WorldWideScience

Sample records for local membrane deformations

  1. Nonlinear Local Deformations of Red Blood Cell Membranes: Effects of Toxins and Pharmaceuticals (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Chernysh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifiers of membranes cause local defects on the cell surface. Measurement of the rigidity at the sites of local defects can provide further information about the structure of defects and mechanical properties of altered membranes.The purpose of the study: a step-by-step study of the process of a nonlinear deformation of red blood cells membranes under the effect of modifiers of different physico-chemical nature.Materials and methods. The membrane deformation of a viscoelastic composite erythrocyte construction inside a cell was studied by the atomic force spectroscopy. Nonlinear deformations formed under the effect of hemin, Zn2+ ions, and verapamil were studied.Results. The process of elastic deformation of the membrane with the indentation of a probe at the sites of local defects caused by modifiers was demonstrated. The probe was inserted during the same step of the piezo scanner z displacement; the probe indentation occured at the different discrete values of h, which are the functions of the membrane structure. At the sites of domains, under the effect of the hemin, tension areas and plasticity areas appeared. A mathematical model of probe indentation at the site of membrane defects is presented.Conclusion. The molecular mechanisms of various types of nonlinear deformations occurring under the effect of toxins are discussed. The results of the study may be of interest both for fundamental researchers of the blood cell properties and for practical reanimatology and rehabilitology. 

  2. Filament networks attached to membranes: cytoskeletal pressure and local bilayer deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Safran, S A; Gov, Nir S

    2007-01-01

    Several cell types, among them red blood cells, have a cortical, two-dimensional (2D) network of filaments sparsely attached to their lipid bilayer. In many mammalian cells, this 2D polymer network is connected to an underlying 3D, more rigid cytoskeleton. In this paper, we consider the pressure exerted by the thermally fluctuating, cortical network of filaments on the bilayer and predict the bilayer deformations that are induced by this pressure. We treat the filaments as flexible polymers and calculate the pressure that a network of such linear chains exerts on the bilayer; we then minimize the bilayer shape in order to predict the resulting local deformations. We compare our predictions with membrane deformations observed in electron micrographs of red blood cells. The polymer pressure along with the resulting membrane deformation can lead to compartmentalization, regulate in-plane diffusion and may influence protein sorting as well as transmit signals to the polymerization of the underlying 3D cytoskeleton

  3. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia....

  4. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    developed by N.V. Valishvili. The principle of the method of changing the subspace of control parameters is piecewise smooth parameter marching process. In each smooth section a numerical analysis is reduced to the one-parameter problem.The problem is solved by two-stage predictor-corrector scheme. The predictor stage uses extrapolation to predict initial values of unknown on the basis of historical data. At the corrector stage a modified method of Newton - Raphson is used to specify initial approximation solutions.As a result of the programme, the following results were obtained: elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane and deformed shapes of a corrugated shell meridian in appropriate points of the elastic characteristic.The paper has considered a phenomenon of local buckling. It has shown the elastic characteristic obtained and a deformed shape of the corrugated membrane meridian. The method to have an isolated solution by changing a subspace of control parameters has been proposed. The proposed algorithm enables efficient investigation of membrane behaviour during nonlinear deformation.

  5. How To Tackle the Issues in Free Energy Simulations of Long Amphiphiles Interacting with Lipid Membranes: Convergence and Local Membrane Deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipe, H. A. L.; Moreno, M. J.; Rog, T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges in membrane biophysics is to find a means to foster the transport of drugs across complex membrane structures. In this spirit, we elucidate methodological challenges associated with free energy computations of complex chainlike molecules across lipid membranes....... As an appropriate standard molecule to this end, we consider 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl-labeled fatty amine, NBD-C-n, which is here dealt with as a homologous series with varying chain lengths. We found the membrane-water interface region to be highly sensitive to details in free energy computations. Despite...... of radius 1.7 nm from the amphiphile. Importantly, the free energy results given by PGC were found to be qualitatively consistent with experimental data, while the PGD results were not. We conclude that with long amphiphiles there is reason for concern with regard to computations of their free energy...

  6. Local membrane deformation and micro-injury lead to qualitatively different responses in osteoblasts [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3o7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Monserratt Lopez-Ayon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-damage of bone tissue is known to regulate bone turnover. However, it is unknown if individual bone cells can differentiate between membrane deformation and micro-injury. We generated osteoblasts from mouse bone marrow or bone morphogenetic protein 2-transfected C2C12 cells. Single cells were mechanically stimulated by indentation with the atomic force microscopy probe with variable force load either resulting in membrane deformation only, or leading to membrane penetration and micro-injury. Changes in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in fluo4-AM loaded cells were analyzed. When deformation only was induced, it resulted in an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]i which was localized to the probe periphery. Multiple consecutive local Ca2+ responses were induced by sequential application of low level forces, with characteristic recovery time of ~2 s. The duration of [Ca2+]i elevations was directly proportional to the tip-cell contact time. In contrast, cell micro-injury resulted in transient global elevations of [Ca2+]i, the magnitude of which was independent of the tip-cell contact time. Sequential micro-injury of the same cell did not induce Ca2+ response within 30 s of the first stimulation. Both local and global Ca2+elevations were blocked in Ca2+-free media or in the presence of stretch-activated channel blocker Gd3+. In addition, amount of Ca2+ released during global responses was significantly reduced in the presence of PLC inhibitor Et-18-OCH3. Thus, we found qualitative differences in calcium responses to mechanical forces inducing only membrane deformation or deformation leading to micro-injury.

  7. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C

  8. Puncture mechanics of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation by rigid cylindrical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Chen, Zhe; Liang, Xueya; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Guoyong; Hong, Wei; Yu, Honghui; Qu, Shaoxing

    2018-03-01

    Soft elastomeric membrane structures are widely used and commonly found in engineering and biological applications. Puncture is one of the primary failure modes of soft elastomeric membrane at large deformation when indented by rigid objects. In order to investigate the puncture failure mechanism of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation, we study the deformation and puncture failure of silicone rubber membrane that results from the continuous axisymmetric indentation by cylindrical steel indenters experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, effects of indenter size and the friction between the indenter and the membrane on the deformation and puncture failure of the membrane are investigated. In the analytical study, a model within the framework of nonlinear field theory is developed to describe the large local deformation around the punctured area, as well as to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The deformed membrane is divided into three parts and the friction contact between the membrane and indenter is modeled by Coulomb friction law. The first invariant of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor I1 is adopted to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The experimental and analytical results agree well. This work provides a guideline in designing reliable soft devices featured with membrane structures, which are present in a wide variety of applications.

  9. Role of amphipathic helix of a herpesviral protein in membrane deformation and T cell receptor downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Ki Min

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that function as platforms for signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Tyrosine kinase interacting protein (Tip of T lymphotropic Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS is targeted to lipid rafts in T cells and downregulates TCR and CD4 surface expression. Here, we report that the membrane-proximal amphipathic helix preceding Tip's transmembrane (TM domain mediates lipid raft localization and membrane deformation. In turn, this motif directs Tip's lysosomal trafficking and selective TCR downregulation. The amphipathic helix binds to the negatively charged lipids and induces liposome tubulation, the TM domain mediates oligomerization, and cooperation of the membrane-proximal helix with the TM domain is sufficient for localization to lipid rafts and lysosomal compartments, especially the mutivesicular bodies. These findings suggest that the membrane-proximal amphipathic helix and TM domain provide HVS Tip with the unique ability to deform the cellular membranes in lipid rafts and to downregulate TCRs potentially through MVB formation.

  10. Phase separation and shape deformation of two-phase membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2000-01-01

    Within a coupled-field Ginzburg-Landau model we study analytically phase separation and accompanying shape deformation on a two-phase elastic membrane in simple geometries such as cylinders, spheres, and tori. Using an exact periodic domain wall solution we solve for the shape and phase separating field, and estimate the degree of deformation of the membrane. The results are pertinent to preferential phase separation in regions of differing curvature on a variety of vesicles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Localized deformation of zirconium-liner tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Fumihisa; Uchida, Masaaki

    1988-03-01

    Zirconium-liner tube has come to be used in BWR. Zirconium liner mitigates the localized stress produced by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In this study, simulating the ridging, stresses were applied to the inner surfaces of zirconium-liner tubes and Zircaloy-2 tubes, and, to investigate the mechanism and the extent of the effect, the behavior of zirconium liner was examined. As the result of examination, stress was concentrated especially at the edge of the deformed region, where zirconium liner was highly deformed. Even after high stress was applied, the deformation of Zircaloy part was small, since almost the concentrated stress was mitigated by the deformation of zirconium liner. In addition, stress and strain distributions in the cross section of specimen were calculated with a computer code FEMAXI-III. The results also showed that zirconium liner mitigated the localized stress in Zircaloy, although the affected zone was restricted to the region near the boundary between zirconium liner and Zircaloy. (author)

  12. Myosin IIA interacts with the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton to control red blood cell membrane curvature and deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alyson S; Nowak, Roberta B; Zhou, Sitong; Giannetto, Michael; Gokhin, David S; Papoin, Julien; Ghiran, Ionita C; Blanc, Lionel; Wan, Jiandi; Fowler, Velia M

    2018-05-08

    The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy. MgATP disrupts NMIIA association with the membrane skeleton, consistent with NMIIA motor domains binding to membrane skeleton F-actin and contributing to membrane mechanical properties. In addition, the phosphorylation of the RBC NMIIA heavy and light chains in vivo indicates active regulation of NMIIA motor activity and filament assembly, while reduced heavy chain phosphorylation of membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA indicates assembly of stable filaments at the membrane. Treatment of RBCs with blebbistatin, an inhibitor of NMII motor activity, decreases the number of NMIIA filaments associated with the membrane and enhances local, nanoscale membrane oscillations, suggesting decreased membrane tension. Blebbistatin-treated RBCs also exhibit elongated shapes, loss of membrane curvature, and enhanced deformability, indicating a role for NMIIA contractility in promoting membrane stiffness and maintaining RBC biconcave disk cell shape. As structures similar to the RBC membrane skeleton exist in many metazoan cell types, these data demonstrate a general function for NMII in controlling specialized membrane morphology and mechanical properties through contractile interactions with short F-actin in spectrin-F-actin networks.

  13. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Nikolaeva; S. A. Podkopaev

    2015-01-01

    Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a gener...

  14. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-09-18

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Lee, Min-Gi; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Distributed sensing signal analysis of deformable plate/membrane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen

    2017-11-01

    Deformable optical mirrors usually play key roles in aerospace and optical structural systems applied to space telescopes, radars, solar collectors, communication antennas, etc. Limited by the payload capacity of current launch vehicles, the deformable mirrors should be lightweight and are generally made of ultra-thin plates or even membranes. These plate/membrane mirrors are susceptible to external excitations and this may lead to surface inaccuracy and jeopardize relevant working performance. In order to investigate the modal vibration characteristics of the mirror, a piezoelectric layer is fully laminated on its non-reflective side to serve as sensors. The piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements so that microscopic distributed sensing signals can be explored. In this paper, the deformable mirror is modeled as a pre-tensioned plate and membrane respectively and sensing signal distributions of the two models are compared. Different pre-tensioning forces are also applied to reveal the tension effects on the mode shape and sensing signals of the mirror. Analytical results in this study could be used as guideline of optimal sensor/actuator placement for deformable space mirrors.

  17. Dynamic shaping of cellular membranes by phospholipids and membrane-deforming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2014-10-01

    All cellular compartments are separated from the external environment by a membrane, which consists of a lipid bilayer. Subcellular structures, including clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia, lamellipodia, podosomes, and other intracellular membrane systems, are molded into their specific submicron-scale shapes through various mechanisms. Cells construct their micro-structures on plasma membrane and execute vital functions for life, such as cell migration, cell division, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeletal regulation. The plasma membrane, rich in anionic phospholipids, utilizes the electrostatic nature of the lipids, specifically the phosphoinositides, to form interactions with cytosolic proteins. These cytosolic proteins have three modes of interaction: 1) electrostatic interaction through unstructured polycationic regions, 2) through structured phosphoinositide-specific binding domains, and 3) through structured domains that bind the membrane without specificity for particular phospholipid. Among the structured domains, there are several that have membrane-deforming activity, which is essential for the formation of concave or convex membrane curvature. These domains include the amphipathic helix, which deforms the membrane by hemi-insertion of the helix with both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and/or the BAR domain superfamily, known to use their positively charged, curved structural surface to deform membranes. Below the membrane, actin filaments support the micro-structures through interactions with several BAR proteins as well as other scaffold proteins, resulting in outward and inward membrane micro-structure formation. Here, we describe the characteristics of phospholipids, and the mechanisms utilized by phosphoinositides to regulate cellular events. We then summarize the precise mechanisms underlying the construction of membrane micro-structures and their involvements in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 the

  18. Improved performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells through control of membrane deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    , but in initial experiments we observed the opposite using a membrane electrode assembly MFC. The reason was identified to be membrane deformation, which resulted in water and gas trapped between the membrane and cathode. To correct this, stainless steel mesh

  19. Non-local deformation of a supersymmetric field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qin [National University of Singapore, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge (Canada); University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Bhat, Anha [National Institute of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Srinagar (India); Zaz, Zaid [University of Kashmir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Masood, Syed; Raza, Jamil; Irfan, Raja Muhammad [International Islamic University, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we will analyze a supersymmetric field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle and Lifshitz scaling. It will be observed that this deformed supersymmetric field theory contains non-local fractional derivative terms. In order to construct such a deformed N = 1 supersymmetric theory, a harmonic extension of functions will be used. However, the supersymmetry will only be preserved for a free theory and will be broken by the inclusion of interaction terms. (orig.)

  20. Deformation theory and local-global compatibility of Langlands correspondences

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The deformation theory of automorphic representations is used to study local properties of Galois representations associated to automorphic representations of general linear groups and symplectic groups. In some cases this allows to identify the local Galois representations with representations predicted by a local Langlands correspondence.

  1. Localization in Naturally Deformed Systems - the Default State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy White, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Based on the extensive literature on localized rock deformation, conventional wisdom would interpret it to be a special behaviour within an anticipated background of otherwise uniform deformation. The latter notwithstanding, the rock record is so rife with transient (cyclic), heterogeneous deformation, notably shear localization, as to characterize localization as the anticipated 'normal' behaviour. The corollary is that steady, homogeneous deformation is significantly less common, and if achieved must reflect some special set of conditions that are not representative of the general case. An issue central to natural deformation is then not the existance of localized strain, but rather how the extant deformation processes scale across tectonic phenomena and in turn organize to enable a coherent(?) descripion of Earth deformation. Deformation is fundamentally quantized, discrete (diffusion, glide, crack propagation) and reliant on the defect state of rock-forming minerals. The strain energy distribution that drives thermo-mechanical responses is in the first instance established at the grain-scale where the non-linear interaction of defect-mediated micromechanical processes introduces heterogeneous behaviour described by various gradient theories, and evidenced by the defect microstructures of deformed rocks. Hence, the potential for non-uniform response is embedded within even quasi-uniform, monomineralic materials, seen, for example, in the spatially discrete evolution of dynamic recrystallization. What passes as homogeneous or uniform deformation at various scales is the aggregation of responses at some characteristic dimension at which heterogeneity is not registered or measured. Nevertheless, the aggregate response and associated normalized parameters (strain, strain rate) do not correspond to any condition actually experienced by the deforming material. The more common types of macroscopic heterogeneity promoting localization comprise mechanically contrasting

  2. Exploring the Local Elastic Properties of Bilayer Membranes Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieffet, Gilles; Botero, Alonso; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane mechanical elastic properties regulate a variety of cellular processes involving local membrane deformation, such as ion channel function and vesicle fusion. In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations to estimate the local elastic properties of a membrane. For this, we calculated...... the stretching process in molecular detail, allowing us to fit this profile to a previously proposed continuum elastic model. Through this approach, we calculated an effective membrane spring constant of 42 kJ-2.mol-1, which is in good agreement with the PMF calculation. Furthermore, the solvation energy we...

  3. The effects of membrane cholesterol and simvastatin on red blood cell deformability and ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison M; Braunmüller, Susanne; Wan, Jiandi; Franke, Thomas; Stone, Howard A

    2012-05-01

    It is known that deformation of red blood cells (RBCs) is linked to ATP release from the cells. Further, membrane cholesterol has been shown to alter properties of the cell membrane such as fluidity and bending stiffness. Membrane cholesterol content is increased in some cardiovascular diseases, for example, in individuals with acute coronary syndromes and chronic stable angina, and therefore, because of the potential clinical relevance, we investigated the influence of altered RBC membrane cholesterol levels on ATP release. Because of the correlation between statins and reduced membrane cholesterol in vivo, we also investigated the effects of simvastatin on RBC deformation and ATP release. We found that reducing membrane cholesterol increases cell deformability and ATP release. We also found that simvastatin increases deformability by acting directly on the membrane in the absence of the liver, and that ATP release was increased for cells with enriched cholesterol after treatment with simvastatin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.

  5. Deformation mechanisms of a porous structure of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) nuclear track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The deformation mechanisms of a porous structure of the nuclear track membrane made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) are investigated in the temperature range from 333 to 473 K. It is shown that the pore size of the membrane can both decrease and increase. The analytical equation based on the Alfrey mechanical approach to the relaxation deformation of polymers describes the experimental data satisfactorily over the whole range of temperatures and pore radii of the membranes. 21 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berek, H., E-mail: harry.berek@ikgb.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Agricolastraße 17, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Agricolastraße 17, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Losch, K.; Schladitz, K. [Fraunhofer ITWM, Fraunhoferplatz 1, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated.

  7. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berek, H.; Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G.; Losch, K.; Schladitz, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated

  8. Membrane raft association is a determinant of plasma membrane localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Rohrer, Blanca B; Levental, Kandice R; Simons, Kai; Levental, Ilya

    2014-06-10

    The lipid raft hypothesis proposes lateral domains driven by preferential interactions between sterols, sphingolipids, and specific proteins as a central mechanism for the regulation of membrane structure and function; however, experimental limitations in defining raft composition and properties have prevented unequivocal demonstration of their functional relevance. Here, we establish a quantitative, functional relationship between raft association and subcellular protein sorting. By systematic mutation of the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of a model transmembrane protein, linker for activation of T-cells (LAT), we generated a panel of variants possessing a range of raft affinities. These mutations revealed palmitoylation, transmembrane domain length, and transmembrane sequence to be critical determinants of membrane raft association. Moreover, plasma membrane (PM) localization was strictly dependent on raft partitioning across the entire panel of unrelated mutants, suggesting that raft association is necessary and sufficient for PM sorting of LAT. Abrogation of raft partitioning led to mistargeting to late endosomes/lysosomes because of a failure to recycle from early endosomes. These findings identify structural determinants of raft association and validate lipid-driven domain formation as a mechanism for endosomal protein sorting.

  9. Local microstructure and flow stress in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure and flow stress of metals are related through many well-known strength-structure relationships based on structural parameters, where grain size and dislocation density are examples. In heterogeneous structures, the local stress and strain are important as they will affect...... the bulk properties. A microstructural method is presented which allows the local stress in a deformed metal to be estimated based on microstructural parameters determined by an EBSD analysis. These parameters are the average spacing of deformation introduced boundaries and the fraction of high angle...... boundaries. The method is demonstrated for two heterogeneous structures: (i) a gradient (sub)surface structure in steel deformed by shot peening; (ii) a heterogeneous structure introduced by friction between a tool and a workpiece of aluminum. Flow stress data are calculated based on the microstructural...

  10. Deformations of coisotropic submanifolds in locally conformal symplectic manifolds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Oh, Y.-G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2016), s. 553-596 ISSN 1093-6106 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : locally conformal symplectic manifold * coisotropic submanifold * b-twisted differential * bulk deformation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2016 http://intlpress.com/site/pub/pages/journals/items/ajm/content/vols/0020/0003/a007/index.html

  11. Mass deformed world-sheet action of semi local vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yunguo [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai,264209 Weihai (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment,264209 Weihai (China)

    2014-02-10

    The mass deformed effective world-sheet theory of semi local vortices was constructed via the field theoretical method. By Euler-Lagrangian equations, the Ansatze for both the gauge field and the adjoint scalar were solved, this ensures that zero modes of vortices are minimal excitations of the system. Up to the 1/g{sup 2} order, all profiles are solved. The mass deformed effective action was obtained by integrating out the transverse plane of the vortex string. The effective theory interpolates between the local vortex and the lump. Respecting certain normalization conditions, the effective theory shows a Seiberg-like duality, which agrees with the result of the Kähler quotient construction.

  12. Deformation localization and cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, O.T.; Rakshin, A.F.; Fenyuk, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    Conditions of deformation localization and its interrelation with cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum were investigated. A fatigue failure of polycrystalline molybdenum after rolling and in an embrittled state reached by recrystallization annealing under cyclic bending at room temperature takes place under nonuniform distribution of microplastic strain resulting in a temperature rise in separate sections of more than 314 K. More intensive structural changes take place in molybdenum after rolling than in recrystallized state.

  13. Deformations of closed strings and topological open membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    We study deformations of topological closed strings. A well-known example is the perturba- tion of a topological closed string by itself, where the associative OPE product is deformed, and which isgoverned by the WD VV equations. Our main in terest will be closed strings that arise as the

  14. Deformations of closed strings and topological open membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.

    We study deformations of topological closed strings. A well-known example is the perturbation of a topological closed string by itself, where the associative OPE product is deformed, and which is governed by the WDVV equations. Our main interest will be closed strings that arise as the boundary

  15. Work of plastic deformation in local zone of crack apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, V.Yu.; Matvienko, Yu.G.; Rivkin, E.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For substantiating application of criteria of viscous fracture and deeoer understanding of this. process one should know strain distribution and energy consumption for plastic deformation in crack top zone. For this purpose plane samples of 300x70x1.5 mm dimension with central notch of 23, 36 and 46 mm length have been subjected to tensile testing. The samples have been cut out from sheet steel 1Kh18N9T perpendicularly to the rolling direction. It is shown that the suggested viscous fracture conception ensures general approach to the viscous and elastoplastic fracture based on the concept on specific work of plastic deformation in the localized zone νsub(l). The νsub(l) value characterizes maximum plastic material energy consumption and may serve as criterion of viscous material fracture parallel to the critical opening of the deltasub(c) crack top

  16. Large-scale membrane transfer process: its application to single-crystal-silicon continuous membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tong; Sasaki, Takashi; Hane, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale membrane transfer process developed for the construction of large-scale membrane devices via the transfer of continuous single-crystal-silicon membranes from one substrate to another. This technique is applied for fabricating a large stroke deformable mirror. A bimorph spring array is used to generate a large air gap between the mirror membrane and the electrode. A 1.9 mm × 1.9 mm × 2 µm single-crystal-silicon membrane is successfully transferred to the electrode substrate by Au–Si eutectic bonding and the subsequent all-dry release process. This process provides an effective approach for transferring a free-standing large continuous single-crystal-silicon to a flexible suspension spring array with a large air gap. (paper)

  17. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Deformable Membrane Mirror for Lightweight, Large Aperture and Cryogenic Space Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes innovative hybrid electrostatic/flextensional membrane deformable mirror capable of large amplitude aberration correction for large...

  18. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  19. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  20. Amphipaths Differentially Modulate Membrane Surface Deformation in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells During Exocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuro Kazama

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Salicylate and chlorpromazine exert differential effects on the chemokine release from mast cells. Since these drugs are amphiphilic and preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membranes, they would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of salicylate and chlorpromazine on the membrane capacitance (Cm during exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on plasma membrane deformation of the cells. Results: Salicylate dramatically accelerated the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm immediately after its application, whereas chlorpromazine significantly suppressed the increase. Treatment with salicylate increased the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, while treatment with chlorpromazine completely washed it out, indicating that both drugs induced membrane surface deformation in mast cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated for the first time that membrane amphipaths, such as salicylate and chlorpromazine, may oppositely modulate the process of exocytosis in mast cells, as detected by the changes in the Cm. The plasma membrane deformation induced by the drugs was thought to be responsible for their differential effects.

  1. Deformation analysis of a film-overlapped micro-pump membrane structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Fu-Shin; Wang, Pi-Wen; Chen, Chih-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach is developed to study a film-overlapped membrane structure. Meanwhile, the established model is employed to design the micro-pump membrane structure and to evaluate its pumping efficiency. Two-dimensional coupling effects between the overlapping actuator films and the deformable membrane are thoroughly investigated, including the influences on the membrane from the overlapping films' elongation effects, Poisson's ratio effects and shear strain effects. Overall deformations and interactions for the three-layer membrane structures are accurately calculated through exercising the developed model, in contrast to what difficulties are usually encountered in carrying out FEM methods with very thin elements meshed for the actuator films. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the high stiffness of the actuating metal films needs to be reflected in the equivalent stiffness of the membrane structures, especially when the sizes of the actuator films become compatible with the sizes of the membranes. Hence, the optimal micro-pumping efficiency of a membrane structure is acquired upon exercising the developed model, and larger sizes of the actuating films do not definitely obtain larger pumping efficiencies for the electromagnetically actuated micro-pumps

  2. Localization of deformations within the amygdala in individuals with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Narr, Katherine L; Colletti, Patrick; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-09-01

    Despite the repeated findings of impaired fear conditioning and affective recognition in psychopathic individuals, there has been a paucity of brain imaging research on the amygdala and no evidence suggesting which regions within the amygdala may be structurally compromised in individuals with psychopathy. To detect global and regional anatomical abnormalities in the amygdala in individuals with psychopathy. Cross-sectional design using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were recruited from high-risk communities (temporary employment agencies) in the Los Angeles, California, area and underwent imaging at a hospital research facility at the University of Southern California. Twenty-seven psychopathic individuals as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and 32 normal controls matched on age, sex, and ethnicity. Amygdala volumes were examined using traditional volumetric analyses and surface-based mesh modeling methods were used to localize regional surface deformations. Individuals with psychopathy showed significant bilateral volume reductions in the amygdala compared with controls (left, 17.1%; right, 18.9%). Surface deformations were localized in regions in the approximate vicinity of the basolateral, lateral, cortical, and central nuclei of the amygdala. Significant correlations were found between reduced amygdala volumes and increased total and facet psychopathy scores, with correlations strongest for the affective and interpersonal facets of psychopathy. Results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of focal amygdala abnormalities in psychopathic individuals and corroborate findings from previous lesion studies. Findings support prior hypotheses of amygdala deficits in individuals with psychopathy and indicate that amygdala abnormalities contribute to emotional and behavioral symptoms of psychopathy.

  3. Self-positioning of polymer membranes driven by thermomechanically induced plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Boisen, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Stress in polymeric resins is tailored by a thermomechanical process. It allows for controlled self-positioning of membranes in microdevices (see Figure). The process makes specific use of plastic deformation that results from the low viscosity of the polymer. This demonstrates that polymers offer...... new approaches to microfabrication that cannot be realized for common semiconductor materials without severe difficulties....

  4. The F-BAR domains from srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 regulate membrane deformation differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Budd, Jaeda; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Zylka, Mark J.; Polleux, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Summary Coordination of membrane deformation and cytoskeletal dynamics lies at the heart of many biological processes critical for cell polarity, motility and morphogenesis. We have recently shown that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 2 (srGAP2) regulates neuronal morphogenesis through the ability of its F-BAR domain to regulate membrane deformation and induce filopodia formation. Here, we demonstrate that the F-BAR domains of two closely related family members, srGAP1 and srGAP3 [designated F-BAR(1) and F-BAR(3), respectively] display significantly different membrane deformation properties in non-neuronal COS7 cells and in cortical neurons. F-BAR(3) induces filopodia in both cell types, though less potently than F-BAR(2), whereas F-BAR(1) prevents filopodia formation in cortical neurons and reduces plasma membrane dynamics. These three F-BAR domains can heterodimerize, and they act synergistically towards filopodia induction in COS7 cells. As measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, F-BAR(2) displays faster molecular dynamics than F-BAR(3) and F-BAR(1) at the plasma membrane, which correlates well with its increased potency to induce filopodia. We also show that the molecular dynamic properties of F-BAR(2) at the membrane are partially dependent on F-Actin. Interestingly, acute phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] depletion in cells does not interfere with plasma membrane localization of F-BAR(2), which is compatible with our result showing that F-BAR(2) binds to a broad range of negatively-charged phospholipids present at the plasma membrane, including phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Overall, our results provide novel insights into the functional diversity of the membrane deformation properties of this subclass of F-BAR-domains required for cell morphogenesis. PMID:22467852

  5. Improved performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells through control of membrane deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E

    2010-03-15

    Cation (CEMs) and anion exchange membrane (AEMs) are commonly used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to enhance Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) by reducing the flux of oxygen through the cathode to bacteria on the anode. AEMs typically work better than CEMs, but in initial experiments we observed the opposite using a membrane electrode assembly MFC. The reason was identified to be membrane deformation, which resulted in water and gas trapped between the membrane and cathode. To correct this, stainless steel mesh was used to press the membrane flat against the cathode. With the steel mesh, AEM performance increased to 46+/-4 W/m(3) in a single cathode MFC, and 98+/-14 W/m(3) in a double-cathode MFC. These power densities were higher than those using a CEM of 32+/-2 W/m(3) (single cathode) and 63+/-6 W/m(3) (double cathode). Higher pH gradients across the membrane and salt precipitation on the cathode were responsible for the reduced performance of the CEM compared to the AEM. CEs reached over 90% for both membranes at >2A/m(2). These results demonstrate the importance of avoiding water accumulation in thin films between membranes and electrodes, and explain additional reasons for poorer performance of CEMs compared to AEMs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells through control of membrane deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    Cation (CEMs) and anion exchange membrane (AEMs) are commonly used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to enhance Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) by reducing thefluxof oxygen through the cathode to bacteriaonthe anode. AEMs typically work better than CEMs, but in initial experiments we observed the opposite using a membrane electrode assembly MFC. The reason was identified to be membrane deformation, which resulted in water and gas trapped between the membrane and cathode. To correct this, stainless steel mesh was used to press the membrane flat against the cathode. With the steel mesh, AEM performance increased to 46±4W/m3 in a single cathode MFC, and 98±14W/m3 in a double-cathode MFC. These power densities were higher than those using a CEM of 32±2W/m3 (single cathode) and 63±6W/m3 (double cathode). Higher pH gradients across the membrane and salt precipitation on the cathode were responsible for the reduced performance of the CEM compared to the AEM. CEs reached over 90% for both membranes at >2A/m2. These results demonstrate the importance of avoiding water accumulation in thin films between membranes and electrodes, and explain additional reasons for poorer performance of CEMs compared to AEMs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) Specifically Induces Membrane Penetration and Deformation by Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngdae; Zhang, Xiuqi; Cho, Wonhwa

    2012-01-01

    Cellular proteins containing Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domains play a key role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Despite extensive structural and functional studies of BAR domains, it is still unknown how exactly these domains interact with the plasma membrane containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) and whether they function by a universal mechanism or by different mechanisms. Here we report that PtdIns(4,5)P2 specifically induces partial membrane penetration of the N-terminal amphiphilic α-helix (H0) of two representative N-BAR domains from Drosophila amphiphysin (dAmp-BAR) and rat endophilin A1 (EndoA1-BAR). Our quantitative fluorescence imaging analysis shows that PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent membrane penetration of H0 is important for self-association of membrane-bound dAmp-BAR and EndoA1-BAR and their membrane deformation activity. EndoA1-BAR behaves differently from dAmp-BAR because the former has an additional amphiphilic α-helix that penetrates the membrane in a PtdIns(4,5)P2-independent manner. Depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells abrogated the membrane deforming activity of EndoA1-BAR and dAmp-BAR. Collectively, these studies suggest that the local PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentration in the plasma membrane may regulate the membrane interaction and deformation by N-BAR domain-containing proteins during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:22888025

  8. Laser-induced surface deformation microscope for the study of the dynamic viscoelasticity of plasma membrane in a living cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaku, Toshinori; Yui, Hiroharu

    2018-05-15

    A laser-induced surface deformation (LISD) microscope is developed and applied to measurement of the dynamic relaxation responses of the plasma membrane in a living cell. A laser beam is tightly focused on an optional area of cell surface and the focused light induces microscopic deformation on the surface via radiation pressure. The LISD microscope not only allows non-contact and destruction-free measurement but provides power spectra of the surface responses depending on the frequency of the intensity of the laser beam. An optical system for the LISD is equipped via a microscope, allowing us to measure the relaxation responses in sub-cellular-sized regions of the plasma membrane. In addition, the forced oscillation caused by the radiation pressure for surface deformation extends the upper limit of the frequency range in the obtained power spectra to 106 Hz, which enables us to measure relaxation responses in local regions within the plasma membrane. From differences in power-law exponents at higher frequencies, it is realized that a cancerous cell obeys a weaker single power-law than a normal fibroblast cell. Furthermore, the power spectrum of a keratinocyte cell obeys a power-law with two exponents, indicating that alternative mechanical models to a conventional soft glassy rheology model (where single power-laws explain cells' responses below about 103 Hz) are needed for the understanding over a wider frequency range. The LISD microscope would contribute to investigation of microscopic cell rheology, which is important for clarifying the mechanisms of cell migration and tissue construction.

  9. Relationship between local deformation behavior and crystallographic features of as-quenched lath martensite during uniaxial tensile deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiuchi, M.; Nambu, S.; Ishimoto, Y.; Inoue, J.; Koseki, T.

    2009-01-01

    Electron backscattering diffraction patterns were used to investigate the relationship between local deformation behavior and the crystallographic features of as-quenched lath martensite of low-carbon steel during uniform elongation in tensile tests. The slip system operating during the deformation up to a strain of 20% was estimated by comparing the crystal rotation of each martensite block after deformation of 20% strain with predictions by the Taylor and Sachs models. The results indicate that the in-lath-plane slip system was preferentially activated compared to the out-of-lath-plane system up to this strain level. Further detailed analysis of crystal rotation at intervals of approximately 5% strain confirmed that the constraint on the operative slip system by the lath structure begins at a strain of 8% and that the local strain hardening of the primary slip systems occurred at approximately 15% strain.

  10. Non-localized deformation in Cu−Zr multi-layer amorphous films under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, C. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, H. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Cao, Q.P.; Wang, X.D. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, D.X. [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hu, J.W. [Hangzhou Workers Amateur University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Jiang, J.Z., E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-09-05

    In metallic glasses (MGs), plastic deformation at room temperature is dominated by highly localized shear bands. Here we report the non-localized deformation under tension in Cu−Zr multi-layer MGs with a pure amorphous structure using large-scale atomistic simulations. It is demonstrated that amorphous samples with high layer numbers, composed of Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 60}, or Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}, present obviously non-localized deformation behavior. We reveal that the deformation behavior of the multi-layer-structured MG films is related but not determined by the deformation behavior of the composed individual layers. The criterion for the deformation mode change for MGs with a pure amorphous structure, in generally, was suggested, i.e., the competition between the elastic-energy density stored and the energy density needed for forming one mature shear band in MGs. Our results provide a promising strategy for designing tensile ductile MGs with a pure amorphous structure at room temperature. - Highlights: • Tensile deformation behaviors in multi-layer MG films. • Films with high layer numbers confirmed with a non-localized deformation behavior. • The deformation mode is reasonably controlled by whether U{sub p} larger than U{sub SB.}.

  11. Effects of deformability and thermal motion of lipid membrane on electroporation: By molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sheng; Yin, Guangyao; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Wong, Joseph T.Y.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → MD simulations show that deformability and thermal motion of membrane affect electroporation. → Stiffer membrane inhibits electroporation and makes water penetrate from both sides. → Higher temperature accelerates electroporation. -- Abstract: Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium positions using a spring with force constant of 2.0 kcal/(mol A 2 ) in the external electric field of 1.4 kcal/(mol A e), only constraint on lateral motions of lipid tails prohibited electroporation while non-tail parts had little effects. When force constant decreased to 0.2 kcal/(mol A 2 ) in the position constraints on lipid tails in the external electric field of 2.0 kcal/(mol A e), water molecules began to enter the membrane. Position constraints of lipid tails allow water to penetrate from both sides of membrane. Thermal motion of lipids can induce initial defects in the hydrophobic core of membrane, which are favorable nucleation sites for electroporation. Simulations at different temperatures revealed that as the temperature increases, the time taken to the initial pore formation will decrease.

  12. METHODS FOR LOCAL CHANGES IN THE PLASTIC DEFORMATION DIAGNOSTICS ON THE WORK FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Panteleyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the electronic work function measurements by the contact potential difference technique, and experimental demonstration of the possibility of these methods application for the stress-strain state of the surface layer of the metals and alloys. The techniques end examples of their application of localization of plastic deformation studies using the Kelvin probe are developed and present. The study topology of work function the deformed surface possible to determine the type of deformation and dynamics of

  13. Influence of local porosity and local permeability on the performances of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiki, Tilda [Universite Saint Esprit Kaslik (Lebanon); Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, FCLAB Institute for Research on Fuel Cell Systems, 90010 Belfort (France); Charon, Willy; Iltchev, Marie-Christine; Kouta, Raed [Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, FCLAB Institute for Research on Fuel Cell Systems, 90010 Belfort (France); Accary, Gilbert [Universite Saint Esprit Kaslik (Lebanon)

    2010-08-15

    In the literature, many models and studies focused on the steady-state aspect of fuel cell systems while their dynamic transient behavior is still a wide area of research. In the present paper, we study the effects of mechanical solicitations on the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the coupling between the physico-chemical phenomena and the mechanical behavior. We first develop a finite element method to analyze the local porosity distribution and the local permeability distribution inside the gas diffusion layer induced by different pressures applied on deformable graphite or steel bipolar plates. Then, a multi-physical approach is carried out, taking into account the chemical phenomena and the effects of the mechanical compression of the fuel cell, more precisely the deformation of the gas diffusion layer, the changes in the physical properties and the mass transfer in the gas diffusion layer. The effects of this varying porosity and permeability fields on the polarization and on the power density curves are reported, and the local current density is also investigated. Unlike other studies, our model accounts for a porosity field that varies locally in order to correctly simulate the effect of an inhomogeneous compression in the cell. (author)

  14. The influences of deformation velocity and temperature on localized deformation of zircaloy-4 in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boratto, F.J.M.

    1973-01-01

    A new parameter to describe the necking stability in zircaloy-4 during tensile tests is introduced. The parameter is defined as: s = ∂Ln (dσ/dε)/∂Ln ((1/L)dL/dt) for constant temperature, deformation and history. Measures of stress strain rate sensitivity n, reduction of the area at fracture, and deformation profiles of tensile fracture, are done. A complete description of the curve of non-uniform deformation variation with the temperature, is presented. The results are compared with existing data for pure commercially titanium. The influence of strain rate and history on s and n parameters, in the temperature range from 100-700 0 C). (author) [pt

  15. Theoretical Analysis on Mechanical Deformation of Membrane-Based Photomask Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Kenji; Aya, Sunao; Yabe, Hedeki; Okada, Tatsunori; Sumitani, Hiroaki

    2012-04-01

    Membrane-based photomask is used in proximity X-ray lithography including that in LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanoformung und Abformung) process, and near-field photolithography. In this article, out-of-plane deformation (OPD) and in-plane displacement (IPD) of membrane-based photomask blanks are theoretically analyzed to obtain the mask blanks with flat front surface and low stress absorber film. First, we derived the equations of OPD and IPD for the processing steps of membrane-based photomask such as film deposition, back-etching and bonding, using a theory of symmetrical bending of circular plates with a coaxial circular hole and that of deformation of cylinder under hydrostatic pressure. The validity of the equations was proved by comparing the calculation results with experimental ones. Using these equations, we investigated the relation between the geometry of the mask blanks and the distortions generally, and gave the criterion to attain the flat front surface. Moreover, the absorber stress-bias required to obtain zero-stress on finished mask blanks was also calculated and it has been found that only little stress-bias was required for adequate hole size of support plate.

  16. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  17. Measurement of Local Deformations in Steel Monostrands Using Digital Image Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2014-01-01

    The local deformation mechanisms in steel monostrands have a significant influence on their fatigue life and failure mode. However, the observation and quantification of deformations in monostrands experiencing axial and transverse deformations is challenging because of their complex geometry......, difficulties with the placement of strain gauges in the vicinity of the anchorage, and, most importantly, the relatively small magnitude of deformation occurring in the monostrand. This paper focuses on the measurement of localized deformations in high-strength steel monostrands using the digital image...... correlation (DIC) technique. The presented technique enables the measurement of individual wire strains along the length of the monostrand and also provides quantitative information on the relative movement between individual wires, leading to a more in-depth understanding of the underlying fatigue mechanisms...

  18. A continuum membrane model for small deformations of a spider orb-web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Antonino; Soler, Alejandro; Zaera, Ramón

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we propose a continuum membrane model for the infinitesimal deformation of a spider web. The model is derived in the simple context of axially-symmetric webs formed by radial threads connected with circumferential threads belonging to concentric circles. Under suitable assumption on the tensile pre-stress acting in the referential configuration, the out-of-plane static equilibrium and the free transverse and in-plane vibration of a supported circular orb-web are studied in detail. The accuracy of the model in describing a discrete spider web is numerically investigated.

  19. Dynamics of a bilayer membrane coupled to a two-dimensional cytoskeleton: Scale transfers of membrane deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of a floating lipid bilayer membrane coupled with a two-dimensional cytoskeleton network, taking into account explicitly the intermonolayer friction, the discrete lattice structure of the cytoskeleton, and its prestress. The lattice structure breaks lateral continuous translational symmetry and couples Fourier modes with different wave vectors. It is shown that within a short time interval a long-wavelength deformation excites a collection of modes with wavelengths shorter than the lattice spacing. These modes relax slowly with a common renormalized rate originating from the long-wavelength mode. As a result, and because of the prestress, the slowest relaxation is governed by the intermonolayer friction. Conversely, and most interestingly, forces applied at the scale of the cytoskeleton for a sufficiently long time can cooperatively excite large-scale modes.

  20. pH sensing by lipids in membranes: The fundamentals of pH-driven migration, polarization and deformations of lipid bilayer assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Miglena I; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Seigneuret, Michel; Staneva, Galya; Kodama, Atsuji; Sakuma, Yuka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Imai, Masayuki; Puff, Nicolas

    2018-03-06

    Most biological molecules contain acido-basic groups that modulate their structure and interactions. A consequence is that pH gradients, local heterogeneities and dynamic variations are used by cells and organisms to drive or regulate specific biological functions including energetic metabolism, vesicular traffic, migration and spatial patterning of tissues in development. While the direct or regulatory role of pH in protein function is well documented, the role of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in modulating the properties of lipid assemblies such as bilayer membranes is only beginning to be understood. Here, we review approaches using artificial lipid vesicles that have been instrumental in providing an understanding of the influence of pH gradients and local variations on membrane vectorial motional processes: migration, membrane curvature effects promoting global or local deformations, crowding generation by segregative polarization processes. In the case of pH induced local deformations, an extensive theoretical framework is given and an application to a specific biological issue, namely the structure and stability of mitochondrial cristae, is described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emergence of Complex Behavior in Biomembranes edited by Marjorie Longo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Localized Tissue Surrogate Deformation due to Controlled Single Bubble Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    studies using ultrasound shock waves also support cavitation induced damage, e.g. hemorrhage and cellular membrane poration 26-28. In addition...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Cavitation -induced shock wave, as might occur in the head during exposure to blast waves, was investigated as a possible...damage mechanism for soft brain tissues. A novel experimental scheme was developed to visualize and control single bubble cavitation and its

  2. Local deformation behavior of surface porous polyether-ether-ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan T; Torstrick, F Brennan; Safranski, David L; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Surface porous polyether-ether-ketone has the ability to maintain the tensile monotonic and cyclic strength necessary for many load bearing orthopedic applications while providing a surface that facilitates bone ingrowth; however, the relevant deformation behavior of the pore architecture in response to various loading conditions is not yet fully characterized or understood. The focus of this study was to examine the compressive and wear behavior of the surface porous architecture using micro Computed Tomography (micro CT). Pore architectures of various depths (~0.5-2.5mm) and pore sizes (212-508µm) were manufactured using a melt extrusion and porogen leaching process. Compression testing revealed that the pore architecture deforms in the typical three staged linear elastic, plastic, and densification stages characteristic of porous materials. The experimental moduli and yield strengths decreased as the porosity increased but there was no difference in properties between pore sizes. The porous architecture maintained a high degree of porosity available for bone-ingrowth at all strains. Surface porous samples showed no increase in wear rate compared to injection molded samples, with slight pore densification accompanying wear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Compounding local invariant features and global deformable geometry for medical image registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Using deformable models to register medical images can result in problems of initialization of deformable models and robustness and accuracy of matching of inter-subject anatomical variability. To tackle these problems, a novel model is proposed in this paper by compounding local invariant features and global deformable geometry. This model has four steps. First, a set of highly-repeatable and highly-robust local invariant features, called Key Features Model (KFM, are extracted by an effective matching strategy. Second, local features can be matched more accurately through the KFM for the purpose of initializing a global deformable model. Third, the positional relationship between the KFM and the global deformable model can be used to precisely pinpoint all landmarks after initialization. And fourth, the final pose of the global deformable model is determined by an iterative process with a lower time cost. Through the practical experiments, the paper finds three important conclusions. First, it proves that the KFM can detect the matching feature points well. Second, the precision of landmark locations adjusted by the modeled relationship between KFM and global deformable model is greatly improved. Third, regarding the fitting accuracy and efficiency, by observation from the practical experiments, it is found that the proposed method can improve 6~8% of the fitting accuracy and reduce around 50% of the computational time compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Deformation localization at the tips of shear fractures: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santanu

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical heterogeneities are important features in rocks which trigger deformation localization in brittle, ductile or brittle-ductile modes during deformation. In a recent study Misra et al. (2009) have investigated these different processes of deformation localization at the tips of pre-existing planar shear fractures. The authors identified four mechanisms of deformation, ranging from brittle to ductile, operating at the crack tips. Mechanism A: brittle deformation is the dominant process that forms a pair of long tensile fractures at the two crack tips. Mechanism B: nature of deformation is mixed where the tensile fractures grow to a finite length with incipient plastic deformation at the tips. Mechanism C: mixed mode deformation characterized by dominating macro-scale shear bands, and short, opened-out tensile fissures. Mechanism D: localization of plastic bands in the form of a pair of shear bands at each tip without any discernible brittle fracturing. The transition of the mechanisms is a function of orientation ( α) of the crack with respect to the bulk compression direction and the finite length ( l) of the crack. The aim of this study is to present a theoretical analysis to account for the variability of deformation localization in the vicinity of pre-existing shear cracks considering an elastic-plastic rheological model. The analysis calculates the principal tensile stress ( σ1) and the second stress invariant ( I2) of the stress field at the fracture tip to explain the transition from Mechanism A (tensile fracturing) to Mechanism D (ductile strain). The results show that σ1 at the fracture tip increases non-linearly with increasing α and Ar (aspect ratio of the shear crack), and assumes a large value when α > 50 o, promoting tensile fractures. On the other hand, I2 is a maximum at α < 45°, resulting in nucleation of ductile shear bands.

  5. Biotoxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Raphidocelis subcapitata Microalgae Exemplified by Membrane Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Ozkaleli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, which are mainly used in consumer products (mostly cosmetics, have been found to cause ecotoxic effects in the aquatic environment. The green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, as a representative of primary producers of the freshwater ecosystem, has been frequently used to study the effects of metal oxide NPs. An ecotoxicity study was conducted herein to investigate the effects of TiO2 NPs on survival and membrane deformation of algal cells. Five different concentrations of nano-TiO2 particles (1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/L were prepared in synthetic surface water samples with five different water quality characteristics (pH 6.4–8.4, hardness 10–320 mg CaCO3/L, ionic strength 0.2–8 mM, and alkalinity 10–245 mg CaCO3/L. Results showed a significant increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs with respect to both NP concentrations and ionic content of the test system. A soft synthetic freshwater system at pH 7.3 ± 0.2 appeared to provide the most effective water type, with more than 95% algal mortality observed at 50, 100 and 500 mg/L NP concentrations. At high exposure concentrations, increased malondialdehyde formations were observed. Moreover, due to membrane deformation, TEM images correlated the uptake of the NPs.

  6. Biotoxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Raphidocelis subcapitata Microalgae Exemplified by Membrane Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaleli, Merve; Erdem, Ayca

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), which are mainly used in consumer products (mostly cosmetics), have been found to cause ecotoxic effects in the aquatic environment. The green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, as a representative of primary producers of the freshwater ecosystem, has been frequently used to study the effects of metal oxide NPs. An ecotoxicity study was conducted herein to investigate the effects of TiO2 NPs on survival and membrane deformation of algal cells. Five different concentrations of nano-TiO2 particles (1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/L) were prepared in synthetic surface water samples with five different water quality characteristics (pH 6.4–8.4, hardness 10–320 mg CaCO3/L, ionic strength 0.2–8 mM, and alkalinity 10–245 mg CaCO3/L). Results showed a significant increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs with respect to both NP concentrations and ionic content of the test system. A soft synthetic freshwater system at pH 7.3 ± 0.2 appeared to provide the most effective water type, with more than 95% algal mortality observed at 50, 100 and 500 mg/L NP concentrations. At high exposure concentrations, increased malondialdehyde formations were observed. Moreover, due to membrane deformation, TEM images correlated the uptake of the NPs. PMID:29495534

  7. The Lamb wave bandgap variation of a locally resonant phononic crystal subjected to thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Zhen; Li, Yue-ming

    2018-05-01

    A study on dynamical characteristics of a ternary locally resonant phononic crystal (PC) plate (i.e., hard scatterer with soft coating periodically disperse in stiff host matrix) is carried out in this paper. The effect of thermal deformation on the structure stiffness, which plays an important role in the PC's dynamical characteristics, is considered. Results show that both the start and the stop frequency of bandgap shift to higher range with the thermal deformation. In particular, the characteristics of band structure change suddenly at critical buckling temperature. The effect of thermal deformation could be utilized for tuning of phononic band structures, which can promote their design and further applications.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane deformation induced by amphiphilic helices of Epsin, Sar1p, and Arf1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Lu

    2018-03-01

    The N-terminal amphiphilic helices of proteins Epsin, Sar1p, and Arf1 play a critical role in initiating membrane deformation. The interactions of these amphiphilic helices with the lipid membranes are investigated in this study by combining the all-atom and coarse-grained simulations. In the all-atom simulations, the amphiphilic helices of Epsin and Sar1p are found to have a shallower insertion depth into the membrane than the amphiphilic helix of Arf1, but remarkably, the amphiphilic helices of Epsin and Sar1p induce higher asymmetry in the lipid packing between the two monolayers of the membrane. The insertion depth of amphiphilic helix into the membrane is determined not only by the overall hydrophobicity but also by the specific distributions of polar and non-polar residues along the helix. To directly compare their ability to deform the membrane, the coarse-grained simulations are performed to investigate the membrane deformation under the insertion of multiple helices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91427302 and 11474155).

  9. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua-Bing, Li; Li, Jin; Bing, Qiu

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear Bow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. A fundamental discussion of what triggers localized deformation in geological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Max; Paesold, Martin; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis

    2015-04-01

    Discontinuous or localized structures are often marked by the transition from a homogeneously deforming into a highly localized mode. This transition has extensively been described in ductile shear zones, folding and pinch-and-swell boudinage, in natural examples, rock deformation experiments and numerical simulations, at various scales. It is conventionally assumed that ductile instabilities, which act as triggers for localized deformation, exclusively arise from structural heterogeneities, i.e. geometric interactions or material imperfections. However, Hansen et al. (2012) concluded from recent laboratory experiments that localized deformation might arise out of steady-state conditions, where the size of initial perturbations was either insufficiently large to trigger localization, or these heterogeneities were simply negligible at the scale of observation. We therefore propose the existence of a principal localization phenomenon, which is based on the material-specific rate-dependency of deformation at elevated temperatures. The concept of strain localization out of a mechanical steady state in a homogeneous material at a critical material parameter and/or deformation rate has previously been discussed for engineering materials (Gruntfest, 1963) and frictional faults (Veveakis et al., 2010). We expand this theory to visco-plastic carbonate rocks, considering deformation conditions and mechanisms encountered in naturally deformed rocks. In the numerical simulation, we implement a grain-size evolution based on the Paleowattmeter scaling relationship of Austin & Evans (2007), which takes both grain size sensitive (diffusion) and insensitive (dislocation) creep combined with grain growth into account (Herwegh et al., 2014). Based on constant strain rate simulations carried out under isothermal boundary conditions, we explore the parameter space in order to obtain the criteria for localization. We determine the criteria for the onset of localization, i.e. the

  11. Automated local line rolling forming and simplified deformation simulation method for complex curvature plate of ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local line rolling forming is a common forming approach for the complex curvature plate of ships. However, the processing mode based on artificial experience is still applied at present, because it is difficult to integrally determine relational data for the forming shape, processing path, and process parameters used to drive automation equipment. Numerical simulation is currently the major approach for generating such complex relational data. Therefore, a highly precise and effective numerical computation method becomes crucial in the development of the automated local line rolling forming system for producing complex curvature plates used in ships. In this study, a three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element method was first employed to perform numerical computations for local line rolling forming, and the corresponding deformation and strain distribution features were acquired. In addition, according to the characteristics of strain distributions, a simplified deformation simulation method, based on the deformation obtained by applying strain was presented. Compared to the results of the three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element method, this simplified deformation simulation method was verified to provide high computational accuracy, and this could result in a substantial reduction in calculation time. Thus, the application of the simplified deformation simulation method was further explored in the case of multiple rolling loading paths. Moreover, it was also utilized to calculate the local line rolling forming for the typical complex curvature plate of ships. Research findings indicated that the simplified deformation simulation method was an effective tool for rapidly obtaining relationships between the forming shape, processing path, and process parameters.

  12. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmák, P; Pilch, J; Heller, L; Kopeček, J; Wright, J; Sedlák, P; Frost, M; Šittner, P

    2016-08-05

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation in tensioned nickel-titanium shape-memory alloys proceeds by propagation of macroscopic fronts of localized deformation. We used three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray diffraction to image at micrometer-scale resolution the grain-resolved elastic strains and stresses in austenite around one such front in a prestrained nickel-titanium wire. We found that the local stresses in austenite grains are modified ahead of the nose cone-shaped buried interface where the martensitic transformation begins. Elevated shear stresses at the cone interface explain why the martensitic transformation proceeds in a localized manner. We established the crossover from stresses in individual grains to a continuum macroscopic internal stress field in the wire and rationalized the experimentally observed internal stress field and the topology of the macroscopic front by means of finite element simulations of the localized deformation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Correlation between locally deformed structure and oxide film properties in austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimi, Yasuhiro, E-mail: chimi.yasuhiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kitsunai, Yuji [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development, 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kasahara, Shigeki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chatani, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Masato [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development, 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yutaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    To elucidate the mechanism of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in high-temperature water for neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels (SSs), the locally deformed structures, the oxide films formed on the deformed areas, and their correlation were investigated. Tensile specimens made of irradiated 316L SSs were strained 0.1%–2% at room temperature or at 563 K, and the surface structures and crystal misorientation among grains were evaluated. The strained specimens were immersed in high-temperature water, and the microstructures of the oxide films on the locally deformed areas were observed. The appearance of visible step structures on the specimens' surface depended on the neutron dose and the applied strain. The surface oxides were observed to be prone to increase in thickness around grain boundaries (GBs) with increasing neutron dose and increasing local strain at the GBs. No penetrative oxidation was observed along GBs or along surface steps. - Highlights: • Visible step structures depend on the neutron dose and the applied strain. • Local strain at grain boundaries was accumulated with the neutron dose. • Oxide thickness increases with neutron dose and local strain at grain boundaries. • No penetrative oxidation was observed along grain boundaries or surface steps.

  14. Pex11mediates peroxisomal proliferation by promoting deformation of the lipid membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pex11p family proteins are key players in peroxisomal fission, but their molecular mechanisms remains mostly unknown. In the present study, overexpression of Pex11pβ caused substantial vesiculation of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. This vesicle formation was dependent on dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1 and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff, as knockdown of these proteins diminished peroxisomal fission after Pex11pβ overexpression. The fission-deficient peroxisomes exhibited an elongated morphology, and peroxisomal marker proteins, such as Pex14p or matrix proteins harboring peroxisomal targeting signal 1, were discernible in a segmented staining pattern, like beads on a string. Endogenous Pex11pβ was also distributed a striped pattern, but which was not coincide with Pex14p and PTS1 matrix proteins. Altered morphology of the lipid membrane was observed when recombinant Pex11p proteins were introduced into proteo-liposomes. Constriction of proteo-liposomes was observed under confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, and the reconstituted Pex11pβ protein localized to the membrane constriction site. Introducing point mutations into the N-terminal amphiphathic helix of Pex11pβ strongly reduced peroxisomal fission, and decreased the oligomer formation. These results suggest that Pex11p contributes to the morphogenesis of the peroxisomal membrane, which is required for subsequent fission by DLP1.

  15. Pex11mediates peroxisomal proliferation by promoting deformation of the lipid membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yumi; Niwa, Hajime; Honsho, Masanori; Itoyama, Akinori; Fujiki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Pex11p family proteins are key players in peroxisomal fission, but their molecular mechanisms remains mostly unknown. In the present study, overexpression of Pex11pβ caused substantial vesiculation of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. This vesicle formation was dependent on dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff), as knockdown of these proteins diminished peroxisomal fission after Pex11pβ overexpression. The fission-deficient peroxisomes exhibited an elongated morphology, and peroxisomal marker proteins, such as Pex14p or matrix proteins harboring peroxisomal targeting signal 1, were discernible in a segmented staining pattern, like beads on a string. Endogenous Pex11pβ was also distributed a striped pattern, but which was not coincide with Pex14p and PTS1 matrix proteins. Altered morphology of the lipid membrane was observed when recombinant Pex11p proteins were introduced into proteo-liposomes. Constriction of proteo-liposomes was observed under confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, and the reconstituted Pex11pβ protein localized to the membrane constriction site. Introducing point mutations into the N-terminal amphiphathic helix of Pex11pβ strongly reduced peroxisomal fission, and decreased the oligomer formation. These results suggest that Pex11p contributes to the morphogenesis of the peroxisomal membrane, which is required for subsequent fission by DLP1. PMID:25910939

  16. Post- and interseismic deformation due to both localized and distributed creep at depth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hines, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are two end-member representations of the ductile lithosphere (i.e., the lower crust and uppermost mantle) commonly used in models of post- and interseismic deformation around strike-slip faults: either (1) laterally homogeneous ductile layers, with sharp contrasts in rheological properties between the layers, in which creep is distributed; or (2) discrete extensions of the fault at depth in which creep is fully localized. The most realistic representation of the ductile lithosphere on earthquake cycle time scales likely falls between these two end-members. Researchers have considered both distributed and localized creep when interpreting post- and interseismic deformation, although the two mechanisms are most commonly treated separately, with the localized creep often approximated by kinematic slip on planar faults. There are a few noteworthy models that considered the feedback between both distributed and localized creep, although those models were largely constrained to 2D geometries of infinite length faults. The thickness of shear zones in the ductile lithosphere may be comparable to the locking depth of the fault, and the existence of a deep shear zone does not preclude the possibility that some distributed creep occurs in the surrounding lithosphere. Furthermore, variations in rheology, including both rheological models and their parameters, may be more subtle than the discrete contrasts typically assumed. In this presentation, we consider models of postseismic deformation following a finite length, strike-slip fault, as well as models of interseismic deformation around an infinite length strike-slip fault. Both sets of models are capable of localized and distributed creep at depth, and use Maxwell viscoelasticity. We show that the horizontal surface velocities during the early postseismic period are most sensitive to the viscosity of the shear zone; however during much of the interseismic period the shear zone is not apparent from the surface

  17. Local and global deformations in a strain-stiffening fibrin gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Qi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Basu, Anindita [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Winer, Jessamine P [Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Yodh, Arjun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Janmey, Paul A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Extracellular matrices composed of filamentous biopolymers like collagen and fibrin have viscoelastic properties that differ from those of rubberlike elastomers or hydrogels formed by flexible polymers. Compared to flexible polymer gels, filamentous biopolymer networks generally have larger elastic moduli, a striking increase in elastic modulus with increasing strain, and a pronounced negative normal stress when deformed in simple shear. All three of these unusual features can be accounted for by a theory that extends concepts of entropic elasticity to a regime where the polymer chains are already significantly extended in the absence of external forces because of their finite bending stiffness. An essential assumption of the theories that relate microscopic structural parameters such as persistence length and mesh size of biopolymer gels to their macroscopic rheology is that the deformation of these materials is affine: that is, the macroscopic strain of the bulk material is equal to the local strain within the material at each point. The validity of this assumption for the dilute open meshworks of most biopolymer gels has been experimentally tested by embedding micron diameter fluorescent beads within the networks formed by fibrin and quantifying their displacements as the macroscopic samples are deformed in a rheometer. Measures of non-affine deformation are small at small strains and decrease as strain increases and the sample stiffens. These results are consistent with the entropic model for non-linear elasticity of semiflexible polymer networks and show that strain-stiffening does not require non-affine deformations.

  18. X-ray Micro Tomography as a Tool for Studying Localized Damage / Deformation in Clay Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viggiani, Gioacchino; Besuelle, Pierre; Desrues, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Deformation in geo-materials (soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) is often localized, e.g., in the form of shear bands or fractures. In experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of such materials, standard laboratory methods are insufficient as the majority of measurements are made at the sample scale and rarely at a local scale. X-ray tomography monitoring during loading allows high-resolution full-field observation of the development of deformation. However, such images only indicate clearly the de-formation when there are significant changes in material density (i.e., volume changes) that produce a change in x-ray absorption. As such 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) approaches have been developed that allow quantification of the full strain tensor field throughout the imaged volume. This paper presents results from triaxial compression tests on a clay rock (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) with in situ synchrotron x-ray micro tomography imaging providing complete 3D images of the specimen at several stages throughout the test. These images have been analyzed using 3D DIC to provide full-field displacement and strain measurements, which allowed the detection of the onset of strain localization and its timing relative to the load peak plus insight into the 3D structure of the localized zone. The paper concludes with a few general remarks concerning the lessons learned from this study and perspectives for current and future work. (authors)

  19. Effect of GFRP spacer on local deformation of large superconductor in coil pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Tamura, Hitoshi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Junya

    1994-01-01

    Design and construction of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are in progress at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan. The LHD has superconducting poloidal and helical coils, and many efforts have been undertaken to develop these large superconductors. When designing a large superconducting magnet, the mechanical behavior of the wound structure becomes a very important factor since the apparent rigidity affects the design of a coil support structure and the superconducting coil needs to endure the large electro-magnetic force it creates. Also, non-linear mechanical behavior should yield the instability of the magnet. In this paper, local deformation in a large conductor caused by GFRP spacers and epoxy adhesives was investigated after compressive rigidity testing. The epoxy adhesive used for attaching the GFRP spacers to the superconductor changed shape from an almost square sheet into a lens-like sheet during deformation, and a dent appeared on the surface of the superconductor. Three-dimensional FEM analysis showed that a compressive stress in the vertical direction of the loading axis existed in the adhesive plane. This stress component makes the adhesive lens-like and it results in the dent created during the compressive testing. This local deformation should yield a part of the permanent deformation observed after the compressive load cycle at 4.2 K

  20. Micropore Geometry Manipulation by Macroscopic Deformation Based on Shape Memory Effect in Porous PLLA Membrane and its Enhanced Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxin; Yang, Qiucheng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lian; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-12-20

    An effective strategy to tailor the microporous structures has been developed based on the shape memory effect in porous poly(l-lactic acid) membranes in which tiny crystals and amorphous matrix play the roles of shape-fixed phase and reversible-phase, respectively. Our results indicate that not only PLLA membranes but micropores exhibit shape memory properties. The proportional deformations on two scales have been achieved by uniaxial or biaxial tension, providing a facile way to manipulate continuously the size and the orientation degree of pores on microscale. The enhanced separation performance has been validated by taking polystyrene colloids with varying diameters as an example.

  1. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  2. Localized deformation via multiple twinning in a Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy processed by high-pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Lingling; Zhao, Yonghao; Liang, Ningning; Islamgaliev, R.K.; Valiev, R.Z.; Zhu, Y.T.

    2016-01-01

    Different with common grain refinement dominated by dislocation activities, grain subdivision induced by sequential activation of multiple twinning was observed in a Mg-Gd-Y-Zr magnesium alloy via high-pressure torsion. Deformation bands were evolved from large primary twin bands, which contained refined grains through localized multiple twinning. Nanometer-scaled amorphous bands were also observed within deformation bands in Mg alloys for the first time. These observations indicate that localized deformation via multiple twinning and the consequent formation of deformation bands are potential routes to grain refinement in rare earth-magnesium alloys.

  3. Irradiation hardening and localized deformation of neutron-irradiated α-iron single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, H.; Stroehle, D.; Wilkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The early yielding behaviour of neutron-irradiated α iron single crystals orientated for single slip was investigated as a function of neutron dose. In the range of neutron doses between approx. equal to 10 18 and approx. equal to 10 19 n/cm 2 , the irradiation hardening increment was found to be almost constant. Qualitative modifications of this behaviour were observed in the case of predeformed specimens. The localized deformation of the neutron-irradiated specimens by dislocation channelling was investigated by slip-line observations, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray topography. A model of localized deformation is proposed in order to explain the development of the observed asymmetric dislocation double layers which bound the channels and transmit characteristic misorientations. (orig.)

  4. A Numerical Analysis on the Local Deformation of a Spacer Grid Structure for Nuclear Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Kim, Jong-Bong; Shin, Hyunho

    2016-01-01

    The result of a preliminary numerical investigation on local deformation characteristics of a multi-layered spacer-grid structure with five guide tubes is reported based on implicit finite element analysis. For the numerical analysis, displacements of top and bottom cross sections of each guide tube in a single-layer model were constrained while a lateral displacement was imposed on the single layer. Unlike the impact hammer test that is generally employed to characterize the deformation characteristics of the space-grid structure, the buckling phenomenon occurs locally in this study; it takes place at the inner grids around each tube and the degree of bucking is more apparent for tubes near the lateral surface where the lateral displacement was imposed. (paper)

  5. Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camproux Anne-Claude

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Results Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. Conclusion The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons.

  6. Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussand, Julie; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-02-01

    Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface) reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons.

  7. Quantification of local matrix deformations and mechanical properties during capillary morphogenesis in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Weidling, John W; Singh, Rahul; Botvinick, Elliot L; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Putnam, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    Reciprocal mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to play important instructive roles in branching morphogenesis. However, most studies to date have failed to characterize these interactions on a length scale relevant to cells, especially in three-dimensional (3D) matrices. Here we utilized two complementary methods, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) and laser optical tweezers-based active microrheology (AMR), to quantify endothelial cell (EC)-mediated deformations of individual ECM elements and the local ECM mechanical properties, respectively, during the process of capillary morphogenesis in a 3D cell culture model. In experiments in which the ECM density was systematically varied, STICS revealed that the rate at which ECs deformed individual ECM fibers on the microscale positively correlated with capillary sprouting on the macroscale. ECs expressing constitutively active V14-RhoA displaced individual matrix fibers at significantly faster rates and displayed enhanced capillary sprouting relative to wild-type cells, while those expressing dominant-negative N19-RhoA behaved in an opposite fashion. In parallel, AMR revealed a local stiffening of the ECM proximal to the tips of sprouting ECs. By quantifying the dynamic physical properties of the cell-ECM interface in both space and time, we identified a correlation linking ECM deformation rates and local ECM stiffening at the microscale with capillary morphogenesis at the macroscale. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  8. Quantification of local matrix deformations and mechanical properties during capillary morphogenesis in 3D†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Weidling, John W.; Singh, Rahul; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to play important instructive roles in branching morphogenesis. However, most studies to date have failed to characterize these interactions on a length scale relevant to cells, especially in three-dimensional (3D) matrices. Here we utilized two complementary methods, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) and laser optical tweezers-based active microrheology (AMR), to quantify endothelial cell (EC)-mediated deformations of individual ECM elements and the local ECM mechanical properties, respectively, during the process of capillary morphogenesis in a 3D cell culture model. In experiments in which the ECM density was systematically varied, STICS revealed that the rate at which ECs deformed individual ECM fibers on the microscale positively correlated with capillary sprouting on the macroscale. ECs expressing constitutively active V14-RhoA displaced individual matrix fibers at significantly faster rates and displayed enhanced capillary sprouting relative to wild-type cells, while those expressing dominant-negative N19-RhoA behaved in an opposite fashion. In parallel, AMR revealed a local stiffening of the ECM proximal to the tips of sprouting ECs. By quantifying the dynamic physical properties of the cell-ECM interface in both space and time, we identified a correlation linking ECM deformation rates and local ECM stiffening at the microscale with capillary morphogenesis at the macroscale. PMID:22281872

  9. Deformations of a pre-stretched and lubricated finite elastic membrane driven by non-uniform external forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Gat, Amir; Bercovici, Moran

    2017-11-01

    We study viscous-elastic dynamics of a fluid confined between a rigid plate and a finite pre-stretched circular elastic membrane, pinned at its boundaries. The membrane is subjected to forces acting either directly on the membrane or through a pressure distribution in the fluid. Under the assumptions of strong pre-stretching and small deformations of the elastic sheet, and by applying the lubrication approximation for the flow, we derive the Green's function for the resulting linearized 4th order diffusion equation governing the deformation field in cylindrical coordinates. In addition, defining an asymptotic expansion with the ratio of the induced to prescribed tension serving as the small parameter, we reduce the coupled Reynolds and non-linear von-Karman equations to a set of three one-way coupled linear equations. The solutions to these equations provide insight onto the effects of induced tension, and enable simplified prediction of the correction for the deformation field. Funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union'sHorizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, Grant Agreement No. 678734 (MetamorphChip). E.B. is supported by the Adams Fellowship Program.

  10. The effect of hydrogen on the parameters of plastic deformation localization in low carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunev, Aleksey G., E-mail: agl@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: nadjozhkin@ispms.tsc.ru; Nadezhkin, Mikhail V., E-mail: agl@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: nadjozhkin@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Shlyakhova, Galina V., E-mail: shgv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and Seversk State Technological Institute (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI), Seversk, 636036 (Russian Federation); Barannikova, Svetlana A., E-mail: bsa@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Zuev, Lev B., E-mail: lbz@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    In the present study, the effect of interstitial hydrogen atoms on the mechanical properties and plastic strain localization patterns in tensile tested polycrystals of low-carbon steel Fe-0.07%C has been studied using double exposure speckle photography technique. The main parameters of plastic flow localization at various stages of deformation hardening have been determined in polycrystals of steel electrolytically saturated with hydrogen in a three-electrode electrochemical cell at a controlled constant cathode potential. Also, the effect of hydrogen on changing of microstructure by using optical microscopy has been demonstrated.

  11. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in Bruch's membrane of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, W L; Essner, E; McCarthy, K J

    1992-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (Mab 4D5 and 2D6) raised against the core protein of a basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from Reichert's membrane of the rat, were used for ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of this protein in Bruch's membrane of the rat. Immunoreactivity...

  12. Local Stress States and Microstructural Damage Response Associated with Deformation Twins in Hexagonal Close Packed Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Basu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work implements a correlative microscopy method utilizing electron back scatter diffraction, focused ion beam and digital image correlation to accurately determine spatially resolved stress profiles in the vicinity of grain/twin boundaries and tensile deformation twin tips in commercially pure titanium. Measured local stress gradients were in good agreement with local misorientation values. The role of dislocation-boundary interactions on the buildup of local stress gradients is elucidated. Stress gradients across the twin-parent interface were compressive in nature with a maximum stress magnitude at the twin boundary. Stress profiles near certain grain boundaries initially display a local stress minimum, followed by a typically observed “one over square root of distance” variation, as was first postulated by Eshelby, Frank and Nabarro. The observed trends allude to local stress relaxation mechanisms very close to the grain boundaries. Stress states in front of twin tips showed tensile stress gradients, whereas the stress state inside the twin underwent a sign reversal. The findings highlight the important role of deformation twins and their corresponding interaction with grain boundaries on damage nucleation in metals.

  13. Quantification of localized vertebral deformities using a sparse wavelet-based shape model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewail, R; Elsafi, A; Durdle, N

    2008-01-01

    Medical experts often examine hundreds of spine x-ray images to determine existence of various pathologies. Common pathologies of interest are anterior osteophites, disc space narrowing, and wedging. By careful inspection of the outline shapes of the vertebral bodies, experts are able to identify and assess vertebral abnormalities with respect to the pathology under investigation. In this paper, we present a novel method for quantification of vertebral deformation using a sparse shape model. Using wavelets and Independent component analysis (ICA), we construct a sparse shape model that benefits from the approximation power of wavelets and the capability of ICA to capture higher order statistics in wavelet space. The new model is able to capture localized pathology-related shape deformations, hence it allows for quantification of vertebral shape variations. We investigate the capability of the model to predict localized pathology related deformations. Next, using support-vector machines, we demonstrate the diagnostic capabilities of the method through the discrimination of anterior osteophites in lumbar vertebrae. Experiments were conducted using a set of 150 contours from digital x-ray images of lumbar spine. Each vertebra is labeled as normal or abnormal. Results reported in this work focus on anterior osteophites as the pathology of interest.

  14. A numerical method for osmotic water flow and solute diffusion with deformable membrane boundaries in two spatial dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lingxing; Mori, Yoichiro

    2017-12-01

    Osmotic forces and solute diffusion are increasingly seen as playing a fundamental role in cell movement. Here, we present a numerical method that allows for studying the interplay between diffusive, osmotic and mechanical effects. An osmotically active solute obeys a advection-diffusion equation in a region demarcated by a deformable membrane. The interfacial membrane allows transmembrane water flow which is determined by osmotic and mechanical pressure differences across the membrane. The numerical method is based on an immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction and a Cartesian grid embedded boundary method for the solute. We demonstrate our numerical algorithm with the test case of an osmotic engine, a recently proposed mechanism for cell propulsion.

  15. Measuring Local Strain Rates In Ductile Shear Zones: A New Approach From Deformed Syntectonic Dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Leloup, P.; Rubatto, D.; Galland, O.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Earth surface, deformation is mostly localized in fault zones in between tectonic plates. In the upper crust, the deformation is brittle and the faults are narrow and produce earthquakes. In contrast, deformation in the lower ductile crust results in larger shear zones. While it is relatively easy to measure in situ deformation rates at the surface using for example GPS data, it is more difficult to determinate in situ values of strain rate in the ductile crust. Such strain rates can only be estimated in paleo-shear zones. Various methods have been used to assess paleo-strain rates in paleo-shear zones. For instance, cooling and/or decompression rates associated with assumptions on geothermic gradients and shear zone geometry can lead to such estimates. Another way to estimate strain rates is the integration of paleo-stress measurements in a power flow law. But these methods are indirect and imply strong assumptions. Dating of helicitic garnets or syntectonic fibres are more direct estimates. However these last techniques have been only applied in zones of low deformation and not in major shear zones. We propose a new direct method to measure local strain rates in major ductile shear zones from syntectonic dykes by coupling quantification of deformation and geochronology. We test our method in a major shear zone in a well constrained tectonic setting: the Ailao-Shan - Red River Shear Zone (ASRRsz) located in SE Asia. For this 10 km wide shear zone, large-scale fault rates, determined in three independent ways, imply strain rates between 1.17×10^{-13 s-1 and 1.52×10^{-13 s-1 between 35 and 16 Ma. Our study focused on one outcrop where different generations of syntectonic dykes are observed. First, we quantified the minimum shear strain γ for each dyke using several methods: (1) by measuring the stretching of dykes with a surface restoration method (2) by measuring the final angle of the dykes with respect to the shear direction and (3) by combining the two

  16. Androgen Receptor Localizes to Plasma Membrane by Binding to Caveolin-1 in Mouse Sertoli Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassical androgen signaling pathway translates signals into alterations in cellular function within minutes, and this action is proposed to be mediated by an androgen receptor (AR localized to the plasma membrane. This study was designed to determine the mechanism underlying the membrane association of androgen receptor in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Western blot analysis indicated testosterone-induced AR translocation to the cell membrane. Data from coimmunoprecipitation indicated that AR is associated with caveolin-1, and testosterone enhanced this association. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by shRNA decreased the amount of AR localized to membrane fraction and prevented AR membrane trafficking after being exposed to testosterone at physiological concentration. The palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate decreased AR membrane localization in basal condition and completely blocked testosterone-induced AR translocation to membrane fraction. These data suggested that AR localized to membrane fraction by binding with caveolin-1 through palmitoylation of the cysteine residue. This study provided a new evidence for AR membrane localization and its application for clarifying the nonclassical signaling pathway of androgens.

  17. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmák, P.; Pilch, Jan; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromír; Wright, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Šittner, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 6299 (2016), 559-562 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800; GA ČR GPP108/12/P111 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : martensitic transformation * 3D x-ray diffraction * shape memory alloys * internal stress * NiTi wire * localized deformation * tension Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BI - Acoustics (UT-L) Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  18. Higher harmonic imaging of tensile plastic deformation in loading and reloading processes by local resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Yasui, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We have imaged plastically deformed region in a 5052 aluminum plate under tensile loading, unloading and reloading processes by using an immersion local resonance method. By transmitting large-amplitude burst wave of which frequency is a through-thickness resonant frequency of the plate, dislocation loops in plastic zone are forced to vibrate. The higher harmonic amplitude excited by the dislocation movement is mapped for the transducer position. The extension of plastic zone under monotonically increased loading, decrease in harmonic amplitude under unloading process and marked extension of plastic zone in reloading up to 0.4% plastic strain are clearly imaged. (author)

  19. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  20. The DSR-deformed relativistic symmetries and the relative locality of 3D quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Bianco, Stefano; Buonocore, Riccardo J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade there were significant advances in the understanding of quantum gravity coupled to point particles in 3D ((2+1)-dimensional) spacetime. Most notably it is emerging that the theory can be effectively described as a theory of free particles on a momentum space with anti-deSitter geometry and with noncommutative spacetime coordinates of the type [x μ , x ν ] = iℏℓε μν ρ x ρ . We here show that the recently proposed relative-locality curved-momentum-space framework is ideally suited for accommodating these structures' characteristics of 3D quantum gravity. Through this we obtain an intuitive characterization of the DSR-deformed Poincaré symmetries of 3D quantum gravity, and find that the associated relative spacetime locality is of the type producing dual-gravity lensing. (paper)

  1. A study of local deformation and damage of dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirinakorn, T.; Wongwises, S.; Uthaisangsuk, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crack initiation in DP microstructure was investigated using 2D RVE simulation. • The GTN damage model was used to describe void evolution in ferrite and interphase. • Predicted damage at triple junctions agreed with observed crack initiation sites. • RVE with GNDs zone showed damages took place at earlier deformation state. • Overall loading condition exhibited significant effect on damage evolution rate. - Abstract: Deformation and fracture behavior of Dual Phase (DP) high strength steel were investigated by means of a microstructure based Finite Element (FE) modeling. Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) were applied to consider effects of various microstructure constituents and characteristics. Individual stress–strain curves were provided for ferrite, martensite as well as transformation induced Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) taking into account in the RVEs. Principally, the GNDs occurred around phase boundaries during quenching process due to the austenite–martensite transformation. Flow behaviors of individual phases were defined on the basis of dislocation theory and partitioning of local chemical composition. Then, flow curves of the examined DP steel were predicted. Furthermore, the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model was used to represent ductile damage evolution in the microstructure. Occurrences of void initiation were characterized and damage parameters for RVE simulations were hence identified. Finally, influences of the GNDs, local stress and strain distributions and interactions between phases on predicted crack initiation in the DP microstructure were discussed and correlated with experimental results

  2. The effect of deformation twinning on stress localization in a three dimensional TWIP steel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tari, Vahid; Kadiri, Haitham El; Oppedal, Andrew L; King, Roger L; Rollett, Anthony D; Beladi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of the effect of deformation twinning on the visco-plastic response and stress localization in a low stacking fault energy twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel under uniaxial tension loading. The three-dimensional full field response was simulated using the fast Fourier transform method. The initial microstructure was obtained from a three dimensional serial section using electron backscatter diffraction. Twin volume fraction evolution upon strain was measured so the hardening parameters of the simple Voce model could be identified to fit both the stress-strain behavior and twinning activity. General trends of texture evolution were acceptably predicted including the typical sharpening and balance between the 〈1 1 1〉 fiber and the 〈1 0 0〉 fiber. Twinning was found to nucleate preferentially at grain boundaries although the predominant twin reorientation scheme did not allow spatial propagation to be captured. Hot spots in stress correlated with the boundaries of twinned voxel domains, which either impeded or enhanced twinning based on which deformation modes were active locally. (paper)

  3. Emergence of coherent localized structures in shear deformations of temperature dependent fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-11-25

    Shear localization occurs in various instances of material instability in solid mechanics and is typically associated with Hadamard-instability for an underlying model. While Hadamard instability indicates the catastrophic growth of oscillations around a mean state, it does not by itself explain the formation of coherent structures typically observed in localization. The latter is a nonlinear effect and its analysis is the main objective of this article. We consider a model that captures the main mechanisms observed in high strain-rate deformation of metals, and describes shear motions of temperature dependent non-Newtonian fluids. For a special dependence of the viscosity on the temperature, we carry out a linearized stability analysis around a base state of uniform shearing solutions, and quantitatively assess the effects of the various mechanisms affecting the problem: thermal softening, momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion. Then, we turn to the nonlinear model, and construct localized states - in the form of similarity solutions - that emerge as coherent structures in the localization process. This justifies a scenario for localization that is proposed on the basis of asymptotic analysis in \\\\cite{KT}.

  4. Emergence of coherent localized structures in shear deformations of temperature dependent fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Olivier, Julien; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Shear localization occurs in various instances of material instability in solid mechanics and is typically associated with Hadamard-instability for an underlying model. While Hadamard instability indicates the catastrophic growth of oscillations around a mean state, it does not by itself explain the formation of coherent structures typically observed in localization. The latter is a nonlinear effect and its analysis is the main objective of this article. We consider a model that captures the main mechanisms observed in high strain-rate deformation of metals, and describes shear motions of temperature dependent non-Newtonian fluids. For a special dependence of the viscosity on the temperature, we carry out a linearized stability analysis around a base state of uniform shearing solutions, and quantitatively assess the effects of the various mechanisms affecting the problem: thermal softening, momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion. Then, we turn to the nonlinear model, and construct localized states - in the form of similarity solutions - that emerge as coherent structures in the localization process. This justifies a scenario for localization that is proposed on the basis of asymptotic analysis in \\cite{KT}.

  5. Membrane localization and dynamics of geranylgeranylated Rab5 hypervariable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Eileen; Schulze, Eric; Stein, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 is a key regulator of endosomal trafficking processes and a marker for the early endosome. The C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) of Rab5 is post-translationally modified at residues Cys 212 and Cys 213 to accommodate two geranylgeranyl anchors (C20 carbon chain length) in order to associate Rab5 with the membrane. The structural role of the HVR regarding protein-early endosome membrane recruitment is not resolved due to its high degree of flexibility and lack of crystallographic information. Here, full-atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the truncated Rab5 HVR 206-215 in three model membranes of increasing complexity (pure phospholipid bilayer, ternary membrane with cholesterol, six-component early endosome) were performed. Specific electrostatic interactions between the HVR 206-215 Arg 209 residue and the phosphate group of the inositol ring of PI(3)P were detected. This shows that PI(3)P acts as a first contact site of protein recruitment to the early endosome. The free energy change of HVR 206-215 extraction from the bilayer was largest for the physiological negatively charged membrane. 5μs coarse-grained simulations revealed an active recruitment of PI(3)P to the HVR 206-215 supporting the formation of Rab5- and PI(3)P enriched signaling platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E

    1996-01-01

    area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  7. Role of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in regulating EHD2 plasma membrane localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Simone

    Full Text Available The four mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHD1-EHD4 play pivotal roles in endocytic membrane trafficking. While EHD1, EHD3 and EHD4 associate with intracellular tubular/vesicular membranes, EHD2 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Currently, little is known about the regulation of EHD2. Thus, we sought to define the factors responsible for EHD2's association with the plasma membrane. The subcellular localization of endogenous EHD2 was examined in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy. Although EHD partner proteins typically mediate EHD membrane recruitment, EHD2 was targeted to the plasma membrane independent of two well-characterized binding proteins, syndapin2 and EHBP1. Additionally, the EH domain of EHD2, which facilitates canonical EHD protein interactions, was not required to direct overexpressed EHD2 to the cell surface. On the other hand, several lines of evidence indicate that the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 plays a crucial role in regulating EHD2 subcellular localization. Pharmacologic perturbation of PIP2 metabolism altered PIP2 plasma membrane distribution (as assessed by confocal microscopy, and caused EHD2 to redistribute away from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressed EHD2 localized to PIP2-enriched vacuoles generated by active Arf6. Finally, we show that although cytochalasin D caused actin microfilaments to collapse, EHD2 was nevertheless maintained at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, cytochalasin D induced relocalization of both PIP2 and EHD2 to actin aggregates, supporting a role of PIP2 in controlling EHD2 subcellular localization. Altogether, these studies emphasize the significance of membrane lipid composition for EHD2 subcellular distribution and offer new insights into the regulation of this important endocytic protein.

  8. Strain Localization and Weakening Processes in Viscously Deforming Rocks: Numerical Modeling Based on Laboratory Torsion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehmann, M.; Brune, S.; Nardini, L.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Strain localization is an ubiquitous process in earth materials observed over a broad range of scales in space and time. Localized deformation and the formation of shear zones and faults typically involves material softening by various processes, like shear heating and grain size reduction. Numerical modeling enables us to study the complex physical and chemical weakening processes by separating the effect of individual parameters and boundary conditions. Using simple piece-wise linear functions for the parametrization of weakening processes allows studying a system at a chosen (lower) level of complexity (e.g. Cyprych et al., 2016). In this study, we utilize a finite element model to test two weakening laws that reduce the strength of the material depending on either the I) amount of accumulated strain or II) deformational work. Our 2D Cartesian models are benchmarked to single inclusion torsion experiments performed at elevated temperatures of 900 °C and pressures of up to 400 MPa (Rybacki et al., 2014). The experiments were performed on Carrara marble samples containing a weak Solnhofen limestone inclusion at a maximum strain rate of 2.0*10-4 s-1. Our models are designed to reproduce shear deformation of a hollow cylinder equivalent to the laboratory setup, such that material leaving one side of the model in shear direction enters again on the opposite side using periodic boundary conditions. Similar to the laboratory tests, we applied constant strain rate and constant stress boundary conditions.We use our model to investigate the time-dependent distribution of stress and strain and the effect of different parameters. For instance, inclusion rotation is shown to be strongly dependent on the viscosity ratio between matrix and inclusion and stronger ductile weakening increases the localization rate while decreasing shear zone width. The most suitable weakening law for representation of ductile rock is determined by combining the results of parameter tests with

  9. Experimental studies on local damage of reinforced concrete structures by the impact of deformable missiles-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, K.; Tachikawa, H.; Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kobayshi, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an accidental aircraft crash into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the engine, the rigid portion of the aircraft, and the global elasto-plastic structural response caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the front face of the target together with missile penetration into the target, scabbing of concrete from the rear face of the target and perforation of the missile through the target. The engine is a soft missile that deforms during impact. An experimental research program has been planned and executed to establish a rational evaluation method of the local damage by the deformable engine missiles

  10. Characterization of local plastic instability during deformation of D9 clad tubes for fast breeder nuclear fuel by infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.; Somasekhar Reddy, K.; Ramana Rao, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic instability is a condition occurring ahead of ductile fracture in materials subjected to deformation. This condition is a warning before the final failure occurring by ductile fracture. This condition manifests during necking in tensile deformation and crack propagation during plastic deformation. Early detection of such a condition can prevent permanent damage. In the present case, a novel approach by use of infrared thermography is proposed for characterization of local plastic instability during deformation of D9 clad tube material. Infrared thermal imaging was used for acquiring data during deformation by plug drawing, pilgering and uniaxial tension tests. The local plastic instability due to propagation of defects was monitored by use of Taylor-Quinney coefficient (β). Where, the Taylor-Quinney coefficient is defined as the ratio of plastic work converted into heat, which was evaluated by using thermal imaging data. In our study, an analysis of the heat generated during the process of plastic deformation was measured thereby correlating the abnormal temperature variations with the defects appearing in the material. In our study, an analysis of the heat generated during the process of plastic deformation was measured thereby correlating the abnormal temperature variations with the defects appearing in the material

  11. Large deformation contact mechanics of a pressurized long rectangular membrane. II. Adhesive contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    In part I of this work, we presented a theory for adhesionless contact of a pressurized neo-Hookean plane-strain membrane to a rigid substrate. Here, we extend our theory to include adhesion using a fracture mechanics approach. This theory is used to study contact hysteresis commonly observed in experiments. Detailed analysis is carried out to highlight the differences between frictionless and no-slip contact. Membrane detachment is found to be strongly dependent on adhesion: for low adhesion, the membrane ‘pinches-off’, whereas for large adhesions, it detaches unstably at finite contact (‘pull-off’). Expressions are derived for the critical adhesion needed for pinch-off to pull-off transition. Above a threshold adhesion, the membrane exhibits bistability, two stable states at zero applied pressure. The condition for bistability for both frictionless and no-slip boundary conditions is obtained explicitly. PMID:24353472

  12. Effects of deformability and thermal motion of lipid membrane on electroporation: By molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Sheng; Yin, Guangyao; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Wong, Joseph T.Y.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium

  13. Highly Reflecting, Broadband Deformable Membrane Mirror for Wavefront Control Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I STTR project will develop a highly reflecting, broadband, radiation resistant, low-stress and lightweight, membrane integrated into an electrostatically...

  14. An innovative and efficient method to control the shape of push-pull membrane deformable mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.; Haber, A.; Pereira, S.F.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Urbach, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    We carry out performance characterisation of a commercial push and pull deformable mirror with 48 actuators (Adaptica Srl). We present a detailed description of the system as well as a statistical approach on the identification of the mirror influence function. A new efficient control algorithm to

  15. Deformable Nanovesicles Synthesized through an Adaptable Microfluidic Platform for Enhanced Localized Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naren Subbiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipid-based deformable nanovesicles (DNVs that have flexibility in shape offer an adaptable and facile method to encapsulate diverse classes of therapeutics and facilitate localized transdermal delivery while minimizing systemic exposure. Here we report the use of a microfluidic reactor for the synthesis of DNVs and show that alteration of input parameters such as flow speeds as well as molar and flow rate ratios increases entrapment efficiency of drugs and allows fine-tuning of DNV size, elasticity, and surface charge. To determine the ability of DNV-encapsulated drug to be delivered transdermally to a local site, we synthesized, characterized, and tested DNVs carrying the fluorescently labeled hydrophilic bisphosphonate drug AF-647 zoledronate (AF647-Zol. AF647-Zol DNVs were lyophilized, resuspended, and applied topically as a paste to the calvarial skin of mice. High-resolution fluorescent imaging and confocal microscopy revealed significant increase of encapsulated payload delivery to the target tissue—cranial bone—by DNVs as compared to nondeformable nanovesicles (NVs or aqueous drug solutions. Interestingly, NV delivery was not superior to aqueous drug solution. Our studies show that microfluidic reactor-synthesized DNVs can be produced in good yield, with high encapsulation efficiency, reproducibility, and stability after storage, and represent a useful vehicle for localized transdermal drug delivery.

  16. Robust Myocardial Motion Tracking for Echocardiography: Variational Framework Integrating Local-to-Global Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Young Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust real-time myocardial border tracking algorithm for echocardiography. Commonly, after an initial contour of LV border is traced at one or two frames from the entire cardiac cycle, LV contour tracking is performed over the remaining frames. Among a variety of tracking techniques, optical flow method is the most widely used for motion estimation of moving objects. However, when echocardiography data is heavily corrupted in some local regions, the errors bring the tracking point out of the endocardial border, resulting in distorted LV contours. This shape distortion often occurs in practice since the data acquisition is affected by ultrasound artifacts, dropouts, or shadowing phenomena of cardiac walls. The proposed method is designed to deal with this shape distortion problem by integrating local optical flow motion and global deformation into a variational framework. The proposed descent method controls the individual tracking points to follow the local motions of a specific speckle pattern, while their overall motions are confined to the global motion constraint being approximately an affine transform of the initial tracking points. Many real experiments show that the proposed method achieves better overall performance than conventional methods.

  17. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  18. Amoeboid swimming: a generic self-propulsion of cells in fluids by means of membrane deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Duperray, Alain; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2013-11-27

    Microorganisms, such as bacteria, algae, or spermatozoa, are able to propel themselves forward thanks to flagella or cilia activity. By contrast, other organisms employ pronounced changes of the membrane shape to achieve propulsion, a prototypical example being the Eutreptiella gymnastica. Cells of the immune system as well as dictyostelium amoebas, traditionally believed to crawl on a substratum, can also swim in a similar way. We develop a model for these organisms: the swimmer is mimicked by a closed incompressible membrane with force density distribution (with zero total force and torque). It is shown that fast propulsion can be achieved with adequate shape adaptations. This swimming is found to consist of an entangled pusher-puller state. The autopropulsion distance over one cycle is a universal linear function of a simple geometrical dimensionless quantity A/V(2/3) (V and A are the cell volume and its membrane area). This study captures the peculiar motion of Eutreptiella gymnastica with simple force distribution.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  20. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  1. Effects of deformability and thermal motion of lipid membrane on electroporation: By molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium positions using a spring with force constant of 2.0kcal/(molÅ2) in the external electric field of 1.4kcal/(molÅe), only constraint on lateral motions of lipid tails prohibited electroporation while non-tail parts had little effects. When force constant decreased to 0.2kcal/(molÅ2) in the position constraints on lipid tails in the external electric field of 2.0kcal/(molÅe), water molecules began to enter the membrane. Position constraints of lipid tails allow water to penetrate from both sides of membrane. Thermal motion of lipids can induce initial defects in the hydrophobic core of membrane, which are favorable nucleation sites for electroporation. Simulations at different temperatures revealed that as the temperature increases, the time taken to the initial pore formation will decrease. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Concurrent multiscale modeling of microstructural effects on localization behavior in finite deformation solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Coleman N.; Foulk, James W.; Mota, Alejandro; Lim, Hojun; Littlewood, David J.

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multiscale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J2 plasticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this study, the framework is applied to model incipient localization in tensile specimens during necking.

  3. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  4. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  5. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N. [Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  6. Non-supersymmetric membrane flows from fake supergravity and multi-trace deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, I.; Hamburg Univ.

    2006-06-01

    We use fake supergravity as a solution generating technique to obtain a continuum of non-supersymmetric asymptotically AdS 4 x S 7 domain wall solutions of eleven-dimensional supergravity with non-trivial scalars in the SL(8,R)/SO(8) coset. These solutions are continuously connected to the supersymmetric domain walls describing a uniform sector of the Coulomb branch of the M2-brane theory. We also provide a general argument that identifies the fake superpotential with the exact large-N quantum effective potential of the dual theory, thus arriving at a very general description of multi-trace deformations in the AdS/CFT correspondence, which strongly motivates further study of fake supergravity as a solution generating method. This identification allows us to interpret our non-supersymmetric solutions as a family of marginal triple-trace deformations of the Coulomb branch that completely break supersymmetry and to calculate the exact large-N anomalous dimensions of the operators involved. The holographic one- and two-point functions for these solutions are also computed. (Orig.)

  7. Non-supersymmetric membrane flows from fake supergravity and multi-trace deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2006-06-15

    We use fake supergravity as a solution generating technique to obtain a continuum of non-supersymmetric asymptotically AdS{sub 4} x S{sup 7} domain wall solutions of eleven-dimensional supergravity with non-trivial scalars in the SL(8,R)/SO(8) coset. These solutions are continuously connected to the supersymmetric domain walls describing a uniform sector of the Coulomb branch of the M2-brane theory. We also provide a general argument that identifies the fake superpotential with the exact large-N quantum effective potential of the dual theory, thus arriving at a very general description of multi-trace deformations in the AdS/CFT correspondence, which strongly motivates further study of fake supergravity as a solution generating method. This identification allows us to interpret our non-supersymmetric solutions as a family of marginal triple-trace deformations of the Coulomb branch that completely break supersymmetry and to calculate the exact large-N anomalous dimensions of the operators involved. The holographic one- and two-point functions for these solutions are also computed. (Orig.)

  8. The C-terminal domain of TRPV4 is essential for plasma membrane localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Müller, Margarethe; Leuner, Kristina; Jendrach, Marina

    2008-02-01

    Many members of the TRP superfamily oligomerize in the ER before trafficking to the plasma membrane. For membrane localization of the non-selective cation channel TRPV4 specific domains in the N-terminus are required, but the role of the C-terminus in the oligomerization and trafficking process has been not determined until now. Therefore, the localization of recombinant TRPV4 in two cell models was analyzed: HaCaT keratinocytes that express TRPV4 endogenously were compared to CHO cells that are devoid of endogenous TRPV4. When deletions were introduced in the C-terminal domain three states of TRPV4 localization were defined: a truncated TRPV4 protein of 855 amino acids was exported to the plasma membrane like the full-length channel (871 aa) and was also functional. Mutants with a length of 828 to 844 amino acids remained in the ER of CHO cells, but in HaCaT cells plasma membrane localization was partially rescued by oligomerization with endogenous TRPV4. This was confirmed by coexpression of recombinant full-length TRPV4 together with these deletion mutants, which resulted in an almost complete plasma membrane localization of both proteins and significant FRET in the plasma membrane and the ER. All deletions upstream of amino acid 828 resulted in total ER retention that could not rescued by coexpression with the full-length protein. However, these deletion mutants did not impair export of full-length TRPV4, implying that no oligomerization took place. These data indicate that the C-terminus of TRPV4 is required for oligomerization, which takes place in the ER and precedes plasma membrane trafficking.

  9. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  10. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β. © FASEB.

  11. Image-based numerical simulation of the local cyclic deformation behavior around cast pore in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Lihe, E-mail: dlhqian@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Cui, Xiaona; Liu, Shuai [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Chen, Minan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); Ma, Penghui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Xie, Honglan [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (China); Zhang, Fucheng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Meng, Jiangying [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China)

    2016-12-15

    The local cyclic stress/strain responses around an actual, irregular pore in cast Hadfield steel under fatigue loading are investigated numerically, and compared with those around a spherical and an ellipsoidal pore. The actual pore-containing model takes into account the real shape of the pore imaged via high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and combines both isotropic hardening and Bauschinger effects by using the Chaboche's material model, which enables to realistically simulate the cyclic deformation behaviors around actual pore. The results show that the stress and strain energy density concentration factors (K{sub σ} and K{sub E}) around either an actual irregular pore or an idealized pore increase while the strain concentration factor (K{sub ε}) decreases slightly with increasing the number of fatigue cycles. However, all the three parameters, K{sub σ}, K{sub ε} and K{sub E}, around an actual pore are always several times larger than those around an idealized pore, whatever the number of fatigue cycles. It is suggested that the fatigue properties of cast pore-containing materials cannot be realistically evaluated with any idealized pore models. The feasibility of the methodology presented highlights the potential of its application in the micromechanical understanding of fatigue damage phenomena in cast pore-containing materials.

  12. Aspects of ion irradiations to study localized deformation in austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhijie, E-mail: zjiao@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Was, Gary [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Miura, Terumitsu; Fukuya, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The effect of irradiation depth on localized deformation in strained SUS304 and SUS316 was assessed by irradiation to various doses using different energies of Fe{sup ++} and protons. The average height and spacing of slip steps formed on the surfaces after 2% plastic strain in 300 °C argon were characterized using AFM and SEM. The step height and spacing were nearly unchanged for irradiation depth greater than 1/3 of the average grain size. 2.8 MeV Fe{sup ++} irradiation, with an irradiation depth of <1 μm, resulted in slightly larger step spacing compared to the unirradiated samples but it was much smaller compared to that in proton-irradiated samples with much greater irradiation depths. Step height and spacing also appeared to be affected by the grain size as they were nearly double in magnitude for 30 μm compared to 14 μm grain sizes in SUS304.

  13. Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graumann Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal recognition particle (SRP receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs to the membrane bound Sec translocon. The eukaryotic SRP receptor (SR is a heterodimeric protein complex, consisting of two unrelated GTPases. The SRβ subunit is an integral membrane protein, which tethers the SRP-interacting SRα subunit permanently to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The prokaryotic SR lacks the SRβ subunit and consists of only the SRα homologue FtsY. Strikingly, although FtsY requires membrane contact for functionality, cell fractionation studies have localized FtsY predominantly to the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. So far, the exact function of the soluble SR in E. coli is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in contrast to eukaryotes, the prokaryotic SR might bind SRP-RNCs already in the cytosol and only then initiates membrane targeting. Results In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo. Conclusion The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is

  14. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Barbara; Minichiello, Liliana

    2013-10-18

    Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signaling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk) and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signaling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signaling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  15. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signalling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eZonta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signalling, plasticity and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signalling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signalling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signalling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  16. Studies on the turnover and subcellular localization of membrane gangliosides in cultured neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.T.; Cook, H.W.; Spence, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    To compare the subcellular distribution of endogenously synthesized and exogenous gangliosides, cultured murine neuroblastoma cells (N1E-115) were incubated in suspension for 22 h in the presence of D-[1- 3 H]galactose or [ 3 H]GM1 ganglioside, transferred to culture medium containing no radioisotope for periods of up to 72 hr, and then subjected to subcellular fractionation and analysis of lipid-sialic acid and radiolabeled ganglioside levels. The results indicated that GM2 and GM3 were the principal gangliosides in the cells with only traces of GM1 and small amounts of disialogangliosides present. About 50% of the endogenously synthesized radiolabelled ganglioside in the four major subcellular membrane fractions studied was recovered from plasma membrane and only 10-15% from the crude mitochondrial membrane fraction. In contrast, 45% of the exogenous [ 3 H]GM1 taken up into the same subcellular membrane fractions was recovered from the crude mitochondrial fraction; less than 15% was localized in the plasma membrane fraction. The results are similar to those obtained from previously reported studies on membrane phospholipid turnover. They suggest that exogenous GM1 ganglioside, like exogenous phosphatidylcholine, does not intermix freely with any quantitatively major pool of endogenous membrane lipid

  17. Novel determinants of H-Ras plasma membrane localization and transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Cox, A D; Solski, P A

    1996-01-01

    cysteine did not abolish palmitoylation. However, despite continued lipid modification the mutant proteins failed to bind to plasma membranes and instead accumulated on internal membranes and, importantly, were not transforming. Addition of an N-terminal myristoylation signal to these defective mutants......, or to proteins entirely lacking the C-terminal 25 residues restored both plasma membrane association and transforming activity. Thus, H-Ras does not absolutely require prenylation or palmitoylation nor indeed its hypervariable domain in order to interact with effectors that ultimately cause transformation....... However, in this native state, the C-terminus appears to provide a combination of lipids and a previously unrecognized signal for specific plasma membrane targeting that are essential for the correct localization and biological function of H-Ras....

  18. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: rbwagner@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Pittendrigh, Barry R. [Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign (United States); Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 {mu}m long, 0.5-1 {mu}m diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m{sup 2}, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  19. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. ► We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. ► Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10–20 μm long, 0.5–1 μm diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30–60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m 2 , these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  20. Local stresses, dyke arrest and surface deformation in volcanic edificesand rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Brenner

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies indicate that nearly all eruptions in volcanic edifices and rift zones are supplied with magma through fractures (dykes that are opened by magmatic overpressure. While (inferred dyke injections are frequent during unrest periods, volcanic eruptions are, in comparison, infrequent, suggesting that most dykes become arrested at certain depths in the crust, in agreement with field studies. The frequency of dyke arrest can be partly explained by the numerical models presented here which indicate that volcanic edifices and rift zones consisting of rocks of contrasting mechanical properties, such as soft pyroclastic layers and stiff lava flows, commonly develop local stress fields that encourage dyke arrest. During unrest, surface deformation studies are routinely used to infer the geometries of arrested dykes, and some models (using homogeneous, isotropic half-spaces infer large grabens to be induced by such dykes. Our results, however, show that the dyke-tip tensile stresses are normally much greater than the induced surface stresses, making it difficult to explain how a dyke can induce surface stresses in excess of the tensile (or shear strength while the same strength is not exceeded at the (arrested dyke tip. Also, arrested dyke tips in eroded or active rift zones are normally not associated with dyke-induced grabens or normal faults, and some dykes arrested within a few metres of the surface do not generate faults or grabens. The numerical models show that abrupt changes in Young's moduli(stiffnesses, layers with relatively high dyke-normal compressive stresses (stress barriers, and weak horizontal contacts may make the dyke-induced surface tensile stresses too small for significant fault or graben formation to occur in rift zones or volcanic edifices. Also, these small surface stresses may have no simple relation to the dyke geometry or the depth to its tip. Thus, for a layered crust with weak contacts, straightforward

  1. Lectin receptor kinase LecRK-b2 localizes to plasma membrane and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -b2, has been characterized. Confocal microscopy images showed that the LecRK-b2-GFP fusion protein is localized to plasma membrane. The results of yeast 2 hybrid showed that lectin domain of LecRK-b2 had selfinteraction, while the ...

  2. Localization and cloning of the gene(s) of bacteriophage PM2 responsible for membrane morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins implicated in membrane morphogenesis (sp6.6 and sp13) have been previously identified by analysis of membrane proteins in the membrane of the purified phage. Analysis of a ts viral mutant that produces empty membrane vesicles also indicated the unique presence of viral structural protein sp6.6. In this work the gene for sp6.6 was localized on the PM2 genome by in vitro coupled transcription-translation directed by restriction endonuclease fragments of PM2 DNA. A Hind III fragment containing the sp6.6 gene among others was cloned into pBR322 in E. coli. Examination with the electron microscope revealed the production of new membrane vesicles whose size were similar to that of the natural membrane of PM2. Clones were then constructed in the pUC family of plasmids which uses the Lac promoter and pPL-lambda which uses the promoter left of lambda. pUC clones were unable to produce vesicles or detectable sp6.6. A pPL-lambda clone was produced 3.5 Kbp in size, that produced p6.6 as detected by SDS-PAGE of radiolabeled protein and immunoblotting

  3. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  4. Analysis of local microstructure after shear creep deformation of a fine-grained duplex {gamma}-TiAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, D., E-mail: dennis.peter@rub.de [Institute for Materials, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Viswanathan, G.B. [Institute for Materials, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Dlouhy, A. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 61662 Brno, Zizkova 22 (Czech Republic); Eggeler, G. [Institute for Materials, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The present work characterizes the microstructure of a hot-extruded Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2B-0.2C (at.%) alloy with a fine-grained duplex microstructure after shear creep deformation (temperature 1023 K; shear stress 175 MPa; shear deformation 20%). Diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to identify ordinary dislocations, superdislocations and twins. The microstructure observed in TEM is interpreted taking into account the contribution of the applied stress and coherency stresses to the overall local stress state. Two specific locations in the lamellar part of the microstructure were analyzed, where either twins or superdislocations provided c-component deformation in the L1{sub 0} lattice of the {gamma} phase. Lamellar {gamma} grains can be in soft and hard orientations with respect to the resolved shear stress provided by the external load. The presence of twins can be rationalized by the superposition of the applied stress and local coherency stresses. The presence of superdislocations in hard {gamma} grains represents indirect evidence for additional contributions to the local stress state associated with stress redistribution during creep.

  5. Buckling of Actin-Coated Membranes under Application of a Local Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments with giant fluid vesicles are studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers. These complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell, including a finite in-plane shear elastic modulus (∼10 -6 N /m). A buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5pN is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability

  6. Diffusive, Displacive Deformations and Local Phase Transformation Govern the Mechanics of Layered Crystals: The Case Study of Tobermorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-19

    Understanding the deformation mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of materials is the key to fundamental and engineering advances in materials' performance. Herein, we focus on crystalline calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) as a model system with applications in cementitious materials, bone-tissue engineering, drug delivery and refractory materials, and use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate its loading geometry dependent mechanical properties. By comparing various conventional (e.g. shear, compression and tension) and nano-indentation loading geometries, our findings demonstrate that the former loading leads to size-independent mechanical properties while the latter results in size-dependent mechanical properties at the nanometer scales. We found three key mechanisms govern the deformation and thus mechanics of the layered C-S-H: diffusive-controlled and displacive-controlled deformation mechanisms, and strain gradient with local phase transformations. Together, these elaborately classified mechanisms provide deep fundamental understanding and new insights on the relationship between the macro-scale mechanical properties and underlying molecular deformations, providing new opportunities to control and tune the mechanics of layered crystals and other complex materials such as glassy C-S-H, natural composite structures, and manmade laminated structures.

  7. Influence of Global and Local Membrane Curvature on Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: A Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Bavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive (MS channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One of the main mechanisms to functionally study these channels is the patch clamp technique. However, the patch of membrane surveyed using this methodology is far from physiological. Here we use continuum mechanics to probe the question of how curvature, in a standard patch clamp experiment, at different length scales (global and local affects a model MS channel. Firstly, to increase the accuracy of the Laplace’s equation in tension estimation in a patch membrane and to be able to more precisely describe the transient phenomena happening during patch clamping, we propose a modified Laplace’s equation. Most importantly, we unambiguously show that the global curvature of a patch, which is visible under the microscope during patch clamp experiments, is of negligible energetic consequence for activation of an MS channel in a model membrane. However, the local curvature (RL < 50 and the direction of bending are able to cause considerable changes in the stress distribution through the thickness of the membrane. Not only does local bending, in the order of physiologically relevant curvatures, cause a substantial change in the pressure profile but it also significantly modifies the stress distribution in response to force application. Understanding these stress variations in regions of high local bending is essential for a complete understanding of the effects of curvature on MS channels.

  8. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B; Swanson, Sarah J; Sussman, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H + -ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plant expressing H + -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H + secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B.; Swanson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H+-ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant expressing H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H+ secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. PMID:29042459

  10. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  11. Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Fu, Juan; Yu, Miao; Huang, Qingde; Wang, Di; Xu, Jiqu; Deng, Qianchun; Yao, Ping; Huang, Fenghong; Liu, Liegang

    2012-07-08

    The erythrocyte membrane lesion is a serious diabetic complication. A number of studies suggested that n-3 fatty acid could reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate α- or γ-tocopherol contents in membrane of erythrocytes. However, evidence regarding the protective effects of flaxseed oil, a natural product rich in n-3 fatty acid, on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity and membrane deformation of erythrocytes exposed to high glucose is limited. Human peripheral blood erythrocytes were isolated and treated with 50 mM glucose to mimic hyperglycemia in the absence or presence of three different doses of flaxseed oil (50, 100 or 200 μM) in the culture medium for 24 h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and L-glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC and LC/MS respectively. The phospholipids symmetry and membrane fatty acid composition of human erythrocytes were detected by flow cytometry and gas chromatograph (GC). The morphology of human erythrocyte was illuminated by ultra scanning electron microscopy. Flaxseed oil attenuated hyperglycemia-induced increase of MDA and decrease of GSH in human erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes treated with flaxseed oil contained higher C22:5 and C22:6 than those in the 50 mM glucose control group, indicating that flaxseed oil could reduce lipid asymmetric distribution and membrane perturbation. The ultra scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometer have also indicated that flaxseed oil could protect the membrane of human erythrocytes from deformation at high glucose level. The flaxseed oil supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia.

  12. Steric exclusion and protein conformation determine the localization of plasma membrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Frans; Syga, Łukasz; Moiset, Gemma; Spakman, Dian; Schavemaker, Paul E; Punter, Christiaan M; Seinen, Anne-Bart; van Oijen, Antoine M; Robinson, Andrew; Poolman, Bert

    2018-02-05

    The plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains membrane compartments, MCC/eisosomes and MCPs, named after the protein residents Can1 and Pma1, respectively. Using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques we show that Can1 and the homologous transporter Lyp1 are able to diffuse into the MCC/eisosomes, where a limited number of proteins are conditionally trapped at the (outer) edge of the compartment. Upon addition of substrate, the immobilized proteins diffuse away from the MCC/eisosomes, presumably after taking a different conformation in the substrate-bound state. Our data indicate that the mobile fraction of all integral plasma membrane proteins tested shows extremely slow Brownian diffusion through most of the PM. We also show that proteins with large cytoplasmic domains, such as Pma1 and synthetic chimera of Can1 and Lyp1, are excluded from the MCC/eisosomes. We hypothesize that the distinct localization patterns found for these integral membrane proteins in S. cerevisiae arises from a combination of slow lateral diffusion, steric exclusion, and conditional trapping in membrane compartments.

  13. Mechanical properties and local mobility of atactic-polystyrene films under constant-shear deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudzinskyy, D.; Michels, M.A.J.; Lyulin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed molecular-dynamics simulations of atactic polystyrene thin films to study the effect of shear rate, pressure, and temperature on the stress-strain behaviour, the relevant energetic contributions and non-affine displacements of polymer chains during constant-shear deformation. Under

  14. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical localization of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 in Ca2+-transporting epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Beggs, Megan R; Zamani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    role in transcellular Ca(2+) flux and investigated the localization and regulation of Pmca4 in Ca(2+)-transporting epithelia. Using antibodies directed specifically against Pmca4, we found it expressed only in the smooth muscle layer of mouse and human intestine, while pan-specific Pmca antibodies...... the cortical thick ascending limbs, macula densa, and early distal tubules as well as smooth muscle layers surrounding renal vessels. In human kidney, a similar pattern of distribution was observed, with highest PMCA4 expression in NCC positive tubules. Electron microscopy demonstrated Pmca4 localization...... in distal nephron cells at both the basolateral membrane and intracellular perinuclear compartments, but not submembranous vesicles, suggesting rapid trafficking to the plasma membrane is unlikely to occur in vivo. Pmca4 expression was not altered by perturbations in Ca(2+) balance, pointing...

  15. Membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase ATL15 functions in sugar-responsive growth regulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shoki; Terada, Saki; Sanagi, Miho; Hasegawa, Yoko; Lu, Yu; Morita, Yoshie; Chiba, Yukako; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2017-09-09

    Ubiquitin ligases play important roles in regulating various cellular processes by modulating the protein function of specific ubiquitination targets. The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family is a group of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases that localize to membranes via their N-terminal transmembrane-like domains. To date, 91 ATL isoforms have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, with several ATLs reported to be involved in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the functions of most ATLs remain unknown. This study, involving transcriptome database analysis, identifies ATL15 as a sugar responsive ATL gene in Arabidopsis. ATL15 expression was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of sugar. The ATL15 protein showed ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and localized to plasma membrane and endomembrane compartments. Further genetic analyses demonstrated that the atl15 knockout mutants are insensitive to high glucose concentrations, whereas ATL15 overexpression depresses plant growth. In addition, endogenous glucose and starch amounts were reciprocally affected in the atl15 knockout mutants and the ATL15 overexpressors. These results suggest that ATL15 protein plays a significant role as a membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase that regulates sugar-responsive plant growth in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Palmitoylation of Sindbis Virus TF Protein Regulates Its Plasma Membrane Localization and Subsequent Incorporation into Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jolene; Renzi, Emily C; Arnold, Randy J; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2017-02-01

    Palmitoylation is a reversible, posttranslational modification that helps target proteins to cellular membranes. The alphavirus small membrane proteins 6K and TF have been reported to be palmitoylated and to positively regulate budding. 6K and TF are isoforms that are identical in their N termini but unique in their C termini due to a -1 ribosomal frameshift during translation. In this study, we used cysteine (Cys) mutants to test differential palmitoylation of the Sindbis virus 6K and TF proteins. We modularly mutated the five Cys residues in the identical N termini of 6K and TF, the four additional Cys residues in TF's unique C terminus, or all nine Cys residues in TF. Using these mutants, we determined that TF palmitoylation occurs primarily in the N terminus. In contrast, 6K is not palmitoylated, even on these shared residues. In the C-terminal Cys mutant, TF protein levels increase both in the cell and in the released virion compared to the wild type. In viruses with the N-terminal Cys residues mutated, TF is much less efficiently localized to the plasma membrane, and it is not incorporated into the virion. The three Cys mutants have minor defects in cell culture growth but a high incidence of abnormal particle morphologies compared to the wild-type virus as determined by transmission electron microscopy. We propose a model where the C terminus of TF modulates the palmitoylation of TF at the N terminus, and palmitoylated TF is preferentially trafficked to the plasma membrane for virus budding. Alphaviruses are a reemerging viral cause of arthritogenic disease. Recently, the small 6K and TF proteins of alphaviruses were shown to contribute to virulence in vivo Nevertheless, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which either protein acts to promote virus infection is missing. The TF protein is a component of budded virions, and optimal levels of TF correlate positively with wild-type-like particle morphology. In this study, we show that the

  17. Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Alla; Wang, Xiao; Ranchon, Hubert; Savatier, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Ferrand, Patrick; Brasselet, Sophie

    2013-07-02

    Fluorescence anisotropy and linear dichroism imaging have been widely used for imaging biomolecular orientational distributions in protein aggregates, fibrillar structures of cells, and cell membranes. However, these techniques do not give access to complete orientational order information in a whole image, because their use is limited to parts of the sample where the average orientation of molecules is known a priori. Fluorescence anisotropy is also highly sensitive to depolarization mechanisms such as those induced by fluorescence energy transfer. A fully excitation-polarization-resolved fluorescence microscopy imaging that relies on the use of a tunable incident polarization and a nonpolarized detection is able to circumvent these limitations. We have developed such a technique in confocal epifluorescence microscopy, giving access to new regions of study in the complex and heterogeneous molecular organization of cell membranes. Using this technique, we demonstrate morphological changes at the subdiffraction scale in labeled COS-7 cell membranes whose cytoskeleton is perturbed. Molecular orientational order is also seen to be affected by cholesterol depletion, reflecting the strong interplay between lipid-packing regions and their nearby cytoskeleton. This noninvasive optical technique can reveal local organization in cell membranes when used as a complement to existing methods such as generalized polarization. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distributed and localized horizontal tectonic deformation as inferred from drainage network geometry and topology: A case study from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Liran; Castelltort, Sébastien; Klinger, Yann

    2016-04-01

    Partitioning of horizontal deformation between localized and distributed modes in regions of oblique tectonic convergence is, in many cases, hard to quantify. As a case study, we consider the Dead Sea Fault System that changes its orientation across Lebanon and forms a restraining bend. The oblique deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend is characterized by a complex suite of tectonic structures, among which, the Yammouneh fault, is believed to be the main strand that relays deformation from the southern section to the northern section of the Dead Sea Fault System. However, uncertainties regarding slip rates along the Yammouneh fault and strain partitioning in Lebanon still prevail. In the current work we use the geometry and topology of river basins together with numerical modeling to evaluate modes and rates of the horizontal deformation in Mount Lebanon that is associated with the Arabia-Sinai relative plate motion. We focus on river basins that drain Mount Lebanon to the Mediterranean and originate close to the Yammouneh fault. We quantify a systematic counterclockwise rotation of these basins and evaluate drainage area disequilibrium using an application of the χ mapping technique, which aims at estimating the degree of geometrical and topological disequilibrium in river networks. The analysis indicates a systematic spatial pattern whereby tributaries of the rotated basins appear to experience drainage area loss or gain with respect to channel length. A kinematic model that is informed by river basin geometry reveals that since the late Miocene, about a quarter of the relative plate motion parallel to the plate boundary has been distributed along a wide band of deformation to the west of the Yammouneh fault. Taken together with previous, shorter-term estimates, the model indicates little variation of slip rate along the Yammouneh fault since the late Miocene. Kinematic model results are compatible with late Miocene paleomagnetic rotations in western

  19. Concentration gradient along the scala tympani after local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea after local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected, and histologic studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex after local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. A recently developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along the scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples that were taken after up to 3 hours of local application to the round window niche. Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of the scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4,000 times greater concentration at the base compared with the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients.

  20. Concentration gradient along scala tympani following the local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K.; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M.; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea following local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected and histological studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex following local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. Methods A recently-developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used, in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples which were taken following up to three hours of local application to the round window niche. Results Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4000 times greater concentration at the base compared to the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. Conclusions The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients. PMID:17603318

  1. MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils. PMID:21885678

  2. MHC Class II and CD9 in human eosinophils localize to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C N; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR-containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

  3. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Peter G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swingle, Kirstie L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paxton, Walter F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nogan, John J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stromberg, Loreen R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Firestone, Millicent A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montaño, Gabriel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.

  4. Strain localization and elastic-plastic coupling during deformation of porous sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Issen, Kathleen A. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering; Holcomb, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Olsson, William A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Ingraham, Mathew D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

    2017-09-12

    Results of axisymmetric compression tests on weak, porous Castlegate Sandstone (Cretaceous, Utah, USA), covering a range of dilational and compactional behaviors, are examined for localization behavior. Assuming isotropy, bulk and shear moduli evolve as increasing functions of mean stress and Mises equivalent shear stress respectively, and as decreasing functions of work-conjugate plastic strains. Acoustic emissions events located during testing show onset of localization and permit calculation of observed shear and low-angle compaction localization zones, or bands, as localization commences. Total strain measured experimentally partitions into: A) elastic strain with constant moduli, B) elastic strain due to stress dependence of moduli, C) elastic strain due to moduli degradation with increasing plastic strain, and D) plastic strain. The third term is the elastic-plastic coupling strain, and though often ignored, contributes significantly to pre-failure total strain for brittle and transitional tests. Constitutive parameters and localization predictions derived from experiments are compared to theoretical predictions. In the brittle regime, predictions of band angles (angle between band normal and maximum compression) demonstrate good agreement with observed shear band angles. Compaction localization was observed in the transitional regime in between shear localization and spatially pervasive compaction, over a small range of mean stresses. In contrast with predictions however, detailed acoustic emissions analyses in this regime show low angle, compaction-dominated but shear-enhanced, localization.

  5. Localization of deformed wing virus infection in queen and drone Apis mellifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Marc

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygenin or CY5.5 fluorochrome end-labelled nucleotide probes hybridizing to the 3' portion of the DWV genome were used to identify DWV RNA, while a monospecific antibody to the DWV-VP1 structural protein was used to identify viral proteins and particles. The histological data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR of dissected organs. Results showed that DWV infection is not restricted to the digestive tract of the bee but spread in the whole body, including queen ovaries, queen fat body and drone seminal vesicles.

  6. Localization of deformed wing virus infection in queen and drone Apis mellifera L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Julie; Tentcheva, Diana; Gauthier, Laurent; de Miranda, Joachim; Cousserans, François; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones) was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygenin or CY5.5 fluorochrome end-labelled nucleotide probes hybridizing to the 3' portion of the DWV genome were used to identify DWV RNA, while a monospecific antibody to the DWV-VP1 structural protein was used to identify viral proteins and particles. The histological data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR of dissected organs. Results showed that DWV infection is not restricted to the digestive tract of the bee but spread in the whole body, including queen ovaries, queen fat body and drone seminal vesicles. PMID:16569216

  7. CLC-Nt1, a putative chloride channel protein of tobacco, co-localizes with mitochondrial membrane markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurin, C; Güclü, J; Cheniclet, C; Carde, J P; Barbier-Brygoo, H; Maurel, C

    2000-06-01

    The voltage-dependent chloride channel (CLC) family of membrane proteins has cognates in animals, yeast, bacteria and plants, and chloride-channel activity has been assigned to most of the animal homologues. Lack of evidence of CLC functions in plants prompted us to characterize the cellular localization of the tobacco CLC-Nt1 protein. Specific polyclonal antibodies were raised against an N-terminal polypeptide of CLC-Nt1. These antibodies were used to probe membrane proteins prepared by various cell-fractionation methods. These included aqueous two-phase partitioning (for plasma membranes), free-flow electrophoresis (for vacuolar and plasma membranes), intact vacuole isolation, Percoll-gradient centrifugation (for plastids and mitochondria) and stepped, linear, sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation (for mitochondria). Each purified membrane fraction was characterized with specific marker enzyme activities or antibodies. Our studies ruled out the possibility that the major cell localization of CLC-Nt1 was the vacuolar or plasma membranes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus or the plastids. In contrast, we showed that the tobacco CLC-Nt1 specifically co-localized with the markers of the mitochondrial inner membrane, cytochrome c oxidase and NAD9 protein. CLC-Nt1 may correspond to the inner membrane anion channel ('IMAC') described previously in animal and plant mitochondria.

  8. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2016-11-07

    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. RING finger protein 121 facilitates the degradation and membrane localization of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Low, Sean E.; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Zhou, Weibin; Muto, Akira; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Nakai, Junichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.; Hirata, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters have been extensively examined, the processes that govern their transport and degradation have received less attention. Our entry into the study of these processes began with the isolation of a new allele of the zebrafish mutant alligator, which we found to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 121 (RNF121), an E3-ubiquitin ligase present in the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Here we demonstrate that RNF121 facilitates two opposing fates of NaV channels: (i) ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and (ii) membrane localization when coexpressed with auxiliary NaVβ subunits. Collectively, these results indicate that RNF121 participates in the quality control of NaV channels during their synthesis and subsequent transport to the membrane. PMID:25691753

  11. Membrane Localization is Critical for Activation of the PICK1 BAR Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kenneth L.; Eriksen, Jacob; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Han, Daniel S.; Niv, Masha Y.; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Henriksen, Ulla; Bhatia, Vikram K.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Sitte, Harald H.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) contains a C-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain mediating recognition of curved membranes; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of this domain are poorly understood. In agreement with negative regulation of the BAR domain by the N-terminal PDZ domain, PICK1 distributed evenly in the cytoplasm, whereas truncation of the PDZ domain caused BAR domain-dependent redistribution to clusters colocalizing with markers of recycling endosomal compartments. A similar clustering was observed both upon truncation of a short putative α-helical segment in the linker between the PDZ and the BAR domains and upon coexpression of PICK1 with a transmembrane PDZ ligand, including the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR2 subunit, the GluR2 C-terminus transferred to the single transmembrane protein Tac or the dopamine transporter C-terminus transferred to Tac. In contrast, transfer of the GluR2 C-terminus to cyan fluorescent protein, a cytosolic protein, did not elicit BAR domain-dependent clustering. Instead, localizing PICK1 to the membrane by introducing an N-terminal myristoylation site produced BAR domain-dependent, but ligand-independent, PICK1 clustering. The data support that in the absence of PDZ ligand, the PICK1 BAR domain is inhibited through a PDZ domain-dependent and linker-dependent mechanism. Moreover, they suggest that unmasking of the BAR domain’s membrane-binding capacity is not a consequence of ligand binding to the PDZ domain per se but results from, and coincides with, recruitment of PICK1 to a membrane compartment. PMID:18466293

  12. Membrane association and localization dynamics of the Ebola virus matrix protein VP40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gc, Jeevan B; Gerstman, Bernard S; Chapagain, Prem P

    2017-10-01

    The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 is a major structural protein that provides the scaffolding for new Ebola virus particles. For this, VP40 is first trafficked to the lower leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM) in its dimeric form. Once associated with the PM, the VP40 dimers undergo structural rearrangements and oligomerize into hexamers and filaments that make up the virus matrix. Therefore, association of the VP40 dimers and their stabilization at the PM is a crucial step in the Ebola life-cycle. To understand the molecular details of the VP40 dimer-PM interactions, we investigated the dimer association with the inner leaflet of the PM using detailed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The formation of the dimer-PM complex is facilitated by the interactions of the VP40 lysine residues and the anionic lipids POPS, POPI, and PIP 2 in the PM. In contrast, the dimer fails to associate with a membrane without POPS, POPI, or PIP 2 lipids. We explored the mechanisms of the association and identified important residues and lipids involved in localization and stabilization of VP40 dimers at the PM. MD simulations elucidate the role of a C-terminal α-helix alignment parallel to the lipid bilayer surface as well as the creation of membrane defects that allow partial insertion of the hydrophobic residue V276 into the membrane to further stabilize the VP40 dimer-PM complex. Understanding the mechanisms of the VP40 dimer-PM association that facilitate oligomerization can be important for potentially targeting the VP40 for small molecules that can interfere with the virus life-cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Deformation analysis of the repeated positional surveys in the undermined localities using web applications and WMS map services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Talich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The XML web application for on-line calculations of deformation analysis from the repeated positional surveys using Internet service and data is described. Parameters of deformation field (strain tensors, total dilatations are determined in a grid network covering the zone of interest. Displacement vectors from repeated measurements at given points of a geodetic network represent the imput data of calculation. The calculation is based on application of the theory of continuum mechanics and its fundamental prerequisite is homogeneity of the researched territory.The application currently utilizes the Web Map Services - WMS for the graphic presentation of calculated results as GIS. This service for example enables on-line thematic map composition as defined by the user in the window of Internet explorer based on data given by servers of WMS service. Thus the user does not need to own any geographic data to create his/her GIS.Furthermore there are also given application examples of the repeated geodetic surveys used in the field at localities in the forefront of ČSA giant quarry at Komořany and in the undermined territory in Ostrava region. The examples show the independence of calculated values of tensors from rotation and translation of the coordinate systems in practise. This fact gives the evidence that the deformation analysis is more objective dynamic indicator in the researched area and not only the calculus and representation of point displacement vectors. After registration this application is at all interested persons disposal to on-line calculations via the Internet.

  14. Integrin-like proteins are localized to plasma membrane fractions, not plastids, in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatzell, L. J.; Edelmann, R. E.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral membrane proteins that function in signal transduction in animal systems. These proteins are conserved in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Evidence from previous research suggests that integrin-like proteins may be present in plants as well, and that these proteins may function in signal transduction during gravitropism. In past studies, researchers have used monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to localize beta 1 integrin-like proteins in plants. However, there is a disparity between data collected from these studies, especially since molecular weights obtained from these investigations range from 55-120 kDa for integrin-like proteins. To date, a complete investigation which employs all three basic immunolabeling procedures, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold labeling, in addition to extensive fractionation and exhaustive controls, has been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that use of a polyclonal antibody against the cytoplasmic domain of avian beta 1-integrin can produce potential artifacts in immunolocalization studies. However, these problems can be eliminated through use of starchless mutants or proper specimen preparation prior to electrophoresis. We also show that this antibody, when applied within the described parameters and with careful controls, identifies a large (100 kDa) integrin-like protein that is localized to plasma membrane fractions in Arabidopsis.

  15. Localized ridge defect augmentation using human pericardium membrane and demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Arun Kumar; Ravindran, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    Patient wanted to restore her lost teeth with implants in the lower left first molar and second premolar region. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) revealed inadequate bone width and height around future implant sites. The extraction socket of second premolar area revealed inadequate socket healing with sparse bone fill after 4 months of extraction. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using a collagen physical resorbable barrier made of human pericardium (HP) to augment localized alveolar ridge defects for the subsequent placement of dental implants. Ridge augmentation was done in the compromised area using Puros® demineralized bone matrix (DBM) Putty with chips and an HP allograft membrane. Horizontal (width) and vertical hard tissue measurements with CBCT were recorded on the day of ridge augmentation surgery, 4 month and 7 months follow-up. Intra oral periapical taken 1 year after implant installation showed minimal crestal bone loss. Bone volume achieved through guided bone regeneration was a gain of 4.8 mm horizontally (width) and 6.8 mm vertically in the deficient ridge within a period of 7 months following the procedure. The results suggested that HP Allograft membrane may be a suitable component for augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects in conjunction with DBM with bone chips.

  16. Deformation and instabilities at a free surface of liquid subject to a local rapid evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, Anne

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis first addresses theoretical aspects related to the study of stationary system (the deformation of the liquid-vapour interface) and to the study of the linear stability of this interface, and more particularly the study of the liquid-vapour interface of a fluid heated by electron bombardment in a vacuum enclosure. The author reports the analysis of Landau and Palmer systems, reports the study of the marginal stability of a simplified SILVA (isotopic separation by laser on atomic vapour) system which allows the identification of destabilizing mechanisms, and the comparison between a liquid system heated from underneath with liquid system heated from above. Results are then validated by experimental results. In the next part, the author sets the equations of a SILVA system closer to reality by addressing vapour in a more realistic way. Results of conventional kinetic theory are studied again by analysing sonic evaporation of a liquid. The author reports a study of the linear stability of this system, and reports an attempt to analyse the obtained results [fr

  17. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Karan S; Evans, Elizabeth C; Pizzorno, Marie C

    2009-10-30

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  18. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Elizabeth C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deformed wing virus (DWV is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. Results In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. Conclusion These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  19. Erythrocyte Membrane Failure by Electromechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We envision that electrodeformation of biological cells through dielectrophoresis as a new technique to elucidate the mechanistic details underlying membrane failure by electrical and mechanical stresses. Here we demonstrate the full control of cellular uniaxial deformation and tensile recovery in biological cells via amplitude-modified electric field at radio frequency by an interdigitated electrode array in microfluidics. Transient creep and cyclic experiments were performed on individually tracked human erythrocytes. Observations of the viscoelastic-to-viscoplastic deformation behavior and the localized plastic deformations in erythrocyte membranes suggest that electromechanical stress results in irreversible membrane failure. Examples of membrane failure can be separated into different groups according to the loading scenarios: mechanical stiffening, physical damage, morphological transformation from discocyte to echinocyte, and whole cell lysis. These results show that this technique can be potentially utilized to explore membrane failure in erythrocytes affected by other pathophysiological processes.

  20. A parallel interaction potential approach coupled with the immersed boundary method for fully resolved simulations of deformable interfaces and membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandan, Vamsi; Meschini, Valentina; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Lohse, Detlef; Querzoli, Giorgio; de Tullio, Marco D.; Verzicco, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we show and discuss how the deformation dynamics of closed liquid-liquid interfaces (for example drops and bubbles) can be replicated with use of a phenomenological interaction potential model. This new approach to simulate liquid-liquid interfaces is based on the fundamental principle of minimum potential energy where the total potential energy depends on the extent of deformation of a spring network distributed on the surface of the immersed drop or bubble. Simulating liquid-liquid interfaces using this model require computing ad-hoc elastic constants which is done through a reverse-engineered approach. The results from our simulations agree very well with previous studies on the deformation of drops in standard flow configurations such as a deforming drop in a shear flow or cross flow. The interaction potential model is highly versatile, computationally efficient and can be easily incorporated into generic single phase fluid solvers to also simulate complex fluid-structure interaction problems. This is shown by simulating flow in the left ventricle of the heart with mechanical and natural mitral valves where the imposed flow, motion of ventricle and valves dynamically govern the behaviour of each other. Results from these simulations are compared with ad-hoc in-house experimental measurements. Finally, we present a simple and easy to implement parallelisation scheme, as high performance computing is unavoidable when studying large scale problems involving several thousands of simultaneously deforming bodies in highly turbulent flows.

  1. Majority of cellular fatty acid acylated proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.A.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    The BC 2 Hl muscle cell line was previously reported to contain a broad array of fatty acid acylated proteins. Palmitate was shown to be attached to membrane proteins posttranslationally through thiol ester linkages, whereas myristate was attached cotranslationally, or within seconds thereafter, to soluble and membrane-bound proteins through amide linkages. The temporal and subcellular differences between palmitate and myristate acylation suggested that these two classes of acyl proteins might follow different intracellular pathways to distinct subcellular membrane systems or organelles. In this study, the authors examined the subcellular localization of the major fatty acylated proteins in BC 4 Hl cells. Palmitate-containing proteins were localized to the plasma membrane, but only a subset of myristate-containing proteins was localized to this membrane fraction. The majority of acyl proteins were nonglycosylated and resistant to digestion with extracellular proteases, suggesting that they were not exposed to the external surface of the plasma membrane. Many proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins face the cytoplasm. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 3 H]myristate revealed that individual proteins were modified by only one of the two fatty acids and did not undergo both N-linked myristylation and ester-linked palmitylation. Together, these results suggest that the majority of cellular acyl proteins are routed to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, and they raise the possibility that fatty acid acylation may play a role in intracellular sorting of nontransmembranous, nonglycosylated membrane proteins

  2. Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel, Konstantin V., E-mail: kvkoshel@poi.dvo.ru [Pacific Oceanological Institute, FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Mathematics, FEB RAS, 7, Radio Street, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhov, Eugene A., E-mail: ryzhovea@gmail.com [Pacific Oceanological Institute, FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.

  3. Gap deformation and classical wave localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidorikis, E.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    By using two ab initio numerical methods, we study the effects that disorder has on the spectral gaps and on wave localization in two-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials. We find that there are basically two different responses depending on the lattice realization (solid dielectric cylinders in air or vice versa), the wave polarization, and the particular form under which disorder is introduced. Two different pictures for the photonic states are employed, the ''nearly free'' photon and the ''strongly localized'' photon. These originate from the two different mechanisms responsible for the formation of the spectral gaps, i.e., multiple scattering and single scatterer resonances, and they qualitatively explain our results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Localization of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor: Mechanistic Implications for Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Woon Yu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor, but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders.

  5. Improved localization of cellular membrane receptors using combined fluorescence microscopy and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, M; Pfleger, M; Chtcheglova, L A; Neundlinger, I; Bozna, B L; Ebner, A; Schuetz, G J; Hinterdorfer, P; Zhu, R; Mayer, B; Rankl, C; Moertelmaier, M; Kada, G; Kienberger, F; Salio, M; Shepherd, D; Polzella, P; Cerundolo, V; Dieudonne, M

    2010-01-01

    The combination of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy has a great potential in single-molecule-detection applications, overcoming many of the limitations coming from each individual technique. Here we present a new platform of combined fluorescence and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) for improved localization of cellular receptors. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled human sodium-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) expressed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and endothelial cells (MyEnd) from mouse myocardium stained with phalloidin-rhodamine were used as cell systems to study AFM topography and fluorescence microscopy on the same surface area. Topographical AFM images revealed membrane features such as lamellipodia, cytoskeleton fibers, F-actin filaments and small globular structures with heights ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Combined fluorescence and TREC imaging was applied to detect density, distribution and localization of YFP-labeled CD1d molecules on α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer)-loaded THP1 cells. While the expression level, distribution and localization of CD1d molecules on THP1 cells were detected with fluorescence microscopy, the nanoscale distribution of binding sites was investigated with molecular recognition imaging by using a chemically modified AFM tip. Using TREC on the inverted light microscope, the recognition sites of cell receptors were detected in recognition images with domain sizes ranging from ∼ 25 to ∼ 160 nm, with the smaller domains corresponding to a single CD1d molecule.

  6. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutron radiography characterization of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell with localized current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardo, J.J.; Owejan, J.P.; Trabold, T.A.; Tighe, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron radiography has proven to be a powerful tool to study and understand the effects of liquid water in an operating fuel cell. In the present work, this experimental method is coupled with locally resolved current and ohmic resistance measurements, giving additional insight into water management and fuel cell performance under a variety of conditions. The effects of varying the inlet humidification level and the current density of the 50 cm 2 cell are studied by simultaneously monitoring electrochemical performance with a 10x10 matrix of current sensors, and liquid water volumes are measured using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. A counter flow, straight channel proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to demonstrate localized performance loss corresponds to water-filled channels that impede gas transport to the catalyst layer, thereby creating an area that has low current density. Furthermore, certain operating conditions causing excess water accumulation in the channels can result in localized proton resistance increase, a result that can only be accurately observed with combined radiography and distributed electrochemical measurements.

  8. Improved localization of cellular membrane receptors using combined fluorescence microscopy and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, M; Pfleger, M; Chtcheglova, L A; Neundlinger, I; Bozna, B L; Ebner, A; Schuetz, G J; Hinterdorfer, P [Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Zhu, R; Mayer, B [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanoscopic Methods in Biophysics, Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Rankl, C; Moertelmaier, M; Kada, G; Kienberger, F [Agilent Technologies Austria GmbH, Aubrunnerweg 11, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Salio, M; Shepherd, D; Polzella, P; Cerundolo, V [Cancer Research UK Tumor Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); Dieudonne, M, E-mail: ferry_kienberger@agilent.com [Agilent Technologies Belgium, Wingepark 51, Rotselaar, AN B-3110 (Belgium)

    2010-03-19

    The combination of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy has a great potential in single-molecule-detection applications, overcoming many of the limitations coming from each individual technique. Here we present a new platform of combined fluorescence and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) for improved localization of cellular receptors. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled human sodium-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) expressed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and endothelial cells (MyEnd) from mouse myocardium stained with phalloidin-rhodamine were used as cell systems to study AFM topography and fluorescence microscopy on the same surface area. Topographical AFM images revealed membrane features such as lamellipodia, cytoskeleton fibers, F-actin filaments and small globular structures with heights ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Combined fluorescence and TREC imaging was applied to detect density, distribution and localization of YFP-labeled CD1d molecules on {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}GalCer)-loaded THP1 cells. While the expression level, distribution and localization of CD1d molecules on THP1 cells were detected with fluorescence microscopy, the nanoscale distribution of binding sites was investigated with molecular recognition imaging by using a chemically modified AFM tip. Using TREC on the inverted light microscope, the recognition sites of cell receptors were detected in recognition images with domain sizes ranging from {approx} 25 to {approx} 160 nm, with the smaller domains corresponding to a single CD1d molecule.

  9. [Optimization of labeling and localizing bacterial membrane and nucleus with FM4-64 and Hoechst dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Yanping; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Xingxu

    2015-08-04

    To observe cell membrane and nucleus in bacteria for subcellular localization. FM4-64 and Hoechst were dyed that can label cell membrane and nucleus, respectively. Both dyes were used to co-stain the membranes and nucleus of eight bacterial strains ( Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia pestis, Legionella pneumonia, Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus anthracis). E. coli was dyed with different dye concentrations and times and then observed by confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging. Fluorescence intensity of cell membrane and nucleus is affected by dye concentrations and times. The optimal conditions were determined as follows: staining cell membrane with 20 μg/mL FM4-64 for 1 min and cell nucleus with 20 μg/mL Hoechst for 20 min. Gram-negative bacteria were dyed better than gram-positive bacteria with FM4-64dye. FM4-64 and Hoechst can be used to stain membrane and nucleus in different types of bacteria. Co-staining bacterial membrane and nucleus provides the reference to observe cell structure in prokaryotes for studying subcellular localization.

  10. In-situ Monitoring of Internal Local Temperature and Voltage of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of temperature and voltage of a fuel cell are key factors that influence performance. Conventional sensors are normally large, and are also useful only for making external measurements of fuel cells. Centimeter-scale sensors for making invasive measurements are frequently unable to accurately measure the interior changes of a fuel cell. This work focuses mainly on fabricating flexible multi-functional microsensors (for temperature and voltage to measure variations in the local temperature and voltage of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC that are based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS. The power density at 0.5 V without a sensor is 450 mW/cm2, and that with a sensor is 426 mW/cm2. Since the reaction area of a fuel cell with a sensor is approximately 12% smaller than that without a sensor, but the performance of the former is only 5% worse.

  11. In-situ monitoring of internal local temperature and voltage of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Hsieh, Wei-Jung

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of temperature and voltage of a fuel cell are key factors that influence performance. Conventional sensors are normally large, and are also useful only for making external measurements of fuel cells. Centimeter-scale sensors for making invasive measurements are frequently unable to accurately measure the interior changes of a fuel cell. This work focuses mainly on fabricating flexible multi-functional microsensors (for temperature and voltage) to measure variations in the local temperature and voltage of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) that are based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The power density at 0.5 V without a sensor is 450 mW/cm(2), and that with a sensor is 426 mW/cm(2). Since the reaction area of a fuel cell with a sensor is approximately 12% smaller than that without a sensor, but the performance of the former is only 5% worse.

  12. DE-FORMALIZATION AND FORMALIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS INTERACTION INSTITUTES AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurbatova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia currently faces the time when the new institutions emerge and develop. Thus there is a scientific problem that focuses on the explanation of deviations from institutional planning’s expected results. These deviations serve the purpose of solving current problems and maintaining the economic survival of the certain enterprises. It is especially noticeable at the municipal level where the opposite trends are quite interlaced. The article focuses on the example of Kemerovo region where local authorities derive adjacent institutions with small enterprises. The analysis is using the concept of rules; the extra attention is paid to the matter of regional market institutions foundation and the specifics of small mono-profile towns.

  13. In silico local structure approach: a case study on outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juliette; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2008-04-01

    The detection of Outer Membrane Proteins (OMP) in whole genomes is an actual question, their sequence characteristics have thus been intensively studied. This class of protein displays a common beta-barrel architecture, formed by adjacent antiparallel strands. However, due to the lack of available structures, few structural studies have been made on this class of proteins. Here we propose a novel OMP local structure investigation, based on a structural alphabet approach, i.e., the decomposition of 3D structures using a library of four-residue protein fragments. The optimal decomposition of structures using hidden Markov model results in a specific structural alphabet of 20 fragments, six of them dedicated to the decomposition of beta-strands. This optimal alphabet, called SA20-OMP, is analyzed in details, in terms of local structures and transitions between fragments. It highlights a particular and strong organization of beta-strands as series of regular canonical structural fragments. The comparison with alphabets learned on globular structures indicates that the internal organization of OMP structures is more constrained than in globular structures. The analysis of OMP structures using SA20-OMP reveals some recurrent structural patterns. The preferred location of fragments in the distinct regions of the membrane is investigated. The study of pairwise specificity of fragments reveals that some contacts between structural fragments in beta-sheets are clearly favored whereas others are avoided. This contact specificity is stronger in OMP than in globular structures. Moreover, SA20-OMP also captured sequential information. This can be integrated in a scoring function for structural model ranking with very promising results. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Local experience with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with acute fulminant myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Ning

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in children with acute fulminant myocarditis, we retrospectively analyzed the data of five children with acute fulminant myocarditis in the intensive care unit (ICU at the Affiliated Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University from February 2009 to November 2012. The study group included two boys and three girls ranging in age from 9 to 13 years (median 10 years. Body weight ranged from 25 to 33 kg (mean 29.6 kg. They underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO through a venous-arterial ECMO model with an average ECMO supporting time of 89.8 h (40-142 h. Extracorporeal circulation was established in all five children. After treatment with ECMO, the heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were greatly improved in the four children who survived. These four children were successfully weaned from ECMO and discharged from hospital machine-free, for a survival rate of 80% (4/5. One child died still dependent on the machine. Cause of death was irrecoverable cardiac function and multiple organ failure. Complications during ECMO included three cases of suture bleeding, one case of acute hemolytic renal failure and suture bleeding, and one case of hyperglycemia. During the follow-up period of 4-50 months, the four surviving children recovered with normal cardiac function and no abnormal functions of other organs. The application of ECMO in acute fulminant myocarditis, even in local centers that experience low incidence of this disease, remains an effective approach. Larger studies to determine optimal timing of placement on ECMO to guide local centers are warranted.

  15. The RxLR effector Avh241 from Phytophthora sojae requires plasma membrane localization to induce plant cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Wang, Qunqing; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Duan, Shuyi; Lu, Chenchen; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Suomeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-10-01

    • The Phytophthora sojae genome encodes hundreds of RxLR effectors predicted to manipulate various plant defense responses, but the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we have characterized in detail the P. sojae RxLR effector Avh241. • To determine the function and localization of Avh241, we transiently expressed it on different plants. Silencing of Avh241 in P. sojae, we determined its virulence during infection. Through the assay of promoting infection by Phytophthora capsici to Nicotiana benthamiana, we further confirmed this virulence role. • Avh241 induced cell death in several different plants and localized to the plant plasma membrane. An N-terminal motif within Avh241 was important for membrane localization and cell death-inducing activity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases, NbMEK2 and NbWIPK, were required for the cell death triggered by Avh241 in N. benthamiana. Avh241 was important for the pathogen's full virulence on soybean. Avh241 could also promote infection by P. capsici and the membrane localization motif was not required to promote infection. • This work suggests that Avh241 interacts with the plant immune system via at least two different mechanisms, one recognized by plants dependent on subcellular localization and one promoting infection independent on membrane localization. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  17. Subcellular localization of H(+)-ATPase from pumpkin hypocotyls (Cucurbita maxima L.) by membrane fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, G F

    1984-03-01

    A new method of preparing sealed vesicles from membrane fractions of pumpkin hypocotyls in ethanolamine-containing buffers was used to investigate the subcellular localization of H(+)-ATPase measured as nigericin-stimulated ATPase. In a fluorescence-quench assay, the H(+) pump was directly demonstrated. The H(+) pump was substrate-specific for Mg·ATP and 0.1 mM diethylstilbestrol completely prevented the development of a Δ pH. The presence of unsupecific phosphatase hampered the detection of nigericin-stimulated ATPase. Unspecific phosphatases could be demonstrated by comparing the broad substrate specificity of the hydrolytic activities of the fractions with the clear preference for Mg·ATP as the substrate for the proton pump. Inhibitor studies showed that neither orthovanadate nor molybdate are absolutely specific for ATPase or acid phosphatase, respectively. Diethylstilbestrol seemed to be a specific inhibitor of ATPase activity in fractions containing nigericin-stimulated ATPase, but it stimulated acid phosphatase which tended to obscure its effect on ATPase activity. Nigericin-stimulated ATPase had its optimum at pH 6.0 and the nigericin effect was K(+)-dependent. The combination of valinomycin and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone had a similar effect to nigericin, but singly these ionophores were much less stimulatory. After prolonged centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients, nigericin-stimulated ATPase correlated in dense fractions with plasma membrane markers but a part of it remained at the interphase. This lessdense part of the nigericin-stimulated ATPase could be derived from tonoplast vesicles because α-mannosidase, an enzyme of the vacuolar sap, remained in the upper part of the gradient. Nigericinstimulated ATPase did not correlate with the mitochondrial marker, cytochrome c oxidase, whereas azide inhibition of ATPase activity did.

  18. Ballistic impact response of lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Meng, Zhaoxu; Qin, Xin; Keten, Sinan

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic agent loaded micro and nanoscale particles as high-velocity projectiles can penetrate cells and tissues, thereby serving as gene and drug delivery vehicles for direct and rapid internalization. Despite recent progress in developing micro/nanoscale ballistic tools, the underlying biophysics of how fast projectiles deform and penetrate cell membranes is still poorly understood. To understand the rate and size-dependent penetration processes, we present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the ballistic impact of spherical projectiles on lipid membranes. Our simulations reveal that upon impact, the projectile can pursue one of three distinct pathways. At low velocities below the critical penetration velocity, projectiles rebound off the surface. At intermediate velocities, penetration occurs after the projectile deforms the membrane into a tubular thread. At very high velocities, rapid penetration occurs through localized membrane deformation without tubulation. Membrane tension, projectile velocity and size govern which phenomenon occurs, owing to their positive correlation with the reaction force generated between the projectile and the membrane during impact. Two critical membrane tension values dictate the boundaries among the three pathways for a given system, due to the rate dependence of the stress generated in the membrane. Our findings provide broad physical insights into the ballistic impact response of soft viscous membranes and guide design strategies for drug delivery through lipid membranes using micro/nanoscale ballistic tools.

  19. The geometric phase analysis method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform for deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Huaixi; Li, Chuanwei; Wu, Lifu; Liu, Zhanwei

    2014-01-01

    The geometric phase analysis (GPA) method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform (LHR-DFT) for deformation measurement, defined as LHR-DFT GPA, is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy. In the general GPA method, the fundamental frequency of the image plays a crucial role. However, the fast Fourier transform, which is generally employed in the general GPA method, could make it difficult to locate the fundamental frequency accurately when the fundamental frequency is not located at an integer pixel position in the Fourier spectrum. This study focuses on this issue and presents a LHR-DFT algorithm that can locate the fundamental frequency with sub-pixel precision in a specific frequency region for the GPA method. An error analysis is offered and simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method; both results show that the LHR-DFT algorithm can accurately locate the fundamental frequency and improve the measurement accuracy of the GPA method. Furthermore, typical tensile and bending tests are carried out and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of local deformation behavior accompanying fatigue damage in F82H welded joint specimens by using digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Toshiya; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In tensile, the TIG welded joint material was concentrated in the THAZ. ► In tensile, fracture occurred at the point where the axial strain converged. ► In fatigue, fracture occurred at the point where the Max. shear strain converged. ► Many macrocracks and cavities formed in the FGHAZ and THAZ of the cross section. - Abstract: By using digital image correlation, the deformation behaviors of local domains of F82H joint specimens welded using tungsten inert gas (TIG) and electron beam (EB) welding were evaluated during tensile and fatigue testing. In the tensile test specimens, the tensile strength decreased in the TIG-welded joints, and ductility decreased in both the EB- and TIG-welded joints. Because axial strain increased in the tempered heat-affected zone (HAZ) and led to the fracture of the TIG-welded joint, the strength was considered to have decreased because of welding. In fatigue testing, the number of cycles to fracture for the welded joint decreased to less than 40–60% of that for the base metal. For both fracture specimens, the largest value of shear strain was observed in the region approximately between the fine-grained HAZ and tempered HAZ; this shear strain ultimately led to fracture. Cavities and macrocracks were observed in the fine-grained HAZ and tempered HAZ in the cross sections of the fracture specimens, and geometrical damage possibly resulted in the reduction of fatigue lifetime.

  1. Pannexin2 oligomers localize in the membranes of endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boassa, Daniela; Nguyen, Phuong; Hu, Junru; Ellisman, Mark H; Sosinsky, Gina E

    2014-01-01

    Pannexin2 (Panx2) is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3) is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and HEK 293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the nervous system.

  2. Palmitoylation of the immunity related GTPase, Irgm1: impact on membrane localization and ability to promote mitochondrial fission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C Henry

    Full Text Available The Immunity-Related GTPases (IRG are a family of large GTPases that mediate innate immune responses. Irgm1 is particularly critical for immunity to bacteria and protozoa, and for inflammatory homeostasis in the intestine. Although precise functions for Irgm1 have not been identified, prior studies have suggested roles in autophagy/mitophagy, phagosome remodeling, cell motility, and regulating the activity of other IRG proteins. These functions ostensibly hinge on the ability of Irgm1 to localize to intracellular membranes, such as those of the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. Previously, it has been shown that an amphipathic helix, the αK helix, in the C-terminal portion of the protein partially mediates membrane binding. However, in absence of αK, there is still substantial binding of Irgm1 to cellular membranes, suggesting the presence of other membrane binding motifs. In the current work, an additional membrane localization motif was found in the form of palmitoylation at a cluster of cysteines near the αK. An Irgm1 mutant possessing alanine to cysteine substitutions at these amino acids demonstrated little residual palmitoylation, yet it displayed only a small decrease in localization to the Golgi and mitochondria. In contrast, a mutant containing the palmitoylation mutations in combination with mutations disrupting the amphipathic character of the αK displayed a complete loss of apparent localization to the Golgi and mitochondria, as well as an overall loss of association with cellular membranes in general. Additionally, Irgm1 was found to promote mitochondrial fission, and this function was undermined in Irgm1 mutants lacking the palmitoylation domain, and to a greater extent in those lacking the αK, or the αK and palmitoylation domains combined. Our data suggest that palmitoylation together with the αK helix firmly anchor Irgm1 in the Golgi and mitochondria, thus facilitating function of the protein.

  3. Cholesterol modulates the cellular localization of Orai1 channels and its disposition among membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez-Hernández, A; Gratton, Enrico; Pacheco, Jonathan; Asanov, Alexander; Vaca, Luis

    2017-12-01

    Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is one of the most important mechanisms for calcium mobilization in to the cell. Two main proteins sustain SOCE: STIM1 that acts as the calcium sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Orai1 responsible for calcium influx upon depletion of ER. There are many studies indicating that SOCE is modulated by the cholesterol content of the plasma membrane (PM). However, a myriad of questions remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanism by which cholesterol modulates SOCE. In the present study we found that reducing PM cholesterol results in the internalization of Orai1 channels, which can be prevented by overexpressing caveolin 1 (Cav1). Furthermore, Cav1 and Orai1 associate upon SOCE activation as revealed by FRET and coimmunoprecipitation assays. The effects of reducing cholesterol were not limited to an increased rate of Orai1 internalization, but also, affects the lateral movement of Orai1, inducing movement in a linear pattern (unobstructed diffusion) opposite to basal cholesterol conditions were most of Orai1 channels moves in a confined space, as assessed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Cav1 overexpression inhibited these alterations maintaining Orai1 into a confined and partially confined movement. These results not only highlight the complex effect of cholesterol regulation on SOCE, but also indicate a direct regulatory effect on Orai1 localization and compartmentalization by this lipid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  5. Multiphoton-generated localized electron plasma for membrane permeability modification in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T.; Leblanc, M.; McMillan, J.; Westwood, J.; Khodaparast, G. A.

    2014-03-01

    Successful incorporation of a specific macromolecule into a single cell would be ideal for characterizing trafficking dynamics through plasmodesmata or for studying intracellular localizations. Here, we demonstrate NIR femtosecond laser-mediated infiltration of a membrane impermeable dextran-conjugated dye into living cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling stems. Based on the reactions of fluorescing vacuoles of transgenic cells and artificial cell walls comprised of nanocellulose, laser intensity and exposure time were adjusted to avoid deleterious effects. Using these plant-tailored laser parameters, cells were injected with the fluorophores and long-term dye retention was observed, all while preserving vital cell functions. This method is ideal for studies concerning cell-to-cell interactions and potentially paves the way for introducing transgenes to specific cells. This work was supported by NSF award IOS-0843372 to JHW, with additional support from and U.S. Department of Agriculture Hatch Project no. 135997, and by the Institute of Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS) at Virginia Tech.

  6. Local anesthetics: interaction with human erythrocyte membranes as studied by 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Paula, Eneida de

    2004-01-01

    The literature carries many theories about the mechanism of action of local anesthetics (LA). We can highlight those focusing the direct effect of LA on the sodium channel protein and the ones that consider the interaction of anesthetic molecules with the lipid membrane phase. The interaction between local anesthetics and human erythrocyte membranes has been studied by 1 H and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was found that lidocaine (LDC) and benzocaine (BZC) bind to the membranes, increase the mobility of the protons of the phospholipids acyl chains, and decrease the mobility and/or change the structure of the polar head groups. The results indicate that lidocaine molecules are inserted across the polar and liquid interface of the membrane, establishing both electrostatic (charged form) and hydrophobic (neutral form) interactions. Benzocaine locates itself a little deeper in the bilayer, between the interfacial glycerol region and the hydrophobic core. These changes in mobility or conformation of membrane lipids could affect the Na + -channel protein insertion in the bilayer, stabilizing it in the inactivated state, thus causing anesthesia. (author)

  7. Locally distributed ground deformation in an area of potential phreatic eruption, Midagahara volcano, Japan, detected by single-look-based InSAR time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomokazu

    2018-05-01

    Although it is difficult to monitor the spatial extent and temporal evolution of local and small-magnitude ground inflation, this information is vital to assess the potential for phreatic eruption. Herein, we demonstrate the detection of locally distributed ground deformation preceding the enhancement of geothermal activity in the Midagahara volcano, Japan, through the application of single-look-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis. In the Jigoku-dani geothermal area, the ground deformation proceeded at a low speed of 4 cm/year at most with a spatial extent of 500 m in the east-west direction and 250 m in the north-south direction. The deformation can be recognized to progress from 2007, at the latest, to 2010, after which the geothermal activity increased, with the collapse of sulfur towers and the appearance of active fumaroles and boiling water on the ground surface. The most deformed area corresponds to the geothermal area with the highest activity observed on the ground surface. Assuming a sill opening model, the deformation source is estimated to be located at a depth of 50 m from the surface with a speed of 7 cm/year at most, which is consistent with the depth of the highly conductive medium inferred from magnetotelluric analyses. This may suggest that volcanic fluid and/or heat was injected into the fluid-rich medium from depth and caused the ground inflation. Our results demonstrate that high-spatial-resolution deformation data can be an effective tool to monitor subsurface pressure conditions with pinpoint spatial accuracy during the build-up to phreatic eruptions.

  8. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  9. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H. (United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education, Greenport, New York (USA). Agricultural Research, Plum Island Animal Disease Center)

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated (/sup 3/H) uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity.

  10. Results of using artificial hyperglycemia in chemoradiation treatment of patients with local spread cancer of oral cavity mucous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchinina, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The comparative estimation of the recent results of chemoradiation therapy using artificial hyperglycemia of 115 patients with local spread cancer of the 3rd and 4th stages of body of the tongue and oral cavity mucous membranes is given. Optimal combinations of irradiation and hyperglycemia are determined. It is shown that the application of artificial hyperglycemia in chemoradiation treatment of cancer of oral cavity mucous membranes is reasonable and it provides an opportunity to improve the results, especially at the 3rd stage of cancer. 15 refs

  11. Interaction between a plasma membrane-localized ankyrin-repeat protein ITN1 and a nuclear protein RTV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hikaru [Department of Bioproduction, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri-shi, Hokkaido 093-2422 (Japan); Sakata, Keiko; Kusumi, Kensuke [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iba, Koh, E-mail: koibascb@kyushu-u.org [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITN1, a plasma membrane ankyrin protein, interacts with a nuclear DNA-binding protein RTV1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear transport of RTV1 is partially inhibited by interaction with ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RTV1 can promote the nuclear localization of ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both overexpression of RTV1 and the lack of ITN1 increase salicylic acids sensitivity in plants. -- Abstract: The increased tolerance to NaCl 1 (ITN1) protein is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized protein involved in responses to NaCl stress in Arabidopsis. The predicted structure of ITN1 is composed of multiple transmembrane regions and an ankyrin-repeat domain that is known to mediate protein-protein interactions. To elucidate the molecular functions of ITN1, we searched for interacting partners using a yeast two-hybrid assay, and a nuclear-localized DNA-binding protein, RTV1, was identified as a candidate. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that RTV1 interacted with ITN1 at the PM and nuclei in vivo. RTV1 tagged with red fluorescent protein localized to nuclei and ITN1 tagged with green fluorescent protein localized to PM; however, both proteins localized to both nuclei and the PM when co-expressed. These findings suggest that RTV1 and ITN1 regulate the subcellular localization of each other.

  12. Models of dynamic extraction of lipid tethers from cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Sarah A; Chou, Tom

    2010-01-01

    When a ligand that is bound to an integral membrane receptor is pulled, the membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton can deform before either the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton or the ligand detaches from the receptor. If the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton, it may be further extruded and form a membrane tether. We develop a phenomenological model for this process by assuming that deformations obey Hooke's law up to a critical force at which the cell membrane locally detaches from the cytoskeleton and a membrane tether forms. We compute the probability of tether formation and show that tethers can be extruded only within an intermediate range of force loading rates and pulling velocities. The mean tether length that arises at the moment of ligand detachment is computed as are the force loading rates and pulling velocities that yield the longest tethers

  13. Steric exclusion and protein conformation determine the localization of plasma membrane transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, Frans; Syga, Łukasz; Moiset, Gemma; Spakman, Dian; Schavemaker, Paul E; Punter, Christiaan M; Seinen, Anne-Bart; van Oijen, Antoine M; Robinson, Andrew; Poolman, Bert

    2018-01-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains membrane compartments, MCC/eisosomes and MCPs, named after the protein residents Can1 and Pma1, respectively. Using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques we show that Can1 and the homologous transporter Lyp1 are able to

  14. Lipid raft localization of TLR2 and its co-receptors is independent of membrane lipid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hellwing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Toll like receptors (TLRs are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids. Previous investigations of our group provide evidence that macrophage enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induces a reordering of lipid rafts and non-rafts based on the incorporation of supplemented PUFA as well as their elongation and desaturation products. Methods In the present study we investigated potential constraining effects of membrane microdomain reorganization on the clustering of TLR2 with its co-receptors TLR1 and TLR6 within lipid rafts. To this end, RAW264.7 macrophages were supplemented with either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or arachidonic acid (AA and analyzed for receptor expression and microdomain localization in context of TLR stimulation. Results and Conclusions Our analyses showed that receptor levels and microdomain localization were unchanged by PUFA supplementation. The TLR2 pathway, in contrast to the TLR4 signaling cascade, is not affected by exogenous PUFA at the membrane level.

  15. Cytochrome b 6 f function and localization, phosphorylation state of thylakoid membrane proteins and consequences on cyclic electron flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Louis; Chazaux, Marie; Peltier, Gilles; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Both the structure and the protein composition of thylakoid membranes have an impact on light harvesting and electron transfer in the photosynthetic chain. Thylakoid membranes form stacks and lamellae where photosystem II and photosystem I localize, respectively. Light-harvesting complexes II can be associated to either PSII or PSI depending on the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, and their distribution is governed by state transitions. Upon state transitions, the thylakoid ultrastructure and lateral distribution of proteins along the membrane are subject to significant rearrangements. In addition, quinone diffusion is limited to membrane microdomains and the cytochrome b 6 f complex localizes either to PSII-containing grana stacks or PSI-containing stroma lamellae. Here, we discuss possible similarities or differences between green algae and C3 plants on the functional consequences of such heterogeneities in the photosynthetic electron transport chain and propose a model in which quinones, accepting electrons either from PSII (linear flow) or NDH/PGR pathways (cyclic flow), represent a crucial control point. Our aim is to give an integrated description of these processes and discuss their potential roles in the balance between linear and cyclic electron flows.

  16. Wood cell-wall structure requires local 2D-microtubule disassembly by a novel plasma membrane-anchored protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshihisa; Iida, Yuki; Kondo, Yuki; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2010-07-13

    Plant cells have evolved cortical microtubules, in a two-dimensional space beneath the plasma membrane, that regulate patterning of cellulose deposition. Although recent studies have revealed that several microtubule-associated proteins facilitate self-organization of transverse cortical microtubules, it is still unknown how diverse patterns of cortical microtubules are organized in different xylem cells, which are the major components of wood. Using our newly established in vitro xylem cell differentiation system, we found that a novel microtubule end-tracking protein, microtubule depletion domain 1 (MIDD1), was anchored to distinct plasma membrane domains and promoted local microtubule disassembly, resulting in pits on xylem cell walls. The introduction of RNA interference for MIDD1 resulted in the failure of local microtubule depletion and the formation of secondary walls without pits. Conversely, the overexpression of MIDD1 reduced microtubule density. MIDD1 has two coiled-coil domains for the binding to microtubules and for the anchorage to plasma membrane domains, respectively. Combination of the two coils caused end tracking of microtubules during shrinkage and suppressed their rescue events. Our results indicate that MIDD1 integrates spatial information in the plasma membrane with cortical microtubule dynamics for determining xylem cell wall pattern. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subcellular localization and logistics of integral membrane protein biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Mikhail; Aboulwafa, Mohammad; Saier, Milton H

    2013-01-01

    Transporters catalyze entry and exit of molecules into and out of cells and organelles, and protein-lipid interactions influence their activities. The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyzes transport-coupled sugar phosphorylation as well as nonvectorial sugar phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. The vectorial process is much more sensitive to the lipid environment than the nonvectorial process. Moreover, cytoplasmic micellar forms of these enzyme-porters have been identified, and non-PTS permeases have similarly been shown to exist in 'soluble' forms. The latter porters exhibit lipid-dependent activities and can adopt altered topologies by simply changing the lipid composition. Finally, intracellular membranes and vesicles exist in Escherichia coli leading to the following unanswered questions: (1) what determines whether a PTS permease catalyzes vectorial or nonvectorial sugar phosphorylation? (2) How do phospholipids influence relative amounts of the plasma membrane, intracellular membrane, inner membrane-derived vesicles and cytoplasmic micelles? (3) What regulates the route(s) of permease insertion and transfer into and between the different subcellular sites? (4) Do these various membranous forms have distinct physiological functions? (5) What methods should be utilized to study the biogenesis and interconversion of these membranous structures? While research concerning these questions is still in its infancy, answers will greatly enhance our understanding of protein-lipid interactions and how they control the activities, conformations, cellular locations and biogenesis of integral membrane proteins. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Bacteria Localization and Chorion Thinning among Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Kimberly B.; Grotegut, Chad A.; Ransom, Carla E.; Bentley, Rex C.; Feng, Liping; Lan, Lan; Heine, R. Phillips; Seed, Patrick C.; Murtha, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. Study Design Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant) were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8), preterm no labor (PTNL = 8), term labor (TL = 10), and term no labor (TNL = 8), subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC). Results In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, prupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning. Although cause or consequence is uncertain, bacterial presence is greatest and inversely correlated with chorion thinning among PPROM subjects. PMID:24421883

  19. Apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, John C.; Shannon, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Details are given for the design, calibration, and operation of an apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of living epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane, 10 μm thick and 5 mm in diameter. Although similar in concept to bulge tests used to investigate the mechanical properties of micromachined thin films, cell-elastomer composite diaphragm inflation tests pose a unique set of experimental challenges. Composite diaphragm (CD) specimens are extremely compliant (E MIN =0 μl, V MAX ≤40 μl) while simultaneously recording the inflation pressure acting at the fixed boundary of the specimen, p(r=a). Using a carefully prescribed six-cycle inflation test protocol, the apparatus is shown to be capable of measuring the [V,p(r=a)] inflation response of a cell-elastomer CD with random uncertainties estimated at ±0.45 μl and ±2.5 Pa, respectively

  20. Localization of ras antigenicity in rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.M.; Lanoix, J.; Paiement, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the antigenicity of plasma membrane (PM) and rough microsomal (RM) fractions from rat liver using anti-ras monoclonal antibodies 142-24EO5 and Y13-259 and immunochemistry as well as electron microscope immunocytochemistry. Proteins immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 were separated using single-dimensional gradient-gel electrophoresis. The separated proteins were then blotted onto nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP. Radioautograms of blots indicated the presence of specific 21.5- and 22-kDa labeled proteins in the PM fraction. A 23.5-kDa [alpha- 32 P] GTP-binding protein was detected in immunoprecipitates of both PM and RM fractions. Monoclonal antibody Y13-259 reacted only with the 21.5-kDa [alpha- 32 P] GTP-binding protein in the plasma membrane fraction. When anti-ras monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 and the immunogold technique were applied to membrane fractions using a preembedding immunocytochemical method, specific labeling was observed in association with both vesicular structures and membrane sheets in the PM fraction but only with electron-dense vesicular structures in the RM fraction. Thus ras antigenicity is associated with hepatocyte plasma membranes and ras-like antigenicity is probably associated with vesicular (secretory/endocytic) elements in both plasma membrane and rough microsomal preparations

  1. Pannexin2 oligomers localize into endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eBoassa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin2 (Panx2 is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1 is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3 is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa and HEK293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the

  2. Localized deformation as a key precursor to initiation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels employed in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsen, Wade; Diego, Gonzalo; Devrient, Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Cold-work has been associated with the occurrence of intergranular cracking of stainless steels employed in light water reactors. This study examined the deformation behavior of AISI 304, AISI 347 and a higher stacking fault energy model alloy subjected to bulk cold-work and (for 347) surface deformation. Deformation microstructures of the materials were examined and correlated with their particular mechanical response under different conditions of temperature, strain rate and degree of prior cold-work. Select slow-strain rate tensile tests in autoclaves enabled the role of local strain heterogeneity in crack initiation in pressurized water reactor environments to be considered. The high stacking fault energy material exhibited uniform strain hardening, even at sub-zero temperatures, while the commercial stainless steels showed significant heterogeneity in their strain response. Surface treatments introduced local cold-work, which had a clear effect on the surface roughness and hardness, and on near-surface residual stress profiles. Autoclave tests led to transgranular surface cracking for a circumferentially ground surface, and intergranular crack initiation for a polished surface.

  3. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1990-01-01

    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.

  4. Hyaluronan, CD44, and Emmprin Regulate Lactate Efflux and Membrane Localization of Monocarboxylate Transporters in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, Mark G.; Grass, G. Daniel; Robertson, Angela D.; Yang, Xiao Y.; Maria, Bernard L.; Beeson, Craig; Toole, Bryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of hyaluronan with CD44 in tumor cells play important cooperative roles in various aspects of malignancy and drug resistance. Emmprin (CD147; basigin)is a cell surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is highly up-regulated in malignant cancer cells and stimulates hyaluronan production, as well as several downstream signaling pathways. Emmprin also interacts with various monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Malignant cancer cells use the glycolytic pathway and require MCTs to efflux lactate that results from glycolysis. Glycolysis and lactate secretion contribute to malignant cell behaviors and drug resistance in tumor cells. In the present study, we find that perturbation of endogenous hyaluronan, using small hyaluronan oligosaccharides, rapidly inhibits lactate efflux from breast carcinoma cells; down-regulation of emmprin, using emmprin small interfering RNA, also results in decreased efflux. In addition, we find that CD44 coimmunoprecipitates with MCT1, MCT4, and emmprin and colocalizes with these proteins at the plasma membrane. Moreover, after treatment of the cells with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, CD44, MCT1, and MCT4 become localized intracellularly whereas emmprin remains at the cell membrane. Together, these data indicate that constitutive interactions among hyaluronan, CD44, and emmprin contribute to regulation of MCT localization and function in the plasma membrane of breast carcinoma cells. PMID:19176383

  5. A quantitative approach to study the effect of local texture and heterogeneous plastic strain on the deformation micromechanism in RR1000 nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birosca, S.; Di Gioacchino, F.; Stekovic, S.; Hardy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In a weakly textured material with relatively pore-free and homogeneous microstructure, the local texture can influence primary crack propagation and secondary crack initiation, depending on specific microtexture cluster size. Moreover, the plastic strain assessment and strain quantity within individual grains are essential for understanding the material susceptibility to crack initiation and propagation at various loading conditions and temperature ranges. In the current study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is applied to measure the plastic strain present in RR1000 nickel-based superalloy microstructure following thermo-mechanical fatigue tests. The EBSD plastic strain measurements are evaluated to identify the distinctive deformation mode within individual grains. It was evident from the overall statistical analyses carried out for over 2000 grains that cube (〈0 0 1〉//loading direction) and near cube orientations (φ 1 , Φ, φ 2 : 0, 0–15, 0) behaved as “soft” grains with a high Schmid factor and contained low geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density as a result of low strain hardening at the early stage of deformation for such grains. The near cube orientation (typically φ 1 , Φ, φ 2 : 0, 9, 0) was the softest orientation among the cube family. While the brass grains (〈1 1 1〉//loading direction) acted as “hard” grains that have the lowest Schmid factor with the highest Taylor factor and GND density compared with other oriented grains. A high GND content was found in the vicinity of the grain boundaries in the soft grains and on slip plane traces within the hard grains. It is concluded that GND absolute value for each grain can vary, as it is interrelated with deformation degree, but the GND locations within the grains give indications of the strain hardening state and deformation stages in hard and soft grains. Furthermore, the areas with random local texture contained high strain incompatibilities between neighbouring

  6. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    's membrane by mouse embryo parietal endoderm cells (Hogan, B. L.M., A. Taylor, and A.R. Cooper, 1982, Dev. Biol., 90:210-214). Both the Mr 180,000 and 150,000 sgps are deposited in the detergent-insoluble matrix of cultured cells, but they do not apparently undergo any disulphide-dependent intermolecular...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  7. Membrane localization is critical for activation of the PICK1 BAR domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth L; Eriksen, Jacob; Milan-Lobo, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) contains a C-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain mediating recognition of curved membranes; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of this domain are poorly understood....

  8. Localization of surfactant protein-D in the rheumatoid synovial membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Junker, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    and subsequently prepared for immunohistochemistry. In this first, small-scale comparative study on the occurrence of SP-D in the synovial membrane of RA and OA, we report that SP-D was only present in the microvascular endothelium in subsynovial and pannus tissue and that the immunostaining was much stronger than...

  9. Exploring the local conformational space of a membrane protein by site-directed spin labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopar, D.; Strancar, J.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular modeling based on a hybrid evolutionary optimization and an information condensation algorithm, called GHOST, of spin label ESR spectra was applied to study the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. The new method is capable of providing detailed molecular information about the

  10. Radiation killing of E. coli K1060: role of membrane fluidity, hypothermia and local anaesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatvin, M.B.; Schmitz, B.J.; Dennis, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The enhancement of killing by γ irradiation, which is seen when E. coliK1060 are cooled below the transition temperature of their membrane lipids, is blocked by procaine-HCl. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased killing associated with irradiation at 0 0 C is the result of membrane microviscosity increases, since procaine is known to fluidize membranes. A cooling enhancement ratio (c.e.r.) is defined as the ratio of radiation D 0 at 22 0 C to its value at 0 0 C. The c.e.r. for oxygen-bubbled cells is 1.5 and for nitrogen-bubbled cells is 2.1. In the presence of 25mM procaine the respective c.e.r. values are 1.08 and 1.29. The oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) at 22 0 C is 3.43 and at 0 0 C is 2.45. The addition of procaine does not change the o.e.r. Thus, the temperature effect on o.e.r. does not appear to be related to membrane fluidity. (author)

  11. Localization of membrane-associated calcium in unpollinated and pollinated pistil of Petunia hybrida Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the pistil of Petunia hybrida, the transmitting tract and the ovules are the sites which give Ca2+-CTC fluorescence. In unpollinated pistil the level of membrane-associated Ca2+ decreases from the stigma to the base of the style. The renewed strong rise of Ca2+-CTC fluorescence appears on the placenta surface and in the ovule integuments. Following pollination, when the pollen tubes have grown through the pistil, the pattern of membrane-associated Ca2+ on the path stigma - ovary is reversed. The highest fluorescence is found in the base of the style. In pollinated ovules the Ca2+-CTC fluorescence increases markedly. In the transmitting cells membrane-associated Ca2+ occurs mainly in the polar regions of the cell. During cell degeneration following pollination the cytoplasmic clusters show Ca2+-CTC fluorescence. The used P. hybrida cultivar is self-fertile. The selection of pollen tubes occurs mainly in the upper part of the style. The rejected pollen tubes show a steady high level of membrane-associated calcium.

  12. Glucuronylated core 1 glycans are required for precise localization of neuromuscular junctions and normal formation of basement membranes on Drosophila muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Shu; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nishihara, Shoko

    2018-04-15

    T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) is an evolutionary-conserved mucin-type core 1 glycan structure in animals synthesized by core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GalT1). Previous studies showed that T antigen produced by Drosophila C1GalT1 (dC1GalT1) was expressed in various tissues and dC1GalT1 loss in larvae led to various defects, including decreased number of circulating hemocytes, hyper-differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in lymph glands, malformation of the central nervous system, mislocalization of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) boutons, and ultrastructural abnormalities in NMJs and muscle cells. Although glucuronylated T antigen (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) has been identified in Drosophila, the physiological function of this structure has not yet been clarified. In this study, for the first time, we unraveled biological roles of glucuronylated T antigen. Our data show that in Drosophila, glucuronylation of T antigen is predominantly carried out by Drosophila β1,3-glucuronyltransferase-P (dGlcAT-P). We created dGlcAT-P null mutants and found that mutant larvae showed lower expression of glucuronylated T antigen on the muscles and at NMJs. Furthermore, mislocalization of NMJ boutons and a partial loss of the basement membrane components collagen IV (Col IV) and nidogen (Ndg) at the muscle 6/7 boundary were observed. Those two phenotypes were correlated and identical to previously described phenotypes in dC1GalT1 mutant larvae. In addition, dGlcAT-P null mutants exhibited fewer NMJ branches on muscles 6/7. Moreover, ultrastructural analysis revealed that basement membranes that lacked Col IV and Ndg were significantly deformed. We also found that the loss of dGlcAT-P expression caused ultrastructural defects in NMJ boutons. Finally, we showed a genetic interaction between dGlcAT-P and dC1GalT1. Therefore, these results demonstrate that glucuronylated core 1 glycans synthesized by dGlcAT-P are key modulators of NMJ bouton localization

  13. The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, Raimund; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Stevanovic, Mara; Bredemeier, Rolf; Schleiff, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall including the outer membrane. The outer membrane is composed of two distinct monolayers where the outer layer contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with the non-phospholipid Lipid A as the core. The synthesis of Lipid A is initiated in the cytosol and thereby the molecule has to be transported across the inner and outer membranes. The β-barrel lipopolysaccharide-assembly protein D (LptD) was discovered to be involved in the transfer of Lipid A into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. At present the molecular procedure of lipid transfer across the outer membrane remains unknown. Here we approached the functionality of the transfer system by an electrophysiological analysis of the outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli named ecLptD. In vitro the protein shows cation selectivity and has an estimated pore diameter of about 1.8 nm. Addition of Lipid A induces a transition of the open state to a sub-conductance state with two independent off-rates, which might suggest that LptD is able to bind and transport the molecule in vitro. To generalize our findings with respect to the Lipid A transport system of other Gram-negative bacteria we have explored the existence of the proteins involved in this pathway by bioinformatic means. We were able to identify the membrane-inserted components of the Lipid A transport system in all Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the periplasmic components appear to be species-specific. The LptD proteins of different bacteria are characterized by their periplasmic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal barrel region. The latter shows distinct sequence properties, particularly in LptD proteins of cyanobacteria, and this specific domain can be found in plant proteins as well. By electrophysiological experiments on LptD from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 we are able to confirm the functional relation of anaLptD to Lipid A transport.

  14. Bacteria localization and chorion thinning among preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Fortner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8, preterm no labor (PTNL = 8, term labor (TL = 10, and term no labor (TNL = 8, subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC. RESULTS: In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001. Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9 vs. PTL(246.0 vs. PTNL(200.8 vs. TL(217.9 vs. TNL(246.5]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31 vs. PTL(9 vs. PTNL(7 vs. TL(7 vs. TNL(6]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  15. Influence of localized deformation on A-286 austenitic stainless steel stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water; Influence de la localisation de la deformation sur la corrosion sous contrainte de l'acier inoxydable austenitique A-286 en milieu primaire des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, M

    2007-01-15

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels is known to be a critical issue for structural components of nuclear reactor cores. The deformation of irradiated austenitic stainless steels is extremely heterogeneous and localized in deformation bands that may play a significant role in IASCC. In this study, an original approach is proposed to determine the influence of localized deformation on austenitic stainless steels SCC in simulated PWR primary water. The approach consists in (i) performing low cycle fatigue tests on austenitic stainless steel A-286 strengthened by {gamma}' precipitates Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al) in order to shear and dissolve the precipitates in intense slip bands, leading to a localization of the deformation within and in (ii) assessing the influence of these {gamma}'-free localized deformation bands on A-286 SCC by means of comparative CERT tests performed on specimens with similar yield strength, containing or not {gamma}'-free localized deformation bands. Results show that strain localization significantly promotes A-286 SCC in simulated PWR primary water at 320 and 360 C. Moreover, A-286 is a precipitation-hardening austenitic stainless steel used for applications in light water reactors. The second objective of this work is to gain insights into the influence of heat treatment and metallurgical structure on A-286 SCC susceptibility in PWR primary water. The results obtained demonstrate a strong correlation between yield strength and SCC susceptibility of A-286 in PWR primary water at 320 and 360 C. (author)

  16. Mapping the Local Organization of Cell Membranes Using Excitation-Polarization-Resolved Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Alla; Wang, Xiao; Ranchon, Hubert; Savatier, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Ferrand, Patrick; Brasselet, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Fluorescence anisotropy and linear dichroism imaging have been widely used for imaging biomolecular orientational distributions in protein aggregates, fibrillar structures of cells, and cell membranes. However, these techniques do not give access to complete orientational order information in a whole image, because their use is limited to parts of the sample where the average orientation of molecules is known a priori. Fluorescence anisotropy is also highly sensitive t...

  17. Possible configuration of two-knot auto-localized exciton in strainless and deformed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Tulepbergenov, S.K.; Shunkeev, K.Sh.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper molecular component of two-knot auto-localized exciton (TALE) occupying centrosymmetric state in alkali halide crystal cubic lattice with local D 2h symmetry is considered. In is suggested that the symmetry lowering of forming small radius auto-localized exciton (ALE) is realizing in order configuration transformation by the scenario: multi-knot continual ALE (with O h symmetry)→six-halide ALE (with O h symmetry)→TALE (with O h symmetry) or by the scenario O h →D 2h . Then for TALE with local D 2h symmetry normal molecular ion shifts are considered as well

  18. Membrane topology of Golgi-localized probable S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianping; Hayashi, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Ken

    2015-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases) transfer methyl groups to substrates. In this study, a novel putative tobacco SAM-MTase termed Golgi-localized methyl transferase 1 (GLMT1) has been characterized. GLMT1 is comprised of 611 amino acids with short N-terminal region, putative transmembrane region, and C-terminal SAM-MTase domain. Expression of monomeric red fluorescence protein (mRFP)-tagged protein in tobacco BY-2 cell indicated that GLMT1 is a Golgi-localized protein. Analysis of the membrane topology by protease digestion suggested that both C-terminal catalytic region and N-terminal region seem to be located to the cytosolic side of the Golgi apparatus. Therefore, GLMT1 might have a different function than the previously studied SAM-MTases in plants.

  19. Endocytosis regulates membrane localization and function of the fusogen EFF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurova, Ksenia; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2017-07-03

    Cell fusion is essential for sexual reproduction and formation of muscles, bones, and placenta. Two families of cell fusion proteins (Syncytins and FFs) have been identified in eukaryotes. Syncytins have been shown to form the giant syncytial trophoblasts in the placenta. The FFs are essential to fuse cells in the skin, reproductive, excretory, digestive and nervous systems in nematodes. EFF-1 (Epithelial Fusion Failure 1), a member of the FF family, is a type I membrane glycoprotein that is essential for most cell fusions in C. elegans. The crystal structure of EFF-1 ectodomain reveals striking structural similarity to class II fusion glycoproteins from enveloped viruses (e.g. dengue and rubella) that mediate virus to cell fusion. We found EFF-1 to be present on the plasma membrane and in RAB-5-positive early endosomes, with EFF-1 recycling between these 2 cell compartments. Only when EFF-1 proteins transiently arrive to the surfaces of 2 adjacent cells do they dynamically interact in trans and mediate membrane fusion. EFF-1 is continuously internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis via the activity of 2 small GTPases: RAB-5 and Dynamin. Here we propose a model that explains how EFF-1 endocytosis together with interactions in trans can control cell-cell fusion. Kontani et al. showed that vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) mutations result in EFF-1-dependent hyperfusion. 1 We propose that vATPase is required for normal degradation of EFF-1. Failure to degrade EFF-1 results in delayed hyperfusion and mislocalization to organelles that appear to be recycling endosomes. EFF-1 is also required to fuse neurons as part of the repair mechanism following injury and to prune dendrites. We speculate that EFF-1 may regulate neuronal tree like structures via endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis of cell-cell fusion proteins functions to prevent merging of cells and to sculpt organs and neurons.

  20. Tonoplast- and plasma membrane-localized aquaporin-family transporters in blue hydrangea sepals of aluminum hyperaccumulating plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Negishi

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is tolerant of acidic soils in which toxicity generally arises from the presence of the soluble aluminum (Al ion. When hydrangea is cultivated in acidic soil, its resulting blue sepal color is caused by the Al complex formation of anthocyanin. The concentration of vacuolar Al in blue sepal cells can reach levels in excess of approximately 15 mM, suggesting the existence of an Al-transport and/or storage system. However, until now, no Al transporter has been identified in Al hyperaccumulating plants, animals or microorganisms. To identify the transporter being responsible for Al hyperaccumulation, we prepared a cDNA library from blue sepals according to the sepal maturation stage, and then selected candidate genes using a microarray analysis and an in silico study. Here, we identified the vacuolar and plasma membrane-localized Al transporters genes vacuolar Al transporter (VALT and plasma membrane Al transporter 1 (PALT1, respectively, which are both members of the aquaporin family. The localization of each protein was confirmed by the transient co-expression of the genes. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that VALT and PALT1 are highly expressed in sepal tissue. The overexpression of VALT and PALT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred Al-tolerance and Al-sensitivity, respectively.

  1. Experimentally and numerically investigating cell performance and localized characteristics for a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ay; Ferng, Yuh Ming; Shih, Jah Ching

    2009-01-01

    This paper is to experimentally and numerically investigate the cell performance and the localized characteristics associated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Three experiments are carried out in order to study the performance of the PEMFC with different operating conditions and to validate the numerical simulation model. The model proposed herein is a three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) non-isothermal model that essentially consists of thermal-hydraulic equations and electrochemical model. The performance curves of the PEMFC predicted by the present model agree with the experimental measured data. In addition, both the experiments and the predictions precisely demonstrate the enhanced effects of inlet gas temperature and system pressure on the PEMFC performance. Based on the simulation results, the localized characteristics within a PEMFC can be reasonably captured. These parameters include the fuel gas distribution, liquid water saturation distribution, membrane conductivity distribution, temperature variation, and current density distribution etc. As the PEMFC is operated at the higher current density, the fuel gas would be insufficiently supplied to the catalyst layer, consequently causing the decline in the generation of power density. This phenomenon is so called mass transfer limitation, which can be precisely simulated by the present CFD model.

  2. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  3. Membrane Localization is Critical for Activation of the PICK1 BAR Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Kenneth L.; Eriksen, Jacob; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Han, Daniel S.; Niv, Masha Y.; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Henriksen, Ulla; Bhatia, Vikram K.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Sitte, Harald H.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) contains a C-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain mediating recognition of curved membranes; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of this domain are poorly understood. In agreement with negative regulation of the BAR domain by the N-terminal PDZ domain, PICK1 distributed evenly in the cytoplasm, whereas truncation of the PDZ domain caused BAR domain-dependent redis...

  4. The importance of claudin-7 palmitoylation on membrane subdomain localization and metastasis-promoting activities

    OpenAIRE

    Heiler, Sarah; Mu, Wei; Z?ller, Margot; Thuma, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Claudin-7 (cld7), a tight junction (TJ) component, is also found basolaterally and in the cytoplasm. Basolaterally located cld7 is enriched in glycolipid-enriched membrane domains (GEM), where it associates with EpCAM (EpC). The conditions driving cld7 out of TJ into GEM, which is associated with a striking change in function, were not defined. Thus, we asked whether cld7 serines or palmitoylation affect cld7 location and protein, particularly EpCAM, associations. Results HEK cells...

  5. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E.; Huang, J.; Menon, N.; Russell, T. P.; Toga, K. B.; Vella, D.; Davidovitch, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical

  6. A plasma membrane localization signal in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain prevents localization at sites of vesicular stomatitis virus budding and incorporation into VSV virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Rodgers, W; Rose, J K

    1998-11-25

    Previous studies showed that the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein was not incorporated into vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions unless its cytoplasmic tail was replaced with that of the VSV glycoprotein (G). To determine whether the G tail provided a positive incorporation signal for Env, or if sequences in the Env tail prevented incorporation, we generated mutants of Env with its 150-amino-acid tail shortened to 29, 10, or 3 amino acids (Envtr mutants). Cells infected with VSV recombinants expressing these proteins or an Env-G tail hybrid showed similar amounts of Env protein at the surface. The Env-G tail hybrid or the Envtr3 mutant were incorporated at the highest levels into budding VSV virions. In contrast, the Envtr29 or Envtr10 mutants were incorporated poorly. These results defined a signal preventing incorporation within the 10 membrane-proximal amino acids of the Env tail. Confocal microscopy revealed that this signal functioned by causing localization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env to plasma membrane domains distinct from the VSV budding sites, where VSV proteins were concentrated. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. N-linked glycans do not affect plasma membrane localization of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) but selectively alter its prostaglandin E2 transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Fahad; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C

    2016-01-22

    Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of subfamily C of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transport proteins. MRP4 mediates the ATP-dependent efflux of many endogenous and exogenous solutes across the plasma membrane, and in polarized cells, it localizes to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane depending on the tissue type. MRP4 is a 170 kDa glycoprotein and here we show that MRP4 is simultaneously N-glycosylated at Asn746 and Asn754. Furthermore, confocal immunofluorescence studies showed that N-glycans do not affect MRP4's apical membrane localization in polarized LLC-PK1 cells or basolateral membrane localization in polarized MDCKI cells. However, vesicular transport assays showed that N-glycans differentially affect MRP4's ability to transport prostaglandin E2, but not estradiol glucuronide. Together these data indicate that N-glycosylation at Asn746 and Asn754 is not essential for plasma membrane localization of MRP4 but cause substrate-selective effects on its transport activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Roles of the Protruding Loop of Factor B Essential for the Localization of Lipoproteins (LolB) in the Anchoring of Bacterial Triacylated Proteins to the Outer Membrane*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Tsukahara, Jun; Takeda, Kazuki; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Miki, Kunio; Tokuda, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    The Lol system comprising five Lol proteins, LolA through LolE, sorts Escherichia coli lipoproteins to outer membranes. The LolCDE complex, an ATP binding cassette transporter in inner membranes, releases outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in an ATP-dependent manner, causing formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex in the periplasm. LolA transports lipoproteins through the periplasm to LolB on outer membranes. LolB is itself a lipoprotein anchored to outer membranes, although the membrane anchor is functionally dispensable. LolB then localizes lipoproteins to outer membranes through largely unknown mechanisms. The crystal structure of LolB is similar to that of LolA, and it possesses a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates acyl chains of lipoproteins. To elucidate the molecular function of LolB, a periplasmic version of LolB, mLolB, was mutagenized at various conserved residues. Despite the lack of acyl chains, most defective mutants were insoluble. However, a derivative with glutamate in place of leucine 68 was soluble and unable to localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. This leucine is present in a loop protruding from mLolB into an aqueous environment, and no analogous loop is present in LolA. Thus, leucine 68 was replaced with other residues. Replacement by acidic, but not hydrophobic, residues generated for the first time mLolB derivatives that can accept but cannot localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. Moreover, deletion of the leucine with neighboring residues impaired the lipoprotein receptor activity. Based on these observations, the roles of the protruding loop of LolB in the last step of lipoprotein sorting are discussed. PMID:24569999

  9. Roles of the protruding loop of factor B essential for the localization of lipoproteins (LolB) in the anchoring of bacterial triacylated proteins to the outer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Tsukahara, Jun; Takeda, Kazuki; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Miki, Kunio; Tokuda, Hajime

    2014-04-11

    The Lol system comprising five Lol proteins, LolA through LolE, sorts Escherichia coli lipoproteins to outer membranes. The LolCDE complex, an ATP binding cassette transporter in inner membranes, releases outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in an ATP-dependent manner, causing formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex in the periplasm. LolA transports lipoproteins through the periplasm to LolB on outer membranes. LolB is itself a lipoprotein anchored to outer membranes, although the membrane anchor is functionally dispensable. LolB then localizes lipoproteins to outer membranes through largely unknown mechanisms. The crystal structure of LolB is similar to that of LolA, and it possesses a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates acyl chains of lipoproteins. To elucidate the molecular function of LolB, a periplasmic version of LolB, mLolB, was mutagenized at various conserved residues. Despite the lack of acyl chains, most defective mutants were insoluble. However, a derivative with glutamate in place of leucine 68 was soluble and unable to localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. This leucine is present in a loop protruding from mLolB into an aqueous environment, and no analogous loop is present in LolA. Thus, leucine 68 was replaced with other residues. Replacement by acidic, but not hydrophobic, residues generated for the first time mLolB derivatives that can accept but cannot localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. Moreover, deletion of the leucine with neighboring residues impaired the lipoprotein receptor activity. Based on these observations, the roles of the protruding loop of LolB in the last step of lipoprotein sorting are discussed.

  10. Effect of three-dimensional deformations on local heat transfer to a nonuniformly heated falling film of liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnov, E.A.; Kabov, O.A.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental study on the heat transfer by the water film heated vertical flow is studied within the Reynolds number values from 1 to 45. The chart of the liquid film flow modes is plotted and the heat exchange areas are separated. The data on the dependence of the temperature of the heater walls and local heat flux at the heater symmetry axis on the longitudinal coordinate are obtained. The local heat exchange coefficients are measured. The comparison of the experimental data with the numerical calculations for the smooth film is carried out. The effect of the jet flow formation on the heat transfer to the liquid film is analyzed [ru

  11. Microstructural characteristics of adiabatic shear localization in a metastable beta titanium alloy deformed at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Hongyi, E-mail: h.zhan@uq.edu.au [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Zeng, Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Gui [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Kent, Damon [School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland 4575 (Australia); Dargusch, Matthew [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    The microstructural evolution and grain refinement within adiabatic shear bands in the Ti6554 alloy deformed at high strain rates and elevated temperatures have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve, indicating that the initiation of adiabatic shear bands does not lead to the loss of load capacity for the Ti6554 alloy. The outer region of the shear bands mainly consists of cell structures bounded by dislocation clusters. Equiaxed subgrains in the core area of the shear band can be evolved from the subdivision of cell structures or reconstruction and transverse segmentation of dislocation clusters. It is proposed that dislocation activity dominates the grain refinement process. The rotational recrystallization mechanism may operate as the kinetic requirements for it are fulfilled. The coexistence of different substructures across the shear bands implies that the microstructural evolution inside the shear bands is not homogeneous and different grain refinement mechanisms may operate simultaneously to refine the structure. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure within the adiabatic shear band was characterized by TEM. • No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve. • Dislocation activity dominated the grain refinement process. • The kinetic requirements for rotational recrystallization mechanism were fulfilled. • Different grain refinement mechanisms operated simultaneously to refine the structure.

  12. Experimental studies on local damage of reinforced concrete structures by the impact deformable missiles-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esashi, Y.; Ohnuma, H.; Ito, C.; Shirai, K.

    1989-01-01

    In order to establish a rational method of determining the local damage to reinforced concrete structures due to the impact of aircraft engine missiles, three types of impact tests with different scales have been planned and executed. In this paper, results and discussion of the intermediate-scale tests are presented

  13. LRRK2 affects vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter extracellular level and membrane receptor localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Migheli

    Full Text Available The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene was found to play a role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 encodes a large multi-domain protein that is expressed in different tissues. To date, the physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2 are not clearly defined. In this study we have explored the role of LRRK2 in controlling vesicle trafficking in different cellular or animal models and using various readouts. In neuronal cells, the presence of LRRK2(G2019S pathological mutant determines increased extracellular dopamine levels either under basal conditions or upon nicotine stimulation. Moreover, mutant LRRK2 affects the levels of dopamine receptor D1 on the membrane surface in neuronal cells or animal models. Ultrastructural analysis of PC12-derived cells expressing mutant LRRK2(G2019S shows an altered intracellular vesicle distribution. Taken together, our results point to the key role of LRRK2 to control vesicle trafficking in neuronal cells.

  14. Characterization of microstructure and local deformation in 316NG weld heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Shoji, Tetsuo; Meng Fanjiang; Xue He; Qiu Yubing; Takeda, Yoichi; Negishi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Away from the fusion line, kernel average misorientation and hardness decrease. → Away from the fusion line, the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. → Crack growth in high temperature water correlates to kernel average misorientation and hardness. → SCC along random boundaries as well as extensive intergranular branching near the fusion line. - Abstract: Microstructure and local deformation in 316NG weld heat-affected zones were measured by electron-back scattering diffraction and hardness measurements. With increasing the distance from the fusion line, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Stress corrosion cracking growth rates in high temperature water were measured at different locations in the heat-affected zones that correspond to different levels of strain-hardening represented by kernel average misorientation and hardness distribution. Intergranular cracking along random boundaries as well as extensive intergranular crack branching is observed in the heat-affected zone near the weld fusion line.

  15. Computational and experimental analysis of causes for local deformation of research reactor U-Mo fuel pin claddings in case of high burn-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.V.; Khmelevsky, M.Ya.; Lukichev, V.A.; Golosov, O.A.

    2005-01-01

    Post-reactor investigations of (U-Mo) fuel pins irradiated in the IVV-2M reactor have allowed to determine: the change in a fuel pin volume; the dimensions and the kind of the local deformation of fuel pin claddings; the amount of gases released under the cladding from the fuel composition, the thickness and appearance of the interaction layer of between the (U-Mo) particles and aluminium as a matrix material. The computational analysis of the stressed-strained state of fuel pins has shown that the major contribution to the increase of the fuel pin volume is made by the fuel swelling caused by the solid products of fission being formed in the process of operation. The emergence of the (U-Mo) fuel-aluminium matrix interaction layers around the (U-Mo) particles results in formation and evolution of lamination cavities inside the fuel composition under the joint action of the pressure of process gases and gaseous fission products. In case of high burn-up a local bulge of a fuel pin cladding is being formed in the fuel lamination area caused by the pressure of gases in the presence of creep in the fuel pin cladding material. The computational results relating to the local strain in a research reactor (U-Mo) fuel pin are in a good accordance with the results of the post-reactor investigations. (author)

  16. Real-time detection of antibiotic activity by measuring nanometer-scale bacterial deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriya, Rafael; Syal, Karan; Jing, Wenwen; Mo, Manni; Yu, Hui; Haydel, Shelley E.; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-12-01

    Diagnosing antibiotic-resistant bacteria currently requires sensitive detection of phenotypic changes associated with antibiotic action on bacteria. Here, we present an optical imaging-based approach to quantify bacterial membrane deformation as a phenotypic feature in real-time with a nanometer scale (˜9 nm) detection limit. Using this approach, we found two types of antibiotic-induced membrane deformations in different bacterial strains: polymyxin B induced relatively uniform spatial deformation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells leading to change in cellular volume and ampicillin-induced localized spatial deformation leading to the formation of bulges or protrusions on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 cells. We anticipate that the approach will contribute to understanding of antibiotic phenotypic effects on bacteria with a potential for applications in rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  17. Spacetime from locality of interactions in deformations of special relativity: The example of κ -Poincaré Hopf algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    A new proposal for the notion of spacetime in a relativistic generalization of special relativity based on a modification of the composition law of momenta is presented. Locality of interactions is the principle which defines the spacetime structure for a system of particles. The formulation based on κ -Poincaré Hopf algebra is shown to be contained in this framework as a particular example.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  19. A 3D global-to-local deformable mesh model based registration and anatomy-constrained segmentation method for image guided prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinghao; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Goyal, Sharad; Haffty, Bruce; Chen, Ting; Levinson, Lydia; Metaxas, Dimitris; Yue, Ning J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the external beam radiation treatment of prostate cancers, successful implementation of adaptive radiotherapy and conformal radiation dose delivery is highly dependent on precise and expeditious segmentation and registration of the prostate volume between the simulation and the treatment images. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel, fast, and accurate segmentation and registration method to increase the computational efficiency to meet the restricted clinical treatment time requirement in image guided radiotherapy. Methods: The method developed in this study used soft tissues to capture the transformation between the 3D planning CT (pCT) images and 3D cone-beam CT (CBCT) treatment images. The method incorporated a global-to-local deformable mesh model based registration framework as well as an automatic anatomy-constrained robust active shape model (ACRASM) based segmentation algorithm in the 3D CBCT images. The global registration was based on the mutual information method, and the local registration was to minimize the Euclidian distance of the corresponding nodal points from the global transformation of deformable mesh models, which implicitly used the information of the segmented target volume. The method was applied on six data sets of prostate cancer patients. Target volumes delineated by the same radiation oncologist on the pCT and CBCT were chosen as the benchmarks and were compared to the segmented and registered results. The distance-based and the volume-based estimators were used to quantitatively evaluate the results of segmentation and registration. Results: The ACRASM segmentation algorithm was compared to the original active shape model (ASM) algorithm by evaluating the values of the distance-based estimators. With respect to the corresponding benchmarks, the mean distance ranged from -0.85 to 0.84 mm for ACRASM and from -1.44 to 1.17 mm for ASM. The mean absolute distance ranged from 1.77 to 3.07 mm for ACRASM and from 2.45 to

  20. Localization of HCMV UL33 and US27 in endocytic compartments and viral membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Kledal, Thomas N

    2002-01-01

    and undergoes constitutive endocytosis and recycling. Here we studied the cellular distributions and trafficking of two other human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor-like proteins, UL33 and US27, in transfected and human cytomegalovirus-infected cells. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that UL33 and US27......The human cytomegalovirus genome encodes four putative seven transmembrane domain chemokine receptor-like proteins. Although important in viral pathogenesis, little is known about the properties or functions of these proteins. We previously reported that US28 is located in endocytic vesicles......27 undergoes endocytosis. By immunogold labeling of cryosections and electron microscopy, UL33 was seen to localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs or multivesicular endosomes). Electron microscopy analysis of human cytomegalovirus-infected cells showed that most virus particles wrapped individually...

  1. Arabian Plate Deformation: The role of inherited structures in the localization of strain in the Red Sea extensional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaajani, T.; Furlong, K.; Malservisi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea rift structural architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading (with creation of new oceanic crust) in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21 ° latitude. The region of diffuse extension falls within a triangle that is bounded to the east by the Sarhan graben, (a Cenozoic failed rift), to the west by the northern Red Sea Rift, and to the south by the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. Geological observations appear to show that tectonic stresses acting on inherited structures within the NW Arabian margin are associated with the region of diffuse extension. In contrast, in the southern Red Sea, a single strong block within the SW Arabian margin led to localize the extension there. Using current velocities from more than 30 GNSS stations distributed within the Arabian plate, we are able to map its rigidity and the distribution of strain along the plate margin. The data show that the transition between the two styles of extension within the Red Sea (crustal accretion vs crustal extension) corresponds with a transition between rigid behavior and diffuse extension within the Arabian Plate. This suggests that the preexisting structures within the Arabian plate play a significant role in the style of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  2. Influence of Structure and Microstructure on Deformation Localization and Crack Growth in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Partha P.; Fortman, Margaret; Paranjape, Harshad M.; Anderson, Peter M.; Stebner, Aaron P.; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Porous NiTi shape memory alloys have applications in the biomedical and aerospace fields. Recent developments in metal additive manufacturing have made fabrication of near-net-shape porous products with complicated geometries feasible. There have also been developments in tailoring site-specific microstructures in metals using additive manufacturing. Inspired by these developments, we explore two related mechanistic phenomena in a simplified representation of porous shape memory alloys. First, we computationally elucidate the connection between pore geometry, stress concentration around pores, grain orientation, and strain-band formation during tensile loading of NiTi. Using this, we present a method to engineer local crystal orientations to mitigate the stress concentrations around the pores. Second, we experimentally document the growth of cracks around pores in a cyclically loaded superelastic NiTi specimen. In the areas of stress concentration around holes, cracks are seen to grow in large grains with [1 1 0] oriented along the tensile axis. This combined work shows the potential of local microstructural engineering in reducing stress concentration and increasing resistance to propagation of cracks in porous SMAs, potentially increasing the fatigue life of porous SMA components.

  3. A membrane-anchored E-type endo-1,4-beta-glucanase is localized on Golgi and plasma membranes of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummell, D A; Catala, C; Lashbrook, C C; Bennett, A B

    1997-04-29

    Endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanases (EGases, EC 3.2.1.4) are enzymes produced in bacteria, fungi, and plants that hydrolyze polysaccharides possessing a 1,4-beta-D-glucan backbone. All previously identified plant EGases are E-type endoglucanases that possess signal sequences for endoplasmic reticulum entry and are secreted to the cell wall. Here we report the characterization of a novel E-type plant EGase (tomato Cel3) with a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and structure typical of type II integral membrane proteins. The predicted protein is composed of 617 amino acids and possesses seven potential sites for N-glycosylation. Cel3 mRNA accumulates in young vegetative tissues with highest abundance during periods of rapid cell expansion, but is not hormonally regulated. Antibodies raised to a recombinant Cel3 protein specifically recognized three proteins, with apparent molecular masses of 93, 88, and 53 kDa, in tomato root microsomal membranes separated by sucrose density centrifugation. The 53-kDa protein comigrated in the gradient with plasma membrane markers, the 88-kDa protein with Golgi membrane markers, and the 93-kDa protein with markers for both Golgi and plasma membranes. EGase enzyme activity was also found in regions of the density gradient corresponding to both Golgi and plasma membranes, suggesting that Cel3 EGase resides in both membrane systems, the sites of cell wall polymer biosynthesis. The in vivo function of Cel3 is not known, but the only other known membrane-anchored EGase is present in Agrobacterium tumefaciens where it is required for cellulose biosynthesis.

  4. Identification of the sodium-calcium exchanger as the major ricin-binding glycoprotein of bovine rod outer segments and its localization to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.M.; Molday, R.S.; Friedel, U.; Cook, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    After neuraminidase treatment the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger of bovine rod outer segments was found to specifically bind Ricinus communis agglutinin. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of ricin-binding proteins purified from rod outer segment membranes by lectin affinity chromatography revealed the existence of two major polypeptides of M r 215K and 103K, the former of which was found to specifically react with PMe 1B3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the 230-kDa non-neuraminidase-treated Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger. Reconstitution of the ricin affinity-purified exchanger into calcium-containing liposomes revealed that neuraminidase treatment had no significant effect on the kinetics of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activation by sodium. The authors further investigated the density of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger in disk and plasma membrane preparations using Western blotting, radioimmunoassays, immunoelectron microscopy, and reconstitution procedures. The results indicate that the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger is localized in the rod photoreceptor plasma membrane and is absent or present in extremely low concentrations in disk membranes, as they have previously shown to be the case for the cGMP-gated cation channel. Previous reports describing the existence of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activity in rod outer segment disk membrane preparations may be due to the fusion of plasma membrane components and/or the presence of contaminating plasma membrane vesicles

  5. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 - Glycosylation and localization to low-density, detergent-resistant membranes in the parasitized erythrocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoessli, D.C.; Poincelet, M.; Gupta, Ramneek

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the major carbohydrate moieties of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, we report that Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) bears O-GlcNAc modifications predominantly in beta-anomeric configuration, in both the C- and N-terminal portions of the protein....... Subcellular fractionation of parasitized erythrocytes in the late trophozoite/schizont stage reveals that GPI-anchored C-terminal fragments of MSP-1 are recovered in Triton X-100 resistant, low-density membrane fractions. Our results suggest that O -GlcNAc-modified MSP-1 N-terminal fragments tend to localize...... within the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane while GPI-anchored MSP-1 C-terminal fragments associate with low-density, Triton X-100 resistant membrane domains (rafts), redistribute in the parasitized erythrocyte and are eventually shed as membrane vesicles that also contain the endogenous, GPI-linked CD...

  6. Interactions of the local anesthetic tetracaine with membranes containing phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol: a 2H NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.; Jarrell, H.C.; Smith, I.C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The interactions of local anesthetic tetracaine with multilamellar dispersions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol have been investigated by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance of specifically deuteriated tetracaines, DMPC and cholesterol. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, when the anesthetic is primarily charged, and at pH 9.5, when it is primarily uncharged. The partition coefficients of the anesthetic in the membrane have been measured at both pH values for phosphatidylcholine bilayers with and without cholesterol. The higher partition coefficients obtained at pH 9.5 reflect the hydrophobic interactions between the uncharged form of the anesthetic and the hydrocarbon region of the bilayer. The lower partition coefficients for the DMPC/cholesterol system at both pH values suggest that cholesterol, which increases the order of the lipid chains, decreases the solubility of tetracaine into the bilayer. For phosphatidylcholine bilayers, it has been proposed that the charged tetracaine at low pH is located mostly at the phospholipid headgroup level while the uncharged tetracaine intercalates more deeply into the bilayer. The present study suggests that the location of tetracaine in the cholesterol-containing system is different from that in pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers: the anesthetic sits higher in the membrane. An increase in temperature results in a deeper penetration of the anesthetic into the bilayer. Moreover, the incorporation of the anesthetic into DMPC bilayers with or without cholesterol results in a reduction of the lipid order parameters both in the plateau and in the tail regions of the acyl chains, this effect being greater with the charged form of the anesthetic

  7. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  8. Vitamin D receptor is present on the neuronal plasma membrane and is co-localized with amyloid precursor protein, ADAM10 or Nicastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Erdinç; Gezen-Ak, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    Our recent study indicated that vitamin D and its receptors are important parts of the amyloid processing pathway in neurons. Yet the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in amyloid pathogenesis is complex and all regulations over the production of amyloid beta cannot be explained solely with the transcriptional regulatory properties of VDR. Given that we hypothesized that VDR might exist on the neuronal plasma membrane in close proximity with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and secretase complexes. The present study primarily focused on the localization of VDR in neurons and its interaction with amyloid pathology-related proteins. The localization of VDR on neuronal membranes and its co-localization with target proteins were investigated with cell surface staining followed by immunofluorescence labelling. The FpClass was used for protein-protein interaction prediction. Our results demonstrated the localization of VDR on the neuronal plasma membrane and the co-localization of VDR and APP or ADAM10 or Nicastrin and limited co-localization of VDR and PS1. E-cadherin interaction with APP or the γ-secretase complex may involve NOTCH1, NUMB, or FHL2, according to FpClass. This suggested complex might also include VDR, which greatly contributes to Ca+2 hemostasis with its ligand vitamin D. Consequently, we suggested that VDR might be a member of this complex also with its own non-genomic action and that it can regulate the APP processing pathway in this way in neurons.

  9. Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian

    2018-06-20

    Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.

  10. Localized Glacier Deformation Associated with Filling and Draining of a Glacier-Dammed Lake and Implications for Outburst Flood Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, M. L.; Walder, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.; Trabant, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    During the summer of 2000, we measured displacements of 22 survey targets on the surface of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, in the vicinity of Hidden Creek Lake, an ice-dammed lake in a tributary valley that fills and drains annually. Targets were distributed over a domain about equal in width to the lake, from near the glacier/lake margin to a distance of about 1 km from the margin. Targets were surveyed over a 24-day period as the lake filled and then drained. Lake stage was independently monitored. Vertical movement of targets generally fell off with distance d from the lake. As the lake filled, targets with d typically about 0.5 m/d--with a few targets rising slightly faster than the lake. The rate of vertical movement fell off rapidly with distance from the lake: for d = ca. 600 m--roughly twice the local ice thickness--targets moved upward only about 10% as fast as lake stage. Vertical movement of targets with d > ca. 1 km seemed to be uncorrelated with lake stage. The general pattern is consistent with the idea that a wedge of water extended beneath the glacier to a distance of perhaps 300 to 400 m from the visible margin of the lake and exerts buoyant stresses on the ice that were transmitted into the main body of the glacier and caused flexure. This scenario bears some resemblance to tidal deflections of ice shelves or tidewater glaciers. For a given value of lake stage, target elevations were invariably higher as the lake drained than as the lake filled. Moreover, survey targets at a distance of about 400 m or more from the lake continued to rise for some time even after the lake began to drain. The lag time between the beginning of lake drainage and the beginning of target downdrop increased with distance from the lake, with the lag being about 14 hours at a distance of 400 m from the lake. (The lake drained completely in approximately 75 hours.) The likeliest explanations for the departure from reversibility and the existence of the time lag are either (i) a

  11. Reticulomics: Protein-Protein Interaction Studies with Two Plasmodesmata-Localized Reticulon Family Proteins Identify Binding Partners Enriched at Plasmodesmata, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Botchway, Stanley W; Slade, Susan E; Knox, Kirsten; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Oparka, Karl; Hawes, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a ubiquitous organelle that plays roles in secretory protein production, folding, quality control, and lipid biosynthesis. The cortical ER in plants is pleomorphic and structured as a tubular network capable of morphing into flat cisternae, mainly at three-way junctions, and back to tubules. Plant reticulon family proteins (RTNLB) tubulate the ER by dimerization and oligomerization, creating localized ER membrane tensions that result in membrane curvature. Some RTNLB ER-shaping proteins are present in the plasmodesmata (PD) proteome and may contribute to the formation of the desmotubule, the axial ER-derived structure that traverses primary PD. Here, we investigate the binding partners of two PD-resident reticulon proteins, RTNLB3 and RTNLB6, that are located in primary PD at cytokinesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Coimmunoprecipitation of green fluorescent protein-tagged RTNLB3 and RTNLB6 followed by mass spectrometry detected a high percentage of known PD-localized proteins as well as plasma membrane proteins with putative membrane-anchoring roles. Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy assays revealed a highly significant interaction of the detected PD proteins with the bait RTNLB proteins. Our data suggest that RTNLB proteins, in addition to a role in ER modeling, may play important roles in linking the cortical ER to the plasma membrane. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Septal membrane localization by C-terminal amphipathic α-helices of MinD in Bacillus subtilis mutant cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuki; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2017-10-18

    The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that Bacillus subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Bacillus subtilis MinD has two amphipathic α-helices rich in basic amino acid residues at its C-terminus; one of these, named MTS1 here, is the counterpart of the membrane targeting sequence (MTS) in Escherichia coli MinD while the other, named MTS-like sequence (MTSL), is the nearest helix to MTS1. These amphipathic helices were located independently at nascent septal membranes in cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA, whereas elimination of the helices from the wild type protein reduced its localization considerably. MinD variants with altered MTS1 and MTSL, in which basic amino acid residues were replaced with proline or acidic residues, were not located at nascent septal membranes, indicating that the binding to the nascent septal membranes requires basic residues and a helical structure. The septal localization of MTSL, but not of MTS1, was dependent on host cell MinD. These results suggest that MinD is targeted to nascent septal membranes via its C-terminal amphipathic α-helices in B. subtilis cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Moreover, the diffuse distribution of MinD lacking both MTSs suggests that only a small fraction of MinD depends on MinJ for its localization to nascent septal membranes.

  13. Rac1-mediated membrane raft localization of PI3K/p110β is required for its activation by GPCRs or PTEN loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Onur; Ni, Jing; Xie, Shaozhen; Zhao, Jean J; Roberts, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to understand how spatial compartmentalization in the plasma membrane might contribute to the functions of the ubiquitous class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms, p110α and p110β. We found that p110β localizes to membrane rafts in a Rac1-dependent manner. This localization potentiates Akt activation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Thus genetic targeting of a Rac1 binding-deficient allele of p110β to rafts alleviated the requirement for p110β-Rac1 association for GPCR signaling, cell growth and migration. In contrast, p110α, which does not play a physiological role in GPCR signaling, is found to reside in nonraft regions of the plasma membrane. Raft targeting of p110α allowed its EGFR-mediated activation by GPCRs. Notably, p110β dependent, PTEN null tumor cells critically rely upon raft-associated PI3K activity. Collectively, our findings provide a mechanistic account of how membrane raft localization regulates differential activation of distinct PI3K isoforms and offer insight into why PTEN-deficient cancers depend on p110β. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17635.001 PMID:27700986

  14. How synthetic membrane systems contribute to the understanding of lipid-driven endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Thomas; Römer, Winfried

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic membrane systems, such as giant unilamellar vesicles and solid supported lipid bilayers, have widened our understanding of biological processes occurring at or through membranes. Artificial systems are particularly suited to study the inherent properties of membranes with regard to their components and characteristics. This review critically reflects the emerging molecular mechanism of lipid-driven endocytosis and the impact of model membrane systems in elucidating the complex interplay of biomolecules within this process. Lipid receptor clustering induced by binding of several toxins, viruses and bacteria to the plasma membrane leads to local membrane bending and formation of tubular membrane invaginations. Here, lipid shape, and protein structure and valency are the essential parameters in membrane deformation. Combining observations of complex cellular processes and their reconstitution on minimal systems seems to be a promising future approach to resolve basic underlying mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.

    2003-09-26

    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  16. Endogenous RGS14 is a cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling protein that localizes to juxtanuclear membranes and chromatin-rich regions of the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. Using confocal imaging and 3D-structured illumination microscopy, we find that endogenous RGS14 localizes to subcellular compartments not previously recognized in studies of recombinant RGS14. RGS14 localization was observed most notably at juxtanuclear membranes encircling the nucleus, at nuclear pore complexes (NPC) on both sides of the nuclear envelope and within intranuclear membrane channels, and within both chromatin-poor and chromatin-rich regions of the nucleus in a cell cycle-dependent manner. In addition, a subset of nuclear RGS14 localized adjacent to active RNA polymerase II. Endogenous RGS14 was absent from the plasma membrane in resting cells; however, the protein could be trafficked to the plasma membrane from juxtanuclear membranes in endosomes derived from ER/Golgi, following constitutive activation of endogenous RGS14 G protein binding partners using AlF4¯. Finally, our findings show that endogenous RGS14 behaves as a cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling protein confirming what has been shown previously for recombinant RGS14. Taken together, the findings highlight possible cellular roles for RGS14 not previously recognized that are distinct from the regulation of conventional GPCR-G protein signaling, in particular undefined roles for RGS14 in the nucleus. PMID:28934222

  17. FRET imaging in living maize cells reveals that plasma membrane aquaporins interact to regulate their subcellular localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelazny, E.; Borst, J.W.; Muylaert, M.; Batoko, H.; Hemminga, M.A.; Chaumont, F.

    2007-01-01

    Zea mays plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (ZmPIPs) fall into two groups, ZmPIP1s and ZmPIP2s, that exhibit different water channel activities when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. ZmPIP1s are inactive, whereas ZmPIP2s induce a marked increase in the membrane osmotic water permeability coefficient,

  18. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  19. Angiotensin 2 directly increases rabbit renal brush-border membrane sodium transport: Presence of local signal transduction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morduchowicz, G.A.; Sheikh-Hamad, D.; Dwyer, B.E.; Stern, N.; Jo, O.D.; Yanagawa, N. (Sepulveda Veterans Administration, CA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    In the present study, the authors have examined the direct actions of angiotensin II (AII) in rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM) where binding sites for AII exist. Addition of AII (10(-11)-10(-7) M) was found to stimulate 22Na+ uptake by the isolated BBM vesicles directly. All did not affect the Na(+)-dependent BBM glucose uptake, and the effect of AII on BBM 22Na+ uptake was inhibited by amiloride, suggesting the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. BBM proton permeability as assessed by acridine orange quenching was not affected by AII, indicating the direct effect of AII on Na+/H+ antiport system. In search of the signal transduction mechanism, it was found that AII activated BBM phospholipase A2 (PLA) and that BBM contains a 42-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that underwent pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Addition of GTP potentiated, while GDP-beta S or PTX abolished, the effects of AII on BBM PLA and 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the involvement of G-protein in AII's actions. On the other hand, inhibition of PLA by mepacrine prevented AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake, and activation of PLA by mellitin or addition of arachidonic acid similarly enhanced BBM 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the role of PLA activation in mediating AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake. In summary, results of the present study show a direct stimulatory effect of AII on BBM Na+/H+ antiport system, and suggest the presence of a local signal transduction system involving G-protein mediated PLA activation.

  20. Angiotensin 2 directly increases rabbit renal brush-border membrane sodium transport: Presence of local signal transduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morduchowicz, G.A.; Sheikh-Hamad, D.; Dwyer, B.E.; Stern, N.; Jo, O.D.; Yanagawa, N.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, the authors have examined the direct actions of angiotensin II (AII) in rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM) where binding sites for AII exist. Addition of AII (10(-11)-10(-7) M) was found to stimulate 22Na+ uptake by the isolated BBM vesicles directly. All did not affect the Na(+)-dependent BBM glucose uptake, and the effect of AII on BBM 22Na+ uptake was inhibited by amiloride, suggesting the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. BBM proton permeability as assessed by acridine orange quenching was not affected by AII, indicating the direct effect of AII on Na+/H+ antiport system. In search of the signal transduction mechanism, it was found that AII activated BBM phospholipase A2 (PLA) and that BBM contains a 42-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that underwent pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Addition of GTP potentiated, while GDP-beta S or PTX abolished, the effects of AII on BBM PLA and 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the involvement of G-protein in AII's actions. On the other hand, inhibition of PLA by mepacrine prevented AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake, and activation of PLA by mellitin or addition of arachidonic acid similarly enhanced BBM 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the role of PLA activation in mediating AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake. In summary, results of the present study show a direct stimulatory effect of AII on BBM Na+/H+ antiport system, and suggest the presence of a local signal transduction system involving G-protein mediated PLA activation

  1. On deformations of linear differential systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gontsov, R.R.; Poberezhnyi, V.A.; Helminck, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns deformations of meromorphic linear differential systems. Problems relating to their existence and classification are reviewed, and the global and local behaviour of solutions to deformation equations in a neighbourhood of their singular set is analysed. Certain classical

  2. Effects of Three Kinds of Curcuminoids on Anti-Oxidative System and Membrane Deformation of Human Peripheral Blood Erythrocytes in High Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Curcuminoids are the main bioactive constituents of the rhizome of turmeric. Erythrocytes lesions in diabetes are probably related to hyperglycemia and protein glycation. It has been reported that curcumin prevent lipid peroxidation. However, reports on the effects of demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin on human erythrocytes at high glucose levels are scarce. Our aim is to investigate the effect of curcuminoids on oxidative stress and membrane of erythrocytes exposed to hyperglycemic condition. Methods: In this study, the different blood samples were treated with two doses of glucose (10 or 30 mM to mimic hyperglycemia in the presence or absence of three kinds of curcuminoids (5 or 10 μM in a medium at 37 °C for 24 h (Each experiment consists of 20 blood samples from 10 male and 10 female volunteers. The malondialdehyde was checked by HPLC, antioxidase (GSH and GSSG were measured by LC/MS, SOD was checked by WST-1 kit, morphology and phospholipid symmetry were detected by flow cytometry, confocal scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results: The results illustrated that all three curcuminoids reduce oxidative stress damage on the membrane and maintain a better profile for erythrocytes. Furthermore, three curcuminoids had benefit effects on antioxidase. Conclusion: The three kinds of curcuminoids supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation at different intensity and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia.

  3. ER-plasma membrane contact sites contribute to autophagosome biogenesis by regulation of local PI3P synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Giordano, Francesca; Dupont, Nicolas; Grasso, Daniel; Vaccaro, Maria I; Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne

    2017-07-14

    The double-membrane-bound autophagosome is formed by the closure of a structure called the phagophore, origin of which is still unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is clearly implicated in autophagosome biogenesis due to the presence of the omegasome subdomain positive for DFCP1, a phosphatidyl-inositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) binding protein. Contribution of other membrane sources, like the plasma membrane (PM), is still difficult to integrate in a global picture. Here we show that ER-plasma membrane contact sites are mobilized for autophagosome biogenesis, by direct implication of the tethering extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) proteins. Imaging data revealed that early autophagic markers are recruited to E-Syt-containing domains during autophagy and that inhibition of E-Syts expression leads to a reduction in autophagosome biogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that E-Syts are essential for autophagy-associated PI3P synthesis at the cortical ER membrane via the recruitment of VMP1, the stabilizing ER partner of the PI3KC3 complex. These results highlight the contribution of ER-plasma membrane tethers to autophagosome biogenesis regulation and support the importance of membrane contact sites in autophagy. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Investigation of local environments in Nafion-SiO(2) composite membranes used in vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, M; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, S; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L; Hu, Jianzhi

    2012-04-01

    Proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, polymer composite membranes, such as SiO(2) incorporated Nafion membranes, are recently reported as highly promising for the use in redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this type of Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the (19)F and (29)Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The (29)Si NMR shows that the silica particles interact via hydrogen bonds with the sulfonic groups of Nafion and the diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The N-terminal amphipathic helix of the topological specificity factor MinE is associated with shaping membrane curvature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Shih

    Full Text Available Pole-to-pole oscillations of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli are required for the proper placement of the division septum. Direct interaction of MinE with the cell membrane is critical for the dynamic behavior of the Min system. In vitro, this MinE-membrane interaction led to membrane deformation; however, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here we report that MinE-induced membrane deformation involves the formation of an amphipathic helix of MinE(2-9, which, together with the adjacent basic residues, function as membrane anchors. Biochemical evidence suggested that the membrane association induces formation of the helix, with the helical face, consisting of A2, L3, and F6, inserted into the membrane. Insertion of this helix into the cell membrane can influence local membrane curvature and lead to drastic changes in membrane topology. Accordingly, MinE showed characteristic features of protein-induced membrane tubulation and lipid clustering in in vitro reconstituted systems. In conclusion, MinE shares common protein signatures with a group of membrane trafficking proteins in eukaryotic cells. These MinE signatures appear to affect membrane curvature.

  6. The Arf-GDP-regulated recruitment of GBF1 to Golgi membranes requires domains HDS1 and HDS2 and a Golgi-localized protein receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Douglas; Chan, Calvin J; Yurkiw, Katherine; Bain, Alexandra; Babolmorad, Ghazal; Melançon, Paul

    2018-04-19

    We previously proposed a novel mechanism by which the enzyme Golgi-specific Brefeldin A resistance factor 1 (GBF1) is recruited to the membranes of the cis -Golgi, based on in vivo experiments. Here, we extended our in vivo analysis on the production of regulatory Arf-GDP and observed that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 do not play a role in GBF1 recruitment. We confirm that Arf-GDP localization is critical, as a TGN-localized Arf-GDP mutant protein fails to promote GBF1 recruitment. We also reported the establishment of an in vitro GBF1 recruitment assay that supports the regulation of GBF1 recruitment by Arf-GDP. This in vitro assay yielded further evidence for the requirement of a Golgi-localized protein because heat denaturation or protease treatment of Golgi membranes abrogated GBF1 recruitment. Finally, combined in vivo and in vitro measurements indicated that the recruitment to Golgi membranes via a putative receptor requires only the HDS1 and HDS2 domains in the C-terminal half of GBF1. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Dana; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; Bruijn, Wim; Dohmen, M.René

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs of Lymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas in Bithynia eggs it was localized...

  8. Fabrication Process Development for Light Deformable Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop robust, reproductibble fabrication processes to realize functional deformable membrane mirrors (DM) for a space mission in which...

  9. Modeling of interactions between nanoparticles and cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Young-Min

    containing the nanoparticles exhibit localized perturbation around the nanoparticle. The nanoparticles are not likely to affect membrane protein function by the weak perturbation of the internal stress in the membrane. Due to the short-ranged interactions between the nanoparticles, the nanoparticles would not form aggregates inside membranes. The effect of lipid peroxidation on cell membrane deformation is assessed. The peroxidized lipids introduce a perturbation to the internal structure of the membrane leading to higher amplitude of the membrane fluctuations. Higher concentration of the peroxidized lipids induces more significant perturbation. Cumulative effects of lipid peroxidation caused by nanoparticles are examined for the first time. The considered amphiphilic particle appears to reduce the perturbation of the membrane structure at its equilibrium position inside the peroxidized membrane. This suggests a possibility of antioxidant effect of the nanoparticle.

  10. Localization of cytochromes in the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) and their role in anaerobic biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ommen Kloeke, F; Bryant, R D; Laishley, E J

    1995-12-01

    A protocol was developed whereby the outer and cytoplasmic membranes of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) were isolated and partially characterized. The isolated outer membrane fractions from cultures grown under high (100 ppm) and low (5 ppm) Fe2+ conditions were compared by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and showed that several protein bands were derepressed under the low iron conditions, most notably at 50 kDa, and 77.5 kDa. Outer membrane isolated from low iron cultured cells was found to contain two proteins, 77.5 kDa and 62.5 kDa in size, that reacted with a heme-specific stain and were referred to as high molecular weight cytochromes. Studies conducted on the low iron isolated outer membrane by a phosphate/mild steel hydrogen evolution system showed that addition of the membrane fraction caused an immediate acceleration in H2 production. A new model for the anaerobic biocorrosion of mild steel is proposed.

  11. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  12. Deformation integrity monitoring for GNSS positioning services including local, regional and large scale hazard monitoring - the Karlsruhe approach and software(MONIKA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, R.

    2007-05-01

    GNSS-positioning services like SAPOS/ascos in Germany and many others in Europe, America and worldwide, usually yield in a short time their interdisciplinary and country-wide use for precise geo-referencing, replacing traditional low order geodetic networks. So it becomes necessary that possible changes of the reference stations' coordinates are detected ad hoc. The GNSS-reference-station MONitoring by the KArlsruhe approach and software (MONIKA) are designed for that task. The developments at Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the State Survey of Baden-Württemberg are further motivated by a the official resolution of the German state survey departments' association (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen Deutschland (AdV)) 2006 on coordinate monitoring as a quality-control duty of the GNSS-positioning service provider. The presented approach can - besides the coordinate control of GNSS-positioning services - also be used to set up any GNSS-service for the tasks of an area-wide geodynamical and natural disaster-prevention service. The mathematical model of approach, which enables a multivariate and multi-epochal design approach, is based on the GNSS-observations input of the RINEX-data of the GNSS service, followed by fully automatic processing of baselines and/or session, and a near-online setting up of epoch-state vectors and their covariance-matrices in a rigorous 3D network adjustment. In case of large scale and long-term monitoring situations, geodynamical standard trends (datum-drift, plate-movements etc.) are accordingly considered and included in the mathematical model of MONIKA. The coordinate-based deformation monitoring approach, as third step of the stepwise adjustments, is based on the above epoch-state vectors, and - splitting off geodynamics trends - hereby on a multivariate and multi-epochal congruency testing. So far, that no other information exists, all points are assumed as being stable and congruent reference

  13. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Integrated 3D Geological Modeling to Gain Insight in the Effects of Hydrothermal Alteration on Post-Ore Deformation Style and Strain Localization in the Flin Flon Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Schetselaar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D geological modeling of lithogeochemical and geological data provides insight into the role of the sulfide ore horizon and associated footwall hydrothermal alteration in localizing shear strain in the Flin Flon volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Canada, as deformation evolved from brittle-ductile to ductile regimes during collisional stages of the 1.9–1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny. 3D spatial characterization of hydrothermal alteration based on the Ishikawa index (AI and normative corundum percentages outline sericite + chlorite-rich high strain zones, consisting of Al-enriched and Na-depleted felsic and mafic volcanic rocks in the footwall of the sulfide ore horizon. The hydrothermal vent complex, from which these sheared alteration zones originated, was stacked together with the ore horizon by W-vergent thrust faults during an early collisional deformation regime, imbricating molasse-type clastic sediments with the ore-hosting volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Flin Flon arc assemblage. Chlorite-rich planar zones marked by high values of the Carbonate–chlorite–pyrite index (CCPI are laterally more extensive and outline a later system of ductile shear zones, in which phyllosilicates, quartz and chalcopyrite in stringer zones localized shear strain and enhanced transposition of the hydrothermal vent stockwork. The contrasting deformation styles of these two thrusting events and their localization within the ore horizon and hydrothermal vent stockwork have important implications for vectoring towards undiscovered ore in this mature mining camp that are possibly also relevant to other strongly deformed VMS ore systems.

  15. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins of the innate immune response act as membrane organizers by influencing clathrin and v-ATPase localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Yin Shen; Roundy, Kirstin M; Weis, Janis J; Weis, John H

    2012-12-01

    The innate response interferon-inducible transmembrane (Ifitm) proteins have been characterized as influencing proliferation, signaling complexes and restricting virus infections. Treatment of cells lacking these proteins (IfitmDel) with IFN-β resulted in the loss of clathrin from membrane compartments and the inhibition of clathrin-mediated phagocytosis, suggesting a molecular interaction between clathrin and Ifitm proteins. The pH of endosomes of IfitmDel cells, with or without IFN activation, was neutralized, suggesting the function of the vacular ATPase proton pumps in such cells was compromised. Co-immunoprecipitation of Ifitm3 with Atp6v0b demonstrated a direct interaction between the Ifitm proteins and the v-ATPase. These data suggest that the Ifitm proteins help stabilize v-ATPase complexes in cellular membranes which, in turn, facilitates the appropriate subcellular localization of clathrin.

  16. Localization of the AP-3 adaptor complex defines a novel endosomal exit site for lysosomal membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peden, A.A.; Oorschot, V.; Hesser, B.A.; Austin, C.D.; Scheller, R.H.; Klumperman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The adaptor protein (AP) 3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the transport of lysosomal membrane proteins, but its precise site of action has remained controversial. Here, we show by immuno-electron microscopy that AP-3 is associated with budding profiles evolving from a tubular endosomal

  17. Analysis of Cell Movement by Simultaneous Quantification of Local Membrane Displacement and Fluorescent Intensities Using Quimp2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgraaf, Leonard; van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Bretschneider, Till

    The use of fluorescent markers in living cells has increased dramatically in the recent years. The quantitative analysis of the images requires specific analysis software. Previously, the program Quimp was launched for quantitating fluorescent intensities at the membrane or the cortex of the cell.

  18. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...

  19. MEMBRANE MOBILITY AND MICRODOMAIN LOCALIZATION OF THE DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER STUDIED BY CONFOCAL FLUORESCENCE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY (FCS) AND FRAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adkins, Erica; (Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; van Deurs, Bo

    FCS measurements in transiently transfected N2A neuroblastoma cells were impaired by photobleachning suggesting immobilization of the transporter in the membrane. This was confirmed by the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which showed clear recovery of YFP-DAT fluorescence...

  20. Site-directed fluorescence labeling of a membrane protein with BADAN: probing protein topology and local environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple method based on site-directed fluorescence labeling using the BADAN label that allows to examine protein-lipid interactions in great detail. We apply this approach to a membrane-embedded mainly -helical reference protein, the M13 major coat protein, of which in a

  1. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  2. Heterotetramerization of Plant PIP1 and PIP2 Aquaporins Is an Evolutionary Ancient Feature to Guide PIP1 Plasma Membrane Localization and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Manuela D.; Diehn, Till A.; Richet, Nicolas; Chaumont, François; Bienert, Gerd P.

    2018-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are tetrameric channel proteins regulating the transmembrane flux of small uncharged solutes and in particular water in living organisms. In plants, members of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQP subfamily are important for the maintenance of the plant water status through the control of cell and tissue hydraulics. The PIP subfamily is subdivided into two groups: PIP1 and PIP2 that exhibit different water-channel activities when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or yeast cells. Most PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms physically interact and assemble in heterotetramers to modulate their subcellular localization and channel activity when they are co-expressed in oocytes, yeasts, and plants. Whether the interaction between different PIPs is stochastic or controlled by cell regulatory processes is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the water transport activity and the subcellular localization behavior of the complete PIP subfamily (SmPIP1;1, SmPIP2;1, and SmPIP2;2) of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii upon (co-)expression in yeast and Xenopus oocytes. As observed for most of the PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms in other species, SmPIP1;1 was retained in the ER while SmPIP2;1 was found in the plasma membrane but, upon co-expression, both isoforms were found in the plasma membrane, leading to a synergistic effect on the water membrane permeability. SmPIP2;2 behaves as a PIP1, being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed alone in oocytes or in yeasts. Interestingly, in contrast to the oocyte system, in yeasts no synergistic effect on the membrane permeability was observed upon SmPIP1;1/SmPIP2;1 co-expression. We also demonstrated that SmPIP2;1 is permeable to water and the signaling molecule hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, growth- and complementation assays in the yeast system showed that heteromerization in all possible SmPIP combinations did not modify the substrate specificity of the channels. These results suggest that the characteristics known for

  3. Heterotetramerization of Plant PIP1 and PIP2 Aquaporins Is an Evolutionary Ancient Feature to Guide PIP1 Plasma Membrane Localization and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Manuela D; Diehn, Till A; Richet, Nicolas; Chaumont, François; Bienert, Gerd P

    2018-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are tetrameric channel proteins regulating the transmembrane flux of small uncharged solutes and in particular water in living organisms. In plants, members of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQP subfamily are important for the maintenance of the plant water status through the control of cell and tissue hydraulics. The PIP subfamily is subdivided into two groups: PIP1 and PIP2 that exhibit different water-channel activities when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or yeast cells. Most PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms physically interact and assemble in heterotetramers to modulate their subcellular localization and channel activity when they are co-expressed in oocytes, yeasts, and plants. Whether the interaction between different PIPs is stochastic or controlled by cell regulatory processes is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the water transport activity and the subcellular localization behavior of the complete PIP subfamily (SmPIP1;1, SmPIP2;1, and SmPIP2;2) of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii upon (co-)expression in yeast and Xenopus oocytes. As observed for most of the PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms in other species, SmPIP1;1 was retained in the ER while SmPIP2;1 was found in the plasma membrane but, upon co-expression, both isoforms were found in the plasma membrane, leading to a synergistic effect on the water membrane permeability. SmPIP2;2 behaves as a PIP1, being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed alone in oocytes or in yeasts. Interestingly, in contrast to the oocyte system, in yeasts no synergistic effect on the membrane permeability was observed upon SmPIP1;1/SmPIP2;1 co-expression. We also demonstrated that SmPIP2;1 is permeable to water and the signaling molecule hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, growth- and complementation assays in the yeast system showed that heteromerization in all possible SmPIP combinations did not modify the substrate specificity of the channels. These results suggest that the characteristics known for

  4. Heterotetramerization of Plant PIP1 and PIP2 Aquaporins Is an Evolutionary Ancient Feature to Guide PIP1 Plasma Membrane Localization and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela D. Bienert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are tetrameric channel proteins regulating the transmembrane flux of small uncharged solutes and in particular water in living organisms. In plants, members of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQP subfamily are important for the maintenance of the plant water status through the control of cell and tissue hydraulics. The PIP subfamily is subdivided into two groups: PIP1 and PIP2 that exhibit different water-channel activities when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or yeast cells. Most PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms physically interact and assemble in heterotetramers to modulate their subcellular localization and channel activity when they are co-expressed in oocytes, yeasts, and plants. Whether the interaction between different PIPs is stochastic or controlled by cell regulatory processes is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the water transport activity and the subcellular localization behavior of the complete PIP subfamily (SmPIP1;1, SmPIP2;1, and SmPIP2;2 of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii upon (co-expression in yeast and Xenopus oocytes. As observed for most of the PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms in other species, SmPIP1;1 was retained in the ER while SmPIP2;1 was found in the plasma membrane but, upon co-expression, both isoforms were found in the plasma membrane, leading to a synergistic effect on the water membrane permeability. SmPIP2;2 behaves as a PIP1, being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed alone in oocytes or in yeasts. Interestingly, in contrast to the oocyte system, in yeasts no synergistic effect on the membrane permeability was observed upon SmPIP1;1/SmPIP2;1 co-expression. We also demonstrated that SmPIP2;1 is permeable to water and the signaling molecule hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, growth- and complementation assays in the yeast system showed that heteromerization in all possible SmPIP combinations did not modify the substrate specificity of the channels. These results suggest that the

  5. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  6. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL. PMID:24555083

  7. Overexpression of a Plasma Membrane-Localized SbSRP-Like Protein Enhances Salinity and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata grows in salt marshes and is considered to be a potential resource of salt- and drought-responsive genes. It is important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms behind enhanced salt tolerance. To increase this understanding, a novel SbSRP gene was cloned, characterized, over-expressed, and functionally validated in the model plant Nicotiana tabacum. The genome of the halophyte S. brachiata contains two homologs of an intronless SbSRP gene of 1,262 bp in length that encodes for a stress-related protein. An in vivo localization study confirmed that SbSRP is localized on the plasma membrane. Transgenic tobacco plants (T1 that constitutively over-express the SbSRP gene showed improved salinity and osmotic stress tolerance. In comparison to Wild Type (WT and Vector Control (VC plants, transgenic lines showed elevated relative water and chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde content, lower electrolyte leakage and higher accumulation of proline, free amino acids, sugars, polyphenols, and starch under abiotic stress treatments. Furthermore, a lower build-up of H2O2 content and superoxide-radicals was found in transgenic lines compared to WT and VC plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of Nt-APX (ascorbate peroxidase, Nt-CAT (catalase, Nt-SOD (superoxide dismutase, Nt-DREB (dehydration responsive element binding factor, and Nt-AP2 (apetala2 genes was higher in transgenic lines under stress compared to WT and VC plants. The results suggested that overexpression of membrane-localized SbSRP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in the transgenic tobacco plant. It was hypothesized that SbSRP can be a transporter protein to transmit the environmental stimuli downward through the plasma membrane. However, a detailed study is required to ascertain its exact role in the abiotic stress tolerance mechanism. Overall, SbSRP is a potential candidate to be used for engineering salt and osmotic

  8. Local mucous membrane lesions caused by irradiation of the oropharynx can be prevented by a dental shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter-Sehn, A.U.; Vienna Univ.; Schmidt, W.F.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Kielhauser, R.; Langer, H.

    1992-01-01

    In patients with metallic dental fillings radiation therapy to the oral cavity can cause mucous membrane lesions, which are more severe than expected. They appear as circumscribed erosions, opposite to metallic fillings and are caused by an increase in radiation dose through secondary radiation due to the higher density and atomic number of the filling material. This dose increase can be directly measured with 0.1 mm thin sheets of graphite-loaded TLD's (LiF, Vinten). For Co-60 gamma rays a commercial amalgam filling caused a dose increase by a factor of 1.7. The half value layer for this additional radiation was measured to be approximately 0.4 mm tissue. In order to avoid painful mucous membrane ulcerations which are even more a problem if hyperfractionated treatment schedules are used, we constructed individual dental shields for each patient. As shielding material we used a dental impression material (Optosil P + , Bayer). This method was tested in 35 patients, in all of them circumscribed mucous membrane ulcerations could be avoided. The method proved to be fast and simple and was very well tolerated by all patients. (orig.) [de

  9. Migration of the guinea pig sperm membrane protein PH-20 from one localized surface domain to another does not occur by a simple diffusion-trapping mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, A E; Myles, D G; Koppel, D E

    1991-03-01

    The redistribution of membrane proteins on the surface of cells is a prevalent feature of differentiation in a variety of cells. In most cases the mechanism responsible for such redistribution is poorly understood. Two potential mechanisms for the redistribution of surface proteins are: (1) passive diffusion coupled with trapping, and (2) active translocation. We have studied the process of membrane protein redistribution for the PH-20 protein of guinea pig sperm, a surface protein required for sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida (P. Primakoff, H. Hyatt, and D. G. Myles (1985). J. Cell Biol. 101, 2239-2244). PH-20 protein is localized to the posterior head plasma menbrane of the mature sperm cell. Following the exocytotic acrosome reaction, PH-20 protein moves into the newly incorporated inner acrosomal membrane (IAM), placing it in a position favorable for a role in binding sperm to the egg zona pellucida (D. G. Myles, and P. Primakoff (1984), J. Cell Biol. 99, 1634-1641). To analyze the mechanistic basis for this protein migration, we have used fluorescence microscopy and digital image processing to characterize PH-20 protein migration in individual cells. PH-20 protein was observed to move against a concentration gradient in the posterior head plasma membrane. This result argues strongly against a model of passive diffusion followed by trapping in the IAM, and instead suggests that an active process serves to concentrate PH-20 protein toward the boundary separating the posterior head and IAM regions. A transient gradient of PH-20 concentration observed in the IAM suggests that once PH-20 protein reaches the IAM, it is freely diffusing. Additionally, we observed that migration of PH-20 protein was calcium dependent.

  10. Comparative evaluation of a bioabsorbable collagen membrane and connective tissue graft in the treatment of localized gingival recession: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Mysore Babu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession (GR can result in root sensitivity, esthetic concern to the patient, and predilection to root caries. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate (1 the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR procedure using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane, in comparison to autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG for root coverage in localized gingival recession defects; and (2 the change in width of keratinized gingiva following these two procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases, showing at least two localized Miller′s Class I or Class II gingival recession, participated in this study. In a split mouth design, the pairs of defects were randomly assigned for treatment with either SCTG (SCTG Group or GTR-based collagen membrane (GTRC Group. Both the grafts were covered with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, width of keratinized gingiva (KG, probing depth (PD, relative attachment level (RAL, plaque index (PI, and gingival index (GI were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months following root coverage procedures, the mean root coverage was found to be 84.84% ± 16.81% and 84.0% ± 15.19% in SCTG Group and GTRC Group, respectively. The mean keratinized gingival width increase was 1.50 ± 0.70 mm and 2.30 ± 0.67 mm in the SCTG and GTRC group, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It may be concluded that resorbable collagen membrane can be a reliable alternative to autogenous connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recession.

  11. Development of real-time measurement of methanol-concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Ito, Kohei; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    A real-time sensor to measure methanol concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) was developed for reducing methanol cross-over in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 1.3 mm outside diameter. NMR signal from PEM being exposed to CH3OH solvent was measured using NMR sensor. Time-dependence changes of methanol concentration in PEM were obtained from analyzing spectrum of NMR signal. (author)

  12. N-terminal arginines modulate plasma-membrane localization of Kv7.1/KCNE1 channel complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenawit Girmatsion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks is important for cardiac action potential termination. The underlying channel is composed of Kv7.1 α-subunits and KCNE1 β-subunits. While most evidence suggests a role of KCNE1 transmembrane domain and C-terminus for the interaction, the N-terminal KCNE1 polymorphism 38G is associated with reduced I(Ks and atrial fibrillation (a human arrhythmia. Structure-function relationship of the KCNE1 N-terminus for I(Ks modulation is poorly understood and was subject of this study. METHODS: We studied N-terminal KCNE1 constructs disrupting structurally important positively charged amino-acids (arginines at positions 32, 33, 36 as well as KCNE1 constructs that modify position 38 including an N-terminal truncation mutation. Experimental procedures included molecular cloning, patch-clamp recording, protein biochemistry, real-time-PCR and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: All KCNE1 constructs physically interacted with Kv7.1. I(Ks resulting from co-expression of Kv7.1 with non-atrial fibrillation '38S' was greater than with any other construct. Ionic currents resulting from co-transfection of a KCNE1 mutant with arginine substitutions ('38G-3xA' were comparable to currents evoked from cells transfected with an N-terminally truncated KCNE1-construct ('Δ1-38'. Western-blots from plasma-membrane preparations and confocal images consistently showed a greater amount of Kv7.1 protein at the plasma-membrane in cells co-transfected with the non-atrial fibrillation KCNE1-38S than with any other construct. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that N-terminal arginines in positions 32, 33, 36 of KCNE1 are important for reconstitution of I(Ks. Furthermore, our results hint towards a role of these N-terminal amino-acids in membrane representation of the delayed rectifier channel complex.

  13. A histology-based atlas of the C57BL/6J mouse brain deformably registered to in vivo MRI for localized radiation and surgical targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purger, David; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Ford, Eric; Achanta, Pragathi; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The C57BL/6J laboratory mouse is commonly used in neurobiological research. Digital atlases of the C57BL/6J brain have been used for visualization, genetic phenotyping and morphometry, but currently lack the ability to accurately calculate deviations between individual mice. We developed a fully three-dimensional digital atlas of the C57BL/6J brain based on the histology atlas of Paxinos and Franklin (2001 The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates 2nd edn (San Diego, CA: Academic)). The atlas uses triangular meshes to represent the various structures. The atlas structures can be overlaid and deformed to individual mouse MR images. For this study, we selected 18 structures from the histological atlas. Average atlases can be created for any group of mice of interest by calculating the mean three-dimensional positions of corresponding individual mesh vertices. As a validation of the atlas' accuracy, we performed deformable registration of the lateral ventricles to 13 MR brain scans of mice in three age groups: 5, 8 and 9 weeks old. Lateral ventricle structures from individual mice were compared to the corresponding average structures and the original histology structures. We found that the average structures created using our method more accurately represent individual anatomy than histology-based atlases alone, with mean vertex deviations of 0.044 mm versus 0.082 mm for the left lateral ventricle and 0.045 mm versus 0.068 mm for the right lateral ventricle. Our atlas representation gives direct spatial deviations for structures of interest. Our results indicate that MR-deformable histology-based atlases represent an accurate method to obtain accurate morphometric measurements of a population of mice, and that this method may be applied to phenotyping experiments in the future as well as precision targeting of surgical procedures or radiation treatment.

  14. A histology-based atlas of the C57BL/6J mouse brain deformably registered to in vivo MRI for localized radiation and surgical targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purger, David; McNutt, Todd; Achanta, Pragathi; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Wong, John; Ford, Eric

    2009-12-01

    The C57BL/6J laboratory mouse is commonly used in neurobiological research. Digital atlases of the C57BL/6J brain have been used for visualization, genetic phenotyping and morphometry, but currently lack the ability to accurately calculate deviations between individual mice. We developed a fully three-dimensional digital atlas of the C57BL/6J brain based on the histology atlas of Paxinos and Franklin (2001 The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates 2nd edn (San Diego, CA: Academic)). The atlas uses triangular meshes to represent the various structures. The atlas structures can be overlaid and deformed to individual mouse MR images. For this study, we selected 18 structures from the histological atlas. Average atlases can be created for any group of mice of interest by calculating the mean three-dimensional positions of corresponding individual mesh vertices. As a validation of the atlas' accuracy, we performed deformable registration of the lateral ventricles to 13 MR brain scans of mice in three age groups: 5, 8 and 9 weeks old. Lateral ventricle structures from individual mice were compared to the corresponding average structures and the original histology structures. We found that the average structures created using our method more accurately represent individual anatomy than histology-based atlases alone, with mean vertex deviations of 0.044 mm versus 0.082 mm for the left lateral ventricle and 0.045 mm versus 0.068 mm for the right lateral ventricle. Our atlas representation gives direct spatial deviations for structures of interest. Our results indicate that MR-deformable histology-based atlases represent an accurate method to obtain accurate morphometric measurements of a population of mice, and that this method may be applied to phenotyping experiments in the future as well as precision targeting of surgical procedures or radiation treatment.

  15. Ca2+ Channel Re-localization to Plasma-Membrane Microdomains Strengthens Activation of Ca2+-Dependent Nuclear Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samanta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In polarized cells or cells with complex geometry, clustering of plasma-membrane (PM ion channels is an effective mechanism for eliciting spatially restricted signals. However, channel clustering is also seen in cells with relatively simple topology, suggesting it fulfills a more fundamental role in cell biology than simply orchestrating compartmentalized responses. Here, we have compared the ability of store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels confined to PM microdomains with a similar number of dispersed CRAC channels to activate transcription factors, which subsequently increase nuclear gene expression. For similar levels of channel activity, we find that channel confinement is considerably more effective in stimulating gene expression. Our results identify a long-range signaling advantage to the tight evolutionary conservation of channel clustering and reveal that CRAC channel aggregation increases the strength, fidelity, and reliability of the general process of excitation-transcription coupling.

  16. TNF-induced necroptosis requires the plasma membrane localization of the MLKL protein | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cell signaling protein tumor necrosis factor (TNF), produced by white blood cells, promotes inflammation and immunity processes such as fever and is involved in tumorigenesis and apoptosis (programmed cell death). However, dysregulation of TNF can also lead to another form of programmed cell death called necroptosis, which is characterized by a rise in intracellular Ca2+, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular acidity, depletion of ATP, and, eventually, plasma membrane rupture. TNF-induced necroptosis has been associated with a wide variety of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, major depression, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. Whereas the signaling mechanisms underlying TNF-induced apoptosis have largely been determined, the events precipitating in TNF-initiated necroptosis are still unknown.

  17. Inducible Inhibition of Gβγ Reveals Localization-dependent Functions at the Plasma Membrane and Golgi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klayman, Lauren M.; Wedegaertner, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins signal at a variety of endomembrane locations, in addition to their canonical function at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane (PM), where they are activated by cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. Here we focus on βγ signaling at the Golgi, where βγ activates a signaling cascade, ultimately resulting in vesicle fission from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To develop a novel molecular tool for inhibiting endogenous βγ in a spatial-temporal manner, we take advantage of a lipid association mutant of the widely used βγ inhibitor GRK2ct (GRK2ct-KERE) and the FRB/FKBP heterodimerization system. We show that GRK2ct-KERE cannot inhibit βγ function when expressed in cells, but recruitment to a specific membrane location recovers the ability of GRK2ct-KERE to inhibit βγ signaling. PM-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphorylation of Akt, whereas Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits cargo transport from the TGN to the PM. Moreover, we show that Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits model basolaterally targeted but not apically targeted cargo delivery, for both PM-destined and secretory cargo, providing the first evidence of selectivity in terms of cargo transport regulated by βγ. Last, we show that Golgi fragmentation induced by ilimaquinone and nocodazole is blocked by βγ inhibition, demonstrating that βγ is a key regulator of multiple pathways that impact Golgi morphology. Thus, we have developed a new molecular tool, recruitable GRK2ct-KERE, to modulate βγ signaling at specific subcellular locations, and we demonstrate novel cargo selectivity for βγ regulation of TGN to PM transport and a novel role for βγ in mediating Golgi fragmentation. PMID:27994056

  18. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhangibarooji, Younes; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping...

  19. Inducible Inhibition of Gβγ Reveals Localization-dependent Functions at the Plasma Membrane and Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klayman, Lauren M; Wedegaertner, Philip B

    2017-02-03

    Heterotrimeric G proteins signal at a variety of endomembrane locations, in addition to their canonical function at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane (PM), where they are activated by cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. Here we focus on βγ signaling at the Golgi, where βγ activates a signaling cascade, ultimately resulting in vesicle fission from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To develop a novel molecular tool for inhibiting endogenous βγ in a spatial-temporal manner, we take advantage of a lipid association mutant of the widely used βγ inhibitor GRK2ct (GRK2ct-KERE) and the FRB/FKBP heterodimerization system. We show that GRK2ct-KERE cannot inhibit βγ function when expressed in cells, but recruitment to a specific membrane location recovers the ability of GRK2ct-KERE to inhibit βγ signaling. PM-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphorylation of Akt, whereas Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits cargo transport from the TGN to the PM. Moreover, we show that Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits model basolaterally targeted but not apically targeted cargo delivery, for both PM-destined and secretory cargo, providing the first evidence of selectivity in terms of cargo transport regulated by βγ. Last, we show that Golgi fragmentation induced by ilimaquinone and nocodazole is blocked by βγ inhibition, demonstrating that βγ is a key regulator of multiple pathways that impact Golgi morphology. Thus, we have developed a new molecular tool, recruitable GRK2ct-KERE, to modulate βγ signaling at specific subcellular locations, and we demonstrate novel cargo selectivity for βγ regulation of TGN to PM transport and a novel role for βγ in mediating Golgi fragmentation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana Yellow Stripe1-Like4 and Yellow Stripe1-Like6 localize to internal cellular membranes and are involved in metal ion homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Hsuan eChu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the Yellow Stripe1-Like (YSL family of transporter proteins are able to transport metal-nicotianamine (NA complexes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the roles of the Arabidopsis YSLs that are most closely related to the founding member of the family, ZmYS1 (e.g., AtYSL1, AtYSL2 and AtYSL3, but there is little information concerning members of the other two well-conserved YSL clades. Here, we provide evidence that AtYSL4 and AtYSL6, which are the only genes in Arabidopsis belong to YSL Group II, are localized to vacuole membranes and to internal membranes resembling endoplasmic reticulum. Both single and double mutants for YSL4 and YSL6 were rigorously analyzed, and have surprisingly mild phenotypes, in spite of the strong and wide-ranging expression of YSL6. However, in the presence of toxic levels of Mn and Ni, plants with mutations in YSL4 and YSL6 and plants overexpressing GFP-tagged YSL6 showed growth defects, indicating a role for these transporters in heavy metal stress responses.

  1. Antibodies against Clonorchis sinensis LDH could cross-react with LDHB localizing on the plasma membrane of human hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721 and induce apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianzhang; Gan, Wenjia; Chen, Jintao; Huang, Lilin; Yin, Hongling; He, Tailong; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolytic pathway. It widely exists in various organisms and is in charge of converting the glycolysis product pyruvic acid to lactic acid. Most parasites, including Clonorchis sinensis, predominantly depend on glycolysis to provide energy. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that the LDHs from many species have more than one transmembrane region, suggesting that it may be a membrane protein. C. sinensis LDH (CsLDH) has been confirmed as a transmembrane protein mainly located in the tegument. The antibodies against CsLDH can inhibit the worm's energy metabolism, kill the worm, and may have the same effects on human cancer cells. In this study, we cloned and characterized human LDHA (HsLDHA), HsLDHB, and CsLDH. Semi-quantitative real-time RCP showed that HsLDHB only existed in hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721. Confocal microscopy and Western blot experiments revealed that HsLDHB was localized in the plasma membrane of SMMC-7721 cells, and the antibodies against CsLDH could cross-react with it. This cross-reaction could inhibit the enzymatic activity of HsLDHB. The cancer cells co-cultured with anti-CsLDH sera showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation rate and increases in caspase 9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, anti-CsLDH antibodies can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells SMMC-7721 and may serve as a new tool to inhibit tumor.

  2. The Experimental Measurement of Local and Bulk Oxygen Transport Resistances in the Catalyst Layer of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Xiaojing; Lu, Jiabin; Shen, Shuiyun; Yan, Xiaohui; Yin, Jiewei; Wei, Guanghua; Zhang, Junliang

    2017-12-07

    Remarkable progress has been made in reducing the cathodic Pt loading of PEMFCs; however, a huge performance loss appears at high current densities, indicating the existence of a large oxygen transport resistance associated with the ultralow Pt loading catalyst layer. To reduce the Pt loading without sacrificing cell performance, it is essential to illuminate the oxygen transport mechanism in the catalyst layer. Toward this goal, an experimental approach to measure the oxygen transport resistance in catalyst layers is proposed and realized for the first time in this study. The measuring approach involves a dual-layer catalyst layer design, which consists of a dummy catalyst layer and a practical catalyst layer, followed by changing the thickness of dummy layer to respectively quantify the local and bulk resistances via limiting current measurements combined with linear extrapolation. The experimental results clearly reveal that the local resistance dominates the total resistance in the catalyst layer.

  3. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet α2-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: [ 3 H]SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of [ 3 H]SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M r 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M r 4000, which was further digested to the M r 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M r 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M r 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor

  4. Photophysical properties and localization of chlorins substituted with methoxy groups, hydroxyl groups and alkyl chains in liposome-like cellular membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, S [Department of Physics, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the photophysical properties (stationary absorbance and fluorescence, fluorescence decay times and singlet oxygen quantum yields) of chlorins substituted with methoxy groups, hydroxyl groups and hydrocarbonic chains were studied in ethanol and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The photophysical behaviors of the chlorins in liposomes like cellular membrane were compared with those obtained from chlorin-liposome systems delivered to Jurkat cells in order to select potent photosensitizers for the photodynamic treatment of cancer. The localization of the studied chlorins inside liposomes was found to depend strongly on the substituents of chlorins. Absorption spectra of chlorins embedded in DPPC-liposomes have been recorded in the temperature range of 20-70 deg. C. It is demonstrated that the location of the chlorin molecules depends on the phase state of the phospholipids. These observations are confirmed by the fluorescence lifetimes, singlet oxygen lifetimes and singlet oxygen quantum yields results.

  5. Bunionette deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  6. Action of local exposure of the tumor on the level of thiols in membrane structures of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushchenko, N N; Danilov, V S [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologo-Pochvennyj Fakul' tet

    1975-01-01

    Continued development of Plyss lymphosarcoma was shown to decrease the contents of total SH-groups and disulphides in the liver nuclei; at the same time, the tumour decreased the concentration of total and non-protein SH-groups in the mitochondrial fraction. After four days of tumour development, the content of non-protein SH-groups in the nuclei and of disulphides in the mitochondria was increased and subsequently was decreased. Local irradiation of the tumour resulted in temporary partial increase of the total SH-group content in the mitochondria and nuclei, and of non-protein SH-groups in the microsomes.

  7. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  8. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30 expression in eukaryotic cells: existence of multiple species and membrane localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peethambaran Arun

    Full Text Available Senescence marker protein (SMP30, also known as regucalcin, is a 34 kDa cytosolic marker protein of aging which plays an important role in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, ascorbic acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress, and detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents. In our goal to investigate the activity of SMP30 for the detoxification of nerve agents, we have produced a recombinant adenovirus expressing human SMP30 as a fusion protein with a hemaglutinin tag (Ad-SMP30-HA. Ad-SMP30-HA transduced the expression of SMP30-HA and two additional forms of SMP30 with molecular sizes ∼28 kDa and 24 kDa in HEK-293A and C3A liver cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Intravenous administration of Ad-SMP30-HA in mice results in the expression of all the three forms of SMP30 in the liver and diaphragm. LC-MS/MS results confirmed that the lower molecular weight 28 kDa and 24 kDa proteins are related to the 34 kDa SMP30. The 28 kDa and 24 kDa SMP30 forms were also detected in normal rat liver and mice injected with Ad-SMP30-HA suggesting that SMP30 does exist in multiple forms under physiological conditions. Time course experiments in both cell lines suggest that the 28 kDa and 24 kDa SMP30 forms are likely generated from the 34 kDa SMP30. Interestingly, the 28 kDa and 24 kDa SMP30 forms appeared initially in the cytosol and shifted to the particulate fraction. Studies using small molecule inhibitors of proteolytic pathways revealed the potential involvement of β and γ-secretases but not calpains, lysosomal proteases, proteasome and caspases. This is the first report describing the existence of multiple forms of SMP30, their preferential distribution to membranes and their generation through proteolysis possibly mediated by secretase enzymes.

  9. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahid Belarghou, A.; Idema, T.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane

  10. Professional oral hygiene treatment and detailed oral hygiene instructions in patients affected by mucous membrane pemphigoid with specific gingival localization: a pilot study in 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, P G; Lopetuso, E; Carcieri, P; Giacometti, S; Carbone, M; Tanteri, C; Broccoletti, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this prospective case series was to assess the clinical efficiency of an oral hygiene protocol in patients affected by mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with specific gingival localization, before starting any medical treatment. Patients received oral hygiene instruction followed by non-surgical periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions in a 3-week cohort study. Clinical outcome variables were recorded at baseline and 5 weeks after intervention and included, as periodontal parameters, full mouth plaque (FMPS) and bleeding (FMBS) scores and patient-related outcomes (visual analogue score of pain). A total of 12 patients were recruited. The mean age at presentation was 59.5 ± 14.52 years. Five weeks after finishing the oral hygiene and periodontal therapy protocol, a statistical significant reduction was observed for FMPS (P = 0.001), FMBS (P = 0.022) and reported pain (P = 0.0028). Professional oral hygiene procedures and non-surgical periodontal therapy are connected with improvement of gingival status and decrease in gingival-related pain, in female patients affected by MMP with specific gingival localization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Studies with GFP-Vpr fusion proteins: induction of apoptosis but ablation of cell-cycle arrest despite nuclear membrane or nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhuber, Megan G.; Bateson, Michael; Tan, Judith; Greenway, Alison L.; McPhee, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein is known to arrest the cell cycle in G 2 /M and induce apoptosis following arrest. The functions of Vpr relative to its location in the cell remain unresolved. We now demonstrate that the location and function of Vpr are dependent on the makeup of fusion proteins and that the functions of G 2 /M arrest and apoptosis are separable. Using green fluorescence protein mutants (EGFP or EYFP), we found that fusion at either the N- or C-terminus compromised the ability of Vpr to arrest cell cycling, relative to that of His-Vpr or wild-type protein. Additionally, utilizing the ability to specifically identify cells expressing the fusion proteins, we confirm that Vpr can induce apoptosis, but appears to be independent of cell-cycle arrest in G 2 /M. Both N- and C-terminal Vpr/EYFP fusion proteins induced apoptosis but caused minimal G 2 /M arrest. These studies with Vpr fusion proteins indicate that the functions of Vpr leading to G 2 /M arrest and apoptosis are separable and that fusion of Vpr to EGFP or EYFP affected the localization of the protein. Our findings suggest that nuclear membrane localization and nuclear import and export are strongly governed by modification of the N-terminus of Vpr

  12. Mechanical properties of electrospun bilayer fibrous membranes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juan; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Bilayer fibrous membranes of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) were fabricated by electrospinning, using a parallel-disk mandrel configuration that resulted in the sequential deposition of a layer with fibers aligned across the two parallel disks and a layer with randomly oriented fibers, both layers deposited in a single process step. Membrane structure and fiber alignment were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and two-dimensional fast Fourier transform. Because of the intricacies of the generated electric field, bilayer membranes exhibited higher porosity than single-layer membranes consisting of randomly oriented fibers fabricated with a solid-drum collector. However, despite their higher porosity, bilayer membranes demonstrated generally higher elastic modulus, yield strength and toughness than single-layer membranes with random fibers. Bilayer membrane deformation at relatively high strain rates comprised multiple abrupt microfracture events characterized by discontinuous fiber breakage. Bilayer membrane elongation yielded excessive necking of the layer with random fibers and remarkable fiber stretching (on the order of 400%) in the layer with fibers aligned in the stress direction. In addition, fibers in both layers exhibited multiple localized necking, attributed to the nonuniform distribution of crystalline phases in the fibrillar structure. The high membrane porosity, good mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLLA (demonstrated in previous studies) make the present bilayer membranes good scaffold candidates for a wide range of tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacillus subtilis actin-like protein MreB influences the positioning of the replication machinery and requires membrane proteins MreC/D and other actin-like proteins for proper localization

    OpenAIRE

    Defeu Soufo, Hervé Joël; Graumann, Peter L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacterial actin-like proteins have been shown to perform essential functions in several aspects of cellular physiology. They affect cell growth, cell shape, chromosome segregation and polar localization of proteins, and localize as helical filaments underneath the cell membrane. Bacillus subtilis MreB and Mbl have been shown to perform dynamic motor like movements within cells, extending along helical tracks in a time scale of few seconds. Results In this work, we show tha...

  14. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Lin, Ran; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical

  15. 18F-DCFBC Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted PET/CT Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer: Correlation With Multiparametric MRI and Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Adler, Stephen; Bednarova, Sandra; Berman, Rose; Ton, Anita T; McKinney, Yolanda; Eclarinal, Philip; Hill, Craig; Afari, George; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Mease, Ronnie C; Merino, Maria J; Jacobs, Paula M; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Pomper, Martin G; Choyke, Peter L

    2017-10-01

    To assess the ability of (N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine) (F-DCFBC), a prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted PET agent, to detect localized prostate cancer lesions in correlation with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histopathology. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant, prospective, institutional review board-approved study included 13 evaluable patients with localized prostate cancer (median age, 62.8 years [range, 51-74 years]; median prostate-specific antigen, 37.5 ng/dL [range, 3.26-216 ng/dL]). Patients underwent mpMRI and F-DCFBC PET/CT within a 3 months' window. Lesions seen on mpMRI were biopsied under transrectal ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided biopsy, or a radical prostatectomy was performed. F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were evaluated blinded and separately for tumor detection on a lesion basis. For PET image analysis, MRI and F-DCFBC PET images were fused by using software registration; imaging findings were correlated with histology, and uptake of F-DCFBC in tumors was compared with uptake in benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules and normal peripheral zone tissue using the 80% threshold SUVmax. A total of 25 tumor foci (mean size, 1.8 cm; median size, 1.5 cm; range, 0.6-4.7 cm) were histopathologically identified in 13 patients. Sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 36% and 96%, respectively, for all tumors. For index lesions, the largest tumor with highest Gleason score, sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 61.5% and 92%, respectively. The average SUVmax for primary prostate cancer was higher (5.8 ± 4.4) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules (2.1 ± 0.3) or that of normal prostate tissue (2.1 ± 0.4) at 1 hour postinjection (P = 0.0033). The majority of index prostate cancers are detected with F-DCFBC PET/CT, and this may be a prognostic indicator based on uptake and staging. However, for detecting prostate cancer with high sensitivity, it

  16. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  17. Deformation of phospholipid vesicles in an optical stretcher

    OpenAIRE

    Delabre , Ulysse; Feld , Kasper; Crespo , Eleonore; Whyte , Graeme; Sykes , Cecile; Seifert , Udo; Guck , Jochen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Phospholipid vesicles are common model systems for cell membranes. Important aspects of the membrane function relate to its mechanical properties. Here we have investigated the deformation behaviour of phospholipid vesicles in a dual-beam laser trap, also called an optical stretcher. This study explicitly makes use of the inherent heating present in such traps to investigate the dependence of vesicle deformation on temperature. By using lasers with different wavelength...

  18. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-rescue of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice does not require nNOS localization to the cell membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wehling-Henricks

    Full Text Available Survival of dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (dko mice was increased by muscle-specific expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS transgene. Dko mice expressing the transgene (nNOS TG+/dko experienced delayed onset of mortality and increased life-span. The nNOS TG+/dko mice demonstrated a significant decrease in the concentration of CD163+, M2c macrophages that can express arginase and promote fibrosis. The decrease in M2c macrophages was associated with a significant reduction in fibrosis of heart, diaphragm and hindlimb muscles of nNOS TG+/dko mice. The nNOS transgene had no effect on the concentration of cytolytic, CD68+, M1 macrophages. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in the extent of muscle fiber lysis in the nNOS TG+/dko mice. These findings show that nNOS/NO (nitric oxide-mediated decreases in M2c macrophages lead to a reduction in the muscle fibrosis that is associated with increased mortality in mice lacking dystrophin and utrophin. Interestingly, the dramatic and beneficial effects of the nNOS transgene were not attributable to localization of nNOS protein at the cell membrane. We did not detect any nNOS protein at the sarcolemma in nNOS TG+/dko muscles. This important observation shows that sarcolemmal localization is not necessary for nNOS to have beneficial effects in dystrophic tissue and the presence of nNOS in the cytosol of dystrophic muscle fibers can ameliorate the pathology and most importantly, significantly increase life-span.

  19. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  20. A glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is required for membrane localization but dispensable for cell wall association of chitin deacetylase 2 in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicole M; Baker, Lorina G; Specht, Charles A; Lodge, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall proteins (CWPs) mediate important cellular processes in fungi, including adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation, and flocculation. The current model of fungal cell wall organization includes a major class of CWPs covalently bound to β-1,6-glucan via a remnant of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. This model was established by studies of ascomycetes more than a decade ago, and relatively little work has been done with other fungi, although the presumption has been that proteins identified in the cell wall which contain a predicted GPI anchor are covalently linked to cell wall glucans. The pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans encodes >50 putatively GPI-anchored proteins, some of which have been identified in the cell wall. One of these proteins is chitin deacetylase 2 (Cda2), an enzyme responsible for converting chitin to chitosan, a cell wall polymer recently established as a virulence factor for C. neoformans infection of mammalian hosts. Using a combination of biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics, we show that Cda2 is GPI anchored to membranes but noncovalently associated with the cell wall by means independent of both its GPI anchor and β-1,6-glucan. We also show that Cda2 produces chitosan when localized to the plasma membrane, but association with the cell wall is not essential for this process, thereby providing insight into the mechanism of chitosan biosynthesis. These results increase our understanding of the surface of C. neoformans and provide models of cell walls likely applicable to other undercharacterized basidiomycete pathogenic fungi. The surface of a pathogenic microbe is a major interface with its host. In fungi, the outer surface consists of a complex matrix known as the cell wall, which includes polysaccharides, proteins, and other molecules. The mammalian host recognizes many of these surface molecules and mounts appropriate responses to combat the microbial infection. Cryptococcus neoformans is a

  1. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; de Bruijn, Willem C; Dohmen, M René

    1990-11-01

    During extrusion of the first polar body in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata a localized Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs ofLymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas inBithynia eggs it was localized both in the vegetal hemisphere and at the animal pole. This pattern of enzyme activity corresponds to the polar pattern of transcellular ionic currents measured with the vibrating probe, which we showed to be partially carried or regulated by calcium [Zivkovic and Dohmen (1989) Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 176 (Suppl):103-109]. The characteristics of the ATPase were studied using a variety of approaches such as ion and substrate depletions and substitutions, addition of specific inhibitors of ATPase activity, treatment with EDTA/EGTA and electron energy-loss spectrometry. The results indicate that, inLymnaea, there are at least two enzymatic entities. The first one is a Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localized along the membrane and in the cortex of the vegetal hemisphere. The second one is a Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase (calcium pump of the plasma membrane) localized in a small region of the membrane at the vegetal pole. We speculate that in the eggs ofLymnaea andBithynia a functional relationship exists between the plasma-membrane-associated ATPase activity and the transcellular ionic currents measured in the same region.

  2. A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1999-01-01

    We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic distr...

  3. Wind sock deformity in rectal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed M V; Ghahramani, Farhad; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Razmi, Tannaz; Zarenezhad, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Rectal atresia is a rare anorectal deformity. It usually presents with neonatal obstruction and it is often a complete membrane or severe stenosis. Windsock deformity has not been reported in rectal atresia especially, having been missed for 2 years. A 2-year-old girl reported only a severe constipation despite having a 1.5-cm anal canal in rectal examination with scanty discharge. She underwent loop colostomy and loopogram, which showed a wind sock deformity of rectum with mega colon. The patient underwent abdominoperineal pull-through with good result and follow-up. This is the first case of the wind sock deformity in rectal atresia being reported after 2 years of age. (author)

  4. Measuring localization and diffusion coefficients of basolateral proteins in lateral versus basal membranes using functionalized substrates and kICS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Pedersen, Gitte Albinus

    2014-01-01

    Micropatterning enabled semiquantitation of basolateral proteins in lateral and basal membranes of the same cell. Lateral diffusion coefficients of basolateral aquaporin-3 (AQP3-EGFP) and EGFP-AQP4 were extracted from “lateral” and “basal” membranes using identical live-cell imaging and k...

  5. Large strain variable stiffness composites for shear deformations with applications to morphing aircraft skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, G. P.; Henry, C. P.

    2008-03-01

    Morphing or reconfigurable structures potentially allow for previously unattainable vehicle performance by permitting several optimized structures to be achieved using a single platform. The key to enabling this technology in applications such as aircraft wings, nozzles, and control surfaces, are new engineered materials which can achieve the necessary deformations but limit losses in parasitic actuation mass and structural efficiency (stiffness/weight). These materials should exhibit precise control of deformation properties and provide high stiffness when exercised through large deformations. In this work, we build upon previous efforts in segmented reinforcement variable stiffness composites employing shape memory polymers to create prototype hybrid composite materials that combine the benefits of cellular materials with those of discontinuous reinforcement composites. These composites help overcome two key challenges for shearing wing skins: the resistance to out of plane buckling from actuation induced shear deformation, and resistance to membrane deflections resulting from distributed aerodynamic pressure loading. We designed, fabricated, and tested composite materials intended for shear deformation and address out of plane deflections in variable area wing skins. Our designs are based on the kinematic engineering of reinforcement platelets such that desired microstructural kinematics is achieved through prescribed boundary conditions. We achieve this kinematic control by etching sheets of metallic reinforcement into regular patterns of platelets and connecting ligaments. This kinematic engineering allows optimization of materials properties for a known deformation pathway. We use mechanical analysis and full field photogrammetry to relate local scale kinematics and strains to global deformations for both axial tension loading and shear loading with a pinned-diamond type fixture. The Poisson ratio of the kinematically engineered composite is ~3x higher than

  6. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  7. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yijun; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Song, Cheng; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 (ω − 2, where ω is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 (ω − 1), and M162 (ω + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide–anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  8. Salt Bridge Formation between the I-BAR Domain and Lipids Increases Lipid Density and Membrane Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Suetsugu, Shiro; Kitao, Akio

    2017-07-28

    The BAR domain superfamily proteins sense or induce curvature in membranes. The inverse-BAR domain (I-BAR) is a BAR domain that forms a straight "zeppelin-shaped" dimer. The mechanisms by which IRSp53 I-BAR binds to and deforms a lipid membrane are investigated here by all-atom molecular dynamics simulation (MD), binding energy analysis, and the effects of mutation experiments on filopodia on HeLa cells. I-BAR adopts a curved structure when crystallized, but adopts a flatter shape in MD. The binding of I-BAR to membrane was stabilized by ~30 salt bridges, consistent with experiments showing that point mutations of the interface residues have little effect on the binding affinity whereas multiple mutations have considerable effect. Salt bridge formation increases the local density of lipids and deforms the membrane into a concave shape. In addition, the point mutations that break key intra-molecular salt bridges within I-BAR reduce the binding affinity; this was confirmed by expressing these mutants in HeLa cells and observing their effects. The results indicate that the stiffness of I-BAR is important for membrane deformation, although I-BAR does not act as a completely rigid template.

  9. Bacillus subtilis actin-like protein MreB influences the positioning of the replication machinery and requires membrane proteins MreC/D and other actin-like proteins for proper localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defeu Soufo Hervé Joël

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial actin-like proteins have been shown to perform essential functions in several aspects of cellular physiology. They affect cell growth, cell shape, chromosome segregation and polar localization of proteins, and localize as helical filaments underneath the cell membrane. Bacillus subtilis MreB and Mbl have been shown to perform dynamic motor like movements within cells, extending along helical tracks in a time scale of few seconds. Results In this work, we show that Bacillus subtilis MreB has a dual role, both in the formation of rod cell shape, and in chromosome segregation, however, its function in cell shape is distinct from that of MreC. Additionally, MreB is important for the localization of the replication machinery to the cell centre, which becomes aberrant soon after depletion of MreB. 3D image reconstructions suggest that frequently, MreB filaments consist of several discontinuous helical filaments with varying length. The localization of MreB was abnormal in cells with decondensed chromosomes, as well as during depletion of Mbl, MreBH and of the MreC/MreD proteins, which we show localize to the cell membrane. Thus, proper positioning of MreB filaments depends on and is affected by a variety of factors in the cell. Conclusion Our data provide genetic and cytological links between MreB and the membrane, as well as with other actin like proteins, and further supports the connection of MreB with the chromosome. The functional dependence on MreB of the localization of the replication machinery suggests that the replisome is not anchored at the cell centre, but is positioned in a dynamic manner.

  10. Bacillus subtilis actin-like protein MreB influences the positioning of the replication machinery and requires membrane proteins MreC/D and other actin-like proteins for proper localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeu Soufo, Hervé Joël; Graumann, Peter L

    2005-03-03

    Bacterial actin-like proteins have been shown to perform essential functions in several aspects of cellular physiology. They affect cell growth, cell shape, chromosome segregation and polar localization of proteins, and localize as helical filaments underneath the cell membrane. Bacillus subtilis MreB and Mbl have been shown to perform dynamic motor like movements within cells, extending along helical tracks in a time scale of few seconds. In this work, we show that Bacillus subtilis MreB has a dual role, both in the formation of rod cell shape, and in chromosome segregation, however, its function in cell shape is distinct from that of MreC. Additionally, MreB is important for the localization of the replication machinery to the cell centre, which becomes aberrant soon after depletion of MreB. 3D image reconstructions suggest that frequently, MreB filaments consist of several discontinuous helical filaments with varying length. The localization of MreB was abnormal in cells with decondensed chromosomes, as well as during depletion of Mbl, MreBH and of the MreC/MreD proteins, which we show localize to the cell membrane. Thus, proper positioning of MreB filaments depends on and is affected by a variety of factors in the cell. Our data provide genetic and cytological links between MreB and the membrane, as well as with other actin like proteins, and further supports the connection of MreB with the chromosome. The functional dependence on MreB of the localization of the replication machinery suggests that the replisome is not anchored at the cell centre, but is positioned in a dynamic manner.

  11. Studies concerning the interaction between local anesthetics and lipid membrane by phosphorus-31, deuterium and proton NMR; Estudo da interacao entre anestesicos locais e membranas lipidicas por ressonancia magnetica de fosforo ({sup 31} P), deuterio ({sup 2} H) e proton ({sup 1} H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Jarrell, Harold C. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Biological Sciences; Schreier, Shirley [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1993-12-31

    Local anesthetics block the conduction of nervous stimulus by impeding the entrance of sodium ion and the consequently depolarization of the nervous membrane. The action mechanism of local anesthetics, however, is not fully understood yet. In the present work the interaction between local anesthetics and membranes are studied by the perspective of lipid phase perturbation using NMR to elucidate the mechanism. Results are presented and discussed 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. The pepper Bs4C proteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and confer disease resistance to bacterial blight in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zeng, Xuan; Tian, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2018-03-30

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-dependent dominant disease resistance (R) genes in plants, also referred to as executor R genes, are induced on infection by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas harbouring the corresponding TALE genes. Unlike the traditional R proteins, the executor R proteins do not determine the resistance specificity and may function broadly in different plant species. The executor R gene Bs4C-R in the resistant genotype PI 235047 of the pepper species Capsicum pubescens (CpBs4C-R) confers disease resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) harbouring the TALE genes avrBsP/avrBs4. In this study, the synthetic genes of CpBs4C-R and two other Bs4C-like genes, the susceptible allele in the genotype PI585270 of C. pubescens (CpBs4C-S) and the CaBs4C-R homologue gene in the cultivar 'CM334' of Capsicum annum (CaBs4C), were characterized in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and rice (Oryza sativa). The Bs4C genes induced cell death in N. benthamiana. The functional Bs4C-eCFP fusion proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in the leaf epidermal cells of N. benthamiana. The Xa10 promoter-Bs4C fusion genes in transgenic rice conferred strain-specific disease resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight in rice, and were specifically induced by the Xa10-incompatible Xoo strain PXO99 A (pHM1avrXa10). The results indicate that the Bs4C proteins from pepper species function broadly in rice and the Bs4C protein-mediated cell death from the ER is conserved between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which can be utilized to engineer novel and enhanced disease resistance in heterologous plants. © 2018 TEMASEK LIFE SCIENCES LABORATORY. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2018 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Non-supersymmetric deformations of non-critical superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan; Kutasov, David; Seiberg, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    We study certain supersymmetry breaking deformations of linear dilaton backgrounds in different dimensions. In some cases, the deformed theory has bulk closed strings tachyons. In other cases there are no bulk tachyons, but there are localized tachyons. The real time condensation of these localized tachyons is described by an exactly solvable worldsheet CFT. We also find some stable, non-supersymmetric backgrounds

  14. Evolution of deformation velocity in narrowing for Zircaloy 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetlin, P R [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica; Okuda, M Y [Goias Univ., Goiania (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Fisica

    1980-09-01

    Some studies on the deformation instability in strain shows that the differences in this instability may lead to localized narrowing or elongated narrowing, for Zircaloy-2. The variation of velocity deformation with the narrowing evolution is expected to be different for these two cases. The mentioned variation is discussed, a great difference in behavior having been observed for the case of localized narrowing.

  15. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  16. Structure-based membrane dome mechanism for Piezo mechanosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yusong R; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-12-12

    Mechanosensitive ion channels convert external mechanical stimuli into electrochemical signals for critical processes including touch sensation, balance, and cardiovascular regulation. The best understood mechanosensitive channel, MscL, opens a wide pore, which accounts for mechanosensitive gating due to in-plane area expansion. Eukaryotic Piezo channels have a narrow pore and therefore must capture mechanical forces to control gating in another way. We present a cryo-EM structure of mouse Piezo1 in a closed conformation at 3.7Å-resolution. The channel is a triskelion with arms consisting of repeated arrays of 4-TM structural units surrounding a pore. Its shape deforms the membrane locally into a dome. We present a hypothesis in which the membrane deformation changes upon channel opening. Quantitatively, membrane tension will alter gating energetics in proportion to the change in projected area under the dome. This mechanism can account for highly sensitive mechanical gating in the setting of a narrow, cation-selective pore. © 2017, Guo et al.

  17. Registration of deformed multimodality medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfeghi, M.; Naidich, D.

    1989-01-01

    The registration and combination of images from different modalities have several potential applications, such as functional and anatomic studies, 3D radiation treatment planning, surgical planning, and retrospective studies. Image registration algorithms should correct for any local deformations caused by respiration, heart beat, imaging device distortions, and so forth. This paper reports on an elastic matching technique for registering deformed multimodality images. Correspondences between contours in the two images are used to stretch the deformed image toward its goal image. This process is repeated a number of times, with decreasing image stiffness. As the iterations continue, the stretched image better approximates its goal image

  18. Deformed Fredkin spin chain with extensive entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberger, Olof; Udagawa, Takuma; Zhang, Zhao; Katsura, Hosho; Klich, Israel; Korepin, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a new spin chain which is a deformation of the Fredkin spin chain and has a phase transition between bounded and extensive entanglement entropy scaling. In this chain, spins have a local interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian is frustration-free and its ground state can be described analytically as a weighted superposition of Dyck paths that depends on a deformation parameter t. In the purely spin 1/2 case, whenever t\

  19. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  20. Deformation aspects of time dependent fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Y.; Turner, A.P.L.; Diercks, D.R.; Laird, C.; Langdon, T.G.; Nix, W.D.; Swindeman, R.; Wolfer, W.G.; Woodford, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    For all metallic materials, particularly at elevated temperatures, deformation plays an important role in fracture. On the macro-continuum level, the inelastic deformation behavior of the material determines how stress is distributed in the body and thus determines the driving force for fracture. At the micro-continuum level, inelastic deformation alters the elastic stress singularity at the crack tip and so determines the local environment in which crack advance takes place. At the microscopic and mechanistic level, there are many possibilities for the mechanisms of deformation to be related to those for crack initiation and growth. At elevated temperatures, inelastic deformation in metallic systems is time dependent so that the distribution of stress in a body will vary with time, affecting conditions for crack initiation and propagation. Creep deformation can reduce the tendency for fracture by relaxing the stresses at geometric stress concentrations. It can also, under suitable constraints, cause a concentration of stresses at specific loading points as a result of relaxation elsewhere in the body. A combination of deformation and unequal heating, as in welding, can generate large residual stress which cannot be predicted from the external loads on the body. Acceleration of deformation by raising the temperature can be an effective way to relieve such residual stresses

  1. Red blood cell dynamics: from cell deformation to ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Forsyth, Alison M; Stone, Howard A

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) deformation under both static and dynamic, i.e., flow, conditions have been studied extensively since the mid 1960s. Deformation-induced biochemical reactions and possible signaling in RBCs, however, were proposed only fifteen years ago. Therefore, the fundamental relationship between RBC deformation and cellular signaling dynamics i.e., mechanotransduction, remains incompletely understood. Quantitative understanding of the mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs requires integrative studies of physical models of RBC deformation and cellular biochemical reactions. In this article we review the physical models of RBC deformation, spanning from continuum membrane mechanics to cellular skeleton dynamics under both static and flow conditions, and elaborate the mechanistic links involved in deformation-induced ATP release. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  2. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  3. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  4. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  5. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  7. Spontaneous complement activation on human B cells results in localized membrane depolarization and the clustering of complement receptor type 2 and C3 fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner, Morten; Leslie, Robert G Q; Prodinger, Wolfgang M

    2009-01-01

    While our previous studies have demonstrated that complement activation induced by complement receptors type 2 (CR2/CD21) and 1 (CR1/CD35) results in C3-fragment deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation in human B cells, the consequences of these events for B-cell functions remain u...

  8. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  9. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  10. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  11. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic. PMID:26268612

  12. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-07

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.

  13. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  14. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  15. On the BRST invariance of field deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.; Damgaard, P.H.; Latorre, J.I.; Montano, D.

    1989-08-01

    Topological quantum field theories are distinguished by a BRST symmetry corresponding to local field deformations. We investigate in this letter to what extent an arbitrary quantum field theory may be related to this BRST invariance. We demonstrate that at the expense of having to add extra variables (but without changing the physics) one may always extend to symmetry of an arbitrary action to include local field deformations. New avenues for gauge-fixing are then available. Examples are worked out for Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)

  16. Plastic Deformation of Pressured Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although pressured metallic glass (MG has been reported in the literature; there are few studies focusing on pressure effects on the structure; dynamics and its plastic deformation. In this paper; we report on and characterize; via molecular dynamics simulation, the structure and dynamics heterogeneity of pressured MGs, and explore a causal link between local structures and plastic deformation mechanism of pressured glass. The results exhibit that the dynamical heterogeneity of metallic liquid is more pronounced at high pressure, while the MGs were less fragile after the release of external pressure, reflected by the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP. High pressure glass shows better plastic deformation; and the local strain zone distributed more uniformly than of in normal glass. Further research indicates that although the number of icosahedrons in pressured glass was much larger than that in normal glass, while the interpenetrating connections of icosahedra (ICOI exhibited spatial correlations were rather poor; In addition, the number of ‘fast’ atoms indexed by the atoms’ moving distance is larger than that in normal glass; leading to the sharp decreasing in number of icosahedrons during deformation. An uniform distribution of ‘fast’ atoms also contributed to better plastic deformation ability in the pressured glass. These findings may suggest a link between the deformation and destruction of icosahedra with short-range order.

  17. Localization of a membrane glycoprotein in benign fibrocystic disease and infiltrating duct carcinomas of the human breast with the use of a monoclonal antibody to guinea pig milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, D. E.; Johnson, V. G.; Kuhajda, F. P.; Eggleston, J. C.; Mather, I. H.

    1985-01-01

    With monoclonal antibody D-274, raised against guinea pig milk fat globule membrane, the distribution of mucinlike glycoproteins of Mrs greater than or equal to 400,000 was determined in benign fibrocystic disease and infiltrating duct carcinoma of the human breast. These glycoproteins, called collectively PAS-I, were detected in 19 out of 20 cases of benign fibrocystic disease and in at least 26 out of 47 cases of infiltrating duct carcinoma. PAS-I was concentrated on luminal surfaces of ducts and alveoli in morphologically differentiated regions of the tumors. In areas where the glandular nature of the tissue was less evident in infiltrating duct carcinoma, the PAS-I determinant recognized by antibody D-274 was present on irregular luminal surfaces and in the cytoplasm. There was a negative correlation between the short-term recurrence (less than 2 years) of infiltrating duct carcinoma and the detection of strong positive staining with antibody D-274. The results are discussed with reference to recent studies on PAS-I in human breast tissue using monoclonal antibodies raised against human milk fat globule membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2579563

  18. KSHV cell attachment sites revealed by ultra sensitive tyramide signal amplification (TSA) localize to membrane microdomains that are up-regulated on mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, H Jacques; Rubinchikova, Yelena E; Rose, Timothy M

    2014-03-01

    Cell surface structures initiating attachment of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) were characterized using purified hapten-labeled virions visualized by confocal microscopy with a sensitive fluorescent enhancement using tyramide signal amplification (TSA). KSHV attachment sites were present in specific cellular domains, including actin-based filopodia, lamellipodia, ruffled membranes, microvilli and intercellular junctions. Isolated microdomains were identified on the dorsal surface, which were heterogeneous in size with a variable distribution that depended on cellular confluence and cell cycle stage. KSHV binding domains ranged from scarce on interphase cells to dense and continuous on mitotic cells, and quantitation of bound virus revealed a significant increase on mitotic compared to interphase cells. KSHV also bound to a supranuclear domain that was distinct from microdomains in confluent and interphase cells. These results suggest that rearrangement of the cellular membrane during mitosis induces changes in cell surface receptors implicated in the initial attachment stage of KSHV entry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  20. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  1. Pollybeak Deformity in Middle Eastern Rhinoplasty: Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wael K A; Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The pollybeak deformity is one of the commonest causes of revision rhinoplasty. The Middle Eastern nose has certain criteria that predispose to the development of pollybeak deformity. The aim of this study is to detect the factors contributing to the development of pollybeak deformity in the Middle Eastern nose and methods used to prevent as well as to treat such deformity. Out of the 1,160 revision patients included in this study, 720 (62%) patients had a pollybeak deformity. The commonest contributing factors included underprojected tip with poor support in 490 (68%) patients, excessive supratip scarring in 259 (36%) patients, overresected bony dorsum in 202 (28%) patients, and high anterior septal angle in 173 (24%) patients. The methods used by the authors to treat the pollybeak deformity are described, along with the local steroid injection protocol used to guard against the recurrence of pollybeak deformity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  3. Experimental deformation of a mafic rock - interplay between fracturing, reaction and viscous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Deformation experiments were performed on natural Maryland Diabase (˜ 55% Plg, 42% Px, 3% accessories, 0.18 wt.-% H2O added) in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus in order to explore the brittle-viscous transition and the interplay between deformation and mineral reactions. Shear experiments at strain rates of ˜ 2e-5 /s are performed, at T=600, 700 and 800°C and confining pressures Pc=1.0 and 1.5 GPa. Deformation localizes in all experiments. Below 700°C, the microstructure is dominated by brittle deformation with a foliation formed by cataclastic flow and high strain accommodated along 3-5 major ultracataclasite shear bands. At 700°C, the bulk of the material still exhibits abundant microfractures, however, deformation localizes into an anastomosing network of shear bands (SB) formed from a fine-grained (<< 1 μm) mixture of newly formed Plg and Amph. These reaction products occur almost exclusively along syn-kinematic structures such as fractures and SB. Experiments at 800°C show extensive mineral reactions, with the main reaction products Amph+Plg (+Zo). Deformation is localized in broad C' and C SB formed by a fine-grained (0.1 - 0.8 μm) mixture of Plg+Amph (+Zo). The onset of mineral reactions in the 700°C experiments shows that reaction kinetics and diffusional mass transport are fast enough to keep up with the short experimental timescales. While in the 700°C experiments brittle processes kinematically contribute to deformation, fracturing is largely absent at 800°C. Diffusive mass transfer dominates. The very small grain size within SB favours a grain size sensitive deformation mechanism. Due to the presence of water (and relatively high supported stresses), dissolution-precipitation creep is interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating mechanism. From the change of Amph coronas around Px clasts with strain, we can determine that Amph is re-dissolved at high stress sites while growing in low stress sites, showing the ability of Amph to

  4. Deformation mechanisms in the San Andreas Fault zone - a comparison between natural and experimentally deformed microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, Esther; Holdsworth, Robert; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California marks the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is located 9 km northwest of the town of Parkfield, CA and provide an extensive set of samples through the SAF. The SAFOD drill hole encountered different lithologies, including arkosic sediments from the Salinian block (Pacific plate) and claystones and siltstones from the Great Valley block (North American plate). Fault deformation in the area is mainly by a combination of micro-earthquakes and fault creep. Deformation of the borehole casing indicated that the SAFOD drill hole cross cuts two actively deforming strands of the SAF. In order to determine the deformation mechanisms in the actively creeping fault segments, we have studied thin sections obtained from SAFOD phase 3 core material using optical and electron microscopy, and we have compared these natural SAFOD microstructures with microstructures developed in simulated fault gouges deformed in laboratory shear experiments. The phase 3 core material is divided in three different core intervals consisting of different lithologies. Core interval 1 consists of mildly deformed Salinian rocks that show evidence of cataclasis, pressure solution and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates, all common processes in upper crustal rocks. Most of Core interval 3 (Great Valley) is also only mildly deformed and very similar to Core interval 1. Bedding and some sedimentary features are still visible, together with limited evidence for cataclasis and pressure solution, and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates. However, in between the relatively undeformed rocks, Core interval 3 encountered a zone of foliated fault gouge, consisting mostly of phyllosilicates. This zone is correlated with one of the zones of localized deformation of the borehole casing, i.e. with an actively deforming strand of the SAF. The fault gouge zone shows a strong, chaotic

  5. Microfluidic assay of the deformability of primitive erythroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sitong; Huang, Yu-Shan; Kingsley, Paul D; Cyr, Kathryn H; Palis, James; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-09-01

    Primitive erythroblasts (precursors of red blood cells) enter vascular circulation during the embryonic period and mature while circulating. As a result, primitive erythroblasts constantly experience significant hemodynamic shear stress. Shear-induced deformation of primitive erythroblasts however, is poorly studied. In this work, we examined the deformability of primitive erythroblasts at physiologically relevant flow conditions in microfluidic channels and identified the regulatory roles of the maturation stage of primitive erythroblasts and cytoskeletal protein 4.1 R in shear-induced cell deformation. The results showed that the maturation stage affected the deformability of primitive erythroblasts significantly and that primitive erythroblasts at later maturational stages exhibited a better deformability due to a matured cytoskeletal structure in the cell membrane.

  6. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  7. Insight into Phosphatidylinositol-Dependent Membrane Localization of the Innate Immune Adaptor Protein Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3 on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP’s membrane association are only partially understood. Here, we modeled an all-residue TIRAP dimer using homology modeling, threading, and protein–protein docking strategies. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that PIP2 creates a stable microdomain in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer, providing TIRAP with its physiologically relevant orientation. Computed binding free energy values suggest that the affinity of PI-binding domain (PBD for PIP2 is stronger than that of TIRAP as a whole for PIP2 and that the short PI-binding motif (PBM contributes to the affinity between PBD and PIP2. Four PIP2 molecules can be accommodated by distinct lysine-rich surfaces on the dimeric PBM. Along with the known PI-binding residues (K15, K16, K31, and K32, additional positively charged residues (K34, K35, and R36 showed strong affinity toward PIP2. Lysine-to-alanine mutations at the PI-binding residues abolished TIRAP’s affinity for PIP2; however, K34, K35, and R36 consistently interacted with PIP2 headgroups through hydrogen bond (H-bond and electrostatic interactions. TIRAP exhibited a PIP2-analogous intermolecular contact and binding affinity toward PIP3, aided by an H-bond network involving K34, K35, and R36. The present study extends our understanding of TIRAP’s membrane association, which could be helpful in designing peptide decoys to block TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR7-, and TLR9-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  8. The Role of Membrane Curvature in Nanoscale Topography-Induced Intracellular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hsin-Ya; Zhao, Wenting; Zeng, Yongpeng; Cui, Bianxiao

    2018-05-15

    allowing the visualization of membrane deformation at the cell membrane-to-substrate interface with nanometer precision and demonstrate that vertical nanostructures induce local curvatures on the plasma membrane. These local curvatures enhance the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and affect actin dynamics. We also present evidence that vertical nanostructures can induce significant deformation of the nuclear membrane, which can affect chromatin distribution and gene expression. Finally, we provide a brief perspective on the curvature hypothesis and the challenges and opportunities for the design of nanotopography for manipulating cell behavior.

  9. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsieh, M.-S.; Ueng, S.-H.; Hao, S.-P.; Tseng, C.-K.; Pai, P.-C.; Chang, F.-T.; Tsai, M.-H.; Tsang, N.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results to turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status (≥ T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control

  10. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  11. A non-parametric 2D deformable template classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    feature space the ship-master will be able to interactively define a segmentation map, which is refined and optimized by the deformable template algorithms. The deformable templates are defined as two-dimensional vector-cycles. Local random transformations are applied to the vector-cycles, and stochastic...

  12. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  14. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  15. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  16. Control Demonstration of a Thin Deformable In-Plane Actuated Mirror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, Gina A

    2006-01-01

    .... The primary goal of this research is to demonstrate that an in-plane actuated membrane-like deformable optical mirror can be controlled to optical wavelength tolerances in a closed-loop system...

  17. Ion transport restriction in mechanically strained separator membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John; Arnold, Craig B.

    2013-03-01

    We use AC impedance methods to investigate the effect of mechanical deformation on ion transport in commercial separator membranes and lithium-ion cells as a whole. A Bruggeman type power law relationship is found to provide an accurate correlation between porosity and tortuosity of deformed separators, which allows the impedance of a separator membrane to be predicted as a function of deformation. By using mechanical compression to vary the porosity of the separator membranes during impedance measurements it is possible to determine both the α and γ parameters from the modified Bruggeman relation for individual separator membranes. From impedance testing of compressed pouch cells it is found that separator deformation accounts for the majority of the transport restrictions arising from compressive stress in a lithium-ion cell. Finally, a charge state dependent increase in the impedance associated with charge transfer is observed with increasing cell compression.

  18. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  19. Molecular cloning, expression, functional characterization, chromosomal localization, and gene structure of junctate, a novel integral calcium binding protein of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, S; Feriotto, G; Moccagatta, L; Gambari, R; Zorzato, F

    2000-12-15

    Screening a cDNA library from human skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle with a cDNA probe derived from junctin led to the isolation of two groups of cDNA clones. The first group displayed a deduced amino acid sequence that is 84% identical to that of dog heart junctin, whereas the second group had a single open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide with a predicted mass of 33 kDa, whose first 78 NH(2)-terminal residues are identical to junctin whereas its COOH terminus domain is identical to aspartyl beta-hydroxylase, a member of the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family. We named the latter amino acid sequence junctate. Northern blot analysis indicates that junctate is expressed in a variety of human tissues including heart, pancreas, brain, lung, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the genetic loci of junctin and junctate map to the same cytogenetic band on human chromosome 8. Analysis of intron/exon boundaries of the genomic BAC clones demonstrate that junctin, junctate, and aspartyl beta-hydroxylase result from alternative splicing of the same gene. The predicted lumenal portion of junctate is enriched in negatively charged residues and is able to bind calcium. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium (45)Ca(2+) binding in the presence of a physiological concentration of KCl demonstrate that junctate binds 21.0 mol of Ca(2+)/mol protein with a k(D) of 217 +/- 20 microm (n = 5). Tagging recombinant junctate with green fluorescent protein and expressing the chimeric polypeptide in COS-7-transfected cells indicates that junctate is located in endoplasmic reticulum membranes and that its presence increases the peak amplitude and transient calcium released by activation of surface membrane receptors coupled to InsP(3) receptor activation. Our study shows that alternative splicing of the same gene generates the following functionally distinct proteins: an enzyme (aspartyl beta-hydroxylase), a structural

  20. The Golgi localization of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta requires the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 262 and is essential for maintaining plasma membrane sphingomyelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tiel, Claudia M; Westerman, Jan; Paasman, Marten A; Hoebens, Martha M; Wirtz, Karel W A; Snoek, Gerry T

    2002-06-21

    Recombinant mouse phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP)beta is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. Based on site-directed mutagenesis and two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping, Ser(262) was identified as the major site of phosphorylation and Ser(165) as a minor phosphorylation site. The phospholipid transfer activities of wild-type PI-TP beta and PI-TP beta(S262A) were identical, whereas PI-TP beta(S165A) was completely inactive. PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser(262) also had no effect on the transfer activity of PI-TP beta. To investigate the role of Ser(262) in the functioning of PI-TP beta, wtPI-TP beta and PI-TP beta(S262A) were overexpressed in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Two-dimensional PAGE analysis of cell lysates was used to separate PI-TP beta from its phosphorylated form. After Western blotting, wtPI-TP beta was found to be 85% phosphorylated, whereas PI-TP beta(S262A) was not phosphorylated. In the presence of the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, the phosphorylated form of wtPI-TP beta was strongly reduced. Immunolocalization showed that wtPI-TP beta was predominantly associated with the Golgi membranes. In the presence of the PKC inhibitor, wtPI-TP beta was distributed throughout the cell similar to what was observed for PI-TP beta(S262A). In contrast to wtPI-TP beta overexpressors, cells overexpressing PI-TP beta(S262A) were unable to rapidly replenish sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane upon degradation by sphingomyelinase. This implies that PKC-dependent association with the Golgi complex is a prerequisite for PI-TP beta to express its effect on sphingomyelin metabolism.

  1. Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction...... of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol....

  2. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  3. Importance of Local Structural Variations on Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on subsequent recrystallization are discussed and illustrated by three examples. The three examples consider local variations on different length scales and are: 1. Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on the f...

  4. The deformation record of olivine in mylonitic peridotites from the Finero Complex, Ivrea Zone: Separate deformation cycles during exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Agnes K.; Trepmann, Claudia A.

    2015-12-01

    Mylonitic peridotites from the Finero complex are investigated to detect characteristic olivine microfabrics that can resolve separate deformation cycles at different metamorphic conditions. The heterogeneous olivine microstructures are characterized by deformed porphyroclasts surrounded by varying amounts of recrystallized grains. A well-developed but only locally preserved foam structure is present in recrystallized grain aggregates. This indicates an early stage of dynamic recrystallization and subsequent recovery and recrystallization at quasi-static stress conditions, where the strain energy was reduced such that a reduction in surface energy controlled grain boundary migration. Ultramylonites record a renewed stage of localized deformation and recrystallization by a second generation of recrystallized grains that do not show a foam structure. This second generation of recrystallized grains as well as sutured grain and kink band boundaries of porphyroclasts indicate that these microstructures developed during a stage of localized deformation after development of the foam structure. The heterogeneity of the microfabrics is interpreted to represent several (at least two) cycles of localized deformation separated by a marked hiatus with quasi-static recrystallization and recovery and eventually grain growth. The second deformation cycle did not only result in reactivation of preexisting shear zones but instead also locally affected the host rock that was not deformed in the first stage. Such stress cycles can result from sudden increases in differential stress imposed by seismic events, i.e., high stress-loading rates, during exhumation of the Finero complex.

  5. Localization effects in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radial and angular localization in heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei is discussed. A theoretical method appropriate to study these localization effects is briefly described and then applied to the determination of deformed heavy ion potentials from inclastic scattering data. It is argued that one-and two-nucleon transfer reactions on deformed nuclei can provide a probe of nuclear structure in high angular momentum states and be at least qualitatively analyzed in the light of these localization concepts. (Author) [pt

  6. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  7. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  8. Helicobacter pylori-elicited induction in gastric mucosal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release involves ERK-dependent cPLA2 activation and its recruitment to the membrane-localized Rac1/p38 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases implicated in a wide rage of degenerative and inflammatory diseases, including Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, and gastric and duodenal ulcer. As gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to H. pylori are characterized by the rise in MMP-9 production, as well as the induction in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 activation, we investigated the role of Rac1/MAPK in the processes associated with the release of MMP-9. We show that H. pylori LPS-elicited induction in gastric mucosal MMP-9 release is associated with MAPK, ERK and p38 activation, and occurs with the involvement of Rac1 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Further, we demonstrate that the LPS-induced MMP-9 release requires ERK-mediated phosphorylation of cPLA2 on Ser(505) that is essential for its membrane localization with Rac1, and that this process necessitates p38 participation. Moreover, we reveal that the activation and membrane translocation of p38 to the Rac1-GTP complex plays a pivotal role in cPLA2-dependent enhancement in MMP-9 release. Hence, our findings provide a strong evidence for the role of ERK/cPLA2 and Rac1/p38/cPLA2 cascade in H. pylori LPS-induced up-regulation in gastric mucosal MMP-9 release.

  9. [Endoscopic diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous membranes of the stomach, induced with the purpose of simulation of gastric ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, N V; Plekhanov, V N

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose of improvement of diagnosis of induced gastric ulcer were examined 11 patients who took aggressive agents for simulation of gastric ulcer and 33 patients who took pseudo-aggressive agents. Observables, conduced diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach during initial 6 days after taking aggressive agents. Stages of ulcerous process, resulting from local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach, coressponds to real gactric ulcer. Gelatin capsule using as a container for delivery of aggressive agents, melts in stomach in 5-6 minutes after taking. Independent from body position, mucous coat of greater curvature of the stomach is damaged. It is impossible to simulate duodenal bulb ulcer using the gelatine capsule or ball made of breadcrumb. The last method of delivery of aggressive agent can damage the small intestine because of uncontrollability of the place of breaking the ball.

  10. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefilov, V.I.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.

    1988-01-01

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  11. Transmission coefficents in strongly deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    By using our semiclassical approach to particle evaporation from deformed nuclei developed earlier, we analyze here the heuristic methods of taking into account the effects of shape deformations on particle emission. These methods are based on the 'local' transmission coefficients in which the effective barrier depends on the angle with respect to the symmetry axis. The calculations revealed that the heuristic models are reasonable for particle energy spectra but fail, at large deformations, to describe the angular distributions. In A∼160 nuclei with axis ratio in the vicinity of 2:1 at temperatures of 2-3 MeV, the W (90 )/W(0 ) anisotropies of α particles with respect to the nuclear spin are 1.5 to 3 times larger than our approach predicts. The influence of spin alignment on particle energy spectra is discussed shortly. (orig.)

  12. An Efficient Virtual Trachea Deformation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a virtual tactile model with the physically based skeleton to simulate force and deformation between a rigid tool and the soft organ. When the virtual trachea is handled, a skeleton model suitable for interactive environments is established, which consists of ligament layers, cartilage rings and muscular bars. In this skeleton, the contact force goes through the ligament layer, and produces the load effects of the joints , which are connecting the ligament layer and cartilage rings. Due to the nonlinear shape deformation inside the local neighbourhood of a contact region, the RBF method is applied to modify the result of linear global shape deformation by adding the nonlinear effect inside. Users are able to handle the virtual trachea, and the results from the examples with the mechanical properties of the human trachea are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  13. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  14. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  15. Electrodiffusion of Lipids on Membrane Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    Random lateral translocation of lipids and proteins is a universal process on membrane surfaces. Local aggregation or organization of lipids and proteins can be induced when this lateral random diffusion is mediated by the electrostatic interactions and membrane curvature. Though the lateral diffusion rates of lipids on membrane of various compositions are measured and the electrostatic free energies of predetermined protein-membrane-lipid systems can be computed, the process of the aggregati...

  16. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  17. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  18. Membrane-localized extra-large G proteins and Gbg of the heterotrimeric G proteins form functional complexes engaged in plant immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Brenya, Eric; Parekh, Urvi; Botella, José Ramón

    2015-03-01

    In animals, heterotrimeric G proteins, comprising Ga, Gb, and Gg subunits, are molecular switches whose function tightly depends on Ga and Gbg interaction. Intriguingly, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), multiple defense responses involve Gbg, but not Ga. We report here that the Gbg dimer directly partners with extra-large G proteins (XLGs) to mediate plant immunity. Arabidopsis mutants deficient in XLGs, Gb, and Gg are similarly compromised in several pathogen defense responses, including disease development and production of reactive oxygen species. Genetic analysis of double, triple, and quadruple mutants confirmed that XLGs and Gbg functionally interact in the same defense signaling pathways. In addition, mutations in XLG2 suppressed the seedling lethal and cell death phenotypes of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-associated receptor kinase1-interacting receptor-like kinase1 mutants in an identical way as reported for Arabidopsis Gb-deficient mutants. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays revealed that XLG2 physically interacts with all three possible Gbg dimers at the plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close relationship between XLGs and plant Ga subunits, placing the divergence point at the dawn of land plant evolution. Based on these findings, we conclude that XLGs form functional complexes with Gbg dimers, although the mechanism of action of these complexes, including activation/deactivation, must be radically different form the one used by the canonical Ga subunit and are not likely to share the same receptors. Accordingly, XLGs expand the repertoire of heterotrimeric G proteins in plants and reveal a higher level of diversity in heterotrimeric G protein signaling.

  19. About deformation and rigidity in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome

    2007-01-01

    The notion of deformation involves that of rigidity. In relativity, starting from Born's early definition of rigidity, some other ones have been proposed, offering more or less interesting aspects but also accompanied of undesired or even pathological properties. In order to clarify the origin of these difficulties presented by the notion of rigidity in relativity, we analyze with some detail significant aspects of the unambiguous classical, Newtonian, notion. In particular, the relative character of its kinetic definition is pointed out, allowing to predict and to understand the limitations imposed by Herglotz-Noether theorem. Also, its equivalent dynamic definition is obtained and, in contrast, its absolute character is shown. But in spite of this absolute character, the dynamic definition is shown to be not extensible to relativity. The metric deformation of Minkowski space by the presence of a gravitational field is interpreted as a universal deformation, and it is shown that, under natural conditions, only a simple deformation law is possible, relating locally, but in an one-to-one way, gravitational fields and gauge classes of two-forms. We argue that fields of unit vectors associated to the internal gauge class of two-forms of every space-time (and, in particular, of Minkowski space-time) are the relativistic analogues of the classical accelerated observers, i.e. of the classical rigid motions. Some other consequences of the universal law of gravitational deformation are commented

  20. Dynamics of viscoplastic deformation in amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, M.L.; Langer, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of low-temperature shear deformation in amorphous solids. Our analysis is based on molecular-dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional, two-component noncrystalline system. These numerical simulations reveal behavior typical of metallic glasses and other viscoplastic materials, specifically, reversible elastic deformation at small applied stresses, irreversible plastic deformation at larger stresses, a stress threshold above which unbounded plastic flow occurs, and a strong dependence of the state of the system on the history of past deformations. Microscopic observations suggest that a dynamically complete description of the macroscopic state of this deforming body requires specifying, in addition to stress and strain, certain average features of a population of two-state shear transformation zones. Our introduction of these state variables into the constitutive equations for this system is an extension of earlier models of creep in metallic glasses. In the treatment presented here, we specialize to temperatures far below the glass transition and postulate that irreversible motions are governed by local entropic fluctuations in the volumes of the transformation zones. In most respects, our theory is in good quantitative agreement with the rich variety of phenomena seen in the simulations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  2. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, Syed [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Zaz, Zaid [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Raza, Jamil [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Mushtaq B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India)

    2016-12-10

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  3. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Syed; Faizal, Mir; Zaz, Zaid; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Raza, Jamil; Shah, Mushtaq B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  4. Whole body gamma radiation effects on rheological behaviour (deformability) of rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of whole body gamma irradiation on the rheological behaviour of rat erythrocytes (deformability). Animals were divided into 4 irradiated groups and 4 control groups according to their sacrificing time intervals (1 st, 3 rd, 5 th and 7 th days) post-irradiation with dose (6 Gy). In all animals and at the previous time intervals, red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins electrophoretic pattern, RBC membrane lipids levels (cholesterol and phospholipids), RBC electrolytes levels (sodium, potassium and calcium), corpuscular osmotic fragility and RBC morphological by scanning electron microscopy were determined. Highly significant increase in membrane cholesterol, RBC sodium, calcium and corpuscular osmotic fragility accompanied by highly significant decrease in membrane phospholipids, RBC potassium and RBC deformability were found. No changes in membrane proteins electrophoretic patterns were detected. Morphologically, there were increase in the incidences of echinocytes and spherocytes development, which were time dependent. According to the previous results, irradiation promotes alterations in RBC shape (echinocytosis), membrane skeletal dysfunction, membrane lipid peroxidation, increase in membrane cholesterol/phospholipid content, changes in membrane electrolyte permeability and decrease then increase in osmotic fragility. These alterations in turn led to decrease in cellular deformability as a result of increased membrane rigidity and also due to cells dehydration caused by excess leakage of potassium ions from the RBCs

  5. Quantification of local mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...

  6. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  7. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  8. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  9. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  10. The Effects of Isothermal Deformation and Annealing on the Microstructure of Nickel-Aluminum-Bronze Propeller Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nabach, William A

    2003-01-01

    ... in a combination of frictional and adiabatic heating due to plastic deformation. A stirring effect results in the formation of a zone of severe shear deformation and local temperatures approaching...

  11. The PTI1-like kinase ZmPti1a from maize (Zea mays L.) co-localizes with callose at the plasma membrane of pollen and facilitates a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Markus M; Pinto, Sheena; Kluth, Jantjeline; Wienand, Udo; Lorbiecke, René

    2006-10-06

    The tomato kinase Pto confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a gene for gene manner. Upon recognition of specific avirulence factors the Pto kinase activates multiple signal transduction pathways culminating in induction of pathogen defense. The soluble cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pti1 is one target of Pto phosphorylation and is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) reaction. However, a clear role of Pti1 in plant pathogen resistance is uncertain. So far, no Pti1 homologues from monocotyledonous species have been studied. Here we report the identification and molecular analysis of four Pti1-like kinases from maize (ZmPti1a, -b, -c, -d). These kinase genes showed tissue-specific expression and their corresponding proteins were targeted to different cellular compartments. Sequence similarity, expression pattern and cellular localization of ZmPti1b suggested that this gene is a putative orthologue of Pti1 from tomato. In contrast, ZmPti1a was specifically expressed in pollen and sequestered to the plasma membrane, evidently owing to N-terminal modification by myristoylation and/or S-acylation. The ZmPti1a:GFP fusion protein was not evenly distributed at the pollen plasma membrane but accumulated as an annulus-like structure which co-localized with callose (1,3-beta-glucan) deposition. In addition, co-localization of ZmPti1a and callose was observed during stages of pollen mitosis I and pollen tube germination. Maize plants in which ZmPti1a expression was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) produced pollen with decreased competitive ability. Hence, our data provide evidence that ZmPti1a plays an important part in a signalling pathway that accelerates pollen performance and male fitness. ZmPti1a from maize is involved in pollen-specific processes during the progamic phase of reproduction, probably in crucial signalling processes associated with regions of callose deposition. Pollen

  12. The PTI1-like kinase ZmPti1a from maize (Zea mays L. co-localizes with callose at the plasma membrane of pollen and facilitates a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wienand Udo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tomato kinase Pto confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a gene for gene manner. Upon recognition of specific avirulence factors the Pto kinase activates multiple signal transduction pathways culminating in induction of pathogen defense. The soluble cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pti1 is one target of Pto phosphorylation and is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR reaction. However, a clear role of Pti1 in plant pathogen resistance is uncertain. So far, no Pti1 homologues from monocotyledonous species have been studied. Results Here we report the identification and molecular analysis of four Pti1-like kinases from maize (ZmPti1a, -b, -c, -d. These kinase genes showed tissue-specific expression and their corresponding proteins were targeted to different cellular compartments. Sequence similarity, expression pattern and cellular localization of ZmPti1b suggested that this gene is a putative orthologue of Pti1 from tomato. In contrast, ZmPti1a was specifically expressed in pollen and sequestered to the plasma membrane, evidently owing to N-terminal modification by myristoylation and/or S-acylation. The ZmPti1a:GFP fusion protein was not evenly distributed at the pollen plasma membrane but accumulated as an annulus-like structure which co-localized with callose (1,3-β-glucan deposition. In addition, co-localization of ZmPti1a and callose was observed during stages of pollen mitosis I and pollen tube germination. Maize plants in which ZmPti1a expression was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi produced pollen with decreased competitive ability. Hence, our data provide evidence that ZmPti1a plays an important part in a signalling pathway that accelerates pollen performance and male fitness. Conclusion ZmPti1a from maize is involved in pollen-specific processes during the progamic phase of reproduction, probably in crucial signalling processes associated with regions

  13. Cardiolipin effects on membrane structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsay, Joseph D; Cosentino, Katia; Subburaj, Yamunadevi; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2013-12-23

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a lipid with unique properties solely found in membranes generating electrochemical potential. It contains four acyl chains and tends to form nonlamellar structures, which are believed to play a key role in membrane structure and function. Indeed, CL alterations have been linked to disorders such as Barth syndrome and Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular effects of CL on membrane organization remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the structure and physical properties of CL-containing membranes using confocal microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We found that the fluidity of the lipid bilayer increased and its mechanical stability decreased with CL concentration, indicating that CL decreases the packing of the membrane. Although the presence of up to 20% CL gave rise to flat, stable bilayers, the inclusion of 5% CL promoted the formation of flowerlike domains that grew with time. Surprisingly, we often observed two membrane-piercing events in atomic force spectroscopy experiments with CL-containing membranes. Similar behavior was observed with a lipid mixture mimicking the mitochondrial outer membrane composition. This suggests that CL promotes the formation of membrane areas with apposed double bilayers or nonlamellar structures, similar to those proposed for mitochondrial contact sites. All together, we show that CL induces membrane alterations that support the role of CL in facilitating bilayer structure remodeling, deformation, and permeabilization.

  14. Local Ca²+ entry via Orai1 regulates plasma membrane recruitment of TRPC1 and controls cytosolic Ca²+ signals required for specific cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong Tai Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca²+ entry (SOCE has been associated with two types of channels: CRAC channels that require Orai1 and STIM1 and SOC channels that involve TRPC1, Orai1, and STIM1. While TRPC1 significantly contributes to SOCE and SOC channel activity, abrogation of Orai1 function eliminates SOCE and activation of TRPC1. The critical role of Orai1 in activation of TRPC1-SOC channels following Ca²+ store depletion has not yet been established. Herein we report that TRPC1 and Orai1 are components of distinct channels. We show that TRPC1/Orai1/STIM1-dependent I(SOC, activated in response to Ca²+ store depletion, is composed of TRPC1/STIM1-mediated non-selective cation current and Orai1/STIM1-mediated I(CRAC; the latter is detected when TRPC1 function is suppressed by expression of shTRPC1 or a STIM1 mutant that lacks TRPC1 gating, STIM1(⁶⁸⁴EE⁶⁸⁵. In addition to gating TRPC1 and Orai1, STIM1 mediates the recruitment and association of the channels within ER/PM junctional domains, a critical step in TRPC1 activation. Importantly, we show that Ca²+ entry via Orai1 triggers plasma membrane insertion of TRPC1, which is prevented by blocking SOCE with 1 µM Gd³+, removal of extracellular Ca²+, knockdown of Orai1, or expression of dominant negative mutant Orai1 lacking a functional pore, Orai1-E106Q. In cells expressing another pore mutant of Orai1, Orai1-E106D, TRPC1 trafficking is supported in Ca²+-containing, but not Ca²+-free, medium. Consistent with this, I(CRAC is activated in cells pretreated with thapsigargin in Ca²+-free medium while I(SOC is activated in cells pretreated in Ca²+-containing medium. Significantly, TRPC1 function is required for sustained K(Ca activity and contributes to NFκB activation while Orai1 is sufficient for NFAT activation. Together, these findings reveal an as-yet unidentified function for Orai1 that explains the critical requirement of the channel in the activation of TRPC1 following Ca²+ store

  15. A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, U J; Taylor, M L; Dunn, L; Kron, T; Smith, R L; Franich, R D

    2012-04-01

    Interfraction and intrafraction variation in anatomic structures is a significant challenge in contemporary radiotherapy. The objective of this work is to develop a novel tool for deformable structure dosimetry, using a tissue-equivalent deformable gel dosimeter that can reproducibly simulate targets subject to deformation. This will enable direct measurement of integrated doses delivered in different deformation states, and the verification of dose deforming algorithms. A modified version of the nPAG polymer gel has been used as a deformable 3D dosimeter and phantom to investigate doses delivered to deforming tissue-equivalent geometry. The deformable gel (DEFGEL) dosimeter/phantom is comprised of polymer gel in a latex membrane, moulded (in this case) into a cylindrical geometry, and deformed with an acrylic compressor. Fifteen aluminium fiducial markers (FM) were implanted into DEFGEL phantoms and the reproducibility of deformation was determined via multiple computed tomography (CT) scans in deformed and nondeformed states before and after multiple (up to 150) deformations. Dose was delivered to the DEFGEL phantom in three arrangements: (i) without deformation, (ii) with deformation, and (iii) cumulative exposures with and without deformation, i.e., dose integration. Irradiations included both square field and a stereotactic multiple dynamic arc treatment adapted from a patient plan. Doses delivered to the DEFGEL phantom were read out using cone beam optical CT. Reproducibility was verified by observation of interscan shifts of FM locations (as determined via CT), measured from an absolute reference point and in terms of inter-FM distance. The majority (76%) of points exhibited zero shift, with others shifting by one pixel size consistent with setup error as confirmed with a control sample. Comparison of dose profiles and 2D isodose distributions from the three arrangements illustrated complex spatial redistribution of dose in all three dimensions occurring as

  16. A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, U. J.; Taylor, M. L.; Dunn, L.; Kron, T.; Smith, R. L.; Franich, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Interfraction and intrafraction variation in anatomic structures is a significant challenge in contemporary radiotherapy. The objective of this work is to develop a novel tool for deformable structure dosimetry, using a tissue-equivalent deformable gel dosimeter that can reproducibly simulate targets subject to deformation. This will enable direct measurement of integrated doses delivered in different deformation states, and the verification of dose deforming algorithms. Methods: A modified version of the nPAG polymer gel has been used as a deformable 3D dosimeter and phantom to investigate doses delivered to deforming tissue-equivalent geometry. The deformable gel (DEFGEL) dosimeter/phantom is comprised of polymer gel in a latex membrane, moulded (in this case) into a cylindrical geometry, and deformed with an acrylic compressor. Fifteen aluminium fiducial markers (FM) were implanted into DEFGEL phantoms and the reproducibility of deformation was determined via multiple computed tomography (CT) scans in deformed and nondeformed states before and after multiple (up to 150) deformations. Dose was delivered to the DEFGEL phantom in three arrangements: (i) without deformation, (ii) with deformation, and (iii) cumulative exposures with and without deformation, i.e., dose integration. Irradiations included both square field and a stereotactic multiple dynamic arc treatment adapted from a patient plan. Doses delivered to the DEFGEL phantom were read out using cone beam optical CT. Results: Reproducibility was verified by observation of interscan shifts of FM locations (as determined via CT), measured from an absolute reference point and in terms of inter-FM distance. The majority (76%) of points exhibited zero shift, with others shifting by one pixel size consistent with setup error as confirmed with a control sample. Comparison of dose profiles and 2D isodose distributions from the three arrangements illustrated complex spatial redistribution of dose in all

  17. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  18. Brevetoxin, the Dinoflagellate Neurotoxin, Localizes to Thylakoid Membranes and Interacts with the Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Ryan T; Chen, Wei; Thomas, Serge; Liu, Li; Rein, Kathleen S

    2015-05-04

    The brevetoxins are neurotoxins that are produced by the "Florida red tide" dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. They bind to and activate the voltage-gated sodium channels in higher organisms, specifically the Nav 1.4 and Nav 1.5 channel subtypes. However, the native physiological function that the brevetoxins perform for K. brevis is unknown. By using fluorescent and photoactivatable derivatives, brevetoxin was shown to localize to the chloroplast of K. brevis where it binds to the light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and thioredoxin. The LHCII is essential to non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), whereas thioredoxins are critical to the maintenance of redox homeostasis within the chloroplast and contribute to the scavenging of reactive oxygen. A culture of K. brevis producing low levels of toxin was shown to be deficient in NPQ and produced reactive oxygen species at twice the rate of the toxic culture, implicating a role in NPQ for the brevetoxins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Parameter studies on the effect of pulse shape on the dynamic plastic deformation of a hexagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.

    1973-10-01

    Results of a parameter study on the dynamic plastic response of a hexagonal subassembly duct subjected to an internal pressure pulse of arbitrary shape are presented. Plastic distortion of the cross section and large-deformation geometric effects that result in redistribution of the internal forces between bending and membrane stresses in the hexagon wall are included in the analytical model. Correlation procedures are established for relating permanent plastic deformation to simple properties of the pressure pulse, for both the small- and large-deformation ranges. Characteristic response times are determined, and the dynamic load factor for large-deformation plastic response is computed

  20. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  1. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  2. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  3. Evolution and development of model membranes for physicochemical and functional studies of the membrane lateral heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Tanimoto, Yasushi

    2018-03-14

    One of the main questions in the membrane biology is the functional roles of membrane heterogeneity and molecular localization. Although segregation and local enrichment of protein/lipid components (rafts) have been extensively studied, the presence and functions of such membrane domains still remain elusive. Along with biochemical, cell observation, and simulation studies, model membranes are emerging as an important tool for understanding the biological membrane, providing quantitative information on the physicochemical properties of membrane proteins and lipids. Segregation of fluid lipid bilayer into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases has been studied as a simplified model of raft in model membranes, including giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), and supported lipid bilayers (SLB). Partition coefficients of membrane proteins between Lo and Ld phases were measured to gauze their affinities to lipid rafts (raftophilicity). One important development in model membrane is patterned SLB based on the microfabrication technology. Patterned Lo/Ld phases have been applied to study the partition and function of membrane-bound molecules. Quantitative information of individual molecular species attained by model membranes is critical for elucidating the molecular functions in the complex web of molecular interactions. The present review gives a short account of the model membranes developed for studying the lateral heterogeneity, especially focusing on patterned model membranes on solid substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  5. Deformed supersymmetric mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sidorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a recent interest in curved rigid supersymmetries, we construct a new type of N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetric systems by employing superfields defined on the cosets of the supergroup SU(2|1). The relevant worldline supersymmetry is a deformation of the standard N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry by a mass parameter m. As instructive examples we consider at the classical and quantum levels the models associated with the supermultiplets (1,4,3) and (2,4,2) and find out interesting interrelations with some previous works on nonstandard d = 1 supersymmetry. In particular, the d = 1 systems with 'weak supersymmetry' are naturally reproduced within our SU(2|1) superfield approach as a subclass of the (1,4,3) models. A generalization to the N = 8, d = 1 case implies the supergroup SU(2|2) as a candidate deformed worldline supersymmetry

  6. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  7. Mass transfer in corrugated-plate membrane modules. I. Hyperfiltration experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.J.; Racz, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    The application of corrugations as turbulence promoters in membrane filtration was studied. This study showed that it is possible to deform an originally flat membrane to a corrugated shape without damaging it. In hyperfiltration experiments using corrugated cellulose acetate membranes it was found

  8. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  10. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  11. Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric materialis described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney......-Rivlin model show a monotone increasingpressure during inflation of a spherical membrane. These materials develop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere-Pearson condition. Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model show a pressure maximum when...... inflated. Membranesdescribed by these models develop a local thinning of the membrane which may lead to bursting in finite time....

  12. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  13. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  14. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    normal fault illustrate how these secondary structures influence the deformation in ways that are similar to fault/fold geometry mapped in the western Grand Canyon. Specifically, synthetic faults amplify hanging wall bedding dips, antithetic faults reduce dips, and joints act to localize deformation. The distribution of aftershocks in the hanging wall of the Kozani-Grevena earthquake suggests that secondary structures may accommodate strains associated with slip on a master fault during postseismic deformation.

  15. Flat deformation theorem and symmetries in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    The flat deformation theorem states that given a semi-Riemannian analytic metric g on a manifold, locally there always exists a two-form F, a scalar function c, and an arbitrarily prescribed scalar constraint depending on the point x of the manifold and on F and c, say Ψ(c, F, x) = 0, such that the deformed metric η = cg - εF 2 is semi-Riemannian and flat. In this paper we first show that the above result implies that every (Lorentzian analytic) metric g may be written in the extended Kerr-Schild form, namely η ab := ag ab - 2bk (a l b) where η is flat and k a , l a are two null covectors such that k a l a = -1; next we show how the symmetries of g are connected to those of η, more precisely; we show that if the original metric g admits a conformal Killing vector (including Killing vectors and homotheties), then the deformation may be carried out in a way such that the flat deformed metric η 'inherits' that symmetry.

  16. Improved image registration by sparse patch-based deformation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-15

    Despite intensive efforts for decades, deformable image registration is still a challenging problem due to the potential large anatomical differences across individual images, which limits the registration performance. Fortunately, this issue could be alleviated if a good initial deformation can be provided for the two images under registration, which are often termed as the moving subject and the fixed template, respectively. In this work, we present a novel patch-based initial deformation prediction framework for improving the performance of existing registration algorithms. Our main idea is to estimate the initial deformation between subject and template in a patch-wise fashion by using the sparse representation technique. We argue that two image patches should follow the same deformation toward the template image if their patch-wise appearance patterns are similar. To this end, our framework consists of two stages, i.e., the training stage and the application stage. In the training stage, we register all training images to the pre-selected template, such that the deformation of each training image with respect to the template is known. In the application stage, we apply the following four steps to efficiently calculate the initial deformation field for the new test subject: (1) We pick a small number of key points in the distinctive regions of the test subject; (2) for each key point, we extract a local patch and form a coupled appearance-deformation dictionary from training images where each dictionary atom consists of the image intensity patch as well as their respective local deformations; (3) a small set of training image patches in the coupled dictionary are selected to represent the image patch of each subject key point by sparse representation. Then, we can predict the initial deformation for each subject key point by propagating the pre-estimated deformations on the selected training patches with the same sparse representation coefficients; and (4) we

  17. Membrane Protrusion Coarsening and Nanotubulation within Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KAUST Repository

    Węgrzyn, Ilona; Jeffries, Gavin D. M.; Nagel, Birgit; Katterle, Martin; Gerrard, Simon R.; Brown, Tom; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    implementation of an IR laser via an optical fiber, enabling localized directed heating. Polymer-membrane interactions were monitored using confocal imaging techniques as subsequent membrane protrusions occurred and lipid nanotubes formed in response

  18. Red blood cell-deformability measurement: review of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, M

    2009-01-01

    Cell-deformability characterization involves general measurement of highly complex relationships between cell biology and physical forces to which the cell is subjected. The review takes account of the modern technical solutions simulating the action of the force applied to the red blood cell in macro- and microcirculation. Diffraction ektacytometers and rheoscopes measure the mean deformability value for the total red blood cell population investigated and the deformation distribution index of individual cells, respectively. Deformation assays of a whole single cell are possible by means of optical tweezers. The single cell-measuring setups for micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy allow conducting a selective investigation of deformation parameters (e.g., cytoplasm viscosity, viscoelastic membrane properties). The distinction between instrument sensitivity to various RBC-rheological features as well as the influence of temperature on measurement are discussed. The reports quoted confront fascinating possibilities of the techniques with their medical applications since the RBC-deformability has the key position in the etiology of a wide range of conditions.

  19. Local anesthetics: interaction with human erythrocyte membranes as studied by {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance; Anestesicos locais: interacao com membranas de eritrocitos de sangue humano, estudada por ressonancia magnetica nuclear de {sup 1}H e {sup 31}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica]. E-mail: depaula@unicamp.br

    2004-02-01

    The literature carries many theories about the mechanism of action of local anesthetics (LA). We can highlight those focusing the direct effect of LA on the sodium channel protein and the ones that consider the interaction of anesthetic molecules with the lipid membrane phase. The interaction between local anesthetics and human erythrocyte membranes has been studied by {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was found that lidocaine (LDC) and benzocaine (BZC) bind to the membranes, increase the mobility of the protons of the phospholipids acyl chains, and decrease the mobility and/or change the structure of the polar head groups. The results indicate that lidocaine molecules are inserted across the polar and liquid interface of the membrane, establishing both electrostatic (charged form) and hydrophobic (neutral form) interactions. Benzocaine locates itself a little deeper in the bilayer, between the interfacial glycerol region and the hydrophobic core. These changes in mobility or conformation of membrane lipids could affect the Na{sup +}-channel protein insertion in the bilayer, stabilizing it in the inactivated state, thus causing anesthesia. (author)

  20. Atomic-scale investigation of interface-facilitated deformation twinning in severely deformed Ag-Cu nanolamellar composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Liao, X. Z.; Zhu, S. M.; Nie, J. F.; Kawasaki, M.; Ringer, S. P.; Langdon, T. G.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    We report an atomic-scale investigation of interface-facilitated deformation twinning behaviour in Ag-Cu nanolamellar composites. Profuse twinning activities in Ag supply partial dislocations to directly transmit across the Ag-Cu lamellar interface that promotes deformation twinning in the neighbouring Cu lamellae although the interface is severely deformed. The trans-interface twin bands change the local structure at the interface. Our analysis suggests that the orientation relationship and interfacial structure between neighbouring Ag-Cu lamellae play a crucial role in such special interface-facilitated twinning behaviour

  1. Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli; Singh, Yogesh Balwant; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    , such as feed temperatures, feed flow velocities and salt concentrations reaching 120 g/L, and different membrane characteristics, such as membrane material, thickness, pore size and support layer, using a locally designed and fabricatd AGMD module and spacer

  2. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  3. Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.

  4. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  5. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.

    2015-12-01

    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at

  6. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  7. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  8. Deformable image registration in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Jong; Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The number of imaging data sets has significantly increased during radiation treatment after introducing a diverse range of advanced techniques into the field of radiation oncology. As a consequence, there have been many studies proposing meaningful applications of imaging data set use. These applications commonly require a method to align the data sets at a reference. Deformable image registration (DIR) is a process which satisfies this requirement by locally registering image data sets into a reference image set. DIR identifies the spatial correspondence in order to minimize the differences between two or among multiple sets of images. This article describes clinical applications, validation, and algorithms of DIR techniques. Applications of DIR in radiation treatment include dose accumulation, mathematical modeling, automatic segmentation, and functional imaging. Validation methods discussed are based on anatomical landmarks, physical phantoms, digital phantoms, and per application purpose. DIR algorithms are also briefly reviewed with respect to two algorithmic components: similarity index and deformation models.

  9. State-of-the-art synthetic membrane for capping landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriofske, K.P.; Gagle, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Very Low Density Polyethylene (VLDPE) has emerged as a superior capping material for landfill closures. Landfills must be capped by a material which will undergo substantial deformation in areas of localized settlement prior to rupture. Methane and hydrogen sulfide gases must be contained and directed to collection points without permeating the landfill cap. Vegetative growth in the cover sods will be protected by the gas impermeability of the geosynthetic membrane. VLDPE compounded with carbon black is minimally affected by radiation and is inert to ultraviolet rays. This property sustains VLDPE's ability to retard gas permeation at levels superior to other geosynthetics. Cover soil stability on long cap slopes in all weather conditions is crucial. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in full-scale, on-site test conditions that VLDPE exhibits friction characteristics equaling or exceeding other synthetics used for this purpose without diminishing physical and chemical properties. Large-scale, multiaxial stress tests have demonstrated the ability of VLDPE to deflect substantially in all directions of a potential settlement area. Only PVC can equal the elastic deformation properties of VLDPE, but PVC is more gas-permeable susceptible to degradation due to natural soil radiation or ultraviolet light and heat. Test results are presented to illustrate these points. The geosynthetic cap membrane must prevent water percolation into the landfill to prevent the formation of hazardous leachates. The use of a VLDPE cap reduces the depth of cap soils, thus increasing landfill volume. The economics and reduction in long-term liabilities of closure costs are enhanced by the use of VLDPE in the cap system. Since the expected half-life of polyethylene exceeds hundreds of years, the inclusion of VLDPE in the cap system will provide pollution security for many generations

  10. FIB-based measurement of local residual stresses on microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dietmar; Sabate, Neus; Gollhardt, Astrid; Keller, Juergen; Auersperg, Juergen; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    The paper comprises research results obtained for stress determination on micro and nanotechnology components. It meets the concern of controlling stresses introduced to sensors, MEMS and electronics devices during different micromachining processes. The method bases on deformation measurement options made available inside focused ion beam equipment. Removing locally material by ion beam milling existing stresses / residual stresses lead to deformation fields around the milled feature. Digital image correlation techniques are used to extract deformation values from micrographs captured before and after milling. In the paper, two main milling features have been analyzed - through hole and through slit milling. Analytical solutions for stress release fields of in-plane stresses have been derived and compared to respective experimental findings. Their good agreement allows to settle a method for determination of residual stress values, which is demonstrated for thin membranes manufactured by silicon micro technology. Some emphasis is made on the elimination of main error sources for stress determination, like rigid body object displacements and rotations due to drifts of experimental conditions under FIB imaging. In order to illustrate potential application areas of the method residual stress suppression by ion implantation is evaluated by the method and reported here.

  11. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  12. Electro-Deformation of Fused Cells in a Microfluidic Array Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method of analyzing the deformability of fused cells in a microfluidic array device. Electrical stresses—generated by applying voltages (4–20 V across discrete co-planar microelectrodes along the side walls of a microfluidic channel—have been used to electro-deform fused and unfused stem cells. Under an electro-deformation force induced by applying an alternating current (AC signal, we observed significant electro-deformation phenomena. The experimental results show that the fused stem cells were stiffer than the unfused stem cells at a relatively low voltage (<16 V. However, at a relatively high voltage, the fused stem cells were more easily deformed than were the unfused stem cells. In addition, the electro-deformation process is modeled based on the Maxwell stress tensor and structural mechanics of cells. The theoretical results show that a positive correlation is found between the deformation of the cell and the applied voltage, which is consistent with the experimental results. Combined with a numerical analysis and experimental study, the results showed that the significant difference of the deformation ratio of the fused and unfused cells is not due to their size difference. This demonstrates that some other properties of cell membranes (such as the membrane structure were also changed in the electrofusion process, in addition to the size modification of that process.

  13. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  14. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  15. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  16. Influence of plastic strain localization on the stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels; Influence de la localisation de la deformation plastique sur la CSC d'aciers austenitiques inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisse, S.; Tanguy, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN, SEMI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Andrieu, E.; Laffont, L.; Lafont, M.Ch. [Universite de Toulouse. CIRIMAT, UPS/INPT/CNRS, 31 - Toulous (France)

    2010-03-15

    The authors present a research study of the role of strain localization on the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of vessel steel in PWR-type (pressurized water reactor) environment. They study the interaction between plasticity and intergranular corrosion and/or oxidation mechanisms in austenitic stainless steels with respect to sublayer microstructure transformations. The study is performed on three austenitic stainless grades which have not been sensitized by any specific thermal treatment: the A286 structurally hardened steel, and the 304L and 316L austenitic stainless steels

  17. Anestésicos locais: interação com membranas biológicas e com o canal de sódio voltagem-dependente Local anesthetics: interaction with biological membranes and with the voltage-gated sodium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro de Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many theories about the mechanism of action of local anesthetics (LA are described in the literature. Two types of theories can be distinguished: those that focus on the direct effects of LA on their target protein in the axon membranes, i.e. the voltage-gated sodium channel and the ones that take into account the interaction of anesthetic molecules with the lipid membrane phase for the reversible nerve blockage. Since there is a direct correlation between LA hydrophobicity and potency, it is crucial to take this physico-chemical property into account to understand the mechanism of action of LA, be it on the sodium channel protein, lipid(s, or on the whole membrane phase.

  18. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  19. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  20. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  1. Orientation sensitive deformation in Zr alloys: experimental and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.; Keskar, N.; Manikrishna, K.V.; Dey, G.K.; Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are used for fuel cladding and other structural components in pressurised heavy water nuclear reactors (PHWR's). Currently there is a lot of interest in developing alloys for structural components for higher temperature reactor operation. There is also need for development of cladding material with better corrosion and mechanical property of cladding material for higher and extended burn up applications. The performance of the cladding material is primarily influenced by the microstructural features of the material such as constituent phases their morphology, precipitates characteristics, nature of defects etc. Therefore, the microstructure is tailored as per the performance requirement by through controlled additions of alloying elements, thermo-mechanical- treatments. In order to obtain the desired microstructure, it is important to know the deformation behaviour of the material. Orientation dependent deformation behavior was studied in Zr using a combination of experimental and modeling (both discrete and atomistic dislocation dynamics) methods. Under the conditions of plane strain deformation, it was observed that single phase Zr, had significant extent of deformation heterogeneity based on local orientations. Discrete dislocation dynamics simulations incorporating multi slip systems had captured the orientation sensitive deformation. MD dislocations on the other hand brought the fundamental difference in various crystallographic orientations in determining the nucleating stress for the dislocations. The deformed structure has been characterized using X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The various operating deformation mechanism will be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  2. CURVATURE-DRIVEN MOLECULAR FLOW ON MEMBRANE SURFACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, Michael; Zhou, Y C

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces. A drift-diffusion equation governs the gradient flow of the surface molecule concentrations. We recast the energetic formulation and the related governing equations by using an Eulerian phase field description to define membrane morphology. Computational simulations with the proposed mathematical model and related numerical techniques predict (i) the molecular localization on static membrane surfaces at locations with preferred mean curvatures, and (ii) the generation of preferred mean curvature which in turn drives the molecular localization.

  3. Actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane: Effect of membrane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2018-03-01

    We study the force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane. The elastic membrane tries to stay flat and any deformation from this flat state, either caused by thermal fluctuations or due to protrusive polymerization force exerted by the filaments, costs energy. We study two lattice models to describe the membrane dynamics. In one case, the energy cost is assumed to be proportional to the absolute magnitude of the height gradient (gradient model) and in the other case it is proportional to the square of the height gradient (Gaussian model). For the gradient model we find that the membrane velocity is a nonmonotonic function of the elastic constant μ and reaches a peak at μ =μ* . For μ membrane energy keeps increasing with time. For the Gaussian model, the system always reaches a steady state and the membrane velocity decreases monotonically with the elastic constant ν for all nonzero values of ν . Multiple filaments give rise to protrusions at different regions of the membrane and the elasticity of the membrane induces an effective attraction between the two protrusions in the Gaussian model which causes the protrusions to merge and a single wide protrusion is present in the system. In both the models, the relative time scale between the membrane and filament dynamics plays an important role in deciding whether the shape of elasticity-velocity curve is concave or convex. Our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with our analytical calculations.

  4. A Piezoelectric Unimorph Deformable Mirror Concept by Wafer Transfer for Ultra Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2002-01-01

    Future concepts of ultra large space telescopes include segmented silicon mirrors and inflatable polymer mirrors. Primary mirrors for these systems cannot meet optical surface figure requirements and are likely to generate over several microns of wavefront errors. In order to correct for these large wavefront errors, high stroke optical quality deformable mirrors are required. JPL has recently developed a new technology for transferring an entire wafer-level mirror membrane from one substrate to another. A thin membrane, 100 mm in diameter, has been successfully transferred without using adhesives or polymers. The measured peak-to-valley surface error of a transferred and patterned membrane (1 mm x 1 mm x 0.016 mm) is only 9 nm. The mirror element actuation principle is based on a piezoelectric unimorph. A voltage applied to the piezoelectric layer induces stress in the longitudinal direction causing the film to deform and pull on the mirror connected to it. The advantage of this approach is that the small longitudinal strains obtainable from a piezoelectric material at modest voltages are thus translated into large vertical displacements. Modeling is performed for a unimorph membrane consisting of clamped rectangular membrane with a PZT layer with variable dimensions. The membrane transfer technology is combined with the piezoelectric bimorph actuator concept to constitute a compact deformable mirror device with a large stroke actuation of a continuous mirror membrane, resulting in a compact A0 systems for use in ultra large space telescopes.

  5. Direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ishida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric blobs are localized plasma density enhancements, which are mainly produced by the transportation process of plasma. To understand the deformation process of a blob, observations of plasma parameters with good spatial–temporal resolution are desirable. Thus, we conducted the European Incoherent Scatter radar observations with high-speed meridional scans (60–80 s during October and December 2013, and observed the temporal evolution of a blob during a substorm on 4 December 2013. This paper is the first report of direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm. The blob deformation arose from an enhanced plasma flow shear during the substorm expansion phase, and then the blob split into two smaller-scale blobs, whose scale sizes were more than ~100 km in latitude. Our analysis indicates that the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and dissociative recombination could have deformed the blob structure.

  6. Shear zone nucleation and deformation transient: effect of heterogeneities and loading conditions in experimentally deformed calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.; Kilian, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's middle to lower crust, strain is frequently localized along ductile shear zones, which commonly nucleate at structural and material heterogeneities. To investigate shear zone nucleation and development due to heterogeneities, we performed constant strain-rate (CSR) and constant stress (CS) simple shear (torsion) deformation experiments on Carrara marble samples containing weak (limestone) inclusions. The experiments were conducted in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 °C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure and maximum bulk shear strains of 3. Peak shear stress was about 20 MPa for all the samples, followed by smooth weakening and steady state behavior. The strain is predominantly localized in the host marble within the process zone in front of the inclusion, defined by a zone of intense grain size reduction due to dynamic recrystallization. In CS tests a narrow shear zone developed in front of the inclusion, whereas in CSR experiments the deformation is more heterogeneously distributed, up to g=3.. In the later, secondary foliations oblique to the process zone and alternating thin, high-strain layers are common. In samples deformed at the same shear strain (g=1), the average recrystallized grain size in the process zone is similar for CS and CSR conditions. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements shows that different grain sizes have slightly different CPO patterns. CPO strength varies for different grain sizes, with a CPO strength peak between 40-50 μm, decreasing progressively within smaller grain size, but with secondary peaks for different coarse-grained sizes. Our observations suggest that the initial formation and transient deformation of shear zones is strongly affected by loading conditions.

  7. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  8. Biogenesis and Membrane Targeting of Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins, which are anchored to membranes through triacyl chains attached to the amino-terminal cysteine. They are involved in various functions localized in cell envelope. Escherichia coli possesses more than 90 species of lipoproteins, most of which are localized in the outer membrane, with others being in the inner membrane. All lipoproteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm with an N-terminal signal peptide, translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane, and converted to mature lipoproteins through sequential reactions catalyzed by three lipoprotein-processing enzymes: Lgt, LspA, and Lnt. The sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane requires a system comprising five Lol proteins. An ATP-binding cassette transporter, LolCDE, initiates the sorting by mediating the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane. Formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is coupled to this LolCDE-dependent release reaction. LolA accommodates the amino-terminal acyl chain of lipoproteins in its hydrophobic cavity, thereby generating a hydrophilic complex that can traverse the periplasmic space by diffusion. Lipoproteins are then transferred to LolB on the outer membrane and anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane by the action of LolB. In contrast, since LolCDE does not recognize lipoproteins possessing Asp at position +2, these lipoproteins remain anchored to the inner membrane. Genes for Lol proteins are widely conserved among gram-negative bacteria, and Lol-mediated outer membrane targeting of lipoproteins is considered to be the general lipoprotein localization mechanism.

  9. Rotation, inversion and perversion in anisotropic elastic cylindrical tubes and membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cylindrical tubes and membranes are universal structural elements found in biology and engineering over a wide range of scales.Working in the framework of nonlinear elasticity, we consider the possible deformations of elastic cylindrical shells

  10. Preparation of thermo-responsive membranes. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, I; Suzuki, Y; Sato, S; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1991-05-01

    Two types of liquid crystal (LC)-immobilized membranes were prepared by a soaking method and sandwich method to control the permeation of indomethacin, as a model drug, in response to local and systemic fever. Monooxyethylene trimethylolpropane tristearate (MTTS) was used as a model LC because it has a gel-liquid crystal phase transition temperature near the body temperature, 39-40 degrees C in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4). Two porous polypropylene (PP) membranes were soaked into 20% MTTS chloroform solution in the soaking method, and two PP membranes were poured with the melted MTTS and pressed in the sandwich method. Thermo-response efficacy of the soaked membrane was dependent upon the content of MTTS in MTTS membrane, and the MTTS content above the void volume of PP membrane (38%) was needed for high efficacy. On the other hand, the sandwich membrane exhibited higher thermo-response efficacy than the soaked membrane, because more LC was embedded in the pores of sandwich membrane than that of the soaked membrane. The sandwich membrane permeation of indomethacin was sharply controlled by temperature changes between 32 and 38 degrees C.

  11. Deformation inhomogeneity in large-grained AA5754 sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guozhen; Hu Xiaohua; Kang Jidong; Mishra, Raja K.; Wilkinson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Microstructure and strain relationship at individual grain level was studied. → 'Hot spots' nucleate early and most keep growing throughout deformation stages. → 'Hot spots' are correlated with 'soft' grains and soft-evolution grains. → Grains with high Schmid factors tend to be 'soft' grains. → Grains with the direction close to tensile axis tend to become softer. - Abstract: Models for deformation and strain localization in polycrystals that incorporate microstructural features including particles are computationally intensive due to the large variation in scale in going from particles to grains to a specimen. As a result such models are generally 2-D in nature. This is an issue for experimental validation. We have therefore studied deformation heterogeneities and strain localization behavior of coarse-grained alloys with only two grains across the sample thickness, therefore mimicking 2-D behavior. Aluminum alloy sheets (AA5754) have been investigated by a number of surface techniques, including digital image correlation, slip trace analysis and electron backscattered diffraction, at the individual grain level. Local strain concentration zones appear from the very beginning of deformation, which then maintain sustained growth and lead, in one of these regions, to localization and final fracture. These 'hot spots' occur in areas with locally soft grains (i.e. grains with or close to the tensile direction) and soft-evolution orientations (i.e. grains with close to the tensile direction). These grains can be correlated with Taylor and/or Schmid factors.

  12. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  13. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge

  14. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  15. Failure Modes of thin supported Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Høgsberg, J.R.; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette

    2007-01-01

    Four different failure modes relevant to tubular supported membranes (thin dense films on a thick porous support) were analyzed. The failure modes were: 1) Structural collapse due to external pressure 2) burst of locally unsupported areas, 3) formation of surface cracks in the membrane due to TEC......-mismatches, and finally 4) delamination between membrane and support due to expansion of the membrane on use. Design criteria to minimize risk of failure by the four different modes are discussed. The theoretical analysis of the two last failure modes is compared to failures observed on actual components....

  16. Deformable segmentation via sparse shape representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-01-01

    Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies.

  17. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kononova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F-deformation (X spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.

  18. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  19. Deformation-Induced Precession of a Robot Moving on Curved Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengkai; Aydin, Yasemin; Lofaro, Olivia; Rieser, Jennifer; Goldman, Daniel

    Previous studies have demonstrated that passive particles rolling on a deformed surface can mimic aspects of general relativity [Ford et al, AJP, 2015]. However, these systems are dissipative. To explore steady-state dynamics, we study the movement of a self-propelled robot car on a large deformable elastic membrane: a spandex sheet stretched over a metal frame with a diameter of 2.5 m. Two wheels in the rear of the car are differentially-driven by a DC motor, and a caster in the front helps maintain directional stability; in the absence of curvature the car drives straight. A linear actuator attached below the membrane allows for controlled deformation at the center of the membrane. We find that closed elliptic orbits occur when the membrane is highly depressed ( 10 cm). However, when the center is only slightly indented, the elliptical orbits precess at a rate depending on the orbit shape and the depression. Remarkably, this dynamic is well described by the Schwarzschild metric solution, typically used to describe the effects of gravity on bodies orbiting a massive object. Experiments with multiple cars reveal complex interactions that are mediated through car-induced deformations of the membrane.

  20. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...