuel minerals for their industries. No nation has all of the resources it needs domestically. International trade may lead to international competition for these resources if supplies are deemed at risk or insufficient to satisfy growing demand, especially for minerals used in technologies important to economic development and national security. Here, we compare the net import reliance of China and the United States to inform mineral resource competition and foreign supply risk. Our analysis indicates that China relies on imports for over half of its consumption for 19 of 42 nonfuel minerals, compared with 24 for the United States—11 of which are common to both. It is for these 11 nonfuel minerals that competition between the United States and China may become the most contentious, especially for those with highly concentrated production that prove irreplaceable in pivotal emerging technologies.

  12. Competition for resources can explain patterns of social and individual learning in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne

    2015-09-22

    In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Competitive advantage of hotels in Jinhua --Combining Institutional and Resource based Views

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    This research endeavors to address the sustainable competitive advantage issue of Chinese firms from the paradigm combining resource based and institutional views. Both views have been used extensively in the strategy research literature in China, and the integrative perspective has the potential to approach the strategy issues new insight by incorporating the institutional influence on resource. Establishing on extensive RBV, institutional theory literature and especially Oliver(1997)��...

  14. Adaptive dynamics of competition for nutritionally complementary resources: character convergence, displacement, and parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; Fox, Jeremy W

    2011-10-01

    Consumers acquire essential nutrients by ingesting the tissues of resource species. When these tissues contain essential nutrients in a suboptimal ratio, consumers may benefit from ingesting a mixture of nutritionally complementary resource species. We investigate the joint ecological and evolutionary consequences of competition for complementary resources, using an adaptive dynamics model of two consumers and two resources that differ in their relative content of two essential nutrients. In the absence of competition, a nutritionally balanced diet rarely maximizes fitness because of the dynamic feedbacks between uptake rate and resource density, whereas in sympatry, nutritionally balanced diets maximize fitness because competing consumers with different nutritional requirements tend to equalize the relative abundances of the two resources. Adaptation from allopatric to sympatric fitness optima can generate character convergence, divergence, and parallel shifts, depending not on the degree of diet overlap but on the match between resource nutrient content and consumer nutrient requirements. Contrary to previous verbal arguments that suggest that character convergence leads to neutral stability, coadaptation of competing consumers always leads to stable coexistence. Furthermore, we show that incorporating costs of consuming or excreting excess nonlimiting nutrients selects for nutritionally balanced diets and so promotes character convergence. This article demonstrates that resource-use overlap has little bearing on coexistence when resources are nutritionally complementary, and it highlights the importance of using mathematical models to infer the stability of ecoevolutionary dynamics.

  15. Statistical mechanics of competitive resource allocation using agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Anirban; Challet, Damien; Chatterjee, Arnab; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2015-01-01

    Demand outstrips available resources in most situations, which gives rise to competition, interaction and learning. In this article, we review a broad spectrum of multi-agent models of competition (El Farol Bar problem, Minority Game, Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem, Stable marriage problem, Parking space problem and others) and the methods used to understand them analytically. We emphasize the power of concepts and tools from statistical mechanics to understand and explain fully collective phenomena such as phase transitions and long memory, and the mapping between agent heterogeneity and physical disorder. As these methods can be applied to any large-scale model of competitive resource allocation made up of heterogeneous adaptive agent with non-linear interaction, they provide a prospective unifying paradigm for many scientific disciplines.

  16. Intra- and Inter-Channel Competition in Local-Service Sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Cleeren; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); F. Verboven

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAlthough economically very important, local-service sectors have received little attention in the extensive literature on competitive interactions. Detailed data gathering in these sectors is hard, not only because of the multitude of local players, but also because key service

  17. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  18. The ensuring of the competitiveness of the enterprises through the strategic human resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burkovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the possibilities of ensuring competitiveness through the strategic human resource management. The study is based on the description of the necessity of strategic human resource management in Ukrainian conditions as a tool to enhance the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. It is proved that the strategic management of the organization is the initial condition for the strategic management of its staff and competitiveness. Strategic management of human resources potential is considered as an approach to making decisions on the intentions and plans of the organization relating to the strategy and practice of recruitment, training, development, management performance and labor relations. The article describes the features of strategic human resource management as a basis for strategic capacity, which affects the competitiveness of enterprises and determines the direction of its further development. Correlation and regression analysis of dependence of productivity on the size of the average monthly wage of workers in the agricultural sector was held.

  19. Resource competition and an analytical model of zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, O L; Shugart, H H; O' Neill, R V; Booth, R S; McNaught, D C

    1975-01-01

    A new consumer-resource The model was developed with specific reference to zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton. In principle, the model can be extended to any terrestrial or aquatic community in which the consumers graze nearly randomly. It is assumed that the food as relatively little escape capabity. An attempt was made to derive the consumer-resource interaction term from first principles.A general form with clearly defined parameters that represent fundamental system processes such as consumer filtering rate. model parameters describes two known forms of feeding:(1): saturation feeding in which the rate remains constant above a given food density while the filtering rate decreases, and(2) inhibited feeding in which a decline appears at high food density. From an examination of the model's equilibrium equations for strongly similar zooplankton species feeding on similar phytoplankton species, the following conclusions were drawn. The competitive exclusion principle has only limited validity. For a community in which the consumers exhibit no intraspecific competition and have identical assimilation efficiency to death-rate ratios, e/d, any number of consumer species may, in fact, coexist and compete for the same food. The equations for a complex community composed of many consumer and food species can be reduced to a single equation with form identical to that of a single-consumer, single-food system. The standard competition coefficient, ..cap alpha.., of the Volterra equation is a poor measure of competition in nonlinear systems. It exhibits incongruous variations with changes in system parameters. In a community with no intraspecific competition, allcompetition coefficients are unity. In a community with intraspecific competition, the competition coefficients C/sub in/ tend to equalize as the number of food species increases, resulting in equal competitive strength of all consumer species in systems of the type studied.

  20. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2013-01-01

    laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may......Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so...... large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one...

  1. Analysis of the key competitive advantage resources - the case of BRF Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacir Favretto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between organizational capabilities and the competitive performance of BRF Foods, using the Resource Based View method. It is a case study, developed in agribusiness with the controller of the BRF unit located in Concordia, Santa Catarina. A document analysis of sustainability and management reports was also conducted for the year 2014. It was found that technology, central planning of raw materials and centrally planned sales are considered valuable resources. Improvement of the usage conditions of natural resources (finite, through the reduction of water and energy consumption and programs for the sustainability of agriculture, pig farming and poultry farming are considered rare resources. Design, R & D, given technology, market vision and the existence of exclusive contract are difficult resources to imitate. Among the organizational resources, brand, structured distribution capacity, development of new products and market niches are particularly important.

  2. Local bumble bee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Diane M

    2016-10-01

    Time series of abundances are critical for understanding how abiotic factors and species interactions affect population dynamics, but are rarely linked with experiments and also scarce for bee pollinators. This gap is important given concerns about declines in some bee species. I monitored honey bee (Apis mellifera) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) foragers in coastal California from 1999, when feral A. mellifera populations were low due to Varroa destructor, until 2014. Apis mellifera increased substantially, except between 2006 and 2011, coinciding with declines in managed populations. Increases in A. mellifera strongly correlated with declines in Bombus and reduced diet overlap between them, suggesting resource competition consistent with past experimental results. Lower Bombus numbers also correlated with diminished floral resources. Declines in floral abundances were associated with drought and reduced spring rainfall. These results illustrate how competition with an introduced species may interact with climate to drive local decline of native pollinators. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. The contribution of competitive intelligence to the development of local productive settlements: case Jaú-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda A. M. Hoffmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economical context has been provoking the largest exhibition of the Brazilian companies to the international competition, imposing challenges and opportunities. The Brazilian small and medium enterprises, SME’s, they are the most vulnerable given the shortage of resources and production costs, among other aspects. The local productive settlements or clusters are important manners of organization of the production of SMEs. Those production manners are considered vital in the employment generation and income to the country. The characteristics of those settlements that measure your dynamics and growth are important themes of research in several areas and countries, for the economical and social importance, thoroughly spread the last years for researchers and entities. The present study approaches the contribution of the competitive intelligence for the clusters improvements. In that context the dynamics of local productive settlements and your technological difficulties and of administration they are identified focalizing the segment of foot-wears and leathers of Jaú in the State of São Paulo. Several aspects are approached in relation to dynamics of that local productive settlement, through your comparative analysis with international settlements, especially Italian. Indicating signs of a typical strategy of industrial clusters, shown by the synergy obtained by the interactivity of change of information intra-cluster and the effort in increasing your competitive capacity.

  4. THE RESOURCE POTENTIAL AND THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN BUSINESS STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Юрьевна Окольнишникова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is the development of theoretical approaches to the study of the essence and structure of the resource potential of entrepreneurship in the context of the development strategy of the competitive advantages in business structure.As the research methodology the complex of principles and tools of system and axiological approaches is used.According to the results of the conducted research, possessing the scientific novelty, the conceptual apparatus is clarified and the author's definition of the resource potential of the enterprise is given, a model of the resource potential structure in commercial organization is analyzed and the mechanism of strategy formation for sustainable competitive advantages provision of the organization on the basis of the effective use of its resource potential is identified.Area of application of the research results is the control of competitiveness in general and resource potential of entrepreneurial structures, in particular at all levels of the socio-economic system of society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-39

  5. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-12-01

    Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P. australis, its litter and leachate of P. australis litter. This study investigated the potential interacting influences of allelopathy and resource competition on plant growth-density relationships. In greenhouse, the root exudates mediated effects showed the strongest growth inhibition of M. ericifolia at high density whereas litter mediated results revealed increased growth at medium density treatments compared to low and high density. Again, laboratory experiments related to seed germination and seedling growth of L. sativa and R. conglomeratus exhibited phytotoxicity decreased showing positive growth as plant density increased and vice versa. Overall, the differential effects were observed among experiments but maximum individual plant biomass and some other positive effects on plant traits such as root and shoot length, chlorophyll content occurred at an intermediate density. This was attributed to the sharing of the available phytotoxin among plants at high densities which is compatible to density-dependent phytotoxicity model. The results demonstrated that plant-plant interference is the combined effect of allelopathy and resource competition with many other factors but this experimental design, target-neighbor mixed-culture in combination of plant grown at varying densities with varying

  6. Strategy Dynamics through a Demand-Based Lens: The Evolution of Market Boundaries, Resource Rents and Competitive Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Adner, Ron; Zemsky, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to the dynamics of business strategy that is grounded in an explicit treatment of consumer choice when technologies improve over time. We address the evolution of market boundaries, resource rents and competitive positions by adapting models of competition with differentiated products. Our model is consistent with the central strategy assertion that competitive interactions are governed by superior value creation and competitive advantage. More importantly, it show...

  7. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  8. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  9. Quality competition in local hospital markets: some econometric evidence from the period 1982-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikos, T N

    1992-05-01

    This study examines whether American hospitals continued to engage in non-price or quality competition over the recent past as health care markets underwent fundamental structural changes and the economic incentives facing hospital managers were correspondingly altered. It also investigates the degree to which such rivalrous behavior contributes to losses in economic welfare. An econometric model of quality competition is specified that tests, among other things, for the effect of spending by the hospital to enhance the quality of output on annual changes in its share of the local (inpatient) market as well as the effects of competitive conditions in the local market on the annual sum spent on quality enhancement. The model is estimated with panel data on 195 acute care hospitals in the State of Florida for the years 1982-1988. The results suggest that quality competitive behavior continued unabated over this period and that it was stimulated as much by the growth in physician supply and alternative delivery mechanisms as it was by other competing hospitals in the local market. Furthermore, the results show that quality competition yields some inefficiency or waste, but much of it also meets the test of the market.

  10. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  11. Integration of cloud, grid and local cluster resources with DIRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, Tom; Sevior, Martin; Carmona, Ana; Casajús, Adrián; Graciani, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Grid computing was developed to provide users with uniform access to large-scale distributed resources. This has worked well, however there are significant resources available to the scientific community that do not follow this paradigm - those on cloud infrastructure providers, HPC supercomputers or local clusters. DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) was originally designed to support direct submission to the Local Resource Management Systems (LRMS) of such clusters for LHCb, matured to support grid workflows and has recently been updated to support Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. This raises a number of new possibilities - by opening avenues to new resources, virtual organisations can change their resources with usage patterns and use these dedicated facilities for a given time. For example, user communities such as High Energy Physics experiments, have computing tasks with a wide variety of requirements in terms of CPU, data access or memory consumption, and their usage profile is never constant throughout the year. Having the possibility to transparently absorb peaks on the demand for these kinds of tasks using Cloud resources could allow a reduction in the overall cost of the system. This paper investigates interoperability by following a recent large-scale production exercise utilising resources from these three different paradigms, during the 2010 Belle Monte Carlo run. Through this, it discusses the challenges and opportunities of such a model.

  12. Redox competition mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (RC-SECM) for visualisation of local catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Kathrin; Chen, Xingxing; Turcu, Florin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2006-12-07

    In order to locally analyse catalytic activity on modified surfaces a transient redox competition mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has been developed. In a bi-potentiostatic experiment the SECM tip competes with the sample for the very same analyte. This leads to a current decrease at the SECM tip, if it is positioned in close proximity to an active catalyst site on the surface. Specifically, local catalytic activity of a Pt-catalyst modified sample with respect to the catalytic reduction of molecular oxygen was investigated. At higher local catalytic activity the local 02 partial pressure within the gap between accurately positioned SECM tip and sample is depleted, leading to a noticeable tip current decrease over active sites. A flexible software module has been implemented into the SECM to adapt the competition conditions by proper definition of tip and sample potentials. A potential pulse profile enables the localised electrochemically induced generation of molecular oxygen prior to the competition detection. The current decay curves are recorded over the entire duration of the applied reduction pulse. Hence, a time resolved processing of the acquired current values provides movies of the local oxygen concentration against x,y-position. The SECM redox competition mode was verified with a macroscopic Pt-disk electrode as a test sample to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Moreover, highly dispersed electro-deposited spots of gold and platinum on glassy carbon were visualised using the redox competition mode of SECM. Catalyst spots of different nature as well as activity inhomogeneities within one spot caused by local variations in Pt-loading were visualised successfully.

  13. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Hoek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here, we study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amount of freely available amino acid in the environment, this pair of strains can exhibit an obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction explains how resource availability modulates the interaction and predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can provide advance warning that collapse of the mutualism is imminent. We confirm this prediction experimentally by showing that, in the high nutrient competitive regime, the strains rapidly reach a common carrying capacity before slowly reaching the equilibrium ratio between the strains. However, in the low nutrient regime, before collapse of the obligate mutualism, we find that the ratio rapidly reaches its equilibrium and it is the total abundance that is slow to reach equilibrium. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction in response to changes in nutrient availability in the environment.

  14. EXISTS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Anca-Ioana MUNTEANU

    2015-01-01

    This paper is purely theoretical, having as starting points both existing information in the literature and their correlations. The text does not have a generalized, but represent personal opinions and conclusions. Critically analyzing the definitions given in the literature the term "strategic human resource management ", we found that most of them referred to the involvement he has it in obtaining competitive advantage of an organization. Also, starting from the study of different approache...

  15. Primary sex ratio adjustment by ant queens in response to local mate competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Menten, Ludivine; Cremer, Sylvia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, wingless males compete with nestmate males for access to female mating partners, leading to local mate competition (LMC). Queen number varies between colonies, resulting in variation in the strength of LMC. Cremer & Heinze (2002, Proceedings of the Royal Society...

  16. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  17. Human resources as a factor of creating competitive advantages of the tourism enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boljević Agneš R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the main factor in the process of creating and achieving competitive advantages of the modern enterprises. Therefore, in the focus of contemporary management are human resources their role and importance they have in every organizational system. Tourism is a labor-intensive economic activity which provides more than 200 million work places all over the world. The tourism share in the world GDP is about 10,5%, through the tourism over 12,5% of the total world export is realized and about 30% world trade of the services. Starting from these facts, the paper highlights the strategic importance of the human resources for every management and for national economy, too. Authors especially analyze the tourist activity and emphasis the basic characteristics of the human resources in the tourism.

  18. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  19. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  20. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  1. Mining Matters : Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ralph; Poelhekke, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the impact of local mining activity on the business constraints experienced by 22,150 firms across eight resource-rich countries. We find that with the presence of active mines, the business environment in the immediate vicinity (<20 km) of a firm deteriorates but business constraints of

  2. Resource Use Efficiency in Rice Production in Jere Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried-out on resource use efficiency in rice production in Jere Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Five (5) wards were purposely selected out of the twelve (12) wards to reflect areas where rice is mainly grown. A total of 100 respondents were ...

  3. Evolution of phenotypic clusters through competition and local adaptation along an environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Doebeli, Michael; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2008-04-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of a quantitative trait in populations that are spatially extended along an environmental gradient, with gene flow between nearby locations. In the absence of competition, there is stabilizing selection toward a locally best-adapted trait that changes gradually along the gradient. According to traditional ideas, gradual spatial variation in environmental conditions is expected to lead to gradual variation in the evolved trait. A contrasting possibility is that the trait distribution instead breaks up into discrete clusters. Doebeli and Dieckmann (2003) argued that competition acting locally in trait space and geographical space can promote such clustering. We have investigated this possibility using deterministic population dynamics for asexual populations, analyzing our model numerically and through an analytical approximation. We examined how the evolution of clusters is affected by the shape of competition kernels, by the presence of Allee effects, and by the strength of gene flow along the gradient. For certain parameter ranges clustering was a robust outcome, and for other ranges there was no clustering. Our analysis shows that the shape of competition kernels is important for clustering: the sign structure of the Fourier transform of a competition kernel determines whether the kernel promotes clustering. Also, we found that Allee effects promote clustering, whereas gene flow can have a counteracting influence. In line with earlier findings, we could demonstrate that phenotypic clustering was favored by gradients of intermediate slope.

  4. Examining the Competition for Forest Resources in Sweden Using Factor Substitution Analysis and Partial Equilibrium Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Anna

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of the thesis is to analyse the procurement competition for forest resources in Sweden. The thesis consists of an introductory part and two self-contained papers. In paper I a translog cost function approach is used to analyse the factor substitution in the sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry and the heating industry in Sweden over the period 1970 to 2008. The estimated parameters are used to calculate the Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution as well as the price elasticities of input demand. The utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector has been increasing and this increase is believed to continue. The increase is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Such policies could lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest industries and the energy sector. The calculated substitution elasticities indicate that it is easier for the heating industry to substitutes between by-products and logging residues than it is for the pulp and paper industry to substitute between by-products and roundwood. This suggests that the pulp and paper industry could suffer from an increase in the procurement competition. However, overall the substitutions elasticities estimated in our study are relatively low. This indicates that substitution possibilities could be rather limited due to rigidities in input prices. This result suggests that competition of forest resources also might be relatively limited. In paper II a partial equilibrium model is constructed in order to asses the effects an increasing utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector. The increasing utilisation of forest fuel is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In countries where forests already are highly utilised such policies will lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest sector and

  5. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  6. Effects of local adaptation and interspecific competition on species' responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Atkins, Katherine E; Liao, Jishan; Henry, Roslyn C; Travis, Justin M J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2013-09-01

    Local adaptation and species interactions have been shown to affect geographic ranges; therefore, we need models of climate impact that include both factors. To identify possible dynamics of species when including these factors, we ran simulations of two competing species using an individual-based, coupled map-lattice model using a linear climatic gradient that varies across latitude and is warmed over time. Reproductive success is governed by an individual's adaptation to local climate as well as its location relative to global constraints. In exploratory experiments varying the strength of adaptation and competition, competition reduces genetic diversity and slows range change, although the two species can coexist in the absence of climate change and shift in the absence of competitors. We also found that one species can drive the other to extinction, sometimes long after climate change ends. Weak selection on local adaptation and poor dispersal ability also caused surfing of cooler-adapted phenotypes from the expanding margin backwards, causing loss of warmer-adapted phenotypes. Finally, geographic ranges can become disjointed, losing centrally-adapted genotypes. These initial results suggest that the interplay between local adaptation and interspecific competition can significantly influence species' responses to climate change, in a way that demands future research. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. The Significance of Resources Purchases over the Business’s Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The company's success is based on its competitive advantages relative to competition, acquiringand maintaining them becoming priorities for management of the organization, so by buildingsustainable entity to be able to pursue the objectives set. An important role in sustainingcontinuous activity, at full capacity, with a higher profit of the company it has the supply ofmaterial resources that provide the materials necessary for production consumption in volume,structure and corresponding deadlines. All the elements of cost associated to insurance andresource management necessary for production are a key factor in generating value final productand diminish them by exercising control over specific costs, based on a careful management,adapted to the market economy, it becomes a source of profit growth.

  8. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    with minimal spatial overlap among core-use areas. We used an information-theoretic approach to rank discrete-choice models representing alternative hypotheses about the influence of forest conditions, topography, and interspecific interactions on species-specific patterns of nighttime resource selection. Spotted owls spent a disproportionate amount of time foraging on steep slopes in ravines dominated by old (>120 yr) conifer trees. Barred owls used available forest types more evenly than spotted owls, and were most strongly associated with patches of large hardwood and conifer trees that occupied relatively flat areas along streams. Spotted and barred owls differed in the relative use of old conifer forest (greater for spotted owls) and slope conditions (steeper slopes for spotted owls), but we found no evidence that the 2 species differed in their use of young, mature, and riparian-hardwood forest types. Mean overlap in proportional use of different forest types between individual spotted owls and barred owls in adjacent territories was 81% (range = 30–99%). The best model of habitat use for spotted owls indicated that the relative probability of a location being used was substantially reduced if the location was within or in close proximity to a core-use area of a barred owl. We used pellet analysis and measures of food-niche overlap to determine the potential for dietary competition between spatially associated pairs of spotted owls and barred owls. We identified 1,223 prey items from 15 territories occupied by spotted owls and 4,299 prey items from 24 territories occupied by barred owls. Diets of both species were dominated by nocturnal mammals, but diets of barred owls included many terrestrial, aquatic, and diurnal prey species that were rare or absent in diets of spotted owls. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes, N. cinerea), and lagomorphs (Lepus americanus, Sylvilagus bachmani) were primary prey for both owl

  9. Opportunities for wind resources in the future competitive California power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.; Markel, R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the profitability of wind development in the future competitive California power market. The viability of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using site specific development cost calculations and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is the characterization of wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models such as Elfin that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Models and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, Elfin is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Results suggest that by the year 2030, about 7.5 GW of potential wind capacity can be profitably developed assuming rising natural gas prices. This example demonstrates that an analysis based on a

  10. Resource competition model predicts zonation and increasing nutrient use efficiency along a wetland salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.

    2018-01-01

    A trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance has been hypothesized and empirically supported to explain the zonation of species across stress gradients for a number of systems. Since stress often reduces plant productivity, one might expect a pattern of decreasing productivity across the zones of the stress gradient. However, this pattern is often not observed in coastal wetlands that show patterns of zonation along a salinity gradient. To address the potentially complex relationship between stress, zonation, and productivity in coastal wetlands, we developed a model of plant biomass as a function of resource competition and salinity stress. Analysis of the model confirms the conventional wisdom that a trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance is a necessary condition for zonation. It also suggests that a negative relationship between salinity and production can be overcome if (1) the supply of the limiting resource increases with greater salinity stress or (2) nutrient use efficiency increases with increasing salinity. We fit the equilibrium solution of the dynamic model to data from Louisiana coastal wetlands to test its ability to explain patterns of production across the landscape gradient and derive predictions that could be tested with independent data. We found support for a number of the model predictions, including patterns of decreasing competitive ability and increasing nutrient use efficiency across a gradient from freshwater to saline wetlands. In addition to providing a quantitative framework to support the mechanistic hypotheses of zonation, these results suggest that this simple model is a useful platform to further build upon, simulate and test mechanistic hypotheses of more complex patterns and phenomena in coastal wetlands.

  11. Strategies to enhance price and quality competition in health care: lessons learned from tracking local markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Cara S; Ginsburg, Paul B

    2006-06-01

    Drawing on observations from tracking changes in local health care markets over the past ten years, this article critiques two Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice recommendations to enhance price and quality competition. First, we take issue with the notion that consumers, acting independently, will drive greater competition in health care markets. Rather we suggest an important role remains for trusted agents who can analyze inherently complex price and quality information and negotiate on consumers' behalf. With aggregated information identifying providers who deliver cost-effective care, consumers would be better positioned to respond to financial incentives about where to seek care and thereby drive more meaningful competition among providers to reduce costs and improve quality. Second, we take issue with the FTC/DOJ recommendation to provide more direct subsidies to prevent distortions in competition. In the current political environment, it is not practical to provide direct subsidies for all of the unfunded care that exists in health care markets today; instead, some interference with competition may be necessary to protect cross subsidies. Barriers can be reduced, though, by revising pricing policies that have resulted in marked disparities in the relative profitability of different services.

  12. Local Information as a Resource in Distributed Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Sende, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2003-03-01

    A new paradigm for distributed quantum systems where information is a valuable resource is developed. After finding a unique measure for information, we construct a scheme for its manipulation in analogy with entanglement theory. In this scheme, instead of maximally entangled states, two parties distill local states. We show that, surprisingly, the main tools of entanglement theory are general enough to work in this opposite scheme. Up to plausible assumptions, we show that the amount of information that must be lost during the protocol of concentration of local information can be expressed as the relative entropy distance from some special set of states.

  13. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  14. Mathematical model of the competition life cycle under limited resources conditions: Problem statement for business community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Medvedev, M. A.; Berg, D. B.; Lapshina, S. N.; Taubayev, A. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Savina, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Present study is devoted to the development of competition life cycle mathematical model in the closed business community with limited resources. Growth of each agent is determined by the balance of input and output resource flows: input (cash) flow W is covering the variable V and constant C costs and growth dA/dt of the agent's assets A. Value of V is proportional to assets A that allows us to write down a first order non-stationary differential equation of the agent growth. Model includes the number of such equations due to the number of agents. The amount of resources that is available for agents vary in time. The balances of their input and output flows are changing correspondingly to the different stages of the competition life cycle. According to the theory of systems, the most complete description of any object or process is the model of its life cycle. Such a model describes all stages of its development: from the appearance ("birth") through development ("growth") to extinction ("death"). The model of the evolution of an individual firm, not contradicting the economic meaning of events actually observed in the market, is the desired result from modern AVMs for applied use. With a correct description of the market, rules for participants' actions, restrictions, forecasts can be obtained, which modern mathematics and the economy can not give.

  15. Effects of Intraguild Predation: Evaluating Resource Competition between Two Canid Species with Apparent Niche Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Kozlowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies determine which habitat components are important to animals and the extent their use may overlap with competitive species. However, such studies are often undertaken after populations are in decline or under interspecific stress. Since habitat selection is not independent of interspecific stress, quantifying an animal's current landscape use could be misleading if the species distribution is suboptimal. We present an alternative approach by modeling the predicted distributions of two sympatric species on the landscape using dietary preferences and prey distribution. We compared the observed habitat use of kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis and coyotes (Canis latrans against their predicted distribution. Data included locations of kit foxes and coyotes, carnivore scat transects, and seasonal prey surveys. Although habitats demonstrated heterogeneity with respect to prey resources, only coyotes showed habitat use designed to maximize access to prey. In contrast, kit foxes used habitats which did not align closely with prey resources. Instead, habitat use by kit foxes represented spatial and behavioral strategies designed to minimize spatial overlap with coyotes while maximizing access to resources. Data on the distribution of prey, their dietary importance, and the species-specific disparities between predicted and observed habitat distributions supports a mechanism by which kit fox distribution is derived from intense competitive interactions with coyotes.

  16. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  17. Sorsogon State College’s Performance and Management Excellence: Inputs to globally competitive yet locally responsive educational tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien L. Chua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational tourism clearly situates the new role of Sorsogon State College (SSC for world-class education while in support to the locally sustainable tourism development of the province and beyond. This paper was able to assess SSC’s capacities to manage globally competitive and locally responsive educational tourism. A mix method of research was used in examining the SSC’s educational tourism through an inventory of academic performance and quality management excellence for global competitiveness. Results revealed that to attract more educational tourists, SSC is expected to perform effectively and efficiently in a modern research world through the complementation of instruction-research and extension mandates that is contributory to the sustainable development goals. The over-all educational management of SSC is central to leadership including the key aspects of its governance system (personnel behaviour, fulfilment of the societal responsibilities and community support. Further enhancements on the organizational performance of SSC are needed on the following : operations, workforce and clientele support. The College has to strengthen its internationalization policies on the faculty and students inter-country mobility and productivity of its graduates that would address the future educational tourism demands. Further, it has to invest on modern learning resources and support services facilities and equipment to be utilized for instruction, research, extension and administrative workspaces. Thus, closes the gap on job-skills mismatch and the compelling resources requirements of SSC graduates to the local and international markets. With these, an academe-led innovation and transformation project anchored on the SSC’s educational tourism model integrating the Psychology of Tourism to management is introduced.

  18. Strategy development for improving competitiveness of a Chinese local convenience store Case of Suguo Co., Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiang; Ju, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is improving the competitiveness of the case company. We will regard Suguo as the case compamy. We focused on a Chinese local convenience store, and compared it in four perspectives with an international convenience store which has already entered the Chinese market successfully. The four perspectives are market perspective, customer perspective, management perspective, and decorative style perspective. In addition, we created a strategic map on the basis of the consum...

  19. A Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata Model and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automaton (CA is an important method in land use and cover change studies, however, the majority of research focuses on the discovery of macroscopic factors affecting LUCC, which results in ignoring the local effects within the neighborhoods. This paper introduces a Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata (LLUC-CA model, based on local land use competition, land suitability evaluation, demand analysis of the different land use types, and multi-target land use competition allocation algorithm to simulate land use change at a micro level. The model is applied to simulate land use changes at Jinshitan National Tourist Holiday Resort from 1988 to 2012. The results show that the simulation accuracies were 64.46%, 77.21%, 85.30% and 99.14% for the agricultural land, construction land, forestland and water, respectively. In addition, comparing the simulation results of the LLUC-CA and CA-Markov model with the real land use data, their overall spatial accuracies were found to be 88.74% and 86.82%, respectively. In conclusion, the results from this study indicated that the model was an acceptable method for the simulation of large-scale land use changes, and the approach used here is applicable to analyzing the land use change driven forces and assist in decision-making.

  20. Contracting out local road and park services: Economic effects and their strategic, contractual, and competitive conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    such as markets, contracts, municipal strategies and contracting history influence these outcomes. Drawing on original survey data from Danish municipalities, we find that competitive tendering has on average reduced costs. Further analysis shows that savings are not associated with lower quality, thus indicating......The economic rationale for contracting out local services is increasingly contested by empirical research. This article aims to contribute to this literature, first by scrutinising the economic effects of contracting out in local road and park services and, second, by exploring how characteristics...... realise larger savings, whereas the characteristics of markets and contracts do not seem to explain variations in cost savings....

  1. Local differences in parasitism and competition shape defensive investment in a polymorphic eusocial bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Francisca H I D; von Zuben, Lucas; Grüter, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Many colonial animals rely for their defense on a soldier caste. Adaptive colony demography theory predicts that colonies should flexibly adjust the investment in different worker castes depending on the colony needs. For example, colonies should invest more in defensive workers (e.g., soldiers) in dangerous environments. However, evidence for this prediction has been mixed. We combined descriptive and experimental approaches to examine whether defensive investment and worker size are adjusted to local ecology in the only known bee with polymorphic workers, Tetragonisca angustula. Colonies of this species are defended by a morphologically specialized soldier caste. Our study included three populations that differed in the density of food competition and the occurrence of a parasitic robber bee. We found that colonies coexisting with robber bees had on average 43% more soldiers defending the nest entrance, while colonies facing stronger foraging competition had soldiers that were -6-7% smaller. We then experimentally relocated colonies to areas with different levels of competition. When released from intense food competition, body sizes of guards and foragers increased. After introducing chemical robber bee cues at nest entrances, we found both a short-term and a long-term up-regulation of the number of soldiers defending the colony. Active soldier numbers remained high after the experiment for a duration equivalent to 2-3 worker life spans. How information about past parasite threat is stored in the colony is currently unknown. In summary, T. angustula adjusts both the number and the body size of active soldiers to local ecological conditions. Competitor density also affects forager (or minor) size, an important colony trait with potential community ecological consequences. Our study supports adaptive colony demography theory in a eusocial bee and highlights the importance of colony threats and competition as selective forces shaping colony phenotype.

  2. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  3. Worms at war: interspecific parasite competition and host resources alter trematode colony structure and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Kim N; Andersen, Cecillie

    2017-09-01

    Parasites competing over limited host resources are faced with a tradeoff between reproductive success and host overexploitation jeopardizing survival. Surprisingly little is known about the outcome of such competitive scenarios, and we therefore aimed at elucidating interactions between the trematodes Himasthla elongata and Renicola roscovita coinfecting the periwinkle first intermediate host. The results show that the success of Himasthla colonies (rediae) in terms of cercarial emission is unaffected by Renicola competition (sporocysts), whereas deteriating host condition decreases fitness. Furthermore, double infection has no bearing on Himasthla's colony size but elevated the proportion of non-reproductive rediae that play a decisive role in colony defence. Opposite, the development of the Renicola colony (size/maturity), and in turn fitness, is markedly reduced in presence of Himasthla, whereas the nutritional state of the host appears less important. Hence, the intramolluscan competition between Himasthla and Renicola is asymmetrical, Himasthla being the superior competitor. Himasthla not only adjusts its virulence according to the hosts immediate nutritional state, it also nullifies the negative impact of a heterospecific competitor on own fitness. The latter is argued to follow in part from direct predation on the competitor, for which purpose more defensive non-reproductive rediae are strategically produced.

  4. Human Resource Local Content in Ghana's Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benin, Papa

    Enactment of Ghana's Petroleum (Local Content and Local Participation) Regulations, 2013 (L.I. 2204) was intended to regulate the percentage of local products, personnel, financing, and goods and services rendered within Ghana's upstream petroleum industry value chain. Five years after the inception of Ghana's upstream oil and gas industry, a gap is evident between the requirements of L.I. 2204 and professional practice. Drawing on Lewin's change theory, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the extent of differences between the prevailing human resource local content and the requirements of L.I. 2204 in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry. The extent to which training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its upstream petroleum industry was also examined. Survey data were collected from 97 management, technical, and other staff in 2 multinational petroleum companies whose oil and gas development plans have been approved by the Petroleum Commission of Ghana. To answer the research questions and test their hypotheses, one-way ANOVA was performed with staff category (management, technical, and other) as the independent variable and prevalent local content as the dependent variable. Results indicated that prevailing local content in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry meets the requirements of L.I. 2204. Further, training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its offshore petroleum industry. Findings may encourage leaders within multinational oil companies and the Petroleum Commission of Ghana to organize educational seminars that equip indigenous Ghanaians with specialized skills for working in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry.

  5. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale.

  6. Mutual and asynchronous anticipation and action in sports as globally competitive and locally coordinative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Humans interact by changing their actions, perceiving other’s actions and executing solutions in conflicting situations. Using oscillator models, nonlinear dynamics have been considered for describing these complex human movements as an emergence of self-organisation. However, these frameworks cannot explain the hierarchical structures of complex behaviours between conflicting inter-agent and adapting intra-agent systems, especially in sport competitions wherein mutually quick decision making and execution are required. Here we adopt a hybrid multiscale approach to model an attack-and-defend game during which both players predict the opponent’s movement and move with a delay. From both simulated and measured data, one synchronous outcome between two-agent (i.e. successful defence) can be described as one attractor. In contrast, the other coordination-breaking outcome (i.e. successful attack) cannot be explained using gradient dynamics because the asymmetric interaction cannot always assume a conserved physical quantity. Instead, we provide the asymmetric and asynchronous hierarchical dynamical models to discuss two-agent competition. Our framework suggests that possessing information about an opponent and oneself in local-coordinative and global-competitive scale enables us to gain a deeper understanding of sports competitions. We anticipate developments in the scientific fields of complex movement adapting to such uncontrolled environments.

  7. How do small rural food-processing firms compete?A resource-based approach to competitive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. FORSMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was concerned with the competitive strategies of small food-processing firms in rural Finland and their ability to achieve and maintain a competitively advantaged position in relation to larger food companies in the dynamic and mature food market. Competitive strategies were approached from the resource-based view (RBV that emphasises internal firm factors as sources of competitive advantage and long-term success. As strategic choices, differentiation was specifically considered. The main objective was to explain the relationships between resources, competitive advantage and firm success. To understand the ambiguous nature of the resources in the small-scale food production context, the study introduced a distinction between strategic resources and basic resources and the strategic relationship between them. The empirical part of the study was based on quantitative analyses of the survey data collected from 238 small (less than 20 persons, food-processing firms in rural Finland. The sample firms represented different branches of the food industry and 39% of them operated in connection with a farm. The linkage between resources, competitive advantage and firm success was investigated by means of cluster analysis, mean comparisons and LISREL modelling. The results demonstrated that there are some typical features relating to small-scale food production in Finland. The results also revealed that small-scale, rural food processing firms do not constitute a homogenous group of their own, but that different strategies among small firms can be identified as well. The analyses proved that a linkage between resources, competitive advantage and firm success can be identified, which is consistent with resource-based logic. However, according to the findings, following a particular strategy does not automatically ensure that a firm will achieve success. The analysis also showed that strategic resources and basic resources are strongly interlinked

  8. Institutional aspects of local participation in natural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia C. Tanguilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine Local Government Code provides the basis for local natural resources management. This Code which was enacted into Law in 1991, however, is not necessarily the driving force for many Local Government Units (LGU’s who have made breakthroughs in local natural resources management (NRM.The paper provides case studies that reveal the policy and institutional hurdles in implementing local and participatory natural resources management programmes; the lessons and experiences amongst LGU’s in linking good governance with NRM; the research and development activities on local and participatory NRM; and the key institutional and policy issues to be communicated at the national level.Through the development of the Natural Resources Management and Development Plan (NRMDP employing public-private partnerships and capitalizing the presence of research and non-governmental organizations, agri-business and other community sectors, the Municipality of Lantapan, a local government unit, succeeded in overcoming constraints such as: lack of budget, manpower, technical skills, and poor community involvement.A key feature of the NRMDP is the Landcare Program which centers on formation of community landcare groups that mobilize resources for wider adoption of conservation practices. The Landcare Program is a grassroots approach for rapid and inexpensive dissemination of available, simple, and lower-cost technologies of agroforestry and conservation practices. It was also found out that communities have important roles to play but local government units have greater responsibility to provide the policy and institutional basis for supporting community-based initiatives.Case studies reveal that the responsibility for producing environmental goods goes beyond the normal practices of governance and is entertwined with the need for long-term education and managing the political culture through a pragmatic approach that directly links NRM with good

  9. Some Methods for Calculating Competition Coefficients from Resource-Utilization Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Thomas W

    When relative frequencies of resource kinds in the diet are known, the competition coefficient giving the effect of competitor j on i may be computed as \\documentclass{aastex} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{bm} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pifont} \\usepackage{stmaryrd} \\usepackage{textcomp} \\usepackage{portland,xspace} \\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\pagestyle{empty} \\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document}$$\\alpha_{ij}=\\left(\\frac{T_{j}}{T_{i}}\\right)\\left[\\frac{{\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{m}}(d_{ik}/f_{k})\\:(d_{jk}/f_{k})\\:b_{ik}}{\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{m}(d_{ik}/f_{k})^{2}\\:b_{ik}}\\right],$$\\end{document} where T j /T i = the ratio of the number of items consumed by an individual of competitor j to that consumed by an individual of competitor i, measured over an interval of time that includes all regular fluctuations in consumption for both species; d ik = the frequency of resource k in the diet of competitor i (and similarly for d jk ); f k = the standing frequency of resource k in the environment; b ik = the net calories gained by an individual of competitor i from an item of resource k, or more approximately the calories contained in an item of resource k, or still more approximately the weight or volume of an item of resource k; and the summations are taken over all resources eaten by at least one of the competing species. The coefficient follows from MacArthur's (1968) consumer-resource system when the ratio of the carrying capacity to intrinsic rate of increase is constant for all resources. When relative frequencies of time spent foraging in habitat kinds are known, the competition coefficient may be computed as \\documentclass{aastex} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{bm} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pifont} \\usepackage{stmaryrd} \\usepackage{textcomp} \\usepackage{portland,xspace} \\usepackage

  10. The Social Strategy Game: Resource Competition within Female Social Networks among Small-scale Forager-Horticulturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucas, Stacey L; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Winking, Jeffrey

    2010-03-10

    This paper examines social determinants of resource competition among Tsimane Amerindian women of Bolivia. We introduce a semi-anonymous experiment (the Social Strategy Game) designed to simulate resource competition among women. Information concerning dyadic social relationships and demographic data were collected to identify variables influencing resource competition intensity, as measured by the number of beads one woman took from another. Relationship variables are used to test how the affiliative or competitive aspects of dyads affect the extent of prosociality in the game. Using a mixed-modeling procedure, we find that women compete with those with whom they are quarreling over accusations of meat theft, mate competition, and rumor spreading. They also compete with members of their social network and with those who were designated as cooperative helpers or as close kin. Women take fewer beads from desired friends, neighbors, and from those viewed as enemies. We interpret favoritism toward enemies as resulting from fear of retribution. Our results suggest that social relations among women are multifaceted and often cannot be simplified by exclusive focus on genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or reciprocity. We argue that a complex understanding of cooperation and competition among women may require important contextual information concerning relationship history in addition to typical features of resource ecology.

  11. Complementary and Competitive Regimes of Accumulation: Natural Resources and Development in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Bonini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the post-war period, natural resource production has often been associated withperipheralization in the world-economy. This paper seeks to demonstrate that this associationdoes not hold when examined from a long-term perspective, and explains the conditions underwhich natural resource production can support upward economic mobility in the world-system.First, this paper provides evidence that the production of cash crops and resource extraction hasnot always equaled peripheralization in the world-economy, as demonstrated by, among otherthings, the upward economic mobility of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealandduring the nineteenth century. It then puts forth a new hypothesis that the existence ofopportunities for raw material producing countries depends on whether the hegemonic regime ofaccumulation at a given time structures the economy in a way that is either complementary orcompetitive to the economic development of raw material producing countries. By examining theBritish centered regime of accumulation during the nineteenth century, we find that it wascomparatively complementary to economic development in raw material producing countrieswhereas the twentieth century United States centered regime was comparatively competitive withraw material producers. Based on a comparison with Britain and the United States, the paperalso suggests that China’s increasingly central role in the world-economy may be comparativelycomplementary to economic development in raw material producing countries.

  12. Assessing local resources and culture before instituting quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C Matthew

    2014-12-01

    The planning phases of quality improvement projects are commonly overlooked. Disorganized planning and implementation can escalate chaos, intensify resistance to change, and increase the likelihood of failure. Two important steps in the planning phase are (1) assessing local resources available to aid in the quality improvement project and (2) evaluating the culture in which the desired change is to be implemented. Assessing local resources includes identifying and engaging key stakeholders and evaluating if appropriate expertise is available for the scope of the project. This process also involves engaging informaticists and gathering available IT tools to plan and automate (to the extent possible) the data-gathering, analysis, and feedback steps. Culture in a department is influenced by the ability and willingness to manage resistance to change, build consensus, span boundaries between stakeholders, and become a learning organization. Allotting appropriate time to perform these preparatory steps will increase the odds of successfully performing a quality improvement project and implementing change. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Competition for pulsed resources: an experimental study of establishment and coexistence for an arid-land grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankju-Borzelabad, Mohammad; Griffiths, Howard

    2006-07-01

    In arid environments, episodically-pulsed resources are important components of annual water and nutrient supply for plants. This study set out to test whether seedlings have an increased capacity for using pulsed resources, which might then improve establishment when in competition with older individuals. A second aim was to determine whether there is a trade-off in competitive strategies when resources are supplied continuously at low concentrations, or as pulses with pronounced inter-pulse periods. A glasshouse experiment used a target-neighbour design of size-asymmetric competition, with juveniles of Panicum antidotale (blue panicgrass) introduced into contrasting densities of adult plants. Stable isotopes of nitrogen were used for measuring plant resource uptake from pulses, and tolerance to inter-pulse conditions was assessed as the mean residence time (MRT) of nitrogen. A higher root/shoot ratio and finer root system enhanced the capacity of juveniles to use resources when pulsed, rather than when continuously supplied. Higher resource uptake during pulses improved the establishment of juvenile Panicum in mixed cultures with older individuals. However, a trade-off was observed in plant strategies, with juveniles showing a lower MRT for nitrogen, which suggested reduced tolerance to resource deficit during inter-pulse periods. Under field conditions, higher utilization of pulsed resources would lead to the improved seedling establishment of Panicum adjacent to "nurse" plants, whereas mature plants with well-developed roots, exploiting a greater soil volume, maintain more constant resource uptake and retention during inter-pulse periods.

  14. Policy Design for Competitive Retail Electric Institutions: Artificial Intelligence Representations for a Common Property Resource Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Nitin S.

    The U.S. electricity industry is being restructured to increase competition. Although existing policies may lead to efficient wholesale institutions, designing policies for the retail level is more complex because of intricate interactions between individuals and quasi-monopolistic institutions. It is argued that Hirshman's ideas of "exit" and "voice" (Hirshman, 1970) provide powerful abstractions for design of retail institutions. While competition is a known mechanism of "exit," a novel design of the "voice" mechanism is demonstrated through an artificial intelligence (AI) based software process model. The process model of "voice" in retail institutions is designed within the economic context of electricity distribution -- a common property resource (CPR), characterized by technological uncertainty and path-dependency. First, it is argued that participant feedback (voice) has to be used effectively to manage the CPR. Further, it is noted that the decision process, of using participant feedback (voice) to incrementally manage uncertainty and path-dependencies, is non-monotonic because it requires the decision makers to often retract previously made assumptions and decisions. An AI based process model of "voice" is developed using an assumption-based truth maintenance system. The model can emulate the non-monotonic decision making process and therefore assist in decision support. Such a systematic framework is flexible, consistent, and easily reorganized as assumptions change. It can provide an effective, formal "voice" mechanism to the retail customers and improve institutional performance.

  15. Coconuts and the emergence of violence in Sulu: Beyond resource competition paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancey Orr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural differentiation can lead to cultural differentiation. Among the Sulu Archipelago’s Tausug in south Philippines, increased coconut production has resulted in more violence and banditry among individuals and communities than among other Tausug populations engaged in other economic activities. Although resource competition in social theory has been used to explicate the connections between agriculture and violence (Vayda, Rappaport, Homer-Dixon, Stinchcombe, Peluso, Watts, this is not the case in Sulu. Coconut production influences violence through its low labour requirement which allows the intensification of culturally valued male violence (rites of passage, feuding; the low level of skills entailed in its cultivation and harvesting which limits the roles men can play in Tausug society; and the lack of ‘nurturing’ (as an activity inherent in its cultivation.

  16. Local economic development and globalisation : the international competitiveness of certain South African municipalities / Vincent Monti Malebo Mongake

    OpenAIRE

    Mongake, Monti Malebo Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In today's global competitive environment, a city or a town more than ever needs a strategy that articulates how its international competitiveness is to be improved. Since 1994, following its first democratic elections, South Africa started processes of significant local government reform, as well as fast integration into the global economy. These processes will place significant challenges in the way of South Africa's local government (municipalities) since they now not only h...

  17. Developing the function of human resource management with a view to building competitive advantage of enterprises in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisa Delić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business environment generates hyper changes and hyper competition, which is why enterprises are challenged to search for new sources to preserve and build competitive advantage in the global marketplace. In the theory and practice of management, the general view is that people and their knowledge are becoming a fundamental value in modern enterprises, and that successful human resource management is an important determinant of competitiveness. However, the importance of having specific knowledge and skills in the enterprises in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH is still not recognized and human resources of these enterprises are not treated in accordance with their importance. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to point to the state and prospects of human resource development in the enterprises in BiH in the context of improving their competitiveness. This paper includes the results of one part of the empirical research covering 120 enterprises from BiH. The research was conducted in order to identify and analyze the situation in the field of key phases of human resource management in these enterprises (job analysis, human resource planning, management and selection of human resources, training and human resource development, evaluation of work performance, selection and implementation of the reward system, and management of human resource fluctuation. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the human resource management in these enterprises is underdeveloped when viewed as a special managerial function or business function, but also when treated as a separate modern business orientation in which people and their knowledge are the key value in the enterprise. The study results also show inadequate organizational treatment of human resource management in the enterprises in BiH, considering that managers’ awareness about the importance of establishing a department of human resources in these enterprises is still not

  18. Teasing apart plant community responses to N enrichment: the roles of resource limitation, competition and soil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Emily C; Suding, Katharine N

    2016-10-01

    Although ecologists have documented the effects of nitrogen enrichment on productivity, diversity and species composition, we know little about the relative importance of the mechanisms driving these effects. We propose that distinct aspects of environmental change associated with N enrichment (resource limitation, asymmetric competition, and interactions with soil microbes) drive different aspects of plant response. We test this in greenhouse mesocosms, experimentally manipulating each factor across three ecosystems: tallgrass prairie, alpine tundra and desert grassland. We found that resource limitation controlled productivity responses to N enrichment in all systems. Asymmetric competition was responsible for diversity declines in two systems. Plant community composition was impacted by both asymmetric competition and altered soil microbes, with some contributions from resource limitation. Results suggest there may be generality in the mechanisms of plant community change with N enrichment. Understanding these links can help us better predict N response across a wide range of ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Tourism Cluster Competitiveness and Sustainability: Proposal for a Systemic Model to Measure the Impact of Tourism on Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.

  20. Quantum fluctuations in the competition among spin glass, antiferromagnetism and local pairing superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, S.G.; Zimmer, F.M.; Kipper, C.J.; Calegari, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The competition among spin glass (SG), antiferromagnetism (AF) and local pairing superconductivity (PAIR) is studied in a two-sublattice fermionic Ising SG model with a local BCS pairing interaction in the presence of a transverse magnetic field Γ. The spins in different sublattices interact with Gaussian random couplings with an antiferromagnetic mean. The problem is formulated in a Grassmann path integral formalism. The static ansatz and the replica symmetry are used to obtain the half-filling thermodynamic potential. The results are shown in phase diagrams that exhibit a complex transition line separating the PAIR phase from the others. This line is second order at high temperature which ends in a tricritical point. The presence of Γ affects deeply the transition lines

  1. The evolution of the status of local electric and gas utilities in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivault, S.

    2004-06-01

    With the establishment of a common gas and electricity market, the early 21. century is marked by important transformations in the public energy service. Directives 96/92 and 98/30, and directives 2003/54 and 2003/55, make important changes in the regulations concerning gas and electricity activates. In France, the Electricity Act 2000 (10/02/2000) and the Gas Act 2003 (03/01/2003) partially opened the public sector power distribution system to competition. These new rules will drastically modify all operators situations, including that of french local distributors (such as the 'regies', the 'SEML', or the 'SICAE or other cooperatives') who have always been, since being left out of the nationalization process, in a monopolistic situation. In order to succeed in the transition towards a free market economy, french local distributors will have to evolve from their network operator status to that of market operator by renewing their structural organisation and diversifying their activities. (author)

  2. A collective phase in resource competition in a highly diverse ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Monasson, Remi

    Recent technological advances uncovered that most habitats, including the human body, harbor hundreds of coexisting microbial ``species''. The problem of understanding such complex communities is currently at the forefront of medical and environmental sciences. A particularly intriguing question is whether the high-diversity regime (large number of species N) gives rise to qualitatively novel phenomena that could not be intuited from analysis of low-dimensional models (with few species). However, few existing approaches allow studying this regime, except in simulations. Here, we use methods of statistical physics to show that the large- N limit of a classic ecological model of resource competition introduced by MacArthur in 1969 can be solved analytically. Our results provide a tractable model where the implications of large dimensionality of eco-evolutionary problems can be investigated. In particular, we show that at high diversity, the MacArthur model exhibits a phase transition into a curious regime where the environment constructed by the community becomes a collective property, insensitive to the external conditions such as the total resource influx supplied to the community. Supported by Harvard Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications, and the Simons Foundation. This work was completed at the Aspen Center for Physics, supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1066293.

  3. MANGROVE RESOURCE USES BY LOCAL COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelagic country of more than 17,504 islands (28 big islands and 17,475 small islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km, which bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They are estimated at 3.2 million hectares growing extensively in the five big islands (Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua with various community types comprising of about 157 species (52 species of trees, 21 species of shrubs, 13 species of lyana, seven species of palms, 14 species of grasses, eight species of herbs, three species of parasites, 36 species of epiphytes, three species of ferns. The mangroves resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna, and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs, especially for local community living in surrounding mangroves. For centuries, the Indonesian people have traditionally utilized mangroves. The most significant value of mangrove utilization is the gathering of forest products, classified into timber and non-timber products. The timber refers to poles and firewood, charcoal, and construction materials (e.g. housing material and fishing gears; the latter include tannin, medicines, dye, nypa thatch and shingles, nypa sap for vinegar and winemaking, and food drinks. Traditional uses of mangrove forest products are mainly the direct utilization of the products, usually in small scale. Beside of those, local community are used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems. So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity as well as their abundance for signicantly supporting the welfare of coastal community

  4. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan; Sulungbudi, Grace Tj.; Mujamilah

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe 2 O 3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3 . The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO 3 product of Merck, and BaCO 4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH) max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO 3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO 3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH) max are relatively lower than commercial product

  5. Plant Community Richness Mediates Inhibitory Interactions and Resource Competition between Streptomyces and Fusarium Populations in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essarioui, Adil; LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kistler, Harold C; Kinkel, Linda L

    2017-07-01

    Plant community characteristics impact rhizosphere Streptomyces nutrient competition and antagonistic capacities. However, the effects of Streptomyces on, and their responses to, coexisting microorganisms as a function of plant host or plant species richness have received little attention. In this work, we characterized antagonistic activities and nutrient use among Streptomyces and Fusarium from the rhizosphere of Andropogon gerardii (Ag) and Lespedeza capitata (Lc) plants growing in communities of 1 (monoculture) or 16 (polyculture) plant species. Streptomyces from monoculture were more antagonistic against Fusarium than those from polyculture. In contrast, Fusarium isolates from polyculture had greater inhibitory capacities against Streptomyces than isolates from monoculture. Although Fusarium isolates had on average greater niche widths, the collection of Streptomyces isolates in total used a greater diversity of nutrients for growth. Plant richness, but not plant host, influenced the potential for resource competition between the two taxa. Fusarium isolates had greater niche overlap with Streptomyces in monoculture than polyculture, suggesting greater potential for Fusarium to competitively challenge Streptomyces in monoculture plant communities. In contrast, Streptomyces had greater niche overlap with Fusarium in polyculture than monoculture, suggesting that Fusarium experiences greater resource competition with Streptomyces in polyculture than monoculture. These patterns of competitive and inhibitory phenotypes among Streptomyces and Fusarium populations are consistent with selection for Fusarium-antagonistic Streptomyces populations in the presence of strong Fusarium resource competition in plant monocultures. Similarly, these results suggest selection for Streptomyces-inhibitory Fusarium populations in the presence of strong Streptomyces resource competition in more diverse plant communities. Thus, landscape-scale variation in plant species richness may be

  6. Examining Container Port Resources and Environments to Enhance Competitiveness: A Cross-Country Study from Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo CHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of container ports using a cross-country analysis with theoretical foundations. Tangible and intangible resources are discussed as determinants of container port competitiveness using the resource-based view and the institutional theory. This study analyzes the relationships among six variables: container port competitiveness, traffic volume, quality of infrastructure, linear shipping connectivity, operating efficiency, and institutional influence. This study retrieved country-level data on different indicators and countries from several trade and maritime databases. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is used to test various hypotheses and to evaluate the casual relationships among six variables. Additionally, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression is used to test the moderating effects of institutional influence.

  7. Conditions of competition between the production of water by desalination and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1969-01-01

    A close examination of the local supply and demand for fresh water is involved when considering a sea water desalination plant in a given region. This examination makes it possible in most cases to undertake a thorough study of the natural resources, resulting in the use of desalination being rejected. After confirming this fact by precise examples, the authors consider that the preliminary study should be extended, taking into account the complementary character of natural resources and desalination systems: contribution to peak demand, contribution to base demand. This analysis results in a classification of the main user regions according to certain economic criteria defining their suitability for the use of desalination processes. (author) [fr

  8. Effects of competition and life history stage on the expression of local adaptation in two native bunchgrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice Kevin J.; Knapp Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the use of genetically appropriate material in restoration often focus on questions of local adaptation. Many reciprocal transplant studies have demonstrated local adaptation in native plant species, but very few have examined how interspecific competition affects the expression of adaptive variation. Our study examined...

  9. Innovative solutions in traceability to improve the competitiveness of a local fruit and vegetable retailing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Pakurár

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to investigate the network of local fruit and vegetable products from “farm to fork”, to uncover the hidden processes in traceability and to advise innovations in the retailing system to improve the competitiveness of the sector. Traceability is an ability to track any food that will be consumed throughout the processes of production, processing and distribution. The research investigates what the customer knows about the origin and treatments of purchased products and what further information would satisfy the consumer. The study explores the flow of information amongst the chain members: producers, wholesalers, small-scale retailers, and customers. Based on interviews and questionnaires, regression analysis and ordinal regression procedure were performed. Innovative solutions to make the retailing competitive should be aligned with the precise knowledge of the consumer. The results of the research show that deficiencies in data collection, data erosion, low level of cooperation of supply chain partners, not paying more attention for more detailed information, and inadequate control are the main problems of the traceability in fruit and vegetable chains.

  10. Spatial distribution of detrital resources determines the outcome of competition between bacteria and a facultative detritivorous worm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nugteren, P.; Herman, P.M.J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vos, M.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2009-01-01

    Macrobenthic deposit feeders and bacteria compete for the same detrital food resources. We hypothesize that the spatial scale at which food is distributed in the sediment is an important factor determining the outcome of this competition. Macrobenthic deposit feeders are better adapted for fast

  11. On-the-Job Training and Human Resource Management: How to Improve Competitive Advantage of an Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, the effects of four groups of factors on organizational performance are examined. Those are human resource management (HRM policies and practices, financial and business indicators, location, and firm characteristics. A review of selected literature confirmed that a similar set of factors, through its positive effects on boosting organizational performance, may significantly improve competitive advantage of firms.

  12. Local and national laparoscopic skill competitions: residents' opinions and impact on adoption of simulation-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Greig L; El-Beheiry, Mostafa; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2017-11-01

    Dedicated practice using laparoscopic simulators improves operative performance. Yet, voluntary utilization is minimal. We hypothesized that skill competition between peers, at the local and national level, positively influences residents' use of laparoscopic simulators. A web-based survey evaluated the relationship between Canadian General Surgery residents' use of laparoscopic simulation and participation in competition. Secondary outcomes assessed attitudes regarding simulation training, factors limiting use, and associations between competition level and usage. One hundred ninety (23%) of 826 potential participants responded. Eighty-three percent rated their laparoscopic abilities as novice or intermediate. More than 70% agreed that use of simulation practice improves intra-operative performance, and should be a mandatory component of training. However, 58% employed simulator practice less than once per month, and 18% never used a simulator. Sixty-five percent engaged in simulator training for 5 h or less over the preceding 6 months. Seventy-three percent had participated in laparoscopic skill competition. Of those, 51% agreed that competition was a motivation for simulation practice. No association was found between those with competition experience and simulator use. However, 83% of those who had competed nationally reported >5 h of simulator use in the previous 6 months compared to those with no competition experience (26%), local competition (40%), and local national-qualifying competition (23%) (p simulation-based training, with only the minority of individuals competing at the national level demonstrated significantly higher simulation use. However, simulation training was perceived as a valuable exercise. Lack of time and access to simulators, as opposed to lack of interest, were the most commonly reported to limited use.

  13. Latvian health care competitiveness in relation to its infrastructure and available resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources are one of the essential indicators for the functioning of the health care system. Better health care provision is an essential prerequisite for the export of services. Traditionally a competitive health care system is linked to a number of factors (price, quality, reliability, products and services largely determined by the new technologies, innovations and implementation the new methods. The authors of this article analyzed and collected data from the European Commission Eurostat and OECD data. Current situation in health care in Latvia is characterized by populations’ restricted access to health care services, high out-of-pocket payments and poor health outcomes of the population. More than 10% of Latvian population can’t afford medical care. The ratio of public funding for healthcare in Latvia is among the lowest in EU countries. Latvia spends 5.3% (USD PPP 1217 of GDP on health, lower than the OCED country average of 8.9% (USD PPP 3453. Latvia is facing a dramatic gap between the availability of hospital beds and long term care beds and the lowest prevalence of general medical practitioners among all Baltic States 321.6 per 100 000. These mentioned factors may hinder the development of health care in Latvia and reduce the ability to participate in international health service market.

  14. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  15. SWOT ANALYSIS MICRO SMALL MEDIUM ENTREPRISE (MSME GEULIS CRAFT UMBRELLA TO SUCCESS IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES DISTRICT TASIKMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dianta A. Sebayang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of local economic resources, a new trend in the effort to increase the income of the community and the region. Local factors that determine both in terms of natural resources (raw materials and human resources (labor. This paper attempts to present how small and medium enterprises "Kerajinan Payung Geulis" try to improve economic development based on the development of local economic resources in Tasikmalaya. This study aims to illustrate the potential of entrepreneurs that include the competence and commitment of entrepreneurs in small business business, and to illustrate the strength of business / competitive position, business profile and entrepreneur influenced by environmental condition of external and internal environment, seen from the positive and negative side. The research was conducted on umbrella industry of handicraft business in Tasikmalaya. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis by using SWOT analysis. The results show many problems encountered and very complex, such as: low quality of human resources, limited business capital, low access to markets, access to financial institutions / banks are absent, administrative procedures ignorance, sustainability and limited capacity production; Coupled with the business climate is not conducive to the development of SMEs and entrepreneurship.

  16. The whole relationship between environmental variables and firm performance: competitive advantage and firm resources as mediator variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamero, María D; Molina-Azorín, José F; Claver-Cortés, Enrique

    2009-07-01

    The examination of the possible direct link between environmental protection and firm performance in the literature has generally produced mixed results. The present paper contributes to the literature by using the resource-based view as a mediating process in this relationship. The study specifically tests whether or not the resource-based view of the firm mediates the positive relationships of proactive environmental management and improved environmental performance with competitive advantage, which also has consequences for financial performance. We also check the possible link between the adoption of a pioneering approach and good environmental management practices. Our findings support that early investment timing and intensity in environmental issues impact on the adoption of a proactive environmental management, which in turn helps to improve environmental performance. The findings also show that a firm's resources and competitive advantage act as mediator variables for a positive relationship between environmental protection and financial performance. This contribution is original because the present paper develops a comprehensive whole picture of this path process, which has previously only been partially discussed in the literature. In addition, this study clarifies a relevant point in the literature, namely that the effect of environmental protection on firm performance is not direct and can vary depending on the sector considered. Whereas competitive advantage in relation to costs influences financial performance in the IPPC law sector, the relevant influence in the hotel sector comes from competitive advantage through differentiation.

  17. Competition of the connectivity with the local and the global order in polymer melts and crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Barucco, M.; Leporini, D., E-mail: dino.leporini@df.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Largo B.Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-11-14

    The competition between the connectivity and the local or global order in model fully flexible chain molecules is investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. States with both missing (melts) and high (crystal) global order are considered. Local order is characterized within the first coordination shell (FCS) of a tagged monomer and found to be lower than in atomic systems in both melt and crystal. The role played by the bonds linking the tagged monomer to FCS monomers (radial bonds), and the bonds linking two FCS monomers (shell bonds) is investigated. The detailed analysis in terms of Steinhardt's orientation order parameters Q{sub l} (l = 2 − 10) reveals that increasing the number of shell bonds decreases the FCS order in both melt and crystal. Differently, the FCS arrangements organize the radial bonds. Even if the molecular chains are fully flexible, the distribution of the angle formed by adjacent radial bonds exhibits sharp contributions at the characteristic angles θ ≈ 70°, 122°, 180°. The fractions of adjacent radial bonds with θ ≈ 122°, 180° are enhanced by the global order of the crystal, whereas the fraction with 70° ≲ θ ≲ 110° is nearly unaffected by the crystallization. Kink defects, i.e., large lateral displacements of the chains, are evidenced in the crystalline state.

  18. Using the weapons you have: the role of resources and competitor orientation as enablers and inhibitors of competitive reaction to new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruyne, M.S.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Moenaert, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    It is a well-accepted notion that to respond to competitive attacks firms need the necessary resources to do so. However, the presence of resources may not be a sufficient condition to enhance competitive responsiveness. Following a managerial decision-making approach, the present paper investigates

  19. Using the weapons you have : The role of resources and competitor orientation as enablers and inhibitors of competitive reaction to new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruyne, M.; Frambach, R.T.; Moenaert, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    It is a well-accepted notion that to respond to competitive attacks firms need the necessary resources to do so. However, the presence of resources may not be a sufficient condition to enhance competitive responsiveness. Following a managerial decision-making approach, the present paper investigates

  20. Resource competition may lead to effective treatment of antibiotic resistant infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L C Gomes

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is a common problem in the fight against infectious diseases. Recent studies have shown conditions (which we call antiR that select against resistant strains. However, no specific drug administration strategies based on this property exist yet. Here, we mathematically compare growth of resistant versus sensitive strains under different treatments (no drugs, antibiotic, and antiR, and show how a precisely timed combination of treatments may help defeat resistant strains. Our analysis is based on a previously developed model of infection and immunity in which a costly plasmid confers antibiotic resistance. As expected, antibiotic treatment increases the frequency of the resistant strain, while the plasmid cost causes a reduction of resistance in the absence of antibiotic selection. Our analysis suggests that this reduction occurs under competition for limited resources. Based on this model, we estimate treatment schedules that would lead to a complete elimination of both sensitive and resistant strains. In particular, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of resistance loss, and hence for the time necessary to turn a resistant infection into sensitive (tclear. This time depends on the experimentally measurable rates of pathogen division, growth and plasmid loss. Finally, we estimated tclear for a specific case, using available empirical data, and found that resistance may be lost up to 15 times faster under antiR treatment when compared to a no treatment regime. This strategy may be particularly suitable to treat chronic infection. Finally, our analysis suggests that accounting explicitly for a resistance-decaying rate may drastically change predicted outcomes in host-population models.

  1. Resource competition may lead to effective treatment of antibiotic resistant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antonio L C; Galagan, James E; Segrè, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance is a common problem in the fight against infectious diseases. Recent studies have shown conditions (which we call antiR) that select against resistant strains. However, no specific drug administration strategies based on this property exist yet. Here, we mathematically compare growth of resistant versus sensitive strains under different treatments (no drugs, antibiotic, and antiR), and show how a precisely timed combination of treatments may help defeat resistant strains. Our analysis is based on a previously developed model of infection and immunity in which a costly plasmid confers antibiotic resistance. As expected, antibiotic treatment increases the frequency of the resistant strain, while the plasmid cost causes a reduction of resistance in the absence of antibiotic selection. Our analysis suggests that this reduction occurs under competition for limited resources. Based on this model, we estimate treatment schedules that would lead to a complete elimination of both sensitive and resistant strains. In particular, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of resistance loss, and hence for the time necessary to turn a resistant infection into sensitive (tclear). This time depends on the experimentally measurable rates of pathogen division, growth and plasmid loss. Finally, we estimated tclear for a specific case, using available empirical data, and found that resistance may be lost up to 15 times faster under antiR treatment when compared to a no treatment regime. This strategy may be particularly suitable to treat chronic infection. Finally, our analysis suggests that accounting explicitly for a resistance-decaying rate may drastically change predicted outcomes in host-population models.

  2. Innovation in EU competition law : The resource-based view and disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Cabral, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Innovation has so far been handled by competition law according to market structure, that is to say, assuming that market power allows undertakings to evade competitive pressure including those which spur innovation on. This structural approach has fitted innovation in a tried-and-tested analytical

  3. The CES Case Competition: A Valuable Resource for Community-Based Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Natasha; Welsh, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Illustrates the contribution that the Student Case Competition of the Canadian Evaluation Society can make to agencies with evaluation needs by describing the experience of an addiction and family services program whose gambling addiction treatment program used as the case in the qualifying round of the 1998 competition. (SLD)

  4. Intrinsic competition among solitary and gregarious endoparasitoid wasps and phenomenon of resource sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magdaraog, P.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Intrinsic competition was compared in three species of braconid wasps, the solitary Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael, and the gregarious Cotesia kariyai (Watanabe) and Cotesia ruficrus Haliday in caterpillars of their common host, the armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. Competition was determined in

  5. Intrinsic competition among solitary and gregarious endoparasitoid wasps and the phenomenon of ‘resource sharing’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magdaraog, P.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Intrinsic competition was compared in three species of braconid wasps, the solitary Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael, and the gregarious Cotesia kariyai (Watanabe) and Cotesia ruficrus Haliday in caterpillars of their common host, the armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. Competition was determined in

  6. The contribution of human resources management systems in achieving competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition has become a current and difficult problem for any organization. This raises the need for the companies to obtain competitive advantages. One way to do this is making use of appropriate information technology, which is the task of information systems for top management. Computer technology and data communication technology alter the parameters within which competition unfolds in all fields. Whereas in the past information technology was oriented to data storage, in the modern world it must provide a dynamic vision on the organization, facilitating adaptation to changes in business environment and thus ensuring competitiveness. In this way, information technology becomes a competitive weapon which is extremely effective in achieving the objectives of the organization. In addition, it is applicable in any field of activity regardless of the organization’s size.

  7. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  8. Sorsogon State College’s Performance and Management Excellence: Inputs to globally competitive yet locally responsive educational tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien L. Chua

    2017-01-01

    Educational tourism clearly situates the new role of Sorsogon State College (SSC) for world-class education while in support to the locally sustainable tourism development of the province and beyond. This paper was able to assess SSC’s capacities to manage globally competitive and locally responsive educational tourism. A mix method of research was used in examining the SSC’s educational tourism through an inventory of academic performance and quality management excellence for ...

  9. Hospital staffing and local pay: an investigation into the impact of local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay on the staffing of hospitals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.

  10. Co-opetition - local utilities between competition and co-opetition; Co-opetition - Stadtwerke zwischen Wettbewerb und Kooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, O.; Haller, S. [Horvath und Partners, Duesseldorf (Germany). Competence Center Utilities

    2008-05-05

    Competition and co-operation - two issues constituting a natural area of conflict especially for local utility companies facing the challenges of liberalization. Where competition seems to be the direct result of the politically driven process towards open energy markets, co-operation is a possible strategic answer for utilities that are not capable to compete successfully in individual stages of their value chain. The consequences are clear: Utilities have to align their strategies and their internal cultural settings with a basically conflicting approach: To compete via co-operation. (orig.)

  11. Decentralization and centralization of healthcare resources: investigating the associations of hospital competition and number of cardiologists per hospital with mortality and resource utilization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungchul; Lee, Jason; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the associations of hospital competition and number of cardiologists per hospital (indicating the decentralization and centralization of healthcare resources, respectively) with 30-day in-hospital mortality, healthcare spending, and length of stay (LOS) among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan. We collected data from 23,197 AMI patients admitted to 172 hospitals between 2008 and 2011. Hospital competition and number of cardiologists per hospital were analyzed as exposure variables in multilevel regression models for in-hospital mortality, healthcare spending, and LOS. Other covariates included patient, hospital, and regional variables; as well as the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Hospitals in competitive regions and hospitals with a higher number of cardiologists were both associated lower in-hospital mortality. Additionally, hospitals in competition regions were also associated with longer LOS durations, whereas hospitals with more cardiologists had higher spending. The use of PCI was also associated with reduced mortality, increased spending and increased LOS. Centralization of cardiologists at the hospital level and decentralization of acute hospitals at the regional level may be contributing factors for improving the quality of care in Japan. Policymakers need to strike a balance between these two approaches to improve healthcare provision and quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "Global Human Resource Development" and Japanese University Education: "Localism" in Actor Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Aya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the actions of various actors involved in "global human resource development" and to clarify whether discussions on global human resources are based on local perspectives. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) after the year 2000 began, industry started discussions on global human resources in…

  13. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives

  14. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    or specific grain yield composition are wanted. Keywords: Competition dynamics; Grain quality; Hordeum vulgare; Intercropping; Nitrogen use; Organic farming; Pisum sativum; Weeds; Yield Abbreviations: IC, mixed intercropping; LER, land equivalent ratio; N, nitrogen; REIc, relative efficiency index; SC, sole...... not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake. Changes in the competitive...... and tillering ability of barley are seen as likely explanations of lower weed load in the barley dominated crop treatments. This study points at the potential of employing density and relative crop frequency as "regulators" when specific intercrop objectives such as increased competitiveness towards weeds...

  15. in_focus - Comangement of Natural Resources: Local Learning for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The developing world's poorest people live in marginal, often harsh rural environments. ... Co-Management of Natural Resources in Canada: A Review of Concepts and Case Studies ... He holds a doctorate in city and regional planning from the University of ... funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  16. Efficiency of resource use among cocoyam farmers in Owo Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its consumption in homes especially in period preceding yam harvest has underscored its importance as possible substitute for the crop. However, yield figures for the crop over the years trails behind that of other tuber crops. The study examined resource allocation and the socio-economic attributes of cocoyam production ...

  17. Tapping local resources for HIV prevention among the Borana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    application of MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. Key findings: In ... and financial resources did not halt the spread of the virus nor have .... Results. Socio-Demographic Characteristics: A total of nine FGD sessions with both men and women involving 68 participants and 69 in-depth interviews were completed as ...

  18. Finding competitive intelligence on Internet start-up companies: a study of secondary resource use and information-seeking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from a study of CI activities involving Internet start-up companies in the telecommunications industry. The CI gathering was conducted by graduate students in library and information science in the context of a class project for a real business client, itself a small Internet start-up company. The primary objective of the study was to provide empirical insights into the applicability of specific types of secondary information resources to finding competitive intelligence information on small Internet start-up companies. An additional objective was to identify the characteristics of research strategies applied in the collection of CI on Internet start-ups from the perspective of current conceptual frameworks of information-seeking behaviour presented in the library and information science literature. This study revealed some interesting findings regarding the types of secondary information resources that can be used to find competitive intelligence on small, Internet start-up companies. The study also provided insight into the characteristics of the overall information-seeking strategies that are applied in this type of competitive intelligence research.

  19. RESOURCES AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY IN MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łukiewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour resources are an important factor in competitiveness of the sector. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial concentration of labour resources, performance advantages and cost-price advantages that are associated with the work factor in the food industry in the European Union in 2010–2012. The results indicate that the greatest concentration of labour resources exists in Germany, France, Italy and Poland. The biggest performance advantage was observed in the old EU countries, mainly in Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark. Diff erences in labour productivity in the food industry, the new EU countries, in relation to the old member states, are getting smaller. The most signifi cant cost-price advantage was observed in Ireland and the Netherlands, and many of the new EU countries, which compensated for the lack of performance advantages of lower labour costs. These include Poland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary and Romania.

  20. Energy Survival: entertainment as a resource for local energy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elburg, Henk van; Moosdijk, Catelijne van de [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, SenterNovem, the Dutch Broadcasting Corporation, a publishing company and a consortium of local authorities launched 'Energy Survival'; a renewing energy marketing strategy for children to create a demand for local energy actions. New elements are powerful branding and the use of cross media techniques through national TV, internet, local events and primary education. Through entertainment, Energy Survival influences children's attitude towards energy consumption and its convincing relation with the environment. It aims at qualifying children to become 'energy ambassadors' in their own local environment: family, school and neighbourhood. Energy Survival has become a well tested energy game-concept for children in whom public and private partners cooperate under one brand name and with a clear division of roles and interests. However, the backbone of the concept is the local approach: local actions in municipalities and in primary schools, supported by television and internet where children learn to deal with the upcoming energy challenges of the planet they will inherit. By providing an internet-based teaching method, especially primary schools will be an effective multiplier to reach children. Broadcasting the energy game on national TV on the one hand, and local events and preliminaries on the other hand, ensure opportunities for widespread 'duplication' of the concept, adapted to local policy priorities regarding sustainable energy because each municipality is permitted to choose its own themes. Despite the fact that the project is still young and that the partners consider it as a 'long term-investment', the first independent monitoring results indicate that Energy Survival so far is quite successful. Ratings of the first TV-series show a national market share of 20 % in the age group 6-12 years and significantly more interaction between children and their parents on energy related issues. The website

  1. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  2. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Tim A.; Axelrod, Kevin; Biancalani, Tommaso; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Liu, Jinghui; Gore, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the

  3. Fight or Flight? Immigration, Competition, and Language Assistance Resources in Metropolitan Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasawa, Beth

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino/a immigrant population increases, racial conflict historically understood in terms of Black and White in the U.S. South has expanded to include new contestants in metro-Atlanta public schools. By examining market and sociological competition theoretical perspectives, this study investigates how language assistance resource…

  4. Weather as a Competitive Factor between Local and Foreign Manufacturing Companies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Simo; Ledyaeva, Svetlana; Kosonen, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has sparked academic interest in companies’ competitive factors and a myriad of internal and external competitive factors have been studied. However, to our knowledge the weather of the host country has not been under study even though weather has been demonstrated to affect economic activity. This paper utilises a company-level panel data to analyse if weather has an impact on domestic and foreign manufacturing companies’ operations in Russia. Temperature was identified to have...

  5. Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby D. Hunt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholars agree that societal-level moral codes that promote social trust also promote wealth creation.  However, what specific kinds of societal-level moral codes promote social trust?  Also, by what specific kind of competitive process does social trust promote wealth creation?  Because societal-level moral codes are composed of or formed from peoples’ personal moral codes, this article explores a theory of ethics, known as the “Hunt-Vitell” theory of ethics, that illuminates the concept of personal moral codes and uses the theory to discuss which types of personal moral codes foster trust and distrust in society.  This article then uses resource-advantage (R-A theory, one of the most completely articulated dynamic theories of competition, to show the process by which trust-promoting, societal-level moral codes promote productivity and economic growth.  That is, they promote wealth creation.

  6. State and Local Initiatives: Your Bridge to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Resources (Brochure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.

    2001-01-01

    A brochure for local and state policymakers, informing them about the State and Local Initiatives team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The brochure outlines the benefits of using renewables and energy efficiency, the benefits of using the State and Local Initiatives team as a liaison to the wealth of information at NREL, and some of the services and resources available

  7. From Competitive to Cooperative Resource Management for Cyber-Physical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents models and methods for feedback-based resource management for cyber-physical systems. Common for the scenarios considered are severe resource constraints, uncertain and time-varying conditions and the goal of enabling flexibility in systems design rather than restricting it. A brief survey on reservation-based scheduling, an important enabling technology for this thesis, is provided and shows how modern day resource reservation techniques are derived from their real-time ...

  8. Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Corporate Socialenvironmental Responsibility in the Light of the Resource-Based View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Prazeres Balbino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of a greater concern with respect to corporate social and environmental aspects viewed in society, the Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility (CSER is understood as a new management perspective to be used, no longer restricted to meet the aspirations of profit shareholders, but seeks include in your analysis other stakeholders such as society and the environment. According to the Resource-Based View (RBV, the CSER is regarded as an organizational capacity, because it involves a set of resources and depending on how it is integrated with business planning, could be a source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA. The objective of the study is to analyze the likely social and environmental responsibility as a sustainable competitive advantage for an organization in light of the Resource-Based View . From the discussion held to theoretical essay, we identified some aspects of CSER that can be elevated to the level of a SCA, namely: the generation of a good reputation and organizational image, and corporate citizenship in favor of the practice of CSER. It is appropriate therefore to carry out empirical studies, qualitative and/or quantitative, that can confirm and extend the arguments of this discussion, from the development of constructs, development of measurement instruments and proposing models, on CSER.

  9. Cholecystectomy with local anesthesia as a resource in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Campo Abad, Roberto; Noel Mederos Curbelo, Orestes

    2011-01-01

    In the case of a patient presenting with acute cholescystectomy ideally is to remove the gallbladder. Sometimes there are special situations in malnourished elderlies with deterioration of its general status in whom a lengthy anesthesia intervention, even using not much invasive means as the videosurgery, put at risk the life of patient. In such cases the cholescystectomy with local anesthesia is an alternative that must to be taken into account. (author)

  10. Dynamic integration of remote cloud resources into local computing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleig, Georg; Erli, Guenther; Giffels, Manuel; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Schnepf, Matthias [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments enormous amounts of data are analyzed and simulated. Traditionally dedicated HEP computing centers are built or extended to meet this steadily increasing demand for computing resources. Nowadays it is more reasonable and more flexible to utilize computing power at remote data centers providing regular cloud services to users as they can be operated in a more efficient manner. This approach uses virtualization and allows the HEP community to run virtual machines containing a dedicated operating system and transparent access to the required software stack on almost any cloud site. The dynamic management of virtual machines depending on the demand for computing power is essential for cost efficient operation and sharing of resources with other communities. For this purpose the EKP developed the on-demand cloud manager ROCED for dynamic instantiation and integration of virtualized worker nodes into the institute's computing cluster. This contribution will report on the concept of our cloud manager and the implementation utilizing a remote OpenStack cloud site and a shared HPC center (bwForCluster located in Freiburg).

  11. Competitive Advantages from Horizontal Relationships in Productive Agglomerations: perceptions of local agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pinheiro Deboçã

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper aims to assess to what extent relational view assumptions can explain competitive advantages perceived in the industrial agglomeration contexts of small businesses. Design/methodology/approach – We used qualitative research; two furniture centers, Misassol (SP and Ubá (MG, were examined through comparative data analysis. Data was collected through interviews with executives from 40 companies and 13 supporting organizations. The relational view and its assumptions point to factors that generate competitive advantage resulting from collaborative relationships between companies. Moreover, agglomerations provide intense relationships and are encouraged by governance entities. Findings – No competitive advantages clearly established due to relational gains were identified. The behavior of entrepreneurs in both centers tends strongly towards individualism. What agents identify as competitive advantages corresponds to situational or contextual factors in these centers and do not result from the realization of relational view assumptions, escaping from this paradigm. Relational gains can result only from subgroups that are formed through affinity, with no intervention from governance. Practical implications – Despite an agglomeration tendency within companies belonging to the furniture sector, a strong inclination towards individualism creates barriers to obtaining additional advantages resulting from relational gains, whether due to market regionalization, access of sales representatives, or logistics and tax costs, among other issues. However, actions in small groups are an important governance mechanism for that context. Contributions – Evaluate the assumptions of relational view and its explanatory power for competitive advantages in agglomerations of Brazilian furniture companies.

  12. Human Resources Development and ICT Contribution to the Tourist Destination Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Gruescu; Roxana Nanu; Anca Tanasie

    2009-01-01

    The paper envisages aspects concerning identification of the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes „bottom to top” analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT technologies. Two essential basis of the compet...

  13. PVD and gas production: consider local resource access requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the natural gas industry worldwide teaches us that its development has sprung mainly from two sources: favorable contingent conditions, such as in the United States, where the discovery of large gas fields coincided favorably with technological progress and the already existing city gas distribution networks, as also happened in Italy and France; and political prodding, as in the Eastern European countries, in Japan, and certain countries of Western Europe too. Today, while natural gas is winning over more and more consumers and the infrastructures now exist, the rise in consumption is being held back by supply-related constraints, and namely the problem of adjusting to the rise in gas prices in the United States, and the distancing of the resources from Europe. In this context, the development of new gas markets in the developing countries could contribute to the continuous growth of the world natural gas industry. The resources do exist, and the possibility of generating electricity with them opens the way to creating or developing this industry in some twenty developing countries, to begin with, and a greater number later. For these countries, this perspective is highly enticing, economically; but development is slow, partly due to the fact that the specific requirements of gas production projects are not satisfied. The contractual and tax structure governing their implementation does not reflect the fact that, in contrast to the petroleum industry, the producer does not have access to a true market, and he is in fact only one of the wheels in an integrated production mechanism bent specifically on putting electrical power on the market. It is easy to see the difficulties that arise from such a situation, since the indispensable steps in the process, performed successively by producer, transporter, and electric company, use two interfaces with fields of business that are in close bilateral dependency. This leads to upstream inefficiency in

  14. SMEs Development Strategy for Competitive and Sustainable Typical Local Snacks of Banten Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2015-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) for snacks in Indonesia currently has a good growth rate on one hand; but on the other hand, its level of competition is also quite high.  Growth in sales volume of the Indonesian snack industry, both in modern and traditional markets in 2012, was recorded at 10-15 percent far beyond the growth of other manufacturing industries.  However, the level of competition in the snack industry is also relatively high. Business people in the snacks sector do not only com...

  15. Local and global dynamics in a duopoly with price competition and market share delegation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying a nonlinear dynamic duopoly model with price competition and horizontal product differentiation augmented with managerial firms, where managers behave according to market share delegation contracts. Ownership and management are then separate and managers are paid through adequate incentives in order to achieve a competitive advantage in the market. In this context, we show that complexity arises, related both to the structure of the attractors of the system and the structure of their basins, as multistability occurs. The study is conducted by combining analytical and numerical techniques, and aims at showing that slight different initial conditions may cause very different long-term outcomes

  16. A study on blockchain technology as a resource for competitive advantage.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Magnus Vitsø; Krogh, Simen; Harkestad, Joar Gunnarsjaa

    2017-01-01

    The blockchain innovation is still in its nascent stage, but among its characteristics is the potential to eliminate the need for third parties to act as a level of trust. In a literature review, it was found that the link between application areas and entrepreneurial opportunities were superficially covered for blockchain technology (Bjørnstad et al., 2016). This thesis seeks to understand the technology as a resource to investigate how blockchain, together with other resources, contributes ...

  17. Competition, Student Sorting and Performance in Local Education Markets: The Dutch Secondary Sector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, Sofie; Cornelisz, Ilja

    2017-01-01

    This article empirically examines the implications of competition among Dutch secondary schools: (1) regarding the sorting of students by performance levels in schools at the begiining of secondary education; and (2) regarding performance gains in the secondary school career, controlling for the

  18. Interspecific interference competition at the resource patch scale: do large herbivores spatially avoid elephants while accessing water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Nicolas; Dray, Stéphane; Fritz, Hervé; Valeix, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. This may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. Such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field, and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. We tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale of a resource patch. We assessed fine-scale spatial segregation patterns between three African herbivore species (zebra Equus quagga, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a megaherbivore, the African elephant Loxodonta africana, at the scale of water resource patches in the semi-arid ecosystem of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Nine waterholes were monitored every two weeks during the dry season of a drought year, and observational scans of the spatial distribution of all herbivores were performed every 15 min. We developed a methodological approach to analyse such fine-scale spatial data. Elephants increasingly used waterholes as the dry season progressed, as did the probability of co-occurrence and agonistic interaction with elephants for the three study species. All three species segregated from elephants at the beginning of the dry season, suggesting a spatial avoidance of elephants and the existence of costs of being close to them. However, contrarily to our expectations, herbivores did not segregate from elephants the rest of the dry season but tended to increasingly aggregate with elephants as the dry season progressed. We discuss these surprising results and the existence of a trade-off between avoidance of interspecific interference competition and other potential factors such as access to quality water, which may have relative associated costs that change with the time of the year. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology

  19. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neucir Szinwelski

    Full Text Available Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics.

  20. Empowering Local People through Community-based Resource Monitoring: a Comparison of Brazil and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social, economic, and political. The conditions that facilitated local empowerment included the value of natural resources, rights to trade and manage resources, political organization of communities, and collaboration by stakeholders. The wide range of strategies to empower local people included intensifying local participation, linking them to local education, feeding information back to communities, purposefully selecting participants, paying for monitoring services, marketing monitored resources, and inserting local people into broader politics. Although communities were socially and politically empowered, the monitoring systems more often promoted individual empowerment. Marketing of natural resources promoted higher economic empowerment in conservancies in Namibia, whereas information dissemination was better in Brazil because of integrated education programs. We suggest that practitioners take advantage of local facilitating conditions to enhance the empowerment of communities, bearing in mind that increasing autonomy to make management decisions may not agree with international conservation goals. Our comparative analysis of cases in Latin America and Africa allows for a greater understanding of the

  1. Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: an analysis of discourses on the use of local resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodela, Romina

    2012-04-15

    The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can help to challenge established practices and contribute with new ideas about how to conduct participation. The purpose of this paper is to consider the latest developments in deliberative democracy and outline the implications arising from these insights for a "deliberative turn" in resource management. A bottom-up protected area establishment, the Goričko Landscape Park, is examined. The empirical case is discussed from a discursive perspective, which relied on John Dryzek's approach to discourse analysis here used to explore the construction of discourses on the use of local natural resources. Two discourses are identified and the way these interfaced with the participatory park establishment process is considered. Findings indicate that advocates of the two discourses engaged differently with the participatory tools used and this had important implications for the park establishment. The case study suggests that, in contexts where participation has been recently introduced, knowledge of discourses on the use of local natural resources and of mobilization strategies actors may pursue could usefully assist in the design and implementation of participatory processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovation and strategic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mile B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discussed relationships of innovation to achieving strategic competitiveness in today globalized economic environment. Special attention is devoted to the nature of competitive advantages on global industries as well national level. Competitive advantage is a firm's ability to transform inputs into goods and services at a profit on a sustained basis, better than competitors. Comparative advantage resides in the factor endowments and created endowments of particular regions. Beside the traditional endowment approach (land, natural resources, labor and the size of the local population it is emphasized the importance of created one such as skilled labor, the technology and knowledge base, government support and culture. Creating corporate or country competitiveness roadmap there are no substantial difference - innovative as well strategic approach is essential.

  3. Cooperation or competition : dilemma for resource managers in sustainable wildlife utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwakiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: analytical modelling; Associated Private Nature Reserves; consumptive use; elephants; Kruger National Park; land productivity; non-consumptive use; waterpoints; Savanna ecosystem model; South Africa.

    Wildlife as part of biodiversity is a global natural resource.

  4. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  5. Conflict over non-partitioned resources may explain between-species differences in declines: the anthropogenic competition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Human alterations of habitats are causing declines in many species worldwide. The extent of declines varies greatly among closely related species, for often unknown reasons that must be understood in order to maintain biodiversity. An overlooked factor is that seasonally breeding species compete for nest sites, which are increasingly limited in many anthropogenically degraded environments. I used evolutionary game theory to predict the outcome of competition between individuals that differ in their competitive ability and timing of nesting. A range of species following evolutionarily stable strategies can co-exist when there are sufficient nest sites, but my model predicts that a reduction in nest site availability has greater impacts on late-nesting species, especially the stronger competitors, whereas early-nesting, stronger species decline only slightly. These predictions are supported by data on 221 bird and 43 bumblebee species worldwide. Restoration and provision of nest sites should be an urgent priority in conservation efforts. More broadly, these results indicate a new ecological principle of potentially widespread importance: rapid reductions in the abundance of resources for which species' preferences have not diversified will result in unprecedented conflicts that reduce the potential for species co-existence. Understanding the causes of species declines is crucial to preventing the losses. Whilst much work on species vulnerability shows broad scale effects, an enduring mystery is the variation in population trends between closely related species. I combined evolutionary modelling with three global-scale long-term data sets to reveal that competition for scarce nest sites causes variation in declines. The impact of the loss of nest sites on differential declines among closely related species from very different taxa indicates a new ecological principle of widespread importance: the effect of habitat degradation on competition among species. A lack of

  6. A new hammer to crack an old nut: interspecific competitive resource capture by plants is regulated by nutrient supply, not climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Clare J; Brooker, Rob W; Davidson, Hazel; Robinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N). Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of ¹⁵N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺). Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location) under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.

  7. A new hammer to crack an old nut: interspecific competitive resource capture by plants is regulated by nutrient supply, not climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J Trinder

    Full Text Available Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N. Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of ¹⁵N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺. Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.

  8. The influence of environmental forcing on biodiversity and extinction in a resource competition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergey A.; Sudakov, Ivan; Mander, Luke

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study a model of many species that compete, directly or indirectly, for a pool of common resources under the influence of periodic, stochastic, and/or chaotic environmental forcing. Using numerical simulations, we find the number and sequence of species going extinct when the community is initially packed with a large number of species of random initial densities. Thereby, any species with a density below a given threshold is regarded to be extinct.

  9. Gaining Competitive Advantage by Emphasizing the Positive Attributes of Resources Held

    OpenAIRE

    Avrigeanu Alina Florentina

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the elements of the internal environment of firms and how they contribute to achieve a relative advantage. Altough VRIO framework is a precious strategic management tool it can be effective only in correlation with analysis of the external environment given, for example, need to find external references for estimating the value, scarcity and inimitability of a resource and selection of reference elements from the same market or the same strategic group.

  10. The influence of environmental forcing on biodiversity and extinction in a resource competition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergey A; Sudakov, Ivan; Mander, Luke

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study a model of many species that compete, directly or indirectly, for a pool of common resources under the influence of periodic, stochastic, and/or chaotic environmental forcing. Using numerical simulations, we find the number and sequence of species going extinct when the community is initially packed with a large number of species of random initial densities. Thereby, any species with a density below a given threshold is regarded to be extinct.

  11. Establishing and Maintaining a Local History Collection [and] Local History/Genealogical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Libraries, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Theme article on developing local history collections in public libraries begins with a discussion of collection development, and continues with sections on technical services, the library environment, staffing, programing, and marketing. A bibliography and directories of used and rare book dealers, genealogical publishers, professional…

  12. Competitive debate classroom as a cooperative learning technique for the human resources subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. SANCHEZ PRIETO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an academic debate model as a cooperative learning technique for teaching human resources at University. The general objective of this paper is to conclude if academic debate can be included in the category of cooperative learning. The Specific objective it is presenting a model to implement this technique. Thus the first part of the paper shows the concept of cooperative learning and its main characteristics. The second part presents the debate model believed to be labelled as cooperative learning. Last part concludes with the characteristics of the model that match different aspects or not of the cooperative learning.

  13. Pesticide-mediated interspecific competition between local and invasive thrips pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyin; Reitz, Stuart R.; Yuan, Huiguo; Lei, Zhongren; Paini, Dean Ronald; Gao, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    Competitive interactions between species can be mitigated or even reversed in the presence of anthropogenic influences. The thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are highly invasive and damaging agricultural pests throughout the world. Where the species co-occur, one species tends to eventually predominate over the other. Avermectin and beta-cypermethrin are commonly used insecticides to manage thrips in China, and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that F. occidentalis is significantly less susceptible than T. tabaci to these insecticides. In laboratory cage trials in which both species were exposed to insecticide treated cabbage plants, F. occidentalis became the predominant species. In contrast, T. tabaci completely displaced F. occidentalis on plants that were not treated with insecticides. In field trials, the species co-existed on cabbage before insecticide treatments began, but with T. tabaci being the predominant species. Following application of avermectin or beta-cypermethrin, F. occidentalis became the predominant species, while in plots not treated with insecticides, T. tabaci remained the predominant species. These results indicate that T. tabaci is an intrinsically superior competitor to F. occidentalis, but its competitive advantage can be counteracted through differential susceptibilities of the species to insecticides. These results further demonstrate the importance of external factors, such as insecticide applications, in mediating the outcome of interspecific interactions and produce rapid unanticipated shifts in the demographics of pest complexes. PMID:28084404

  14. Pesticide-mediated interspecific competition between local and invasive thrips pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyin; Reitz, Stuart R; Yuan, Huiguo; Lei, Zhongren; Paini, Dean Ronald; Gao, Yulin

    2017-01-13

    Competitive interactions between species can be mitigated or even reversed in the presence of anthropogenic influences. The thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are highly invasive and damaging agricultural pests throughout the world. Where the species co-occur, one species tends to eventually predominate over the other. Avermectin and beta-cypermethrin are commonly used insecticides to manage thrips in China, and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that F. occidentalis is significantly less susceptible than T. tabaci to these insecticides. In laboratory cage trials in which both species were exposed to insecticide treated cabbage plants, F. occidentalis became the predominant species. In contrast, T. tabaci completely displaced F. occidentalis on plants that were not treated with insecticides. In field trials, the species co-existed on cabbage before insecticide treatments began, but with T. tabaci being the predominant species. Following application of avermectin or beta-cypermethrin, F. occidentalis became the predominant species, while in plots not treated with insecticides, T. tabaci remained the predominant species. These results indicate that T. tabaci is an intrinsically superior competitor to F. occidentalis, but its competitive advantage can be counteracted through differential susceptibilities of the species to insecticides. These results further demonstrate the importance of external factors, such as insecticide applications, in mediating the outcome of interspecific interactions and produce rapid unanticipated shifts in the demographics of pest complexes.

  15. Local governance responses to social inclusion for older rural Victorians: building resources, opportunities and capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel; Clune, Samantha; Warburton, Jeni; Martin, John

    2014-09-01

    To explore how local governance enables access to resources, creates opportunities and increases capability for older people in rural communities to experience social inclusion. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community stakeholders across two rural communities in north-east Victoria. Stakeholders were drawn from local government, and a range of community groups and organisations, as identified in a scoping study. Through the provision of community resources (e.g. physical and human infrastructure, organisational partnerships), local services and supports offer social and productive environments for participation. They also build individual resources (e.g. health, skills, finances, networks) to enable older people to participate within these environments, and provide assistance to allow older people to use individual and community resources. Community resources are integral in facilitating the development of older people's individual resources, and opportunities and capabilities for participation. These enable greater choice in participation, and contribute to the sustainability of community resources serving ageing populations. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  16. Argentina and Brazil's competition over Bolivian's resources, needs and means half a century later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, A.

    1988-01-01

    For fifty years Bolivia has managed to achieve an unstable balance of power between its most powerful neighbours, while still keeping together an ethnically diverse and poorly integrated country. However, prospects are grim. Bolivia's most important trade able goods face receding markets and natural gas exports to Argentina are likely to dwindle as that country develops its own domestic fields. Brazil, could substitute for Argentina but it needs to overcome a bitter legacy of commercial frustration with Bolivia and the opposition of Brazil's national oil company to natural gas imports. Moreover, Argentina may soon be a net exporter of natural gas as well. However, neither Brazil nor Argentina, both of whom share a sizeable frontier with Bolivia should not want to see her under too much distress. Pooling the natural gas resources of Argentina and Bolivia could cater for more orderly and reliable regional trade than in the past. The combined resources could be managed by a private enterprise (Gas del Plata) with all three countries as major shareholders. Reliable natural gas supplies may even help Brazil to revert its autarchic developmental trends. (author)

  17. Emergence of competition and cooperation in an evolutionary resource war model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamantia, Fabio

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a simple punishment scheme in the 'great fish war' model with many players. An imitative process regulates how a coalition of cooperators is dynamically updated over time. An intuitive effect of adding sanctions is that they could enlarge the possible sustainable coalitions. However, the evolution toward full cooperation can be sustained by a punishment scheme provided that a critical mass of agents enforces cooperation at the beginning of the game. Moreover, we show the presence of thresholds in sanctions or in the cost for punishing such that if these thresholds are trespassed then dramatic reductions in the resource level and in the agents' welfare may occur as a consequence of free riding effects. We show by some examples that these phenomena are due to the presence of tipping points in the model.

  18. Hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma in hierarchical game for resource competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2017-07-01

    Dilemmas in cooperation are one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public goods game, each individual cooperates by paying a cost or defecting without paying it, and receives a reward from the group out of the collected cost. Thus, defecting is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individuals also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical game in which multiple groups compete for limited resources by utilizing the collected cost in each group, where the power to appropriate resources increases with the population of the group. Analyzing this hierarchical game, we found a hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma, in which groups choose the defecting policy (say, armament) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group’s benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns out to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical dilemma. Here the group reward increases with the group size. However, we find that there exists an optimal group size that maximizes the individual payoff. Furthermore, when the population asymmetry between two groups is large, the smaller group will choose a cooperation policy (say, disarmament) to avoid excessive response from the larger group, and the prisoner’s dilemma between the groups is resolved. Accordingly, the relevance of this hierarchical game on policy selection in society and the optimal size of human or animal groups are discussed.

  19. Over-expressed maltose transporters in laboratory and lager yeasts: localization and competition with endogenous transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidgren, Virve; Londesborough, John

    2018-05-31

    Plain and fluorescently tagged versions of Agt1, Mtt1 and Malx1 maltose transporters were over-expressed in two laboratory yeasts and one lager yeast. The plain and tagged versions of each transporter supported similar transport activities, indicating that they are similarly trafficked and have similar catalytic activities. When they were expressed under the control of the strong constitutive PGK1 promoter only minor proportions of the fluorescent transporters were associated with the plasma membrane, the rest being found in intracellular structures. Transport activity of each tagged transporter in each host was roughly proportional to the plasma membrane-associated fluorescence. All three transporters were subject to glucose-triggered inactivation when the medium glucose concentration was abruptly raised. Results also suggest competition between endogenous and over-expressed transporters for access to the plasma membrane. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the financial resources needed for local public health departments in Minnesota: a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Briggs, Jill; McCullough, Mac

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a model for determining total funding needed for individual local health departments. The aim is to determine the financial resources needed to provide services for statewide local public health departments in Minnesota based on a gaps analysis done to estimate the funding needs. We used a multimethod analysis consisting of 3 approaches to estimate gaps in local public health funding consisting of (1) interviews of selected local public health leaders, (2) a Delphi panel, and (3) a Nominal Group Technique. On the basis of these 3 approaches, a consensus estimate of funding gaps was generated for statewide projections. The study includes an analysis of cost, performance, and outcomes from 2005 to 2007 for all 87 local governmental health departments in Minnesota. For each of the methods, we selected a panel to represent a profile of Minnesota health departments. The 2 main outcome measures were local-level gaps in financial resources and total resources needed to provide public health services at the local level. The total public health expenditure in Minnesota for local governmental public health departments was $302 million in 2007 ($58.92 per person). The consensus estimate of the financial gaps in local public health departments indicates that an additional $32.5 million (a 10.7% increase or $6.32 per person) is needed to adequately serve public health needs in the local communities. It is possible to make informed estimates of funding gaps for public health activities on the basis of a combination of quantitative methods. There is a wide variation in public health expenditure at the local levels, and methods are needed to establish minimum baseline expenditure levels to adequately treat a population. The gaps analysis can be used by stakeholders to inform policy makers of the need for improved funding of the public health system.

  1. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  2. Local natural resource curse and sustainable socio-economic development in a Russian mining community of Kovdor

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Kristian Suutarinen

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource extraction forms the backbone of the Russian economy and characterizes the majority of regions and communities in the Russian North. The long-term socio-economic sustainability of natural resource extraction in resource abundant countries has been questioned and discussed in various social sciences with the resource curse theory, which, however, is understudied on the local level. This study creates a local resource curse theory that is based on the basic idea that there are ...

  3. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  4. Natural resource windfalls and efficiency of local government expenditures: evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanaz, Martin; Maldonado, Stanislao

    2013-01-01

    We study the role of natural resource windfalls in explaining the efficiency of public expenditures. Using a rich dataset of expenditures and public good provision for 1,836 municipalities in Peru for period 2001-2010, we estimate a non-monotonic relationship between the efficiency of public good provision and the level of natural resource transfers. Local governments that were extremely favored by the boom of mineral prices were more efficient in using fiscal windfalls whereas those benefite...

  5. Using Local Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Education in Resource Management of Abalone in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.

  6. Theoretical Aspects of Optimizing the Allocation of Public Financial Resources at Local Level

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DOGARIU

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of financial resources at local, but also at central level, is an issue especially since in times of crisis, finding the optimum way to spend public funds concerns all authorities. This paper aims to identify the ways in which, by leaving from the division of powers based on the allocation of resources and tools available, the local authorities can identify an optimal level of public expenditure so as to achieve a maximum level of using them. Also, the paper seeks to identify t...

  7. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J

    1998-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  8. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.

    1997-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  9. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Siivonen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  10. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... provided to the public via broadcast notice to mariners, as well as through advertising on local media... regulate navigation for a limited time. Finally, the Public Broadcast Notice to Mariners will notify the... (iv) the maritime public will be advised in advance of this regulated area via Broadcast Notice to...

  11. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; van der Puije, Beatrice; Bekoe, Veronica; Adukpo, Rowland; Kotey, Nii A; Yao, Katy; Fonjungo, Peter N; Luman, Elizabeth T; Duh, Samuel; Njukeng, Patrick A; Addo, Nii A; Khan, Fazle N; Woodfill, Celia J I

    2014-11-03

    In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental training on internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors' salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such models promote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  12. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Nkrumah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. Objectives: To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Method: Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental trainingon internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM. Results: The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors’salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Conclusion: Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such modelspromote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  13. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  14. Accurate protein structure annotation through competitive diffusion of enzymatic functions over a network of local evolutionary similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Venner

    Full Text Available High-throughput Structural Genomics yields many new protein structures without known molecular function. This study aims to uncover these missing annotations by globally comparing select functional residues across the structural proteome. First, Evolutionary Trace Annotation, or ETA, identifies which proteins have local evolutionary and structural features in common; next, these proteins are linked together into a proteomic network of ETA similarities; then, starting from proteins with known functions, competing functional labels diffuse link-by-link over the entire network. Every node is thus assigned a likelihood z-score for every function, and the most significant one at each node wins and defines its annotation. In high-throughput controls, this competitive diffusion process recovered enzyme activity annotations with 99% and 97% accuracy at half-coverage for the third and fourth Enzyme Commission (EC levels, respectively. This corresponds to false positive rates 4-fold lower than nearest-neighbor and 5-fold lower than sequence-based annotations. In practice, experimental validation of the predicted carboxylesterase activity in a protein from Staphylococcus aureus illustrated the effectiveness of this approach in the context of an increasingly drug-resistant microbe. This study further links molecular function to a small number of evolutionarily important residues recognizable by Evolutionary Tracing and it points to the specificity and sensitivity of functional annotation by competitive global network diffusion. A web server is at http://mammoth.bcm.tmc.edu/networks.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAIN AND THE ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Matko, Andrea Emese; Berde, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    One of the five basic factors in the Lengyel-type pyramid model – institutions and social capital – is essential in the economic growth of the region. Economic success however, does not only depend on participants in the economy, but on social factors such as the roles played by local authorities, including their functions, operation and organisational culture, all of which are crucial factors. Based on the results obtained regarding organisational culture it can be stated that performanc...

  16. Local and Regional Partnerships in Natural Resource Management: The Challenge of Bridging Institutional Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Although collaboration and multi-stakeholder partnerships have become a common feature in natural resource management throughout the world, various problems are associated with attempts to up-scale community-based natural resource management from the local to the regional level. To analyze the reasons behind these problems, this article reports on two examples of collaboratives in Australia: local Landcare groups, and regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies. Recent government-induced changes have shifted the focus from local Landcare group action to strategic planning and implementation by regional NRM bodies. Two typologies of collaboratives are applied to analyze the characteristics of both these groups. The study uses data from 52 qualitative interviews with key informants at the local and regional level in Victoria and Tasmania, participant observation, as well as literature and document analysis. The article illustrates how the groups’ distinct characteristics can cause conflicts when the different types of collaboratives operate in parallel. In addition, the article reports how stakeholders perceive the level of community participation in decision-making processes. The key message is that the benefits of community participation and collaboration that arise at the local level can be lost when these approaches are up-scaled to the regional level unless there is an intermediary or ‘mediating structure’ to facilitate communication and create the link between different types of collaboratives.

  17. How Have Political Incentives for Local Officials Reduced Environmental Pollution in Resource-Depleted Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese resource-exhausted cities face more severe environmental pollution problems than other cities. In addressing these problems, the way local officials (usually senior party and government leaders operate is very important, as their focus on political achievements may complicate how they manage environmental pollution in these cities. On the one hand, the traditional Gross Domestic Product-based quest for political achievement may lead top leaders to de-emphasize environmental pollution. On the other hand, changes made in 2003 to the way the performance of Chinese officials is evaluated have encouraged some local senior party and government leaders to pay more attention to environmental problems. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between political incentives and environmental pollution by applying the 2004–2014 panel data from 37 resource-exhausted cities. The findings reveal that firstly, among the factors which impact the environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities, investment in fixed assets, foreign direct investment, industrial structure, per-capita education expenditure, and population density do not have a significant impact, thus indicating that local openness levels, the degree of industrial upgrading, and local investment in fixed assets are not the key variables in environmental pollution control. Secondly, the extent to which officials vie for political achievement affects environmental pollution in resource-exhausted cities. This depends upon whether the officials are municipal party secretaries or mayors; the former play a greater dynamic role in environmental pollution and have stronger robustness than the latter. The conclusion verifies both the existing authority structure of China and its effectiveness in the control of environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities. That is to say, in contrast to the principles of the party committees, the mayors are in a subordinate position and often fail to

  18. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING BASED ON LOCAL RESOURCES IN DEPOK CITY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahim A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of this study is that Dewa Starfruit as a local resource in Depok City is threatened with extinction. The absence of regulations that protect these local resources and high rate of land use conversion causes decreasing number of starfruit plants and production. Starfruit farmers tend to switch professions to non-agricultural occupations. In national level, the largest number of agricultural business households experienced the greatest decline in horticulture subsector by 37.4% (Agricultural Census 2013. The elected regional head has branded Depok City with the tagline "friendly city" replacing Dewa Starfruit. The government's orientation and support for Dewa starfruit is fading away. Therefore, Depok City Government, especially DKP3, need to develop local resource-based agriculture development plan in order to be able to maintain local resources while improving it for society welfare. This research uses qualitative approach. The research informants were DKP3 apparatus of Depok City, Bappeda (Regional Government apparatus of Depok City, field officer and farmer group. Data collection techniques used in-depth interviews and documentary studies. Data analysis utilized interactive model. Research results indicate that the development of local resource-based agricultural development plans has not gone well. Despite various supporting factors, there are existing inhibiting factors which are land use conversion had never been discussed; DKP3 Depok City efforts to safeguard agricultural issues in musrenbang has not been optimal; no field data update, either by couseling workers or farmers; DKP3 Depok City prioritized RPL activity; uneducated farmers; and absence of regional head support.

  19. Global competition and local cooperation in a network of neural oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, David; Wang, DeLiang

    An architecture of locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks is proposed and investigated both analytically and by computer simulation. The model for each oscillator corresponds to a standard relaxation oscillator with two time scales. Oscillators are locally coupled by a scheme that resembles excitatory synaptic coupling, and each oscillator also inhibits other oscillators through a common inhibitor. Oscillators are driven to be oscillatory by external stimulation. The network exhibits a mechanism of selective gating, whereby an oscillator jumping up to its active phase rapidly recruits the oscillators stimulated by the same pattern, while preventing the other oscillators from jumping up. We show analytically that with the selective gating mechanism, the network rapidly achieves both synchronization within blocks of oscillators that are stimulated by connected regions and desynchronization between different blocks. Computer simulations demonstrate the model's promising ability for segmenting multiple input patterns in real time. This model lays a physical foundation for the oscillatory correlation theory of feature binding and may provide an effective computational framework for scene segmentation and figure/ ground segregation.

  20. THE TOURIST DISTRICT MODEL OF COMPETITIVENESS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN LOCAL TERRITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo GIANNETTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has represented one of the major sources of balance of trade earnings for many years in the most developed countries. According to estimates by the World Tourism Organization (WTO, world tourism flows will grow by 4-5% annually over the coming years, reaching in 2020 an estimated number of 1.6 billion international arrivals, of which 378 million will be short haul international travellers. With the passage of time demand will become more diversified and this will lead to the spread of “new tourism”, the search for new products and increasingly diverse offers, characterized by organized local tourist systems.This paper underlines the importance of the tourist district model as a strategic tool for creating innovative processes of endogenous development in a highly globalized framework, moreover it tries to highlight the peculiarities of tourist districts and their importance in overcoming the major limitations of the distribution chain. Therefore, the birth of the tourism district represents an important opportunity for the promotion of tourism development of different local realities.

  1. OPPORTUNITIES OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT USING NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC RESOURCES IN TOURISM ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY: ULMENI, MARAMUREŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mihaela MOJOLIC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulmeni locality, that became town less than a decade ago, still shows, to a high degree, the general aspects of a rural locality, where agriculture is the main economic component. As capital city of the administrative-territorial division with the same name, Ulmeni town directs the activities of the entire territory. Possessing natural resources marked by the presence of Somes River and the existence of well-wooded areas, as well as anthropogenic resources embodied in values of the national heritage: museums, monuments, religious structures, folk activities, there is the possibility of providing the impulse of local development by means of tourism activities and the awareness of the need to revitalize the entire community.

  2. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  3. Human resources of local governments as motivators of participation of businesses and citizens in protecting of environment

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLIĆ N.; GAJOVIĆ A.; PAUNOVIĆ V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of human resources of local governments in the motivation of businesses and citizens in protecting the environment. The inability to absorb current problems caused by inadequate and incomplete arrangement of utilization of human resources of the local government of Lučani caused the redefining of strategic priorities of environmental protection. The motivational power of human resources of local governments expressed through interaction with the population ...

  4. Competitiveness as a function of local and regional growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bestvina Bukvić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each economic entity, institution and individual has the responsibility of contributing to the economic development in its region. Creating conditions for the development and empowerment of the business sector are activities that in the long run lead to the strengthening of not only certain economic sectors, but the entire region. In the recent period sources from EU funds for co-financing of capital projects have become available to investors. Given the uncertainty in business conditions, investors’ poor capitalization, lack of business profitability and, in terms of profitability and risk, lack of high-quality capital projects, the benefits of these resources are insufficient and/or inadequately used. The aim of this paper is to analyse the strength and capabilities of Croatian companies for financing and implementation of high-quality capital projects. For this purpose, this paper will present the results of research of financial position of selected companies in 2012. Also, it presents the results of research from 2011 that examined the reality of projections of later activated investment projects. These results are the basis for a conclusion about the ability of management, in the analysed region, to make realistic plans and carry out high-quality capital projects.

  5. A resource-based view on collaboration between firms and local partners in a non-urban Swedish context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Lotten

    2016-01-01

    Is it feasible to stimulate informal collaboration among non-urban firms and local public- and other private-sector actors, whereby they jointly strengthen the competitiveness of these firms? To answer this question, firms’ collaboration with local partner’s actors were examined. Most of the studied

  6. Colonisation and extinction in relation to competition and resource partitioning in acanthocephalans of freshwater fishes of the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, A R; Kennedy, C R

    2001-01-01

    This paper challenges two paradigms long held in relation to the ecology of parasites in freshwater systems: (1) autogenic species are poorer colonisers than allogenic ones; and (2) parasites with direct life cycles are more successful colonisers than those with complex life cycles. Using new and existing data for Acanthocephala in freshwater fish from the British Isles, it is suggested that all six species present have been able to colonise and persist successfully, in spite of the supposed limitations of their autogenic life-style. It is proposed that these parasites have overcome these limitations by a variety of means, which apply equally to all species considered. Foremost among these is the utilisation of a migratory fish host as either a preferred or a suitable host in their life cycle, allowing colonisation of new areas and rescue effects in established areas, whilst equally important is the use of a common and widespread crustacean as the intermediate host. In addition, all six species appear to exhibit resource partitioning by host at either or both the larval and adult stages, thus reducing the potential for competition and further facilitating colonisation and survival. This hypothesis is supported by data from previous studies both on acanthocephalans from Europe and North America and on other autogenic parasites. It also provides an explanation for the apparently atypical host utilisation patterns of some acanthocephalan species in areas on the edge of their distributions, notably in Ireland.

  7. Sustainable Tourism and Use of Local Resources As Touristic Products: The Case Of Beysehir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Akgoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is developing using its all resources particularly local touristic resources efficiently. However, as tourism sector could contribute the maintenance of the resources which it uses as touristic product, it also could cause their getting harm or destroyed as well. Tourism is developing using its all sources particularly local touristic sources efficiently. But, tourism sector would cause source’s getting harm or disappearing which it has used as touristic product as well as its contribution to maintenance of them.  Thus the most recently stated concept regarding tourism is the sustainable tourism concept.               In this study, which is conducted for this purpose, sustainable tourism in Beysehir, which has important specifications with its unique natural beauties, rich history and cultural assets, is researched. For this reason, important tourism assets of the region is determined at the beginning and general information related to these is given. Survey questions regarding the topic is prepared after this information. Datum which is obtained from the prepared survey questions are saved in the electronic media and evaluated by the proper software. According to these results, usage of local resources as touristic product and its relation to sustainable tourism is discussed.

  8. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  9. Spatial distribution of limited resources and local density regulation in juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Anders G; Einum, Sigurd; Ugedal, Ola; Forseth, Torbjørn

    2009-01-01

    1. Spatial heterogeneity of resources may influence competition among individuals and thus have a fundamental role in shaping population dynamics and carrying capacity. In the present study, we identify shelter opportunities as a limiting resource for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Experimental and field studies are combined in order to demonstrate how the spatial distribution of shelters may influence population dynamics on both within and among population scales. 2. In closed experimental streams, fish performance scaled negatively with decreasing shelter availability and increasing densities. In contrast, the fish in open stream channels dispersed according to shelter availability and performance of fish remaining in the streams did not depend on initial density or shelters. 3. The field study confirmed that spatial variation in densities of 1-year-old juveniles was governed both by initial recruit density and shelter availability. Strength of density-dependent population regulation, measured as carrying capacity, increased with decreasing number of shelters. 4. Nine rivers were surveyed for spatial variation in shelter availability and increased shelter heterogeneity tended to decrease maximum observed population size (measured using catch statistics of adult salmon as a proxy). 5. Our studies highlight the importance of small-scale within-population spatial structure in population dynamics and demonstrate that not only the absolute amount of limiting resources but also their spatial arrangement can be an important factor influencing population carrying capacity.

  10. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  11. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  12. POLICY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING AND EDUCATION RESOURCES TO REFORM THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICT OF MAKASSAR SIDENRENG RAPPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Maldun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services. 

  13. Local Knowledge, About the Use and Management of Natural Resources From El Consuelo's Moor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Espinosa Becerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The lore biodiversity is associated with the practices of use and management of natural resources. The purpose of this research was to understand the logic of use and management of goods and services received by local actors from El Consuelo's moor, municipality of Cerinza, Boyacá. The study was conducted during 2012 and 2013, and from narrative and ethnographic designs, employing techniques such as semistructured interview,key informant dialogue, participant and nonparticipantobservationand interpretive drawing. It describes six categories of analysis: Moor benefits conceptualization, flora, fauna, soil, water and air. Through the transmission of local knowledge, rural habitants of the moor allocate resources for medicinal, craft, domestic, agricultural and cultural purposes,through management of practices developed in the treatment of common diseases, peasant familiar economy, sowing crop, animal care, and promotion of ecotourism and community outreach activities (distribution of drinking water.

  14. Landscape characterization integrating expert and local spatial knowledge of land and forest resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    2013-09-01

    In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characterization approach to enhance spatial knowledge generation about the complex human-nature interactions in landscapes in the context of Zanzibar, Tanzania. We apply an integrated landscape conceptualization as a theoretical framework where the expert and local knowledge can meet in spatial context. The characterization is based on combining multiple data sources in GIS, and involves local communities and their local spatial knowledge since the beginning into the process. Focusing on the expected information needs for community forest management, our characterization integrates physical landscape features and retrospective landscape change data with place-specific community knowledge collected through participatory GIS techniques. The characterization is established in a map form consisting of four themes and their synthesis. The characterization maps are designed to support intuitive interpretation, express the inherently uncertain nature of the data, and accompanied by photographs to enhance communication. Visual interpretation of the characterization mediates information about the character of areas and places in the studied local landscape, depicting the role of forest resources as part of the landscape entity. We conclude that landscape characterization applied in GIS is a highly potential tool for participatory land and resource management, where spatial argumentation, stakeholder communication, and empowerment are critical issues.

  15. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  16. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: OPERATIONALIZING THE CONCEPT BASED ON THE RESOURCE-ADVANTAGE THEORY DOI: 10.5585/riae.v8i2.1633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Messias Rossi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a method based on the ―competitive advantage‖ concept for the internal analysis of organizations in the context of competition. A qualitative and exploratory research was carried out. From a theoretical literature review on this subject, a preliminary internal analysis methodology was developed, which was then improved with the information collected from the field research. The field research consisted of six case studies conducted in companies working in the area of agrochemical industry in Brazil. Hence, this study proposes a way to operationalize the concept of resources (a theoretical gap observed by some authors. In managerial terms, this study contributes providing administrators with a method of analysis that deals with decisions regarding the management of resources of an organization.

  17. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  18. Local and Transboundary Sharing of Water Resources: Legal and Equity Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumma, A

    2001-01-01

    The article reviewed the law on water in local and transboundary contexts.The aim was to highlight the mechanisms for facilitating equity in the allocation and sharing of the resource. It has been demonstrated that, the relevant local and transboundary laws are in need for further urgent development in order to be able to achieve their objectives. The objective that will be of greatest importance in the 21. century is that of ensuring that, water conservation is fostered and promoted. The effort to meet the increasing demand for water, on the whole, have focused on attempts to increase supply to water users. In the era of increasing water scarcity, the management of demand and development of legal and other mechanisms to ensure efficient utilisation of the available water resources will become the central issue of the day. Equity in allocation will take, as it's central premises the conservation of the limited resource. The law will therefore need to develop increasingly in the direction of fostering a conservation ethic

  19. Competição por recursos do solo entre ervas daninhas e culturas Competition between weeds and crops by soil resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Antônio Rizzardi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A competição entre plantas é um processo importante tanto em comunidades naturais quanto em ambientes agrícolas. O impacto vegetativo das ervas daninhas em agroecossistemas é considerado competição se houver redução no montante de recursos disponíveis para a cultura e, neste contexto, o desenvolvimento das raízes influencia na competitividade e na sobrevivência das plantas. Uma planta que apresenta sistema radical bem desenvolvido em extensão e em comprimento tem sido associada com aumento na habilidade competitiva devido ao maior potencial de absorção de água e nutrientes. A competição entre os sistemas radicais das ervas daninhas e das culturas interfere tanto na disponibilidade de água e nutrientes quanto nas interações por luz, na parte aérea. Entretanto, somente ocorrerá competição quando a zona de depleção das raízes da cultura e das ervas daninhas se sobreporem. A intensidade de competição entre raízes das ervas e da cultura pelos recursos abaixo da superfície do solo dependerá do tipo e da disponibilidade dos recursos e da espécie vegetal e de sua capacidade em desenvolver sistema radical extenso, com diâmetro reduzido e com ampla área superficial.Competition between plants is an important process as much in natural communities as in agricultural environments. The impact of weeds in agroecossystems is refered as competition if there is a reduction in the amount of resources available for the crop and, in this context, root development influences plant competitivity and survival. A plant which presents a well developed root system in extension and in length has been associated with increased competition hability due to a greater absorption capacity of water and nutrients. Competition between root systems of weeds and crops interferes in water and nutrients availability, as well as in interactions for light in the aerial system. However, competition will only occur when depletion zone of crop and weed

  20. A localized swarm of low-resource CubeSat-class spacecraft for auroral ionospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R.; Lynch, K. A.; Gayetsky, L.; Guinther, J.; Slagle, A.; Currey, S.

    2012-12-01

    In interesting and dynamic auroral ionospheric plasmas, single-point in situ measurements are insufficient. Changes in measurements recorded from a single probe can be ascribed to either changes in position or to changes over time, and gradient scales can only be inferred. A localized array of sensors deployed as a low-resource swarm from a main deployer, can address these issues. We consider two aspects of designing such a swarm: (a) maintaining the localization in a low-cost manner, and (b) creating an extremely low-resource spacecraft by taking advantage of commercially available technologies. For a few-week low-altitude mission, STK (SatelliteToolKit) studies show that with proper deployment, an array of CubeSat-class spacecraft near 350 km altitude can regroup once per orbit to within a few 10s of km. Kepler's laws and Hill's equations allow us to put constraints on the capability of the deployer needed, in order to deploy the array with a minimal component of the ejection velocity along the orbital track. In order to keep the cost of each spacecraft low, we are exploring commercially available technologies such as Arduino controllers and video-game sensors. The Arduino on each payload will take in information from the sensors on the payload, and will send the information to a DNT-900MHz local area communications system. We show an example experiment measuring river flows on the Connecticut river, and discuss the design of our payload swarm.

  1. CoBaltDB: Complete bacterial and archaeal orfeomes subcellular localization database and associated resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchetti-Miganeh Céline

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functions of proteins are strongly related to their localization in cell compartments (for example the cytoplasm or membranes but the experimental determination of the sub-cellular localization of proteomes is laborious and expensive. A fast and low-cost alternative approach is in silico prediction, based on features of the protein primary sequences. However, biologists are confronted with a very large number of computational tools that use different methods that address various localization features with diverse specificities and sensitivities. As a result, exploiting these computer resources to predict protein localization accurately involves querying all tools and comparing every prediction output; this is a painstaking task. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive database, called CoBaltDB, that gathers all prediction outputs concerning complete prokaryotic proteomes. Description The current version of CoBaltDB integrates the results of 43 localization predictors for 784 complete bacterial and archaeal proteomes (2.548.292 proteins in total. CoBaltDB supplies a simple user-friendly interface for retrieving and exploring relevant information about predicted features (such as signal peptide cleavage sites and transmembrane segments. Data are organized into three work-sets ("specialized tools", "meta-tools" and "additional tools". The database can be queried using the organism name, a locus tag or a list of locus tags and may be browsed using numerous graphical and text displays. Conclusions With its new functionalities, CoBaltDB is a novel powerful platform that provides easy access to the results of multiple localization tools and support for predicting prokaryotic protein localizations with higher confidence than previously possible. CoBaltDB is available at http://www.umr6026.univ-rennes1.fr/english/home/research/basic/software/cobalten.

  2. Cardiac pre-competiton screening in Swiss athletes. Current situation in competitive athletes and short-time assessment of an exemplary local screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Notz, Sara; Cribari, Marco; Gähwiler, Roman; Keller, Dagmar I; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2012-05-31

    In Switzerland, screening concepts for the prevention of sports-associated sudden cardiac death are still insufficiently established in the large group of competitive athletes who are not integrated in an Olympic- or other high-level squad. The aim of the present study was to objectively determine the current situation in this particular group of athletes concerning cardiac pre-competition screening and define specific features of an "ideal" Swiss screening concept. Based on these data, the feasibility and validity was tested by the implementation of an exemplary local screening programme. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 1,047 competitive athletes of different ages and gender. The individual, sports-specific profile of an athlete and furthermore, the personal attitude towards and the vision of a "perfect" cardiac screening were assessed. Based on the results, an exemplary local screening programme for competitive athletes was implemented at the "Academic Sports Association Zurich" (ASVZ) in Zurich, Switzerland and evaluated 1 year after its introduction. Only 9% of the 1,047 interviewed competitive athletes (aged 13 to 64 years; median age 22 years, SD = 5.87) had previously undergone a cardiac screening. Only 47% of the interviewed competitive athletes expressed their interest to undergo a cardiac screening at all. Male and older athletes showed a significantly higher acceptance rate for the screening programme than women and younger athletes. All athletes accepted to bear the expenses for the baseline screening programme, adapted to international standards (minimal accepted fee of 60 Swiss Francs). Almost half of the athletes (49.2%) preferred easy accessibility to a sports cardiologist (max. distance of 10 kilometres). The exemplary local screening programme proved to be feasible and successful. However, only 30% of the 102 screened individuals were female and most of the athletes (80%) who made use of the screening had a specific concern or

  3. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  4. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  5. Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: An analysis of discourses on the use of local resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodela, R.

    2012-01-01

    The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can

  6. Dynamic provisioning of local and remote compute resources with OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffels, M.; Hauth, T.; Polgart, F.; Quast, G.

    2015-12-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments rely on the extensive usage of computing resources, both for the reconstruction of measured events as well as for Monte-Carlo simulation. The Institut fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is participating in both the CMS and Belle experiments with computing and storage resources. In the upcoming years, these requirements are expected to increase due to growing amount of recorded data and the rise in complexity of the simulated events. It is therefore essential to increase the available computing capabilities by tapping into all resource pools. At the EKP institute, powerful desktop machines are available to users. Due to the multi-core nature of modern CPUs, vast amounts of CPU time are not utilized by common desktop usage patterns. Other important providers of compute capabilities are classical HPC data centers at universities or national research centers. Due to the shared nature of these installations, the standardized software stack required by HEP applications cannot be installed. A viable way to overcome this constraint and offer a standardized software environment in a transparent manner is the usage of virtualization technologies. The OpenStack project has become a widely adopted solution to virtualize hardware and offer additional services like storage and virtual machine management. This contribution will report on the incorporation of the institute's desktop machines into a private OpenStack Cloud. The additional compute resources provisioned via the virtual machines have been used for Monte-Carlo simulation and data analysis. Furthermore, a concept to integrate shared, remote HPC centers into regular HEP job workflows will be presented. In this approach, local and remote resources are merged to form a uniform, virtual compute cluster with a single point-of-entry for the user. Evaluations of the performance and stability of this setup and operational experiences will be discussed.

  7. Sustainable local development in citizen and community spheres. Implications for the governance of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carreón Guillén

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political, citizen, and community spheres, whether global or local, are regulated by systems of governance, which create public interest agendas including tariffs for public services derived from the use of natural resources. In this regard, this paper presents the agreements and disagreements between entrepreneurial, municipal, citizen, and community organizations to establish local development scenarios in reference to the global market. This discussion will create a series of representations that symbolize the dissonance between prosperity and austerity in order to contrast lifestyles oriented towards globalization and livelihoods aimed at sustainability. In this context, different identities have emerged from the alliances between civil and business organizations, in which development is not necessarily a priority; however, such vicissitudes provide central themes for the discussion of economic models.  This paper is important because it envisages a governance scheme that permits including natural resources in the civil, political, and business agenda.  In other words, governance regulates the intrusion of transnational corporations in communities and the inclusion of SMEs in the international market.

  8. Index of sustainability of the water resource for the definition of technological sustainable and competitives strategies in the Microbasin la Centella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha Constanza Daza; Aldemar Reyes Trujillo; Wilmar Loaiza Ceron; Martha Patricia Fajardo Vasquez

    2012-01-01

    The Index of Sustainable Water Resource Management in Agriculture (ISRHA) implemented in the watershed Centella (Dagua, Cauca Valley) assesses the sustainability of water resource management in agriculture, using pressure gauges, for State and Response factor analysis: biophysical, technological, socioeconomic and political-institutional. Each factor is composed of indicators which are evaluated based on parameters established by of ISRHA. The results of applying sustainability index shows a half the three study areas (watersheds La Virgen, Centella and Aguas Calientes), which were rated average to good in the proposed scale (1 to 5), identifying weaknesses and strengths in relation to the factors considered, which allows us to suggest some strategies for sustainability of and competitive for water resources in agricultural production systems in the watershed.

  9. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  10. A simulation study of the effects of architectural constraints and resource translocation on population structure and competition in clonal plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Suzuki, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2002), s. 403-423 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/02/0953; GA MŠk ME 197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : architectural model * architectural rules * competitive ability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2002

  11. Wind versus coal: Comparing the local economic impacts of energy resource development in Appalachia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Alan R.; Hansen, Evan; Hendryx, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Two energy development scenarios were compared for the Coal River Mountain in Raleigh County, West Virginia: (1) mountaintop mining (MTM) of coal, and (2) wind energy plus underground mining of coal. Economic impact computations over the life of each energy development scenario were made on a county basis for output of goods and services, the number of jobs created, and local earnings. Externality costs were assigned monetary values for coal mining and subtracted from earnings. Premature mortality within the general population due to additional coal mining accounted for 96% of these external cost computations. The results showed that economic output over the life of each scenario was twice as high for MTM mining as wind energy plus underground coal mining. Over the short term, employment and earnings were higher for MTM mining, but towards the end of the scenario, cumulative employment and earnings became higher under scenario (2). When local externality costs were subtracted from local earnings, MTM coal production had an overall negative net social impact on the citizens of Raleigh County. The external costs of MTM coal production provide an explanation of the existence of a “resource curse” and the conflicting results of output versus income provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped. - Highlights: ► Mountaintop mining (MTM) was compared to wind plus underground mining. ► Economic output was twice as high for MTM. ► Employment and earnings were cumulatively higher for wind energy. ► Including local externality costs, MTM had an overall negative net social impact. ► Results provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped.

  12. Interference-Aware Radio Resource Management for Local Area Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro CássioB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference-aware multiple access is an enabler to cost-efficient and reliable high data-rate local area wireless access. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware radio resource management scheme where receivers inform about their throughput, interference, and signal levels by means of broadcast messages tied to data reception. In the proposed scheme, the conventional scheduler is extended to interference-aware operation where individual scheduling decisions are based on estimated change in system-level performance. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in system simulations where it is compared to a conventional scheduler and a centralized scheduler (global optimum. The convergence of the proposed scheduler is analyzed and signaling overhead of an example implementation is characterized. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme enables fair and efficient wireless access in challenging interference scenarios, for example, multiple networks deployed in the same geographical area and sharing a common band.

  13. Local and Regional Authorities as Resources for Implementing Universal Design Policy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Einar

    2016-01-01

    The municipalities and regional authorities are in general resources for achieving national goals. Their management and works are crucial to the development and implementation of Universal Design. Through several programmes, national authorities have worked for activating the local and regional levels. The results are visible. We can see a long-term national strategy to help make society accessible to everyone and prevent discrimination. Participating municipalities and regional authorities are now able to create their own policy and strategies and implement solutions. The national programs have involved interested and motivated municipalities. All the 18 counties in Norway have been involved more or less in different periods and the same with up to a third of the about good 400 municipalities.

  14. Local government units initiatives on coastal resource management in adjacent municipalities in Camarines Sur, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, A. Z.; Madela, H. L.

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the local government units (LGUs) initiatives on coastal resource management (CRM) in adjacent municipalities in Camarines Sur, Philippines. The respondents of this study are 100 fisherfolk leaders in the municipalities of Calabanga, Tinambac and Siruma. Descriptive, comparative and evaluative methods of research were employed and a survey questionnaire was used as the primary tool in data gathering. On the test of difference, the computed F-value of 12.038 and p-value of .001 revealed a very high difference in the implementation of CRM initiatives in the adjacent municipalities. The respondents in this study live below the poverty threshold. The intrusion of commercial fishers and the use of active fishing gears inside the 15-km municipal waters significantly affect the marine habitat while fishpond conversion kills the natural cycle in the mangrove forests. However, the FOs membership in the Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council empower them to engage in governance which can be a venue for them to recommend policies related to CRM. As a result of this study, a CRM monitoring and evaluation model was crafted to guide the LGUs in the review, revision and crafting of CRM programs.

  15. Resource allocation in public health practice: a national survey of local public health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nancy M; DesRoches, Catherine; Campbell, Eric G; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an empirical understanding of the types of allocation decisions local health officials (LHOs) make and the factors that influence those allocation decisions. We conducted a national survey of LHOs in the United States in 2008 to 2009. The sample was stratified by the size of the population served by the department. We merged our data with data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. Descriptive statistics were generated using weighted data. Our final sample size was 608 respondents, with an average of 10 years experience. The LHOs reported little shifting of resources among population groups but greater capacity to redirect staffing time. Less than half of LHOs reported using economic analyses or conducting needs assessments when setting priorities. Having sole provider status in a community strongly influenced LHOs' allocation decisions. In addition, the effectiveness of activities, previous budget allocations, and input from boards of health were influential factors in allocation decisions. Public expectations were moderately to very influential, but direct public input had a low impact on allocation decisions. Survey findings provide a clearer understanding of how LHOs fulfill their obligations as stewards of public health resources and ensure effective activities and access to needed services. It may be useful to assess the value of more structured allocation methods (eg, decision frameworks) in the allocation process. Expanding opportunities for public engagement in priority setting may also be valuable for difficult allocation decisions.

  16. The Food and Wine Tourism: A Resource for a New Local Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Calabrò

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Any human activity needs to realize conditions purposeful to the economic objectives to be pursued and to do this, needs to modify the original environmental equilibrium. These situations are clearly observable in agricultural activities, whose development has often determined an “artificialisation” so intense to change the original appearance of entire areas. The evolution of the territorial role of agriculture has implicated the coexistence among various economic activities, some of which have gained benefits from the “artificialisation” realized by farmers. It is the case of touristic activities and food services which take advantages from the beauty and from the attractiveness of landscapes shaped by agricultural activities. The purpose of this paper is to verify how, for territorial realities where tourist offer found its main basis on contexts realized by agriculture, the set of economic activities can take advantages from the sustainable use of the same resource and, therefore, it can contribute to its development. To this aim, we’ll take as an example the recent development of food and wine tourism, in Italy, as an important expression of tangible socio-economic systems based on the enhancement of local resources.

  17. Generating relevant climate adaptation science tools in concert with local natural resource agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, L.; Flint, L. E.; Veloz, S.; Heller, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    To create a framework for adapting to climate change, decision makers operating at the urban-wildland interface need to define climate vulnerabilities in the context of site-specific opportunities and constraints relative to water supply, land use suitability, wildfire risks, ecosystem services and quality of life. Pepperwood's TBC3.org is crafting customized climate vulnerability assessments with selected water and natural resource agencies of California's Sonoma, Marin, Napa and Mendocino counties under the auspices of Climate Ready North Bay, a public-private partnership funded by the California Coastal Conservancy. Working directly with managers from the very start of the process to define resource-specific information needs, we are developing high-resolution, spatially-explicit data products to help local governments and agency staff implement informed and effective climate adaptation strategies. Key preliminary findings for the region using the USGS' Basin Characterization Model (at a 270 m spatial resolution) include a unidirectional trend, independent of greater or lesser precipitation, towards increasing climatic water deficits across model scenarios. Therefore a key message is that managers will be facing an increasingly arid environment. Companion models translate the impacts of shifting climate and hydrology on vegetation composition and fire risks. The combination of drought stress on water supplies and native vegetation with an approximate doubling of fire risks may demand new approaches to watershed planning. Working with agencies we are exploring how to build capacity for protection and enhancement of key watershed functions with a focus on groundwater recharge, facilitating greater drought tolerance in forest and rangeland systems, and considering more aggressive approaches to management of fuel loads. Lessons learned about effective engagement include the need for extended in-depth dialog, translation of key climate adaptation questions into

  18. Local resource based approach to maintaining and preserving rural local access roads assets: Siyatentela institutional framework and governance case study discourses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and other development agencies focusing on the use of appropriate technologies for civil construction be it in the road, transport, water, agriculture or environmental sectors (World Bank 2001; ILO, 2002; Clegg, 2003). The seminal study conducted... and contribution of local resource based approach to rural and community access roads requires a review of the labour based initiatives in the road, transport and infrastructure sub-sector. An apt statement that captures the essence of building local community...

  19. Interactions between the introduced Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the indigenous blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Local-scale food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, I.W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if food competition between mussels and oysters occurs, and how mussel and oyster growth is affected by this interaction. This was done by relating mussel growth to oyster density relating oyster growth to oyster biomass and perform a field control, by

  20. Assessing water resources in Azerbaijan using a local distributed model forced and constrained with global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Hegnauer, Mark; Schellekens, Jaap; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; ten Velden, Corine

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, data is scarce, incomplete and often not easily shared. In these cases, global satellite and reanalysis data provide an alternative to assess water resources. To assess water resources in Azerbaijan, a completely distributed and physically based hydrological wflow-sbm model was set-up for the entire Kura basin. We used SRTM elevation data, a locally available river map and one from OpenStreetMap to derive the drainage direction network at the model resolution of approximately 1x1 km. OpenStreetMap data was also used to derive the fraction of paved area per cell to account for the reduced infiltration capacity (c.f. Schellekens et al. 2014). We used the results of a global study to derive root zone capacity based on climate data (Wang-Erlandsson et al., 2016). To account for the variation in vegetation cover over the year, monthly averages of Leaf Area Index, based on MODIS data, were used. For the soil-related parameters, we used global estimates as provided by Dai et al. (2013). This enabled the rapid derivation of a first estimate of parameter values for our hydrological model. Digitized local meteorological observations were scarce and available only for limited time period. Therefore several sources of global meteorological data were evaluated: (1) EU-WATCH global precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1958-2001 (Harding et al., 2011), (2) WFDEI precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1979-2014 (by Weedon et al., 2014), (3) MSWEP precipitation (Beck et al., 2016) and (4) local precipitation data from more than 200 stations in the Kura basin were available from the NOAA website for a period up to 1991. The latter, together with data archives from Azerbaijan, were used as a benchmark to evaluate the global precipitation datasets for the overlapping period 1958-1991. By comparing the datasets, we found that monthly mean precipitation of EU-WATCH and WFDEI coincided well

  1. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  2. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  3. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  4. Internal resources as applied to differential competitive adaptation process in strategic business sector hotels in Curitiba: comparative study of cases

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Antônio João Hocayen da; Teixeira, Rivanda Meira

    2010-01-01

    Curitiba’s hotel sector has become very attractive to both national and international hotel chains due to the settling of several car-makers in the late 90’s, once accomodation was widely on demand. Therefore organizations part of the hotel industry were inserted in a highly competitive environment in which small, medium and large traditional companies in the hotel business as well as national and international hotel chains have settled in Curitiba for the past few years are all part of. Thus...

  5. Research Universities and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Competition, Resource Concentration, and the "Great Recession" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the U.S. federal government's response to the "Great Recession" as a "natural experiment" whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow…

  6. WASTE OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT – AN ATTEMPT OF THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the real problem of wasting local resources, which is in opposition to the principles of sustainable development, understood as avoiding waste of any resources. The article highlights the key manifestations of this problem and its implication for rural development. Some actions realised in the world are also mentioned – their implementation contributes to the prevention of this phenomenon.

  7. Identifying Socio-Cultural Factors That Impact the Use of Open Educational Resources in Local Public Administrations

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Stoffregen; Jan M. Pawlowski; Eric Ras; Snezana Scepanovic; Dragica Zugic

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in...

  8. OPPORTUNITIES TO INCREASE OF ESTABLISHMENT´S COMPETITIVENESS APPLYING RESOURCES OF INFORMATION LOGISTICS IN THE CONCRETE COMPANY´S ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Ignáczová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article solves the problem about ensuring and managing of the information flow by the institution for higher education – the Technical University of Košice (TUKE and one of its faculty, the Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnology (FBERG. It is paid attention to the university´s official website and its complicacy. TUKE homepage is chosen for the primary source of information and the article explains the opportunities of its improvement for the purpose of streamlining the information behavior of both organizations. The implementations of concrete solution´s offer expects an increasing of organizations´s competitiveness that will promote the status and awareness of the organizations in society.

  9. Mudança tecnológica e estratificação competitiva em um arranjo produtivo do setor ceramista Technological change and competitive stratification in a red ceramic local cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Décio Coimbra de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica competitiva em arranjos produtivos locais é influenciada, com maior ou menor freqüência, pelo impacto de novas tecnologias que alteram as características específicas do mercado, pressionando as empresas a uma constante reavaliação de suas estratégias, métodos e rotinas organizacionais. No nível microdinâmico, tal dinâmica pode ser captada e verificada através da correlação entre a dotação de recursos e índices de desempenho de cada unidade de uma amostra estratificada do arranjo. Essa abordagem, desenvolvida a partir de conceitos da teoria evolucionária de mudança técnica, foi empregada em um estudo exploratório no Pólo de Cerâmica Vermelha do Norte Fluminense (RJ. Inicialmente foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para se captar a diversidade tecnológica existente entre as empresas do arranjo. A partir de uma amostra representativa dessa diversidade, elaborou-se uma tipologia para identificação e caracterização das unidades em grupos estratificados. Como resultado, apresentam-se, a estratificação competitiva para o arranjo, as principais conclusões da pesquisa de campo e algumas considerações sobre a relevância da abordagem proposta.The competitive dynamics in local clusters is influenced for the frequency and impact of new technologies and for the specific characteristics of the market. Such factors press the companies to constant reevaluation of their strategies, methods and organizational routines, leading to a technological stratification process in the local cluster. In the micro-dynamic level, that stratification can be verified through resources endowment and performance indexes of the firms. That approach is based on the evolutionary theory of technical change, which has been adopted in a exploratory research accomplished the North Fluminense red ceramic cluster (North of Rio de Janeiro State to analyze the impact provoked by the process of technological change in the competitive dynamics of

  10. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-04-01

    , young people should be included when recruiting participants to ethnobotanical studies or to any type of consultation about WEP. The habit of using wild edible plants is still alive and is a traditional culinary practice that demonstrates rich traditional knowledge of local people. WEP were found to be important for livelihood as well as showing great potential for crop improvement. Priority species should be promoted for income generation activities through sustainable collection and trade. Communities should engage in minimizing the threats to these valuable resources.

  11. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  12. Prediction of resource volumes at untested locations using simple local prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Coburn, T.C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows how local spatial nonparametric prediction models can be applied to estimate volumes of recoverable gas resources at individual undrilled sites, at multiple sites on a regional scale, and to compute confidence bounds for regional volumes based on the distribution of those estimates. An approach that combines cross-validation, the jackknife, and bootstrap procedures is used to accomplish this task. Simulation experiments show that cross-validation can be applied beneficially to select an appropriate prediction model. The cross-validation procedure worked well for a wide range of different states of nature and levels of information. Jackknife procedures are used to compute individual prediction estimation errors at undrilled locations. The jackknife replicates also are used with a bootstrap resampling procedure to compute confidence bounds for the total volume. The method was applied to data (partitioned into a training set and target set) from the Devonian Antrim Shale continuous-type gas play in the Michigan Basin in Otsego County, Michigan. The analysis showed that the model estimate of total recoverable volumes at prediction sites is within 4 percent of the total observed volume. The model predictions also provide frequency distributions of the cell volumes at the production unit scale. Such distributions are the basis for subsequent economic analyses. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  13. Improving maternal and neonatal departments in high and low resource settings: the opinion of local health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Wickramasinghe, Chandani S; Dharmaratne, Saminda M; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Giordan, Alessia; Zanardo, Vincenzo; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2011-10-01

    We compared local health caregivers' opinions regarding the priority areas for improving the maternal and neonatal departments in low and high resource countries. Personnel involved in maternal and neonatal care operating in level III, teaching hospitals in four countries (Sri Lanka, Mongolia, USA, and Italy) were asked to fill out an anonymous, written questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1112 out of 1265 (87.9%) participants. "Personnel's education" was classified as the first most important intervention by health providers working in high (49.0%) as well as in low (29.9%) resource countries, respectively. Improvement in salary, equipment, internet access, and organizational protocols were considered as the most important interventions by a significantly larger percentage of personnel from low resource countries in comparison with those from high resource countries. Health providers from high resource countries considered organizational aspects (to define specific roles and responsibilities) as a priority more frequently than their colleagues from low resource countries. Although education of personnel was valued as the highest priority for improving maternal and neonatal departments there are substantial differences in priorities associated with the working setting. Local caregivers' opinion may contribute to better design interventions in settings with high or limited resources.

  14. Predicting arsenic and heavy metals contamination in groundwater resources of Ghahavand plain based on an artificial neural network optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Alizamir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of trace elements on human health and the environment gives importance to the analysis of heavy metals contamination in environmental samples and, more particularly, human food sources. Therefore, the current study aimed to predict arsenic and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn contamination in the groundwater resources of Ghahavand Plain based on an artificial neural network (ANN optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA. Methods: This study presents a new method for predicting heavy metal concentrations in the groundwater resources of Ghahavand plain based on ANN and ICA. The developed approaches were trained using 75% of the data to obtain the optimum coefficients and then tested using 25% of the data. Two statistical indicators, the coefficient of determination (R2 and the root-mean-square error (RMSE, were employed to evaluate model performance. A comparison of the performances of the ICA-ANN and ANN models revealed the superiority of the new model. Results of this study demonstrate that heavy metal concentrations can be reliably predicted by applying the new approach. Results: Results from different statistical indicators during the training and validation periods indicate that the best performance can be obtained with the ANN-ICA model. Conclusion: This method can be employed effectively to predict heavy metal concentrations in the groundwater resources of Ghahavand plain.

  15. Local electricity market design for the coordination of distributed energy resources at district level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources at the distribution grid level creates concerns about their successful integration in the existing electric grid, designed for centralized generation by large power plants. Failure to the proper integration of distributed energy resources

  16. Possible Ways and Means for an Enhanced Partnership between the Finance Resources Owners and their Local Beneficiaries in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Mihai TREAPĂT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present some reasons why the financial institutions and the entities active in the Romanian economy have to strengthen their institutional partnership, for the benefit of the entire community. We also analyze the economic factors that interfere into this partnership, and also the possible ways and means of optimization. The study and, particularly the proposed solutions may represent a viable option for an efficient management of the development process of the local communities in Romania. We bring scientific and practical arguments that there is a big need for this partnership, as currently, we are experiencing a big lack of mutual trust that is perceived as a gap in the cooperation between the owners of financial resources, on one hand, and the entrepreneurs and the public authorities, on the other hand. Looking from a European perspective and also from the historical evolution, in Romanian’s case, local economic development is a challenge that must be achieved by valuing any available resource at its best. Local resources are not always enough for financing the development needs of the communities. For progressing, they must be completed with borrowed sources. The banking loan, although it includes collateral costs and risks, represents a resource that must be used accordingly, for not losing the development opportunities. The capital insertion on the local market by banking loan generates an economic increase, social development, and can offer new working places to the local community members. Good knowledge of the lending needs, of the advantages, of the costs but also of the associated risks of the lending activity is essential for fully benefiting of such a resource in the local and regional economic and social development process, for the benefit of all the involved parties.

  17. GIS-based approach for defining bioenergy facilities location: A case study in Northern Spain based on marginal delivery costs and resources competition between facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichelli, Luis; Gnansounou, Edgard [Laboratory of Energy Systems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, LASEN-ICARE-ENAC, Station 18, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a GIS-based decision support system for selecting least-cost bioenergy locations when there is a significant variability in biomass farmgate price and when more than one bioenergy plant with a fixed capacity has to be placed in the region. The methodology tackles the resources competition problem between energy facilities through a location-allocation model based on least-cost biomass quantities. Whole system least delivery cost including intermediate bioenergy products is estimated. The methodology is based on a case study where forest wood residues (FWR) from final cuttings (FCs) are used to produce torrefied wood (TW) in two torrefaction plants (TUs) that supply a gasification unit (GU) in order to produce electricity. The provinces of Navarra, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, Alava, La Rioja, Cantabria and Burgos are assessed in order to find the best locations for settling down the TUs and the GU according to biomass availability, FWR and TW marginal delivery costs. (author)

  18. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network. (paper)

  19. Local Talent: By Tapping into the Resources Just outside Their School Walls, Music Teachers Can Help Broaden Their Students' Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Mac

    2009-01-01

    Many music teachers across the country have learned how beneficial it can be to tap into the communities around them. The author discusses how music teachers can help broaden their students' horizons by tapping into the resources just outside their school walls. One way is by employing local talents. Another is to put an ad in nearby music stores,…

  20. Place Based STEM: Leveraging Local Resources to Engage K-12 Teachers in Teaching Integrated STEM and for Addressing the Local STEM Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Louis Nadelson; Anne Louise Seifert; Meagan McKinney

    2014-06-01

    Business, industry, parks, nature settings, government infrastructure, and people, can be invaluable resources for connecting STEM curriculum within context which results in conditions ideal for promoting purposeful learning of authentic STEM content. Thus, community-based STEM resources offer ideal context for teaching STEM content. A benefit of focusing teacher attention on these contextual, content aligned resources is that they are in every community; making place-based STEM education a possibility, regardless of the location of STEM teaching and learning. Further, associating STEM teaching and learning with local resources addresses workforce development and the STEM pipeline by exposing students to STEM careers and applications in their local communities. The desire to align STEM teaching and learning with local STEM related resources guided the design of our week-long integrated STEM K-12 teacher professional development (PD) program, i-STEM. We have completed four years of our i-STEM PD program and have made place-based STEM a major emphasis of our curriculum. This report focuses on the data collected in the fourth year of our program. Our week-long i-STEM PD served over 425 educators last summer (2013), providing them with in depth theme-based integrated STEM short courses which were limited to an average of 15 participants and whole group plenary sessions focused around placed based integrated STEM, inquiry, engineering design, standards and practices of Common Core and 21st Century skills. This state wide PD was distributed in five Idaho community colleges and took place over two weeks. The STEM short courses included topics on engineering for sustainability, using engineering to spark interest in STEM, municipal water systems, health, agriculture, food safety, mining, forestry, energy, and others. Integral to these short courses were field trips designed to connect the K-12 educators to the resources in their local communities that could be leveraged

  1. Factors influencing local ecological knowledge of forage resources: Ethnobotanical evidence from West Africa's savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, John-Baptist S N; Guuroh, Reginald T

    2017-03-01

    Recording local ecological knowledge (LEK) is a useful approach to understanding interactions of the complex social-ecological systems. In spite of the recent growing interest in LEK studies on the effects of climate and land use changes, livestock mobility decisions and other aspects of agro-pastoral systems, LEK on forage plants has still been vastly under-documented in the West African savannas. Using a study area ranging from northern Ghana to central Burkina Faso, we thus aimed at exploring how aridity and socio-demographic factors drive the distributional patterns of forage-related LEK among its holders. With stratified random sampling, we elicited LEK among 450 informants in 15 villages (seven in Ghana and eight in Burkina Faso) via free list tasks coupled with ethnobotanical walks and direct field observations. We performed generalized linear mixed-effects models (aridity- and ethnicity-based models) and robust model selection procedures. Our findings revealed that LEK for woody and herbaceous forage plants was strongly influenced by the ethnicity-based model, while aridity-based model performed better for LEK on overall forage resources and crop-related forage plants. We also found that climatic aridity had negative effect on the forage-related LEK across gender and age groups, while agro- and floristic diversity had positive effect on the body of LEK. About 135 species belonging to 95 genera and 52 families were cited. Our findings shed more light on how ethnicity and environmental harshness can markedly shape the body of LEK in the face of global climate change. Better understanding of such a place-based knowledge system is relevant for sustainable forage plants utilization and livestock production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  3. Analysis of Tourism Resource Dependency on Collaboration among Local Governments in the Multi-Regional Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Dong-Won

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to derive the multidimensional attributes of resource dependency of local governments in multi-regional tourism development. The questionnaire was designed based on resource dependence theory and related literature, and five factors of resource dependency were derived by analysis of the questionnaire for the civil servants who participated in the Jirisan area tourism development project which is a representative multi-regional tourism development project of Korea. The measured values of the derived possession, importance, discretion, alternative, and connection were found in various ways according to the project characteristics such as project scale and visitors in the Jirisan area tourism development project. This shows that a variety of variables have an effect on resource dependency.

  4. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  5. APPROACHING COMPETITIVENESS AT THE LEVEL OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORINA NIŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of multinational corporations is a particularly complex concept due to the fact that at present this type of company represents economic entities which continue to develop in the context of the process of internationalization and the transition to the use of global strategies. Competitiveness is a competition between corporations for new positions on the markets. With regard to the competitiveness of multinational corporations, the most accurate description was given by Gilbert Abraham Frois who believed these businesses must think globally, but act locally. In the competitive global market, emphasis is laid on plus – the value given by the competitiveness of the human element, taking into account the fact that the human resource doesn’t run out, and its value doesn’t decrease over time, but on the contrary, its value increases on condition that it is rigorously managed and developed.

  6. Local and Indigenous Knowledge Regarding the Land Use and Use of Other Natural Resources in the Aspiring Rio Coco Geopark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásková, Martina

    2017-12-01

    There is a limited number of studies describing the situation and importance of current or potential usage of the local and indigenous traditional environmental knowledge in the region of Northern Nicaragua. To fill this gap, the author supported by a local team conducted the participative research in this rather neglected Central American region, concretely in the northern area of the aspiring Rio Coco Geopark. The purpose of this research was to identify the local and indigenous knowledge regarding the present and traditional use of natural resources including land use and to analyse the contribution and potential of the usage of this knowledge for the local development sustainability. The practical long-term impact of this research is expected mainly in the form of enhancement of the local geotourism sustainability. The research process itself was of the same importance as its results, especially the involvement of the local and indigenous people. In this participative research, young local and indigenous people obtained training and served as co-investigators who later interviewed representatives of the local households. The other field methods included life history of elders, discussions in the focal groups involving common people from local communities as well as the mapping and photo-documentation of the identified local and indigenous traditional environmental knowledge. The participative character of the research process not only facilitated the data collection and validation but also supported the revival of the community memory and revitalization of its cultural and natural identity. The research findings point out that the more distant and more dispersed are the local settlements the better conserved local and indigenous knowledge regarding the traditional land use and other use of natural resources is. Among the best-conserved local and indigenous traditional environmental knowledge in the northern area of the aspiring Rio Coco Geopark was the usage of

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    back to 1967, when the first Olympiad was organized in Warsaw, Poland. Today this Olympiad is a worldwide enterprise, and in the 2008 competition in Hanoi, Vietnam, students from 82 countries took part. An overview of the problems and a summary of the results of this Olympiad are given in the first paper, prepared by the organizers of the competition [3]. The students work on four or five different problems, three theoretical ones on one day, and one or two experimental tasks on another. On each day, they have five hours to accomplish their tasks. The problems are prepared by the local organizer, usually a team of physicists from universities in the home country. The level is set by an international syllabus, and the content and wording of the problems have to be agreed by a majority of the supervisors (one from each participating country) in an initial meeting. Afterwards the tasks are translated into the various languages of the competitors; the students also write their results in their own language. The number of awards (gold, silver and bronze, as well as honorable mentions) varies from competition to competition, since it depends on the number of participants. A team consists of at most five students, but they do not act as a team—they work independantly. The selection process in individual countries varies, but is usually executed in several steps, starting from school competitions and going on to regional and national ones. Training courses are often organized on the same levels. Big differences can be seen in training courses at the highest level, the duration ranging from one week to several months. The International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT) is completely different in spirit [4]. Whereas the students work individually in the Olympiad, IYPT is a competition between teams. In addition, the 17 tasks are known almost a year in advance. The problems are very open, allow for different approaches and include experimental as well as theoretical work. The

  8. Exploring the Factors of an Enterprise Resource Planning System in a Local Government Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Bryan T.

    2012-01-01

    The enterprise resource planning (ERP) system industry accounts for $8.8 billion annually. Enterprise resource planning systems are not performing as expected due to implementation barriers, changes in job responsibilities, and access to information; 50% of all information technology failures are due to the implementation of ERP systems. Guided by…

  9. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  10. Municipal Elections in the Russian Federation as a Resource of Direct Democracy and Legitimacy of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Trykanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article author carries out content – the analysis of the factors defining objectivity and efficiency of municipal elections as socio-political and organizational and legal resource of direct democracy and legitimacy of local government. In the course of research the author analyzes regulations, opinions of scientists-jurists. In the conclusion the author notes that municipal elections are a resource of direct democracy if organizational and legal and socio-political conditions of legitimization of results of electoral municipal process are met.

  11. From invasion to latency: intracellular noise and cell motility as key controls of the competition between resource-limited cellular populations

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Pilar

    2015-04-02

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper we analyse stochastic models of the competition between two resource-limited cell populations which differ in their response to nutrient availability: the resident population exhibits a switch-like response behaviour while the invading population exhibits a bistable response. We investigate how noise in the intracellular regulatory pathways and cell motility influence the fate of the incumbent and invading populations. We focus initially on a spatially homogeneous system and study in detail the role of intracellular noise. We show that in such well-mixed systems, two distinct regimes exist: In the low (intracellular) noise limit, the invader has the ability to invade the resident population, whereas in the high noise regime competition between the two populations is found to be neutral and, in accordance with neutral evolution theory, invasion is a random event. Careful examination of the system dynamics leads us to conclude that (i) even if the invader is unable to invade, the distribution of survival times, PS(t), has a fat-tail behaviour (PS(t)∼t-1) which implies that small colonies of mutants can coexist with the resident population for arbitrarily long times, and (ii) the bistable structure of the invading population increases the stability of the latent population, thus increasing their long-term likelihood of survival, by decreasing the intensity of the noise at the population level. We also examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. In the low noise limit we find that cell motility is positively correlated with the aggressiveness of the invader as defined by the time the invader takes to invade the resident population: the faster the invasion, the more aggressive the invader.

  12. From invasion to latency: intracellular noise and cell motility as key controls of the competition between resource-limited cellular populations

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Pilar; Byrne, Helen M.; Maini, Philip K.; Alarcó n, Tomá s

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper we analyse stochastic models of the competition between two resource-limited cell populations which differ in their response to nutrient availability: the resident population exhibits a switch-like response behaviour while the invading population exhibits a bistable response. We investigate how noise in the intracellular regulatory pathways and cell motility influence the fate of the incumbent and invading populations. We focus initially on a spatially homogeneous system and study in detail the role of intracellular noise. We show that in such well-mixed systems, two distinct regimes exist: In the low (intracellular) noise limit, the invader has the ability to invade the resident population, whereas in the high noise regime competition between the two populations is found to be neutral and, in accordance with neutral evolution theory, invasion is a random event. Careful examination of the system dynamics leads us to conclude that (i) even if the invader is unable to invade, the distribution of survival times, PS(t), has a fat-tail behaviour (PS(t)∼t-1) which implies that small colonies of mutants can coexist with the resident population for arbitrarily long times, and (ii) the bistable structure of the invading population increases the stability of the latent population, thus increasing their long-term likelihood of survival, by decreasing the intensity of the noise at the population level. We also examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. In the low noise limit we find that cell motility is positively correlated with the aggressiveness of the invader as defined by the time the invader takes to invade the resident population: the faster the invasion, the more aggressive the invader.

  13. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  14. Sex allocation and investment into pre- and post-copulatory traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites: the role of polyandry and local sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärer, Lukas; Pen, Ido

    2013-03-05

    Sex allocation theory predicts the optimal allocation to male and female reproduction in sexual organisms. In animals, most work on sex allocation has focused on species with separate sexes and our understanding of simultaneous hermaphrodites is patchier. Recent theory predicts that sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites should strongly be affected by post-copulatory sexual selection, while the role of pre-copulatory sexual selection is much less clear. Here, we review sex allocation and sexual selection theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites, and identify several strong and potentially unwarranted assumptions. We then present a model that treats allocation to sexually selected traits as components of sex allocation and explore patterns of allocation when some of these assumptions are relaxed. For example, when investment into a male sexually selected trait leads to skews in sperm competition, causing local sperm competition, this is expected to lead to a reduced allocation to sperm production. We conclude that understanding the evolution of sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites requires detailed knowledge of the different sexual selection processes and their relative importance. However, little is currently known quantitatively about sexual selection in simultaneous hermaphrodites, about what the underlying traits are, and about what drives and constrains their evolution. Future work should therefore aim at quantifying sexual selection and identifying the underlying traits along the pre- to post-copulatory axis.

  15. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...... an early-season competitive advantage to the crop and (3) maximising resource capture by the crop using competitive species, competitive cultivars, high sowing densities, optimal spatial arrangement, intercropping complimentary species or transplanting....

  16. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies (electronic resource)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Stoto, Michael A; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Dausey, David J; Meade, Barbara; Diamond, Alexis; Molander, Roger C

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  17. Do sex-specific densities affect local survival of free-ranging great tits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Competition within sexes is expected when resources are sex specific, whereas competition between sexes can occur when similar resources are exploited. Local population density and sex ratio will determine the amount of sex-specific interactions and thus the potential degree of sex-specific

  18. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  19. The Analysis of a Link Between a Remote Local Area Network and Its Server Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaver, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    ... paramount. One way to provide this support is to create a Local Area Network (LAN) in which the workstations are positioned at the deployed location while the servers are maintained at a Main Operating Base (MOB...

  20. Cooperation at different scales: challenges for local and international water resource governance in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mirumachi, N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available . This paper examines how the cooperative principle has influenced stakeholder interaction at the local and international scales of water governance in South Africa. Water policies and initiatives have been set up to promote multi-level governance...

  1. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  2. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  3. The Management of Local Government Apparatus Resource Based on Job and Workload Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyasari, Erlita

    2016-01-01

    This Papers focus on Job analysis as the basis of human resource system. It is describe about the job and workload and also the obstacles that are perhaps to observe during the work, and to supply all of activities of human resource management in the organization. Workload analysis is a process to decide the sum of time required to finish a specific job. The result of job and workload analysis goals to determine the number of employees needed in correspond to some specific workload and respon...

  4. Intensified Local Resource Mobilization for the Polio Eradication Initiative: The Experience of World Health Organization in Nigeria During 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehualashet, Yared G; Horton, Janet; Mkanda, Pascal; Vaz, Rui G; Afolabi, Oluwole; Gashu, Sisay G; Banda, Richard; O'Malley, Helena; Nsubuga, Peter

    2016-05-01

    submitted 102 grant reports and facilitated >20 joint project assessment exercises. The polio program in Nigeria has achieved unprecedented gains, despite prevailing security and operational challenges, with no case of wild poliovirus infection since July 2014. Through rigorous, transparent, and accountable funds management practice, the WHO country office in Nigeria gained donors' confidence. The locally mobilized funds have made a remarkable contribution to the successful implementation of the strategies set out in the polio emergency plan. We face the challenges of a narrow donor-base, donor fatigue, and competition among other emerging agencies joining the polio eradication initiative efforts over the last few years. We actively engage the national authorities and partners for effective coordination of the polio eradication initiative program and harmonization of resources, using the existing platforms at national, state, and local levels. We recommend strengthening the local resource mobilization machinery and broadening the donor base, to support the polio endgame strategy. Such efforts should also be adopted to support routine immunization, introduction of new vaccines, and strengthening of health systems in the country as part of polio legacy planning. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  5. Intensified Local Resource Mobilization for the Polio Eradication Initiative: The Experience of World Health Organization in Nigeria During 2008–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehualashet, Yared G.; Horton, Janet; Mkanda, Pascal; Vaz, Rui G.; Afolabi, Oluwole; Gashu, Sisay G.; Banda, Richard; O'Malley, Helena; Nsubuga, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Country Office team produced and submitted 102 grant reports and facilitated >20 joint project assessment exercises. Discussion. The polio program in Nigeria has achieved unprecedented gains, despite prevailing security and operational challenges, with no case of wild poliovirus infection since July 2014. Through rigorous, transparent, and accountable funds management practice, the WHO country office in Nigeria gained donors' confidence. The locally mobilized funds have made a remarkable contribution to the successful implementation of the strategies set out in the polio emergency plan. We face the challenges of a narrow donor-base, donor fatigue, and competition among other emerging agencies joining the polio eradication initiative efforts over the last few years. We actively engage the national authorities and partners for effective coordination of the polio eradication initiative program and harmonization of resources, using the existing platforms at national, state, and local levels. We recommend strengthening the local resource mobilization machinery and broadening the donor base, to support the polio endgame strategy. Such efforts should also be adopted to support routine immunization, introduction of new vaccines, and strengthening of health systems in the country as part of polio legacy planning. PMID:26912380

  6. Access Point Backhaul Resource Aggregation as a Many-to-One Matching Game in Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawther Hassine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies backhaul bandwidth aggregation in the context of a wireless local area network composed of two different types of access points: those with spare backhaul capacity (which we term providers and those in shortage of it (beneficiaries; the aim is to transfer excess capacity from providers to beneficiaries. We model the system as a matching game with many-to-one setting wherein several providers can be matched to one beneficiary and adopt the so-called deferred acceptance algorithm to reach an optimal and stable solution. We consider two flavors, when the beneficiaries are limited in their resource demands and when they are not, and two scenarios, when resources are abundant and when they are scarce. Our results show that the many-to-one setting outperforms the one-to-one case in terms of overall throughput gain, resource usage, and individual beneficiaries satisfaction by up to 50%, whether resources are scarce or abundant. As of the limited versus nonlimited case, the former ensures more fair sharing of spectral resources and higher satisfaction percentage between beneficiaries.

  7. Performance evaluation of data center service localization based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tan, Yuanlong; Lin, Yi; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-09-07

    Data center interconnection with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends the data center resources to user side to enhance the end-to-end quality of service. We propose a novel data center service localization (DCSL) architecture based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic data center optical network. A migration evaluation scheme (MES) is introduced for DCSL based on the proposed architecture. The DCSL can enhance the responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end data center demands, and effectively reduce the blocking probability to globally optimize optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of our OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of MES scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on DCSL architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  8. Resource capture and competitive ability of non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus spp. and P. destructans, the cause of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Wilson

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is a devastating fungal disease that has been causing the mass mortality of hibernating bats in North America since 2006 and is caused by the psychrophilic dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Infected bats shed conidia into hibernaculum sediments and surfaces, but it is unknown if P. destructans can form stable, reproductive populations outside its bat hosts. Previous studies have found non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus in bat hibernacula, and these fungi may provide insight into the natural history of P. destructans. We compared the relatedness, resource capture, and competitive ability of non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates with P. destructans to determine if they have similar adaptations for survival in hibernacula sediment. All non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates grew faster, utilized a broader range of substrates with higher efficiency, and were generally more resistant to antifungals compared to P. destructans. All isolates also showed the ability to displace P. destructans in co-culture assays, but only some produced extractible antifungal metabolites. These results suggest that P. destructans would perform poorly in the same environmental niche as non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus, and must have an alternative saprophytic survival strategy if it establishes active populations in hibernaculum sediment and non-host surfaces.

  9. Resource capture and competitive ability of non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus spp. and P. destructans, the cause of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael B; Held, Benjamin W; Freiborg, Amanda H; Blanchette, Robert A; Salomon, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating fungal disease that has been causing the mass mortality of hibernating bats in North America since 2006 and is caused by the psychrophilic dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Infected bats shed conidia into hibernaculum sediments and surfaces, but it is unknown if P. destructans can form stable, reproductive populations outside its bat hosts. Previous studies have found non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus in bat hibernacula, and these fungi may provide insight into the natural history of P. destructans. We compared the relatedness, resource capture, and competitive ability of non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates with P. destructans to determine if they have similar adaptations for survival in hibernacula sediment. All non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates grew faster, utilized a broader range of substrates with higher efficiency, and were generally more resistant to antifungals compared to P. destructans. All isolates also showed the ability to displace P. destructans in co-culture assays, but only some produced extractible antifungal metabolites. These results suggest that P. destructans would perform poorly in the same environmental niche as non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus, and must have an alternative saprophytic survival strategy if it establishes active populations in hibernaculum sediment and non-host surfaces.

  10. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 2: identifying opportunities for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Kelly, Cate; Thiagarajan, Malar

    2017-05-05

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Rising healthcare costs, continuing advances in health technologies and recognition of ineffective practices and systematic waste are driving disinvestment of health technologies and clinical practices that offer little or no benefit in order to maximise outcomes from existing resources. However there is little information to guide regional health services or individual facilities in how they might approach disinvestment locally. This paper outlines the investigation of potential settings and methods for decision-making about disinvestment in the context of an Australian health service. Methods include a literature review on the concepts and terminology relating to disinvestment, a survey of national and international researchers, and interviews and workshops with local informants. A conceptual framework was drafted and refined with stakeholder feedback. There is a lack of common terminology regarding definitions and concepts related to disinvestment and no guidance for an organisation-wide systematic approach to disinvestment in a local healthcare service. A summary of issues from the literature and respondents highlight the lack of theoretical knowledge and practical experience and provide a guide to the information required to develop future models or methods for disinvestment in the local context. A conceptual framework was developed. Three mechanisms that provide opportunities to introduce disinvestment decisions into health service systems and processes were identified. Presented in order of complexity, time to achieve outcomes and resources required they include 1) Explicit consideration of potential disinvestment in routine decision-making, 2) Proactive decision-making about disinvestment driven by available evidence from published research and local data, and 3) Specific exercises in

  11. Toward Sustainable Communities: A Resource Book for Municipal and Local Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseland, Mark

    This book is intended as a resource for elected officials, municipal staff, and citizens who would like to apply the concept of sustainable development in their communities through an ecosystems approach to human settlements management. The subcomponents of human community life and its impact on the environment are explored. Included are tested,…

  12. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  13. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  14. The Resource-Based Theory and Disaster Management: Implication for Local Government in Managing a Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumasari, Bevaola

    2012-01-01

    Artikel ini adalah kajian evaluasi mengenai kapabilitas pemerintah daerah Bantul menangani bencana gempa. Tujuan utama adalah untuk mengerahkan semua sumber daya yang ada untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi yang berkaitan dengan melindungi dan menguangi kerentanan masyarakat terhadap bencana. Pemahaman teori berbasis sumber daya (resource based theory.RBT) dapat membantu organisasi mengidentifikasi sumber daya yang dimiliki organisasi untuk mencapai tujuannya. RBT menggunakan perspektif dari kap...

  15. Bioenergy and the Sustainability Transition: from Local Resource to Global Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis X.

    2007-07-01

    The looming threat of climate change and the invaluable role of energy in development have complicated the global transition to sustainable energy while also increasing the urgency of the transition. Bioenergy has a key role in this transition due to its unique characteristics among renewable energy sources, the concentration of bioenergy potential in major developing country regions, and the close relationship between biomass resources and carbon management strategies. This paper offers a conceptual model for bioenergy's role in the transition, outlining its key elements and their significance with respect to environment and development. In spite of the globalising economy, the security of energy supply continues to be threatened by geo-political conflicts. Continued expansion of energy consumption is constrained by its environmental impacts. At the same time two billion persons have little or no access to modern energy services. The diversity and flexibility of bioenergy systems offers opportunities to bridge some of the key divisions-technical, political, economic, and environmental-that have complicated international efforts to address climate change and promote equitable development of global resources. The challenge is to take advantage of the heterogeneity of biomass resources to facilitate the most effective use of those resources in the emerging bio-economy. (auth)

  16. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  17. 78 FR 43198 - Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... auction impact the effectiveness of forward procurement for reliability purposes? Why or why not? 11:15 a... three-year forward resource adequacy obligation backed by a market-based CAISO backstop procurement... development of a durable, market-based mechanism to provide incentives to insure reliability needs are met...

  18. Factors shaping competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regions are competing between themselves for the highest position in the country. Achieving and maintaining this position is associated with benefits such as attracting investors, the growth of entrepreneurship living in the region or commune, improvement of housing conditions, local enrichment, lower unemployment, lower social spending and the development of the real estate market. The inventors of the region potential are: entrepreneurs, groups connecting various environments (clusters, associations, Special Economic Zones, knowledge, innovation, and the living conditions of citizens. Regions compete with each other by using monuments, attracting investors and investing funds. The main factors of territorial competition are associated with local resources. The most common and most general division of territorial competitiveness factors are classified into internal and external. External factors include national and global environment, social, economic and spacious politics of the state and other organizations. Internal factors are local opportunities and development needs. They are in the local coordinate system and depend on local resources (quantity and quality of education inhabitants of commune or region, natural resources in the region, the policy of the region - pro-health, pro-family and pro-environmental, infrastructure, their accessibility, quality and efficiency of their use. The aim of this article is to discuss about creators of region potential (mainly entrepreneurs, clusters, associations, Special Economic Zones, and the relationships between them.

  19. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  20. The ideal usage of sustainable materials and local resources of the interior space design in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi Hussien, Mayyadah [Department of Interior Design, Faculty of Architect and Art, Petra University (Jordan)], Email: Mayada19732004@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    A large amount of waste is generated by buildings over their life cycle, from construction and operation to destruction. Sustainable design principles and recycling programs in buildings can help moderate this waste. The simplest way is directly through the materials used in the building's construction. The materials and resources used should focus on the health and productivity consequences for the building's inhabitants and its environmental, social and economic impacts. This aim of this study is to make certain recommendations with respect to the use of sustainable building materials and resources in indoor spaces in Jordan. A general overview of collection and storage of recyclable materials, waste management, material reuse, and green and rapidly renewable materials is given. Sustainable material usage in the elements of interior design in Jordan is also discussed in two case studies. A set of indicators is proposed which identify the ideal sustainable materials and resources for use in interior design in Jordan to provide a healthy living environment.

  1. No Child Left Behind and Administrative Costs: A Resource Dependence Study of Local School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the impact of federal funding on the administrative expenditures of local school districts since the passage of the No-Child-Left-Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Under NCLB, federal education funds were made contingent upon a variety of accountability and reporting standards, creating new administrative costs and challenges for…

  2. Human Resource Management in Selected Japanese Firms, Their Foreign Subsidiaries and Locally Owned Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Hem C.

    1990-01-01

    Examines differences between Japanese and North American personnel management philosophies. Considers to what extent practices of Japanese corporations have been transferred to subsidiaries in Canada, India, Malaysia, and Singapore, compared to locally owned firms. Shows how cultural factors affect styles of personnel management. (SK)

  3. Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedogo, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA)

  4. Multiple Drivers of Local (Non- Compliance in Community-Based Marine Resource Management: Case Studies from the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne R. Rohe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of marine conservation and related management interventions depend to a large extent on people's compliance with these rule systems. In the South Pacific, community-based marine resource management (CBMRM has gained wide recognition as a strategy for the sustainable management of marine resources. In current practice, CBMRM initiatives often build upon customary forms of marine governance, integrating scientific advice and management principles in collaboration with external partners. However, diverse socio-economic developments as well as limited legal mandates can challenge these approaches. Compliance with and effective (legally-backed enforcement of local management strategies constitute a growing challenge for communities—often resulting in considerable impact on the success or failure of CBMRM. Marine management arrangements are highly dynamic over time, and similarly compliance with rule systems tends to change depending on context. Understanding the factors contributing to (non- compliance in a given setting is key to the design and function of adaptive management approaches. Yet, few empirical studies have looked in depth into the dynamics around local (non- compliance with local marine tenure rules under the transforming management arrangements. Using two case studies from Solomon Islands and Fiji, we investigate what drives local (non- compliance with CBMRM and what hinders or supports its effective enforcement. The case studies reveal that non-compliance is mainly driven by: (1 diminishing perceived legitimacy of local rules and rule-makers; (2 increased incentives to break rules due to market access and/ or lack of alternative income; and (3 relatively weak enforcement of local rules (i.e., low perceptions of risk from sanctions for rule-breaking. These drivers do not stand alone but can act together and add up to impair effective management. We further analyze how enforcement of CBMRM is challenged through a range of

  5. U.S. Geological Survey; North Carolina's water resources; a partnership with State, Federal and local agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    For more than 80 years, the Federal-State Cooperative Program in North Carolina has been an effective partnership that provides timely water information for all levels of government. The cooperative program has raised awareness of State and local water problems and issues and has enhanced transfer and exchange of scientific information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts statewide water-resources investigations in North Carolina that include hydrologic data collection, applied research studies, and other interpretive studies. These programs are funded through cooperative agreements with the North Carolina Departments of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources; Human Resources; and Transportation, as well as more than a dozen city and county governmental agencies. The USGS also conducts special studies and data-collection programs for Federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that contribute to North Carolina's water information data base. Highlights of selected programs are presented to show the scope of USGS activities in North Carolina and their usefulness in addressing water-resource problems. The reviewed programs include the statewide data-collection program, estuarine studies, the National Water-Quality Assessment program, military installation restoration program, and groundwater flow model-development program in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont provinces.

  6. Resource specialists lead local insect community turnover associated with temperature - analysis of an 18-year full-seasonal record of moths and beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    role of resource specialization in explaining the compositional and phenological responses of insect communities to local temperature increases. We propose that resource specialists in particular are affected by local temperature increase, leading to the distinct temperature-mediated turnover seen...... opportunity for predictions about responses of resource specialists, and long-term time series are essential in revealing these responses. Here, we investigate temperature-related changes in local insect communities, using a sampling site with more than a quarter-million records from two decades (1992...

  7. Competitive interactions of attentional resources in early visual cortex during sustained visuospatial attention within or between visual hemifields: evidence for the different-hemifield advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sabrina; Quigley, Cliodhna; Mueller, Matthias M

    2014-05-01

    Performing a task across the left and right visual hemifields results in better performance than in a within-hemifield version of the task, termed the different-hemifield advantage. Although recent studies used transient stimuli that were presented with long ISIs, here we used a continuous objective electrophysiological (EEG) measure of competitive interactions for attentional processing resources in early visual cortex, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). We frequency-tagged locations in each visual quadrant and at central fixation by flickering light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at different frequencies to elicit distinguishable SSVEPs. Stimuli were presented for several seconds, and participants were cued to attend to two LEDs either in one (Within) or distributed across left and right visual hemifields (Across). In addition, we introduced two reference measures: one for suppressive interactions between the peripheral LEDs by using a task at fixation where attention was withdrawn from the periphery and another estimating the upper bound of SSVEP amplitude by cueing participants to attend to only one of the peripheral LEDs. We found significantly greater SSVEP amplitude modulations in Across compared with Within hemifield conditions. No differences were found between SSVEP amplitudes elicited by the peripheral LEDs when participants attended to the centrally located LEDs compared with when peripheral LEDs had to be ignored in Across and Within trials. Attending to only one LED elicited the same SSVEP amplitude as Across conditions. Although behavioral data displayed a more complex pattern, SSVEP amplitudes were well in line with the predictions of the different-hemifield advantage account during sustained visuospatial attention.

  8. Energy resource alternatives competition. Progress report for the period February 1, 1975--December 31, 1975. [Space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity for homes, farms, and light industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, D.J.; Osowski, D.M.; Radtke, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    This progress report describes the objectives and results of the intercollegiate Energy Resource Alternatives competition. The one-year program concluded in August 1975, with a final testing program of forty student-built alternative energy projects at the Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The goal of the competition was to design and build prototype hardware which could provide space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity at a level appropriate to the needs of homes, farms, and light industry. The hardware projects were powered by such nonconventional energy sources as solar energy, wind, biologically produced gas, coal, and ocean waves. The competition rules emphasized design innovation, economic feasibility, practicality, and marketability. (auth)

  9. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Charlotte Filt; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; He, Jun; Neergaard, Andreas de

    2015-01-01

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  10. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  11. Functional localization of a "Time Keeper" function separate from attentional resources and task strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, J I; Faro, S H; Mohamed, F B; Pinsk, M; Pinus, A

    2000-03-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of time estimation has not been well-documented. This research investigated the fMRI measured brain response to an explicit, prospective time interval production (TIP) task. The study tested for the presence of brain activity reflecting a primary time keeper function, distinct from the brain systems involved either in conscious strategies to monitor time or attentional resource and other cognitive processes to accomplish the task. In the TIP task participants were given a time interval and asked to indicate when it elapsed. Two control tasks (counting forwards, backwards) were administered, in addition to a dual task format of the TIP task. Whole brain images were collected at 1.5 Tesla. Analyses (n = 6) yielded a statistical parametric map (SPM ¿z¿) reflecting time keeping and not strategy (counting, number manipulation) or attention resource utilization. Additional SPM ¿z¿s involving activation associated with the accuracy and magnitude the of time estimation response are presented. Results revealed lateral cerebellar and inferior temporal lobe activation were associated with primary time keeping. Behavioral data provided evidence that the procedures for the explicit time judgements did not occur automatically and utilized controlled processes. Activation sites associated with accuracy, magnitude, and the dual task provided indications of the other structures involved in time estimation that implemented task components related to controlled processing. The data are consistent with prior proposals that the cerebellum is a repository of codes for time processing, but also implicate temporal lobe structures for this type of time estimation task. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Valentin, Dominique; Arvisenet, Gaëlle

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to understand consumers' habits and belief structures concerning local food products and to develop a new snack as a way to fight against children malnutrition in Madagascar. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Madagascar, like Moringa oleifera (MO) which leaves are rich in nutrients but not consumed. First, a survey conducted in four areas of Madagascar revealed that MO leaves are known for their health benefits but infrequently consumed, probably because of their low satiating power and strong odor. In the studied areas, different levels of consumption were observed, which may be linked to varying levels of familiarity with MO by the local populations, this in turn resulting from different situations regarding geographical and historical availability. In contrary, resources such as cassava are perceived as having negative effects on health but are widely consumed because they are cheap, liked by children and satiating. The second step in the study aimed to propose products that could increase MO consumption without completely changing food practices. The acceptability of snacks associating cassava roots and MO was evaluated by means of hedonic tests performed by children. Between the snacks tested, the preferred snack contained the highest quantity of MO and was sweetened. There was no effect of area on the acceptance of the formulated snacks. This work is an evaluation of the potential of MO in the diet of malnourished population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  15. Identifying Socio-Cultural Factors That Impact the Use of Open Educational Resources in Local Public Administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Stoffregen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in this respect, the independent choice of learning resources, the spirit of the platform, the range of available formats and access to technologies. Practitioners use these factors to elaborate on the readiness of public administrations towards the use of open e-Learning systems. To academic debates on culture in e-Learning, the results provide an alternative model that is contextualized to meet the demands of public sector contexts. Overall, the paper contributes to the lack of research about open e-Learning systems in the public sector, as well as regarding culture in the management of learning and knowledge exchange.

  16. The health impact of tourism on local and indigenous populations in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-09-01

    In the vast Travel Health literature there is still a considerable dearth on tourism's impact on local communities. This review attempts to remedy the situation. Its focus is on potential health impacts on populations living at tourist destinations outside the industrialised world. To facilitate a better understanding of how health is linked to tourism today, a brief overview of the historical and theoretical evolution of tourism is presented. Ecotourism is given special attention as it is perceived as a version of the industry that is more benign on environment and people. After discussing Indigenous Tourism, a variety of potential health implications is outlined. These follow a previously suggested classification of indirect and direct impacts, with the indirect impacts being based on economic, environmental, socio-cultural and, more recently, political impacts, and the direct impacts originating from immediate encounters between tourism and people. Finally, the urgent need for more research is highlighted, and some solutions to minimize health impact are suggested.

  17. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  18. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of community-based natural resource management in Latin American social-ecological systems exist in which communities control the management of common-pool resources. Understanding community perceptions of the performance of these systems is essential to involve communities in sustainable management strategies. In this analysis of three areas in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina, we analyzed the local perceptions of the social and environmental challenges faced by these social-ecological systems and how these challenges and drivers affect their resilience. To do this, we combined prospective structural analysis to unravel stakeholders' perceptions of each system's functioning along with network analysis to assess resilience. We identified external variables as the most influential variables in the Colombian and Argentine cases. In the Mexican case, larger influence is exerted by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers with medium or strong influence but low dependence. The use of ancestral knowledge (Colombia, the history of land use (Mexico, and the history of the artisanal fishery (Argentina were all perceived as common challenges to community-based natural resource management. In terms of social-ecological resilience, framed within the three-dimensional model of the adaptive cycle, all three social-ecological systems were considered to be highly connected and resilient but with different degrees of capacity or cumulative potential.

  19. Regional Competitiveness and Its Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono Soebagyo; Triyono Triyono; Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify regional competitiveness in some areas of Central Java. Regional competitiveness became one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of local autonomy.Measurement of regional competitiveness has been mostly done through ranking as a benchmark the competitiveness of the region. Mapping regional competitiveness in Indonesia has been made to all counties and cities, which shows the competitiveness ranking of each region. Competitivenes...

  20. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery

    KAUST Repository

    Almany, Glenn R.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Bode, Michael; Matawai, Manuai; Potuku, Tapas; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Russ, Garry Ronald; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community's tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery

    KAUST Repository

    Almany, Glenn R.

    2013-04-01

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community\\'s tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Digestion and Construction of Local Advertising Agencies′Core Competitiveness in China%中国本土广告公司核心竞争力的消解与建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖秉宜

    2013-01-01

    As the changes of marketing communication environment and the successful implementation of international advertising group′s localization strategy , local advertising agencies′core competitiveness are gradually being digested . Business transformation and management innovation become very important about local advertising agency development in the new era .This paper focuses on the current situation and causes of the digestion of local advertising agencies ′core competitiveness in China , and puts forward the strategies to enhance the core competitiveness of local advertising agen -cies from the dual dimension of business restructuring and management innovation .%随着企业营销传播环境的变化以及国际广告集团本土化战略的成功实施,本土广告公司的核心竞争力正在逐渐被消解,经营业务转型与管理创新成为新时期本土广告公司发展的重要关键词。本文重点分析了我国本土广告公司核心竞争力消解的现状及其深层原因,并从业务重构与管理创新的双重维度提出了本土广告公司核心竞争力提升的策略。

  3. Improving infant and young child feeding practices through nutrition education with local resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Irmgard; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Reinbott, Anika; Krawinkel, Michael B; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Poor nutritional status in early infancy is associated with growth faltering and increased risk for morbidity. Main causes for undernutrition are a diet poor in quality and quantity, feeding practices, and hygiene. Programmes emphasize on affordable ways for improving diets for low-income families. Little is known about the period needed for behaviour changes. Longitudinal studies were conducted in Malawi and Cambodia looking at infant and young child feeding as well as growth of children below two years. At baseline 6-9 months old children and their caregivers participating in a nutrition education(NE) program of FAO were invited. The recruited children were matched by age (days) and sex with children living in an area without NE (control). Baseline data was collected prior the NE carried out by trained volunteers twice a month based on locally adopted teaching materials. The children and their caregivers were visited every three months for a total period of 12 months. At baseline the mean age of the children in Malawi was 227 days, all breastfed (n = 149). In Cambodia the mean age was 230 days and 90% of them were still breastfed (n = 96). The mean HAZ was -1.53 in Malawi and -0.87 in Cambodia. Minimum acceptable diet(MAD) was received by 42% and 34% of the children in the intervention areas of Malawi and Cambodia respectively. After three months MAD was achieved by 88% in Malawi and 45% in Cambodia. The rates in the control area in Malawi increased as well from 22% at baseline to 52% three months later. A similar change could be observed in Cambodia with 28% of the children receiving MAD at baseline and 38% three months later. Hygiene behaviour was one focus of the NE in both countries. In Malawi soap usage before feeding the child increased to 32% (p< 0.001), and before food preparation to 33% (both p < 0.001). Also washing before eating the food increased to 22%. In the control area no significant changes in terms of soap usage could be observed. In

  4. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere

  5. Sustainability and collapse in a coevolutionary model of local resource stocks and behavioral patterns on a social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    When investigating the causes and consequences of global change, the collective behavior of human beings is considered as having a considerable impact on natural systems. In our work, we propose a conceptual coevolutionary model simulating the dynamics of local renewable resources in interaction with simplistic societal agents exploiting those resources. The society is represented by a social network on which social traits may be transmitted between agents. These traits themselves induce a certain rate of exploitation of the resource, leading either to its depletion or sustainable existence. Traits are exchanged probabilistically according to their instantaneous individual payoff, and hence this process depends on the status of the natural resource. At the same time agents may adaptively restructure their set of acquaintances. Connections with agents having a different trait may be broken while new connections with agents of the same trait are established. We investigate which choices of social parameters, like the frequency of social interaction, rationality and rate of social network adaptation, cause the system to end in a sustainable state and, hence, what can be done to avoid a collapse of the entire system. The importance and influence of the social network structure is analyzed by the variation of link-densities in the underlying network topology and shows significant influence on the expected outcome of the model. For a static network with no adaptation we find a robust phase transition between the two different regimes, sustainable and non-sustainable, which co-exist in parameter space. High connectivity within the social network, e.g., high link-densities, in combination with a fast rate of social learning lead to a likely collapse of the entire co-evolutionary system, whereas slow learning and small network connectivity very likely result in the sustainable existence of the natural resources. Collapse may be avoided by an intelligent rewiring, e

  6. New local energy supply as a communal task. Solar statutes between local autonomy and global climatic and resources protection; Neue oertliche Energieversorgung als kommunale Aufgabe. Solarsatzungen zwischen gemeindlicher Selbstverwaltung und globalem Klima- und Ressourcenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    Cities and communities have a constitutionally secured autonomy. What means this within the range of the protection of climate and resources? May communities take over global tasks, or are these limited in their local sphere of activity? In the meantime, in most German city halls something is done for the employment of renewable energies. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports at first on a comprehensive jurisprudential answer on the fundamental question which local tasks are entitled to the cities and communities and how this affects the range of climate protection and resources protection. Moreover, up-to-date particularly disputed local solar statutes are evaluated legally.

  7. An Examination of Regional Competitiveness: Early Findings from Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holis, Y. M.; Syabri, I.; Prabatmojo, H.

    2018-05-01

    Over time, the regional development planning paradigm continues to change procedural, substantive, actor and institutional aspects. The increasing globalization and decentralized governance systems will continue to determine how a country or region can compete and even be able to take advantage of the positive value of economic globalization. This certainly provides challenges and opportunities for the renewal of regional development concepts, in particular, the concept of regional competitiveness. This concept still lacks a scientific basis and its interpretation is still in debate. To date, the clear scientific basis is the concepts of corporate and national competitiveness. Whereas, the concept of competitiveness at the meso-level, namely the competitiveness of the region, becomes very important. Regional competitiveness prepares a region and to survive in response to the more open dynamics of economic globalization and the system of decentralization of authority in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to complement the concept of competitiveness which is still at the level of microeconomics (business theory) and macroeconomy (theory of growth) with the concept of competitiveness at the regional level that focuses on (i) finding determinant factors at the regional level in Indonesia; (ii) profiling regional competitiveness in several regions; and (iii) assessing the role of local government (institutional and actor) on determinants of regional competitiveness. This research is carried out by using a mixed-methods approach with a concurrent triangulation strategy model. The research follows the stages of literature study to identify the determinant factors of regional competitiveness relevant to the purpose of research, followed by descriptive analysis of the variables and selected by statistics through Analytical Network Process (ANP) to become the determinant factor of competitiveness. In accordance with the concept and definition of regional

  8. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  9. Microdiamond grade as a regionalised variable - some basic requirements for successful local microdiamond resource estimation of kimberlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefenhofer, Johann; Thurston, Malcolm L.; Bush, David E.

    2018-04-01

    Microdiamonds offer several advantages as a resource estimation tool, such as access to deeper parts of a deposit which may be beyond the reach of large diameter drilling (LDD) techniques, the recovery of the total diamond content in the kimberlite, and a cost benefit due to the cheaper treatment cost compared to large diameter samples. In this paper we take the first step towards local estimation by showing that micro-diamond samples can be treated as a regionalised variable suitable for use in geostatistical applications and we show examples of such output. Examples of microdiamond variograms are presented, the variance-support relationship for microdiamonds is demonstrated and consistency of the diamond size frequency distribution (SFD) is shown with the aid of real datasets. The focus therefore is on why local microdiamond estimation should be possible, not how to generate such estimates. Data from our case studies and examples demonstrate a positive correlation between micro- and macrodiamond sample grades as well as block estimates. This relationship can be demonstrated repeatedly across multiple mining operations. The smaller sample support size for microdiamond samples is a key difference between micro- and macrodiamond estimates and this aspect must be taken into account during the estimation process. We discuss three methods which can be used to validate or reconcile the estimates against macrodiamond data, either as estimates or in the form of production grades: (i) reconcilliation using production data, (ii) by comparing LDD-based grade estimates against microdiamond-based estimates and (iii) using simulation techniques.

  10. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  11. Biological conditions for oscillations and chaos generated by multispecies competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J; Weissing, FJ

    2001-01-01

    We investigate biological mechanisms that generate oscillations and chaos in multispecies competition models. For this purpose, we use a competition model concerned with competition for abiotic essential resources. Because phytoplankton and plants consume quite a number of abiotic essential

  12. Computing with competition in biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, Anthony J; Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

    2012-11-16

    Cells rely on limited resources such as enzymes or transcription factors to process signals and make decisions. However, independent cellular pathways often compete for a common molecular resource. Competition is difficult to analyze because of its nonlinear global nature, and its role remains unclear. Here we show how decision pathways such as transcription networks may exploit competition to process information. Competition for one resource leads to the recognition of convex sets of patterns, whereas competition for several resources (overlapping or cascaded regulons) allows even more general pattern recognition. Competition also generates surprising couplings, such as correlating species that share no resource but a common competitor. The mechanism we propose relies on three primitives that are ubiquitous in cells: multiinput motifs, competition for a resource, and positive feedback loops.

  13. Association between competitive food and beverage policies in elementary schools and childhood overweight/obesity trends: differences by neighborhood socioeconomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N; Crawford, Patricia B; Egerter, Susan

    2015-05-01

    To our knowledge, few published studies have examined the influence of competitive food and beverage (CF&B) policies on student weight outcomes; none have investigated disparities in the influence of CF&B policies on children's body weight by school neighborhood socioeconomic resources. To investigate whether the association between CF&B policies and population-level trends in childhood overweight/obesity differed by school neighborhood income and education levels. This cross-sectional study, from July 2013 to October 2014, compared overweight/obesity prevalence trends before (2001-2005) and after (2006-2010) implementation of CF&B policies in public elementary schools in California. The study included 2 700 880 fifth-grade students in 5362 public schools from 2001 to 2010. California CF&B policies (effective July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2007) and school neighborhood income and education levels. Overweight/obesity defined as a body mass index at or greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. Overall rates of overweight/obesity ranged from 43.5% in 2001 to 45.8% in 2010. Compared with the period before the introduction of CF&B policies, overweight/obesity trends changed in a favorable direction after the policies took effect (2005-2010); these changes occurred for all children across all school neighborhood socioeconomic levels. In the postpolicy period, these trends differed by school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage. From 2005-2010, trends in overweight/obesity prevalence leveled off among students at schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods but declined in socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods. Students in the lowest-income neighborhoods experienced zero or near zero change in the odds of overweight/obesity over time: the annual percentage change in overweight/obesity odds was 0.1% for females (95% CI, -0.7 to 0.9) and -0.3% for males (95% CI, -1.1 to 0.5). In contrast, in the highest-income neighborhoods, the annual percentage

  14. Competitive advantage of informational technologies and communications sector for the Romanian west 5 region

    OpenAIRE

    Duda-Daianu, Dana Codruta

    2008-01-01

    The present work paper aims to analyse and to point out the competitive advantage of the Western 5 Region in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). Applying the Michael Porter’s model was determined that the competitive advantage is given by human resources. The results of this research will help the decision factors at local level to understand that it may enforce the combination of development strategies.

  15. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  16. Predators induce interspecific herbivore competition for food in refuge space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Resource competition among herbivorous arthropods has long been viewed as unimportant because herbivore populations are controlled by predators. Although recently resurrected as an organizing force in arthropod communities on plants, there is still general agreement that resource competition among

  17. From local strains to specific starters: the process structuring a research program on the activation and management of a biotechnological resource

    OpenAIRE

    Casalta, Erick; Bona, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a research-action program carried out in Corsica with a group of cheese makers to develop specific starters. Based on the direct participation of the cheese makers, this study consisted in designing starters with lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from milks and cheeses of this group of cheese makers. This process modified an individually and empirically used resource, local strains, into a shared and collectively managed resource, specific starters. Patrimonial featur...

  18. Framing water and forests as global or local? Transnational community-based networks transforming common-pool resources essence and scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuits, Emilie; Pflieger, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    The current era of globalization and commodification has had a substantial impact on common-pool resources governance. In direct response to this, community-based organizations managing water and forests at the local level began to create their own transnational networks. Primarily, these organizations aim to achieve direct representation in international decision-making arenas in order to promote their model of collective governance. By reframing the representations of common-pool resources ...

  19. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  20. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  1. Analysis of uses and competitions of water resources or an original dissemination strategy of hydrological modelling results of an EU project ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Fustec, Klervi; Larrue, Corinne; Trottier, Julie

    2010-05-01

    We propose to address the question of security threats through an analysis of water uses and competitions in the current situation, on one hand, and in conditions of climate change, on the other hand, in order to have an operational dissemination of hydrological modelling results. This will be carried out for each case study of the EU project CLIMB (7th EU FP). In this particular case, climate change impacts are to be considered in relation with water uses and rivalries. Taking them into account while involving stakeholders should allow us to have a deep impact on water uses regulation under conditions of climate change. The originality of this methodology, the first objective of which within the project is to disseminate project results and interact with stakeholders, is to use the dissemination phase as a means of involving stakeholder knowledge concerning water uses and competitions. The idea is to let the stakeholders identify themselves, in each case study, by means of interactive methods, the impact of the change of hydrological regime on their own water uses and competitions. We propose to use a real "bottom-up" strategy to assess the potential water uses and rivalries in the context of water scarcity (or flood) due to climate change. Such an approach will allow us to evaluate the risk of an increase in water rivalries and threats to security following climate change impacts scenarios at the river basin scale.

  2. IMPACT OF Acacia drepanolobium (AN INVASIVE WOODY SPECIES ON GUM-RESIN RESOURCES AND LOCAL LIVELIHOOD IN BORANA, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayana Abdeta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of Acacia drepanolobium, a species threatening rangeland resources including Gum-resin production and pastoralists’ livelihoods in Borana. Data were collected through vegetation surveys, key informant interviews, use of formal questionnaires and focus group discussions. We found a total of 22 woody species in the study area. A. drepanolobium was found to be the most dominant (22% and abundant (65% invasive woody species with an importance value index (IVI of 103. According to our respondents, A. drepanolobium was the first widely expanded woody species followed by Dichrostachys cinerea and A. mellifera. Eighty seven percent of our respondents ranked A. drepanolobium as the most invading woody species during their life time. Overall, our results demonstrated that the impact of A. drepanolobium had greatly affected the condition of rangeland vegetation. The implication is that the reduction in the capacity of rangelands for livestock grazing could reduce the resilience of local livelihood under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, pastoralists’ perception indicated that the expansion of A. drepanolobium had reduced the survival of Gum-resin producing species. Generally, the shift from cattle based pastoral economy to mixed livestock types could be attributed to the expansion of A. drepanolobium that forced the community to shift their mode of production. We confirmed that A. drepanolobium is an invasive indigenous woody species with multiple effects on the ecology of rangelands and on the livelihood security of pastoral communities.

  3. Fighting Harmful Tax Competition Generated by Offshore Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drosu Saguna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful tax competition is not just tax system, but can also undermine the interests of local communities and the environment. Tax havens are a huge drain of resources from other countries (basic non tax haven to offshore areas. To operate, tax havens are supported economically, politically, and socially by high tax states. Also, by encouraging savings, it boosts investment and capital formation. Because they are low tax jurisdictions, they exert a higher tax on tax rates worldwide.

  4. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  5. Integrated model of destination competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenski Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the weakest point of Serbian destination competitiveness as a tourist destination in comparation with its main competitors. The paper is organized as follows. The short introduction of the previous research on the destination competitiveness is followed by description of the Integrated model of destination competitiveness (Dwyer et al, 2003 that was used as the main reference framework. Section three is devoted to the description of the previous studies on competitiveness of Serbian tourism, while section four outlines the statistical methodology employed in this study and presents and interprets the empirical results. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions that refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.

  6. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    been published previously. Any kind of reference may be consulted; textbooks and journal articles can be cited. The problems can be downloaded from the webpage of the Ortvay contest (mafihe.elte.hu/ortvay ) in Hungarian and English; on preliminary request the problems can be sent via e-mail. If an institute is represented by several contestants, then a teacher or student acting as local organizer collects the solutions and posts them to the referees. Solutions can be sent by mail, fax or e-mail to the address given on the webpage. The contest is evaluated separately for each university year and the referees reserve the right to withhold or to divide some prizes. Beyond the money prizes for the first, second and third places, honourable mentions and special prizes for outstanding solutions of individual problems can be awarded. The sponsors of the contest are the Students' Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences of Eötvös University and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society. The results are announced in December and the organizers are hoping for even more participants in future contests. Among the winners of the European Union Young Scientists competition which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece in September was Sarah Flannery from Ireland. Sarah had used advanced mathematics to compare two cryptographic systems and proved that a new system for encrypting information on the Internet is as secure and considerably faster than the one currently in use. Three students from Iceland also gained a prize for their work on a distant cluster of hundreds of galaxies, demonstrating the capacities of modern data processing tools and the Internet in the project. The winning entries were selected from 57 projects presented from over 30 countries, and the aim of the contest was to encourage and highlight young people's interest in science by inviting them to play a part in actual research projects. Some of the winners will be able to work on projects at the Joint Research Centre

  7. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  8. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  9. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz's Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz`s Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Estimation of technical interactions due to the competition for resource in a mixed-species fishery, and the typology of fleets and metiers in the English Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Gascuel, D.; Dunn, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    importance for fishery management, as any control applied to one fishing unit may have positive or negative effects on others. The magnitude and direction of these effects cannot be easily measured, unless all fishing units and species in the fishery are considered simultaneously. Technical interactions...... for resource (stock externalities). The results are used to develop a typology of metiers and fleets based on their overall level of interaction for the resource. We also define fleets and metiers as structuring, dependent, intermediate or autonomous. (C) 2001 Ifremer...

  12. Value of Flexible Resources, Virtual Bidding, and Self-Scheduling in Two-Settlement Electricity Markets With Wind Generation – Part I: Principles and Competitive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Part one of this two-part paper presents new models for evaluating flexible resources in two-settlement electricity markets (day-ahead and real-time) with uncertain net loads (demand minus wind). Physical resources include wind together with fast- and slow-start demand response and thermal...... of certain equivalencies of the four models. We show how virtual bidding enhances market performance, since, together with self-scheduling by slow-start generators, it can help deterministic day-ahead market to choose the most efficient unit commitment....

  13. THE APPLICATION OF KENDURI SKO LOCAL CULTURE AS LEARNING RESOURCES TO INCREASE HISTORY AWARENESS OF STUDENTS (CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH IN CLASS SOCIAL X, PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2 KERINCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvetri Salvetri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to overcome the lack of students’ history awareness through the application of local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource. The research was conducted in class X IS 3 SMA Negeri 2 Kerinci. The method used is Classroom Action Research. The results showed that: (1 teachers have implemented learning in accordance with the design of learning; (2 learning history using local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource has succeeded in increasing the awareness of learners' history that is knowledge and understanding of learners about cultural change, interest in history study, pride of local culture; (3 constraints faced by partner teachers is to measure the attitudes and behaviors of learners.

  14. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  15. 资源观战略理论与我国中小企业竞争战略%Resources-based Strategic Theory and Competitive Strategy of China's Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昶志

    2009-01-01

    企业竞争优势一直是企业战略研究的核心问题.资源观战略理论从企业内部资源能力角度研究企业的竞争优势,并大大丰富了企业战略研究的内容.尽管Porter等对资源观战略理论的理论性与研究方法提出了质疑,但也承认资源观战略理论提出了很多非常好的概念和思想.在全面分析资源观战略理论的基础上,从资源的角度分析我国创业型企业如何实施战略管理,这对于促进我国创业型中小企业健康快速发展、保持竞争优势具有重要意义.%Business competitive advantage has always been a hot topic in the corporate strategy research. The resources-based strategic theory deals with business competitive advantage based on corporate resources and helps enrich the corporate strategy research. Though Porter challenges its theoretical nature and research method, he acknowledges many of its concepts and ideas. It is believed that based on a comprehensive study of the theory, a resource-based analysis of how China's entrepreneurial ventures conduct strategic management will be of great significance to develop China's small and medium-sized enterprises rapidly and soundly.

  16. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  17. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    economic development strategy based on the principles of sustainable development and, accordingly, with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy. The practical significance of this research paper is that the resulting conclusion and generalizations will help the state, regional government, local self-government, as well as enterprises, solve important problems of developing and implementing their economic development strategies based on the principles of sustainable development and, accordingly, along with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy. Value. In terms of a crisis of competitiveness, the advantages are primarily obtained not through improving the quality of products, but through reducing costs. Thus, one of the goals of the Ukrainian economy at the present stage is to become competitive and maximize the usage of its macroeconomic aspect.

  18. The Impact of Taxes on Competition for CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Peter

    2017-07-03

    This paper contributes to the question of how taxation of corporate profits and wages affects competition among firms for highly skilled human resources such as CEOs. Use of a theoretical model shows that wage taxes can have a substantial impact on the outcome of such a competition if marginal tax rates are different as in an international labor market. Further, the paper shows that increasing the wage tax rate unilaterally can have an ambiguous effect on observed gross compensation levels. However, in a local labor market for CEOs, observed gross fixed salaries should decline in the wage tax rate. Tax effects in a market for CEOs is a particularly interesting topic because recent developments with respect to compensation practices of top-level managers have opened a public debate about the use of instruments for regulating compensation of those managers. Furthermore, many countries around the world use tax incentives in order to facilitate immigration of highly skilled human resources. The investigation follows an analytical economics-based approach by extending an LEN model with elements of competition for scarce human resources and income taxation. It investigates the impact of differential taxation on the competition between two firms for the exclusive service of a unique, highly skilled CEO.

  19. Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessy, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of conserving biological resources and the need for managing these resources for present and future generations has been given much attention internationally in the past three decades. These ideas have been emphasized in key documents such as the Brundtland report as well as in

  20. Dynamic analysis of interhospital collaboration and competition: empirical evidence from an Italian regional health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Daniele; Di Vincenzo, Fausto; Cicchetti, Americo

    2012-05-01

    Policymakers stimulate competition in universalistic health-care systems while encouraging the formation of service provision networks among hospital organizations. This article addresses a gap in the extant literature by empirically analyzing simultaneous collaboration and competition between hospitals within the Italian National Health Service, where important procompetition reforms have been implemented. To explore how rising competition between hospitals relates to their propensity to collaborate with other local providers. Longitudinal data on interhospital collaboration and competition collected in an Italian region from 2003 to 2007 are analyzed. Social network analysis techniques are applied to study the structure and dynamics of interhospital collaboration. Negative binomial regressions are employed to explore how interhospital competition relates to the collaborative network over time. Competition among providers does not hinder interhospital collaboration. Collaboration is primarily local, with resource complementarity and differentials in the volume of activity and hospital performance explaining the propensity to collaborate. Formation of collaborative networks among hospitals is not hampered by reforms aimed at fostering market forces. Because procompetition reforms elicit peculiar forms of managed competition in universalistic health systems, studies are needed to clarify whether the positive association between interhospital competition and collaboration can be generalized to other health-care settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  2. Resource specialists lead local insect community turnover associated with temperature - analysis of an 18-year full-seasonal record of moths and beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Pedersen, Jan; Riis-Nielsen, Torben; Jonko, Krzysztof; Słowińska, Iwona; Rahbek, Carsten; Karsholt, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Insect responses to recent climate change are well documented, but the role of resource specialization in determining species vulnerability remains poorly understood. Uncovering local ecological effects of temperature change with high-quality, standardized data provides an important first opportunity for predictions about responses of resource specialists, and long-term time series are essential in revealing these responses. Here, we investigate temperature-related changes in local insect communities, using a sampling site with more than a quarter-million records from two decades (1992-2009) of full-season, quantitative light trapping of 1543 species of moths and beetles. We investigated annual as well as long-term changes in fauna composition, abundance and phenology in a climate-related context using species temperature affinities and local temperature data. Finally, we explored these local changes in the context of dietary specialization. Across both moths and beetles, temperature affinity of specialists increased through net gain of hot-dwelling species and net loss of cold-dwelling species. The climate-related composition of generalists remained constant over time. We observed an increase in species richness of both groups. Furthermore, we observed divergent phenological responses between cold- and hot-dwelling species, advancing and delaying their relative abundance, respectively. Phenological advances were particularly pronounced in cold-adapted specialists. Our results suggest an important role of resource specialization in explaining the compositional and phenological responses of insect communities to local temperature increases. We propose that resource specialists in particular are affected by local temperature increase, leading to the distinct temperature-mediated turnover seen for this group. We suggest that the observed increase in species number could have been facilitated by dissimilar utilization of an expanded growing season by cold- and hot

  3. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  4. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  5. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  6. Responsabilidad social y competitividad en las organizaciones del sector del automóvil: un enfoque de recursos humanos = Corporate social responsibility and competitiveness in the automotive sector: a focus on human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Martínez Navarrete

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El ejercicio de la Responsabilidad Social y la divulgación de sus resultados son aspectos a tener en cuenta por las empresas en el contexto actual. Su importancia se encuentra en las diferentes ventajas competitivas que puedan obtener de la puesta en marcha voluntaria de medidas socialmente responsables, lo cual proporcionará ventajas competitivas a la empresa. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales de la responsabilidad es de índole interna, consistente en una gestión eficiente de los Recursos Humanos, proporcionando mayores índices de calidad laboral y repercutiendo directamente en la competitividad de la empresa. Con esta base teórica este trabajo analiza el sector del automóvil en España intentando determinar hasta qué punto la divulgación de acciones responsables de las empresas del sector están considerando las políticas de gestión del capital humano como un eje vertebrador de la misma. The exercise of social responsibility and disclosure of results are issues to be considered by companies in the current context. Its importance lies in the different competitive advantages they can get from the start up of socially responsible voluntary measures, which will provide the company competitive advantages. One of the fundamental aspects of accountability is internal, consisting in the efficient management of human resources by providing higher rates of labor quality and directly affecting the competitiveness of the company. With this theoretical basis, this paper analyzes the automobile sector in Spain trying to determine to what extent the disclosure of responsible actions of companies in the sector are considering policies to manage human capital as a backbone of it

  7. Early root overproduction not triggered by nutrients decisive for competitive success belowground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padilla, F.M.; Mommer, L.; Caluwe, de H.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Wagemaker, C.A.M.; Ouborg, N.J.; Kroon, de H.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Theory predicts that plant species win competition for a shared resource by more quickly preempting the resource in hotspots and by depleting resource levels to lower concentrations than its competitors. Competition in natural grasslands largely occurs belowground, but information

  8. Monitoring market power in electricity market. Prepared for Competition Authority and Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate; Overvaakning av markedsmakt i kraftmarkedet. Utarbeidet for Konkurransetilsynet og NVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The report outlines a plan to monitor competition in the physical energy market in Norway. As an indicator of short-term exercise of market power,it is proposed to base the calculations of a daily index that measures the average price premium compared to an estimated value of water in combination with an index which measures the maximum price mark-up. To investigate whether there are indications on strategic movement of water over long periods, it is necessary to compare market solution with model simulations of efficient water allocation. Both approaches are tested on the market adaptation of the hydrological year 2002/2003. In both cases, we find deviations that can not simply be explained by price taker behavior, but which can not be taken as evidence of strategic behavior. To investigate whether the adaptation is due to strategic behavior, noise or other factors, it is necessary to enter into individual participants' bidding in the spot market. (AG)

  9. On the ecological context of the earliest human settlements in Europe: Resource availability and competition intensity in the carnivore guild of Barranco León-D and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Palmqvist, Paul; Rodríguez, Jesús; Mateos, Ana; Martín-González, Jesús A.; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2016-07-01

    With an age of ∼1.4 Ma, the Early Pleistocene archaeopaleontological sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain) provide the oldest evidence on human presence in Western Europe, including the finding of a deciduous tooth of Homo sp., huge lithic assemblages of Oldowan tradition and abundant cut-marks on large mammal bones. Here we use a mathematical approach based on Leslie matrices to quantify for the large mammal species preserved at the sites the biomass of primary consumers available, the distribution of meat resources among the secondary consumers and the competition intensity within the carnivore guild. The results obtained show a community of large mammals with a high diversity of secondary consumers that would satisfy slightly less than half of their dietary requirements under optimal ecological conditions. In the case of Homo sp., and considering that flesh resources were obtained through the scavenging of ungulate carcasses, the model indicates that the ecosystems of the basin could hold 10-14 individuals per 100 km2 during a year, a value that is close to the mean population density of recent hunter-gatherers. These density estimates decrease slightly when a mixed hunting-scavenging strategy is considered and even more in the case of a strict hunting behavior. In addition, the value of the species competition index obtained for Homo sp. is among the lowest of the carnivore guild. These results suggest that the hominin populations that inhabited Southeast Spain during the Early Pleistocene behaved more as opportunistic scavengers than as active predators.

  10. The Local Territory as a Resource for Learning Science: A Proposal for the Design of Teaching-learning Sequences in Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    González-Weil, C.; Merino-Rubilar, C.; Ahumada, G.; Arenas, A.; Salinas, V.; Bravo, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present work arises from the need to reform Science Education, particularly through the contextualization of teaching. It is proposed to achieve this through the use of local territory as a resource for the design of teaching-learning-sequences (TLS). To do this, an interdisciplinary group of researchers and teachers from a Secondary School created a Professional Circle for Reflection on Teaching, which constructed an emerging conceptualization of Territory, analyzed the possibil...

  11. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this cont...

  12. Predictive Control, Competitive Model Business Planning, and Innovation ERP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourani, Cyrus F.; Lauth, Codrina

    2015-01-01

    is not viewed as the sum of its component elements, but the product of their interactions. The paper starts with introducing a systems approach to business modeling. A competitive business modeling technique, based on the author's planning techniques is applied. Systemic decisions are based on common......New optimality principles are put forth based on competitive model business planning. A Generalized MinMax local optimum dynamic programming algorithm is presented and applied to business model computing where predictive techniques can determine local optima. Based on a systems model an enterprise...... organizational goals, and as such business planning and resource assignments should strive to satisfy higher organizational goals. It is critical to understand how different decisions affect and influence one another. Here, a business planning example is presented where systems thinking technique, using Causal...

  13. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al?Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plant strategy and life?history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life?history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitiv...

  14. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  15. Classroom Resources | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center Community Outreach Learning Experiences School Competitions Teacher Programs Classroom Resources Learning Center Community Outreach Learning Experiences School Competitions Teacher Programs Classroom every student and that is free from harassment and discrimination based upon race, color, religion

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  17. Evaluation of Resources Necessary for Provision of Trauma Care in Botswana: An Initiative for a Local System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandri, Michael B; Hardcastle, Timothy C

    2018-06-01

    Developing countries face the highest incidence of trauma, and on the other hand, they do not have resources for mitigating the scourge of these injuries. The World Health Organization through the Essential Trauma Care (ETC) project provides recommendations for improving management of the injured and building up of systems that are effective in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). This study uses ETC project recommendations and other trauma-care guidelines to evaluate the current status of the resources and organizational structures necessary for optimal trauma care in Botswana; an African country with relatively good health facilities network, subsidized public hospital care and a functioning Motor Vehicle Accident fund covering road traffic collision victims. A cross-sectional descriptive design employed convenience sampling for recruiting high-volume trauma hospitals and selecting candidates. A questionnaire, checklist, and physical verification of resources were utilized to evaluate resources, staff knowledge, and organization-of-care and hospital capabilities. Results are provided in plain descriptive language to demonstrate the findings. Necessary consumables, good infrastructure, adequate numbers of personnel and rehabilitation services were identified all meeting or exceeding ETC recommendations. Deficiencies were noted in staff knowledge of initial trauma care, district hospital capability to provide essential surgery, and the organization of trauma care. The good level of resources available in Botswana may be used to improve trauma care: To further this process, more empowering of high-volume trauma hospitals by adopting trauma-care recommendations and inclusive trauma-system approaches are desirable. The use of successful examples on enhanced surgical skills and capabilities, effective trauma-care resource management, and leadership should be encouraged.

  18. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Angelkova, Tanja; Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitreva, Elizabeta

    2011-01-01

    Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations and national, regional and local authorities in order to cover a broad group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. Opportunities for sustainable tourism development and preservation of its competitiveness, largely influenced by the quality of the environment, preserved and attractive...

  19. Local resources, foreign influences, value creation, tradition and modernity. The case of a Local Agro-food System in Jämtland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytkönen, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980’s collective action was initiated with the purpose of saving the remnants of traditional livestock farming in Jämtland. This led to the articulation of a local agro-food system (LAFS that managed to commercialize important elements of traditional agriculture by adding elements of modernity. Farm diversification was an important strategy that led to the forward integration of farms that includes the start of small scale farm dairies, farm cafes, direct sales, at the farm, through markets and other local channels, B&Bs and outdoor tourism operations. In the mentioned process, foreign knowledge and experience led to the opening of a new market for traditional products. This case shows that the localization and appropriation of foreign elements can be a fruitful strategy to promote territorial development in regions like Jämtland. This article highlights how a LAFS was articulated within the frame of the birth of a new industry, composed by small, semi-artisan dairy firms and which institutional side effects that this experience has led to.Durante la década de los 80, un proceso de acción colectiva se inició con el propósito de salvar los restos de la ganadería tradicional en Jämtland. Esto resultó en la creación de un sistema agroalimentario local que logró comercializar elementos importantes de la agricultura tradicional, añadiendo elementos de modernidad. La diversificación de las fincas fue la estrategia más importante, dentro de la cual se promovió la creación de un sector de pequeñas industrias lácteas en las fincas, cafés rurales y asimismo la venta directa a los consumidores en dichas fincas, en mercados y otros canales de comercialización, servicios de alojamiento y desayuno y operaciones turísticas al aire libre. En este proceso, conocimiento y experiencias extranjeras jugaron un papel clave en la apertura de un nuevo mercado para los productos lácteos tradicionales. Este caso demuestra que la

  20. Forum Guide to Facilities Information Management: A Resource for State and Local Education Agencies. NFES 2012-808

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Safe and secure facilities that foster learning are crucial to providing quality education services, and developing and maintaining these facilities requires considerable resources and organization. Facility information systems allow education organizations to collect and manage data that can be used to inform and guide decisionmaking about the…

  1. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1.Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  2. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1. Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  3. Impacts of Public-Private Partnership on Local Livelihoods and Natural Resource Dynamics: Perceptions from Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muleba Nshimbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.

  4. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource

  5. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  6. Host plant quality mediates competition between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegt, B.; Jansa, J.; Franken, O.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Werner, G.D.A.; Bücking, H.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi exchange soil nutrients for carbon from plant hosts. Empirical works suggests that hosts may selectively provide resources to different fungal species, ultimately affecting fungal competition. However, fungal competition may also be mediated by colonization strategies of

  7. Gestão do Conhecimento – GC – como recurso estratégico e fonte de Vantagem Competitiva Sustentável – VCS – na perspectiva Resource-based view – RBV – Knowledge Management – KM – used as a strategic resource and source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage – SCA – in the Resource-based view – RBV –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Aparecida Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Gestão do Conhecimento – GC – busca integrar toda a organização ao conhecimento que pode ser criado, compartilhado e armazenado. Desta forma, este trabalho tem por objetivo evidenciar de que maneira a GC é utilizada como recurso estratégico e fonte de Vantagem Competitiva Sustentável – VCS – na perspectiva Resource based view – RBV –. É feito um levantamento na forma de censo junto aos alunos das turmas de pós-graduação lato sensu (MBA da FAGEN – Faculdade de Gestão e Negócios – da UFU – Universidade Federal de Uberlândia –, os quais atuam no mercado como gestores e possuem pelo menos um subordinado sob a sua liderança. Após uma revisão da literatura sobre GC e VCS estruturou-se o instrumento de pesquisa a partir do Diagnóstico de Gestão do Conhecimento criado por Bukowitz e Williams (2002 e do Framework VRIO proposto por Barney (1991,1995. Ao considerar o critério de desempenho global de 55%, o cálculo da média aponta um percentual de 70%. Porém, a GC é utilizada em um nível preliminar, pois nota-se que os gestores necessitam, além de reconhecerem a importância da GC, trabalharem para a sua efetiva implantação. Assim, a GC, alinhada ao plano estratégico global da empresa, poderá ser utilizada como recurso estratégico e fonte de VCS na perspectiva RBV.The Knowledge Management – KM – searches to integrate organization to the knowledge that can be created, shared and stored. This study aims to show how the KM is used as a strategic resource and source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage – SCA – in the Resource based view – RBV – perspective. We made a survey in the form of census with the students of  Master Business Administration – MBA of FAGEN – Faculdade de Gestão e Negócios – da UFU – Universidade Federal de Uberlândia –. This students are managers and have employees with your leadership. After a review of the literature on KM and SCA, we have structured the

  8. Spatial management of marine resources can enhance the recovery of predators and avoid local depletion of forage fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Vinther, Morten; Haslob, Holger

    2012-01-01

    fish, i.e., sprat and herring, is historic low in this area, which in combination with increasing cod stock results in locally high predation mortality of forage fish and cannibalism of cod. In line with low prey availability, body weight and nutritional condition of cod drastically declined...... management to enhance the recovery of predator stocks...

  9. Building trust in natural resource management within local communities: a case study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Jessica E. Leahy; Dorothy H. Anderson; Pamela J. Jakes

    2007-01-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency's programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A...

  10. "A False Dilemma": Should Decisions about Education Resource Use Be Made at the State or Local Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timar, Thomas B.; Roza, Marguerite

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, states have assumed a greater role in financing education. The presumption of local control has been superseded by systems of state control. This shift in authority raises several critical questions. Chief among them is, "What effect has centralization of education financing had on the capacity of school districts to…

  11. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  12. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.; Flaman, L.; Beigie, C.

    1992-01-01

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Empirical Methods for Detecting Regional Trends and Other Spatial Expressions in Antrim Shale Gas Productivity, with Implications for Improving Resource Projections Using Local Nonparametric Estimation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, T.C.; Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to (1) investigate empirical methods for establishing regional trends in unconventional gas resources as exhibited by historical production data and (2) determine whether or not incorporating additional knowledge of a regional trend in a suite of previously established local nonparametric resource prediction algorithms influences assessment results. Three different trend detection methods were applied to publicly available production data (well EUR aggregated to 80-acre cells) from the Devonian Antrim Shale gas play in the Michigan Basin. This effort led to the identification of a southeast-northwest trend in cell EUR values across the play that, in a very general sense, conforms to the primary fracture and structural orientations of the province. However, including this trend in the resource prediction algorithms did not lead to improved results. Further analysis indicated the existence of clustering among cell EUR values that likely dampens the contribution of the regional trend. The reason for the clustering, a somewhat unexpected result, is not completely understood, although the geological literature provides some possible explanations. With appropriate data, a better understanding of this clustering phenomenon may lead to important information about the factors and their interactions that control Antrim Shale gas production, which may, in turn, help establish a more general protocol for better estimating resources in this and other shale gas plays. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology (outside the USA).

  14. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality

  15. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Serrano, Maria del Mar; Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Vanwildemeersch, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers...... prospective structural analysis to unravel stakeholders’ perceptions of each system’s functioning along with network analysis to assess resilience. We identified external variables as the most influential variables in the Colombian and Argentine cases. In the Mexican case, larger influence is exerted...

  16. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-05-04

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this context. This paper presents an overview of the organisation-wide, systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach taken by one Australian healthcare network and provides an introduction and guide to the suite of papers reporting the experiences and outcomes.

  17. Competitive interactions between forest trees are driven by species' trait hierarchy, not phylogenetic or functional similarity: implications for forest community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Georges; Lavergne, Sébastien; Courbaud, Benoît; Thuiller, Wilfried; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Kattge, Jens; Coomes, David A

    2012-08-01

    The relative importance of competition vs. environmental filtering in the assembly of communities is commonly inferred from their functional and phylogenetic structure, on the grounds that similar species compete most strongly for resources and are therefore less likely to coexist locally. This approach ignores the possibility that competitive effects can be determined by relative positions of species on a hierarchy of competitive ability. Using growth data, we estimated 275 interaction coefficients between tree species in the French mountains. We show that interaction strengths are mainly driven by trait hierarchy and not by functional or phylogenetic similarity. On the basis of this result, we thus propose that functional and phylogenetic convergence in local tree community might be due to competition-sorting species with different competitive abilities and not only environmental filtering as commonly assumed. We then show a functional and phylogenetic convergence of forest structure with increasing plot age, which supports this view. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  18. The Territory, a Container of Local Specificities: Evidence by Analysis of the Local Productive System of Ksar-Hellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKRAM GAALICHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the relevance of the territory in the experience of local development. Indeed, by an application on a Tunisian case, it was shown that the territory of Ksar-Hellal is implicated in the functioning of its local production system, specializing in textile and clothing. It turned out that the Hilalian territory is abundant in specific economic resources such as competition, complementarity, and non-economic such as cooperation, technological externalities and social values. Those resources that are specific to the Hilalian territory are essential to stimulate the local dynamics of the productive system in question.

  19. Conditions of competition between the production of water by desalination and natural resources; Les conditions de concurrence entre la production d'eau par dessalement et les ressources naturelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A close examination of the local supply and demand for fresh water is involved when considering a sea water desalination plant in a given region. This examination makes it possible in most cases to undertake a thorough study of the natural resources, resulting in the use of desalination being rejected. After confirming this fact by precise examples, the authors consider that the preliminary study should be extended, taking into account the complementary character of natural resources and desalination systems: contribution to peak demand, contribution to base demand. This analysis results in a classification of the main user regions according to certain economic criteria defining their suitability for the use of desalination processes. (author) [French] Envisager une installation d'eau de mer dans une region donnee, entraine un examen attentif de l'offre et de la demande locale en eau douce. Cet examen permet de conduire dans la plupart des cas a une etude approfondie des ressources naturelles qui aboutit a ecarter le recours au dessalement. Apres avoir constate ce fait, par des exemples precis, les auteurs estiment que l'on doit pousser plus loin l'etude preliminaire en tenant compte de la complementarite entre les ressources naturelles et les systemes de dessalement: contribution a la demande de pointe, contribution a la demande de base. Cette analyse conduit a classer les regions utilisatrices essentielles selon certains criteres economiques definissant leur aptitude a l'utilisation des procedes de dessalement. (auteur)

  20. Conditions of competition between the production of water by desalination and natural resources; Les conditions de concurrence entre la production d'eau par dessalement et les ressources naturelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A close examination of the local supply and demand for fresh water is involved when considering a sea water desalination plant in a given region. This examination makes it possible in most cases to undertake a thorough study of the natural resources, resulting in the use of desalination being rejected. After confirming this fact by precise examples, the authors consider that the preliminary study should be extended, taking into account the complementary character of natural resources and desalination systems: contribution to peak demand, contribution to base demand. This analysis results in a classification of the main user regions according to certain economic criteria defining their suitability for the use of desalination processes. (author) [French] Envisager une installation d'eau de mer dans une region donnee, entraine un examen attentif de l'offre et de la demande locale en eau douce. Cet examen permet de conduire dans la plupart des cas a une etude approfondie des ressources naturelles qui aboutit a ecarter le recours au dessalement. Apres avoir constate ce fait, par des exemples precis, les auteurs estiment que l'on doit pousser plus loin l'etude preliminaire en tenant compte de la complementarite entre les ressources naturelles et les systemes de dessalement: contribution a la demande de pointe, contribution a la demande de base. Cette analyse conduit a classer les regions utilisatrices essentielles selon certains criteres economiques definissant leur aptitude a l'utilisation des procedes de dessalement. (auteur)

  1. Relative Contribution of Matrix Structure, Patch Resources and Management to the Local Densities of Two Large Blue Butterfly Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzer-Bonk, Joanna; Skórka, Piotr; Nowicki, Piotr; Bonk, Maciej; Król, Wiesław; Szpiłyk, Damian; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The type of matrix, the landscape surrounding habitat patches, may determine the distribution and function of local populations. However, the matrix is often heterogeneous, and its various components may differentially contribute to metapopulation processes at different spatial scales, a phenomenon that has rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative importance of matrix composition and spatial scale, habitat quality, and management intensity on the occurrence and density of local populations of two endangered large blue butterflies: Phengaris teleius and P. nausithous. Presence and abundance data were assessed over two years, 2011-12, in 100 local patches within two heterogeneous regions (near Kraków and Tarnów, southern Poland). The matrix composition was analyzed at eight spatial scales. We observed high occupancy rates in both species, regions and years. With the exception of area and isolation, almost all of the matrix components contributed to Phengaris sp. densities. The different matrix components acted at different spatial scales (grassland cover within 4 and 3 km, field cover within 0.4 and 0.3 km and water cover within 4 km radii for P. teleius and P. nausithous, respectively) and provided the highest independent contribution to the butterfly densities. Additionally, the effects of a 0.4 km radius of forest cover and a food plant cover on P. teleius, and a 1 km radius of settlement cover and management intensity on P. nausithous densities were observed. Contrary to former studies we conclude that the matrix heterogeneity and spatial scale rather than general matrix type are of relevance for densities of butterflies. Conservation strategies for these umbrella species should concentrate on maintaining habitat quality and managing matrix composition at the most appropriate spatial scales.

  2. Relative Contribution of Matrix Structure, Patch Resources and Management to the Local Densities of Two Large Blue Butterfly Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórka, Piotr; Nowicki, Piotr; Bonk, Maciej; Król, Wiesław; Szpiłyk, Damian; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The type of matrix, the landscape surrounding habitat patches, may determine the distribution and function of local populations. However, the matrix is often heterogeneous, and its various components may differentially contribute to metapopulation processes at different spatial scales, a phenomenon that has rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative importance of matrix composition and spatial scale, habitat quality, and management intensity on the occurrence and density of local populations of two endangered large blue butterflies: Phengaris teleius and P. nausithous. Presence and abundance data were assessed over two years, 2011–12, in 100 local patches within two heterogeneous regions (near Kraków and Tarnów, southern Poland). The matrix composition was analyzed at eight spatial scales. We observed high occupancy rates in both species, regions and years. With the exception of area and isolation, almost all of the matrix components contributed to Phengaris sp. densities. The different matrix components acted at different spatial scales (grassland cover within 4 and 3 km, field cover within 0.4 and 0.3 km and water cover within 4 km radii for P. teleius and P. nausithous, respectively) and provided the highest independent contribution to the butterfly densities. Additionally, the effects of a 0.4 km radius of forest cover and a food plant cover on P. teleius, and a 1 km radius of settlement cover and management intensity on P. nausithous densities were observed. Contrary to former studies we conclude that the matrix heterogeneity and spatial scale rather than general matrix type are of relevance for densities of butterflies. Conservation strategies for these umbrella species should concentrate on maintaining habitat quality and managing matrix composition at the most appropriate spatial scales. PMID:28005942

  3. Picking battles wisely: plant behaviour under competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoplansky, Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Plants are limited in their ability to choose their neighbours, but they are able to orchestrate a wide spectrum of rational competitive behaviours that increase their prospects to prevail under various ecological settings. Through the perception of neighbours, plants are able to anticipate probable competitive interactions and modify their competitive behaviours to maximize their long-term gains. Specifically, plants can minimize competitive encounters by avoiding their neighbours; maximize their competitive effects by aggressively confronting their neighbours; or tolerate the competitive effects of their neighbours. However, the adaptive values of these non-mutually exclusive options are expected to depend strongly on the plants' evolutionary background and to change dynamically according to their past development, and relative sizes and vigour. Additionally, the magnitude of competitive responsiveness is expected to be positively correlated with the reliability of the environmental information regarding the expected competitive interactions and the expected time left for further plastic modifications. Concurrent competition over external and internal resources and morphogenetic signals may enable some plants to increase their efficiency and external competitive performance by discriminately allocating limited resources to their more promising organs at the expense of failing or less successful organs.

  4. Predators induce interspecific herbivore competition for food in refuge space

    OpenAIRE

    Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Resource competition among herbivorous arthropods has long been viewed as unimportant because herbivore populations are controlled by predators. Although recently resurrected as an organizing force in arthropod communities on plants, there is still general agreement that resource competition among herbivores is reduced by predators. Here we show the reverse: predators induce interspecific resource competi-tion among herbivores. We found that thrips larvae (Frankliniella occidentalis) use the ...

  5. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on compensation and benefit strategies for the energy and resource sectors : explore total rewards and gain a competitive edge while preserving the bottom line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference focused on the the role that compensation and benefits packages play in attracting new employees and retaining them in today's tight labour market. Methods of creating competitive compensation and benefits packages were described by leading human resource experts from across Canada. The conference also presented creative ways to compete for workers and to lower the rate of employee turnover by improving the work environment. The need for creative benefits solutions within the framework of established collective agreements was also reviewed. The legal ramifications involved in drug testing were identified along with information on both company and employee rights. The presentations emphasized the need for effective communications between employees and management to engage employees, and clarified why different demographics present unique challenges that require particular solutions. The conference included a learning session on improving corporate immigration policy and best practices in attracting and retaining an Aboriginal workforce. One of the 12 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. figs.

  6. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  7. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  8. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  9. Building Trust in Natural Resource Management Within Local Communities: A Case Study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Mae A.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Anderson, Dorothy H.; Jakes, Pamela J.

    2007-03-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency’s programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A significant body of research has examined barriers to effective public participation as well as strategies for relationship building in planning processes; many of which point to trust as a key factor. Trust is especially tenuous in local communities. This paper explores perceptions of trust, expectations for management, as well as constraints to building trust. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 community members and USDA Forest Service personnel at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in northeastern Illinois. The interviews revealed that trust is perceived as important to effective management. Distinct expectations for management outcomes and processes emerged, including the values, knowledge, and capacity demonstrated in management decisions and actions and opportunities provided for communication, collaboration, and cooperation within the agency-community relationship. The case study identified several constraints to building trust, including competing values, knowledge gaps, limited community engagement, and staff turnover.

  10. Down-scaling wind energy resource from mesoscale to local scale by nesting and data assimilation with a CFD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy Jothiprakasam, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    The development of wind energy generation requires precise and well-established methods for wind resource assessment, which is the initial step in every wind farm project. During the last two decades linear flow models were widely used in the wind industry for wind resource assessment and micro-siting. But the linear models inaccuracies in predicting the wind speeds in very complex terrain are well known and led to use of CFD, capable of modeling the complex flow in details around specific geographic features. Mesoscale models (NWP) are able to predict the wind regime at resolutions of several kilometers, but are not well suited to resolve the wind speed and turbulence induced by the topography features on the scale of a few hundred meters. CFD has proven successful in capturing flow details at smaller scales, but needs an accurate specification of the inlet conditions. Thus coupling NWP and CFD models is a better modeling approach for wind energy applications. A one-year field measurement campaign carried out in a complex terrain in southern France during 2007-2008 provides a well-documented data set both for input and validation data. The proposed new methodology aims to address two problems: the high spatial variation of the topography on the domain lateral boundaries, and the prediction errors of the mesoscale model. It is applied in this work using the open source CFD code Code-Saturne, coupled with the mesoscale forecast model of Meteo-France (ALADIN). The improvement is obtained by combining the mesoscale data as inlet condition and field measurement data assimilation into the CFD model. Newtonian relaxation (nudging) data assimilation technique is used to incorporate the measurement data into the CFD simulations. The methodology to reconstruct long term averages uses a clustering process to group the similar meteorological conditions and to reduce the number of CFD simulations needed to reproduce 1 year of atmospheric flow over the site. The assimilation

  11. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  12. Electricity market dynamics: Oligopolistic competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Sheble, Gerald B.

    2006-01-01

    Presently, electricity markets are characterized by a small number of suppliers with distributed resources. These market suppliers can easily be identified because their geographic location is known. Essentially, two or three of them compete for leading the market whereas the rest of them follow. Hence, it is necessary to study the market structure as ologopolistic competition rather than perfect competition. This paper studies market producer decisions in a dynamic sequential framework by using discrete event system simulation (DESS) also known as discrete control theory. Two-player ologopolistic market structure is presented in this paper. (author)

  13. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, H L; Kern, W; Peters, A

    2006-01-01

    Although the brain constitutes only 2% of the body mass, its metabolism accounts for 50% of total body glucose utilization. This delicate situation is aggravated by the fact that the brain depends on glucose as energy substrate. Thus, the contour of a major problem becomes evident: how can the brain maintain constant fluxes of large amounts of glucose to itself in the presence of powerful competitors as fat and muscle tissue. Activity of cortical neurons generates an "energy on demand" signal which eventually mediates the uptake of glucose from brain capillaries. Because energy stores in the circulation (equivalent to ca. 5 g glucose) are also limited, a second signal is required termed "energy on request"; this signal is responsible for the activation of allocation processes. The term "allocation" refers to the activation of the "behavior control column" by an input from the hippocampus-amygdala system. As far as eating behavior is concerned the behavior control column consists of the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH) and periventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN represents the central nucleus of the brain's stress systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Activation of the sympatico-adrenal system inhibits glucose uptake by peripheral tissues by inhibiting insulin release and inducing insulin resistance and increases hepatic glucose production. With an inadequate "energy on request" signal neuroglucopenia would be the consequence. A decrease in brain glucose can activate glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) with the release of orexigenic peptides which stimulate food intake. If the energy supply of the brain depends on activation of the LH rather than on increased allocation to the brain, an increase in body weight is evitable. An increase in fat mass will generate feedback signals as leptin and insulin, which activate the arcuate nucleus. Activation of arcuate nucleus in turn will stimulate the activity of the PVN in a way similar to the activation by the hippocampus-amydala system. The activity of PVN is influenced by the hippocampal outflow which in turn is the consequence of a balance of low-affinity and high-affinity glucocorticoid receptors. This set-point can permanently be displaced by extreme stress situations, by starvation, exercise, hormones, drugs or by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Disorders in the "energy on request" process will influence the allocation of energy and in so doing alter the body mass of the organism. In this "selfish brain theory" the neocortex and the limbic system play a central role in the pathogenesis of diseases, such as anorexia nervosa, obesity and diabetes mellitus type II. From these considerations it appears that the primary disturbance in obesity is a displacement of the hippocampal set-point of the system. The resulting permanent activation of the feedback system must result in a likewise permanent activation of the sympatico-adrenal system, which induces insulin resistance, hypertension and the other components of the metabolic syndrome. Available therapies for treatment of the metabolic syndrome (blockade of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, insulin and insulin secretagogues) interfere with mechanisms, which must be considered compensatory. This explains why these therapies are disappointing in the long run. New therapeutic strategies based on the "selfish brain theory" will be discussed.

  14. Asymmetric interspecific territorial competition over food resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rock-dwelling cichlids in Lake Malawi comprise the most diverse freshwater fish community in the world. Individuals frequently interact with heterospecifics through feeding territoriality. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted to examine interspecific variation in the frequencies of territorial behaviour ...

  15. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  16. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  17. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TAX COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of globalization, economic integration and the mobility of production factors at the local and global level have been facilitated. In Europe, the process of economic and monetary integration began when barriers to the free movement of goods, capital and labor were formally abolished, although cultural barriers still exist. The need and justification of tax competition is that it can lead to greater efficiency in the use of public sector resources and more efficient allocation of capital. The main advantages of tax competition are those related to the reduction of tax rates, which can lead to boosting consumption and investment. The method used to achieve the objective is complex, from statistical and economic analyzes of fiscal data to a comparative technique at the level of the European Union. The database used is from Eurostat sources and other European Commission work on taxation in the Member States of the European Union.

  18. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  19. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  20. PIALA '96. Jaketo Jaketak Kobban Alele Eo--Identifying, Using and Sharing Local Resources. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (6th, Majuro, Marshall Islands, November 5-8, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    This 1996 PIALA conference explores ways to identify and make available local resources on the Marshall Islands. The traditional Marshallese word, "Alele," which means "the basket which holds the tools, treasures and resources needed for everyday life," is also the name of Majuro's public library, museum and Marshall Islands…

  1. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  2. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  3. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  4. The Impact of Local Participation on Community Support for Natural Resource Management: The Case of Mining in Northern Canada and Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its oftentimes complex, contested, and multi-scale character, natural resource management (NRM tends to be a challenging task that has been met with various political approaches in order to meet demands for legitimacy. One approach to enhancing the legitimacy of NRM that has gained increased attention within the academic literature is the adoption of local participatory democracy in decision-making processes. Advocates of participatory democracy in NRM propose that local participation achieves the following outcomes: increased legitimacy because it ensures that local needs and priorities are successfully met; decision-making based on more complete information, which helps avoid unexpected negative outcomes; and a sense of belonging and influence among the public, leading to increased perceptions of support and partnership, as opposed to NRM which is imposed on the community. Nevertheless, comprehensive empirical studies that document how public participation affects legitimacy remain rare. Using 2015 data collected on people’s attitudes towards mining in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, and Norrbotten and Västerbotten counties, Sweden, this paper empirically assesses whether and how perceptions of local participation affect the legitimacy of mining development. In turn, this paper finds that perceived public participation does affect the public’s propensity to support mining development and this propensity is mediated by people’s perceptions of the interests present in the decision-making process, their normative beliefs concerning which actors should be allowed to participate in the decision-making process, and certain individual-level and contextual-level factors.

  5. Evidence for competition and cooperation among climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaskie, Jay M

    2011-07-07

    A plant's best strategy for acquiring resources may often depend on the identity of neighbours. Here, I ask whether plants adjust their strategy to local relatedness: individuals may cooperate (reduce competitiveness) with kin but compete relatively intensely with non-kin. In a greenhouse experiment with Ipomoea hederacea, neighbouring siblings from the same inbred line were relatively uniform in height; groups of mixed lines, however, were increasingly variable as their mean height increased. The reproductive yield of mixed and sibling groups was similar overall, but when adjusted to a common mean height and height inequality, the yield of mixed groups was significantly less. Where this difference in yield was most pronounced (among groups that varied most in height), mixed groups tended to allocate more mass to roots than comparable sibling groups, and overall, mixed groups produced significantly fewer seeds per unit mass of roots. These results suggest that, from the group perspective, non-kin may have wasted resources in below-ground competition at the expense of reproduction; kin groups, on the other hand, displayed the relative efficiency that is expected of reduced competitiveness.

  6. Multi-level natural resources governance based on local community: A case study on semi-natural grassland in Tarōji, Nara, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Japan is facing a bio-diversity crisis as a result of rapid industrialisation. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy based on the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit in 1992. After an amendment in 2002, the National Biodiversity Strategy addressed three crises in biodiversity: over-exploitation and development that destroys habitats, underutilisation (the satoyama problem and artificially introduced factors (chemicals, alien species and so on. This paper focuses on the second problem. Secondary natural environments called satoyama have been created and maintained over the centuries by human activity. Because natural environments in Japan have been affected by human-induced disturbances for 35,000 years, many species have evolved in response to these disturbances. If the human activities cease, many of the species that have evolved to survive in managed environments become threatened. Many satoyama have been managed as commonage or common lands, called iriai in Japan. One natural resource system created by commoners is semi-natural grassland, and economic modernisation has led to abandonment of traditional management practices on these grasslands – one of the more evident changes in Japanese iriai practices. Before industrialisation, semi-natural grasslands were managed as a source of green manure, as a harvest for roofing materials (thatch and as pasture for animals. After industrialisation, however, introduction of chemical fertilizers, changes in building practices and importation of animal feeds rapidly decreased the use value of these grasslands for local residents. On the other hand, their value as public goods – as historical, cultural landscapes and places of biodiversity – which concern a much broader population than the local community – became relatively more important. The resulting problem is how to manage this resource with its new value for new

  7. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  8. Competencia en Cladocera: implicancias de la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos tróficos Competition in Cladocera: implications of the trophic resources use overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar que numerosa evidencia demuestra el uso de diferentes estrategias de alimentación entre cladóceros, la clásica descripción de una conducta alimentaria pasiva ha conducido a una subestimación de la sobreposición de nicho trófico sobre sus patrones de coexistencia. En condiciones de microcosmos, se mantuvieron experimentos pareados de dinámica poblacional de los cladóceros Moina micrura (Moinidae y Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, especializados en los recursos Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectivamente y del generalista Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, durante 35 - 45 días. Mientras que los especialistas M. micrura y C. dubia no dieron evidencias de competencia, la presencia de cada uno produjo un significativo decrecimiento de la densidad del generalista D. ambigua, ocasionando en algunos casos su extinción. A pesar que las dinámicas poblacionales de cada especialista fueron afectadas cualitativamente por la presencia del generalista, no hubo efecto de esta especie sobre las densidades, resultando una interacción asimétrica entre cada especialista con el generalista. Estos resultados demuestran que la conducta alimentaria y la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos serían condiciones determinantes en la composición de ensambles de cladócerosAlthough numerous evidence reveals the use of different feeding strategies among cladocerans, the impact of trophic niche overlap on their patterns of coexistence has been underestimated due to the classical description of passive feeding behavior. Under microcosm conditions, paired experiments of population dynamics were conducted for the cladocerans Moina micrura (Moinidae and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, specialists on the resources Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectively, and for the generalist species Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, during 35 - 45 days. While, the specialists M. micrura and C. dubia did not show evidences of competition, their

  9. Competitive intelligence and national development: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Competitive intelligence (CI) is the process of developing actionable foresight regarding competitive dynamics and non-market factors that can ... It is a relevant tool for strategic decision making which in return impacts national ... archives, resource centers, etc are yet to realize their position as Competitive Intelligent Agents.

  10. Development of inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource to promote learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukji, Paweena; Wichaidit, Pacharee Rompayom; Wichaidit, Sittichai

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 students before and after learning through inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource, and 2) compare average post-test score of learning achievement and analytical thinking ability to its cutting score. The target of this study was 23 Mathayomsuksa 3 students who were studying in the second semester of 2016 academic year from Banchatfang School, Chainat Province. Research instruments composed of: 1) 6 lesson plans of Environment and Natural Resources, 2) the learning achievement test, and 3) analytical thinking ability test. The results showed that 1) student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability after learning were higher than that of before at the level of .05 statistical significance, and 2) average posttest score of student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability were higher than its cutting score at the level of .05 statistical significance. The implication of this research is for science teachers and curriculum developers to design inquiry activities that relate to student's context.

  11. Enhancing innovation processes through local competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    development objective, and is pursuing a policy of de- centralisation in all aspects of government, including ... level public extension, NGOs, the private sector and farmers organisations should be represented, as well as ... Agreeing criteria for evaluating concept notes and proposals (Table 4);. ➢ Scoring proposals and ...

  12. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  13. From energy water use towards integration of multi-purpose water at the local scale. Modelling water resources and water uses for adapting to global changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulhe, P.; Hendrickx, F.; Samie, R.; SAUQUET, E.; Vidal, J.P.; Perrin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Water management within large catchments is a complex question related to local issues, with a high-impact potential for the EDF Group. That is why EDF R and D carried out a scientific study in the Garonne river basin upstream to Golfech, under the framework of a research program partly funded by the French Ministry of Ecology and in partnership with Irstea and the Adour-Garonne Water Agency. This project aims at assessing water availability under present-day conditions and under climate change scenarios in the 2030's, including a detailed analysis of pressure on water resources and actual management rules. Down-scaled IPCC AR4 precipitation and temperature scenarios for 2030 forecast a significant increase in summer temperatures (+ 4 deg. C), more limited in winter (+ 2 deg. C) and a less pronounced decrease in precipitation. This leads to a reduction of natural flows in summer as a result of increased potential evapotranspiration, a reduction in snow contribution and a shift towards earlier snow melt in the mountain basins. Regarding evolution of water uses, the results suggest a decrease of hydropower production, an increase in summer water releases to sustain low water and a lesser flexibility to meet needs of the electrical system. In parallel, a 20% increase in demand for irrigation is projected under 'business-as-usual' practices. This project highlights the challenges of water allocation policy-making that should be considered in a collective way. It opens the way towards a more operational consideration of a 'water resources' risk for both electrical production manager and producers. However, technical issues related to necessary tools for decision support remain. The extension of this type of study encompassing climate, water resources, water uses and socio-economic aspect is considered in other river basins. (authors)

  14. Cluster-based global firms' use of local capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Despite growing interest in clusters role for the global competitiveness of firms, there has been little research into how globalization affects cluster-based firms’ (CBFs) use of local knowledge resources and the combination of local and global knowledge used. Using the cluster......’s knowledge base as a mediating variable, the purpose of this paper is to examine how globalization affected the studied firms’ use of local cluster-based knowledge, integration of local and global knowledge, and networking capabilities. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative case studies of nine firms...... in three clusters strongly affected by increasing global division of labour. Findings – The paper suggests that globalization has affected how firms use local resources and combine local and global knowledge. Unexpectedly, clustered firms with explicit procedures and established global fora for exchanging...

  15. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  16. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands : opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna eBowles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate.Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi-Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analysed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture.

  17. Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank

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    Boros Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.

  18. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the

  19. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 8: developing, implementing and evaluating an evidence dissemination service in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Garrubba, Marie; Melder, Angela; Voutier, Catherine; Waller, Cara; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne

    2018-03-02

    This is the eighth in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE Program was a systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment within a large Australian health service. One of the aims was to explore methods to deliver existing high quality synthesised evidence directly to decision-makers to drive decision-making proactively. An Evidence Dissemination Service (EDS) was proposed. While this was conceived as a method to identify disinvestment opportunities, it became clear that it could also be a way to review all practices for consistency with current evidence. This paper reports the development, implementation and evaluation of two models of an in-house EDS. Frameworks for development of complex interventions, implementation of evidence-based change, and evaluation and explication of processes and outcomes were adapted and/or applied. Mixed methods including a literature review, surveys, interviews, workshops, audits, document analysis and action research were used to capture barriers, enablers and local needs; identify effective strategies; develop and refine proposals; ascertain feedback and measure outcomes. Methods to identify, capture, classify, store, repackage, disseminate and facilitate use of synthesised research evidence were investigated. In Model 1, emails containing links to multiple publications were sent to all self-selected participants who were asked to determine whether they were the relevant decision-maker for any of the topics presented, whether change was required, and to take the relevant action. This voluntary framework did not achieve the aim of ensuring practice was consistent with current evidence. In Model 2, the need for change was established prior to dissemination, then a summary of the evidence was sent to the decision-maker responsible for practice in the relevant area who was required to take appropriate action and

  20. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 6: investigating methods to identify, prioritise, implement and evaluate disinvestment projects in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; Brooke, Vanessa; Dyer, Tim; Waller, Cara; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Mortimer, Duncan

    2017-05-25

    This is the sixth in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE program was established to investigate a systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach to disinvestment within a large Australian health service. This paper describes the methods employed in undertaking pilot disinvestment projects. It draws a number of lessons regarding the strengths and weaknesses of these methods; particularly regarding the crucial first step of identifying targets for disinvestment. Literature reviews, survey, interviews, consultation and workshops were used to capture and process the relevant information. A theoretical framework was adapted for evaluation and explication of disinvestment projects, including a taxonomy for the determinants of effectiveness, process of change and outcome measures. Implementation, evaluation and costing plans were developed. Four literature reviews were completed, surveys were received from 15 external experts, 65 interviews were conducted, 18 senior decision-makers attended a data gathering workshop, 22 experts and local informants were consulted, and four decision-making workshops were undertaken. Mechanisms to identify disinvestment targets and criteria for prioritisation and decision-making were investigated. A catalogue containing 184 evidence-based opportunities for disinvestment and an algorithm to identify disinvestment projects were developed. An Expression of Interest process identified two potential disinvestment projects. Seventeen additional projects were proposed through a non-systematic nomination process. Four of the 19 proposals were selected as pilot projects but only one reached the implementation stage. Factors with potential influence on the outcomes of disinvestment projects are discussed and barriers and enablers in the pilot projects are summarised. This study provides an in-depth insight into the experience of disinvestment