WorldWideScience

Sample records for local heat therapy

  1. Chemothermal Therapy for Localized Heating and Ablation of Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shan Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemothermal therapy is a new hyperthermia treatment on tumor using heat released from exothermic chemical reaction between the injected reactants and the diseased tissues. With the highly minimally invasive feature and localized heating performance, this method is expected to overcome the ubiquitous shortcomings encountered by many existing hyperthermia approaches in ablating irregular tumor. This review provides a relatively comprehensive review on the latest advancements and state of the art in chemothermal therapy. The basic principles and features of two typical chemothermal ablation strategies (acid-base neutralization-reaction-enabled thermal ablation and alkali-metal-enabled thermal/chemical ablation are illustrated. The prospects and possible challenges facing chemothermal ablation are analyzed. The chemothermal therapy is expected to open many clinical possibilities for precise tumor treatment in a minimally invasive way.

  2. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  3. Local rectification of heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M.; Cui, Y. Y.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Simón, M. A.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a chain-of-atoms model where heat is rectified, with different fluxes from the hot to the cold baths located at the chain boundaries when the temperature bias is reversed. The chain is homogeneous except for boundary effects and a local modification of the interactions at one site, the “impurity”. The rectification mechanism is due here to the localized impurity, the only asymmetrical element of the structure, apart from the externally imposed temperature bias, and does not rely on putting in contact different materials or other known mechanisms such as grading or long-range interactions. The effect survives if all interaction forces are linear except the ones for the impurity.

  4. Small heating reactors for local heating of communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1985-08-01

    The incentives to introduce relatively small heating reactors for local heating of communities are presented and the reasons why this vertically integrated energy system will meet the requirement of an emission - free substitution system are outlined. (author)

  5. Modeling of heat transfer into a heat pipe for a localized heat input zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A general model is presented for heat transfer into a heat pipe using a localized heat input. Conduction in the wall of the heat pipe and boiling in the interior structure are treated simultaneously. The model is derived from circumferential heat transfer in a cylindrical heat pipe evaporator and for radial heat transfer in a circular disk with boiling from the interior surface. A comparison is made with data for a localized heat input zone. Agreement between the theory and the model is good. This model can be used for design purposes if a boiling correlation is available. The model can be extended to provide improved predictions of heat pipe performance

  6. Local heating with titanium nitride nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Ndukaife, Justus C.; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible.......We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible....

  7. Market: local heating; Markedsanalyse: lokale energisentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naper, Linn R.; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the market for local heating in Norway actually works, whether it is (sufficiently) competition, and what influences the growth opportunities in this market. Local heating can play an important role in ensuring a high proportion of renewable energy for heating and industrial processes. However, this requires a functioning market. The theoretical basis for market analysis is Michael Porter's Five Forces model, which incorporates information about different aspects of a market with a view to evaluate the competitive pressure. The model focuses on customers, competitors and their suppliers, substitutes and potential intruders in the market. This model is complemented by simple economic theory of perfect competition and the concept of perfect competition. (eb)

  8. Second Sound for Heat Source Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Vennekate, Hannes; Uhrmacher, Michael; Quadt, Arnulf; Grosse-Knetter, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Defects on the surface of superconducting cavities can limit their accelerating gradient by localized heating. This results in a phase transition to the normal conduction state | a quench. A new application, involving Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OST) to locate such quench inducing heat spots on the surface of the cavities, has been developed by D. Hartill et al. at Cornell University in 2008. The OSTs enable the detection of heat transfer via second sound in super uid helium. This thesis presents new results on the analysis of their signal. Its behavior has been studied for dierent circumstances at setups at the University of Gottingen and at CERN. New approaches for an automated signal processing have been developed. Furthermore, a rst test setup for a single-cell Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cavity has been prepared. Recommendations of a better signal retrieving for its operation are presented.

  9. Inactivation of biological substances by local heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1982-09-01

    Mechanism of inactivation of biological substances caused by local heating was investigated. The effect of hot-zone formation by local heating on reaction of radicals was previously evaluated. The thermal increase in a hot zone due to low energy LET x-rays had little effect on reactibility of the radicals, but, in a hot zone caused by high energy LET x-rays, formed radicals seemed immediately react to active biological molecules to inactivate them. Direct thermal effect on biological molecules was analysed. Thermal increase in a hot zone may induce degenaration of biological molecules which seems to occur in a short time judged from the extension of a hot zone and the duration of high temperature.

  10. Development of local radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed

  11. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  12. Local business models for district heat production; Kaukolaemmoen paikalliset liiketoimintamallit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, L.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    Local district heating business, outside large urban centers, is a profitable business in Finland, which can be practiced with several different business models. In addition to the traditional, local district heating business, local district heat production can be also based on franchising business model, on integrated service model or on different types of cooperation models, either between a local district heat producer and industrial site providing surplus heat or between a local district heat producer and a larger district heating company. Locally available wood energy is currently utilized effectively in the traditional district heating business model, in which a local entrepreneur produces heat to consumers in the local area. The franchising model is a more advanced version of the traditional district heating entrepreneurship. In this model, franchisor funds part of the investments, as well as offers centralized maintenance and fuel supply, for example. In the integrated service model, the local district heat producer offers also energy efficiency services and other value-added services, which are based on either the local district heat suppliers or his partner's expertise. In the cooperation model with industrial site, the local district heating business is based on the utilization of the surplus heat from the industrial site. In some cases, profitable operating model approach may be a district heating company outsourcing operations of one or more heating plants to a local entrepreneur. It can be concluded that all business models for district heat production (traditional district heat business model, franchising, integrated service model, cooperative model) discussed in this report can be profitable in Finnish conditions, as well for the local heat producer as for the municipality - and, above all, they produce cost-competitive heat for the end-user. All the models were seen as viable and interesting and having possibilities for expansion Finland

  13. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.J.; Richardson, G.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1965, 401 patients with prostate cancer have received intensive local pelvic radiation therapy at the Virginia Mason Medical Center. Two hundred twenty-one of this series were in the Stage C category. The 36 Stage B cancers were either medically nonoperable, or advanced extent, or had high-grade histopathology. Ten patients each were in diffuse Stage A or Stage D groups, the latter receiving local palliative inensive treatment to the prostate area. The mean age of the patients was 67.6 years. The five year survival of the Stage C group was 57.7%. There was no apparent influence on the survival of irradiated Stage C patients who received estrogen therapy. Current treatment techniques employ 10 megavolt photon beam with whole pelvic nodal fields and bilateral are rotational boost fields. The incidence of reactions and complications is presented

  15. Local village heating. Final rapport; Landsby Naervarme. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen, C.

    2012-04-15

    Local Village Heating project relates to smaller villages which are located outside existing or planned district heating areas in Denmark. The analysis phase of Local Village Heating has shown that the concept can be the most feasible common heating system for villages that: 1. has a high building density - the buildings must be placed close together; 2. at least one large heat consumer, school, elder home or company is present in the village; 3. the number of buildings/households in the village is less than approx. 100. The analysis has shown that it is theoretical possible to establish a controlling system for the combined supplier/consumer option and an overall system for prioritizing the primary heat suppliers. A feasible Local Village Heating organisation could be a cooperative similar to other supply systems, such as common water supply and waste water cooperative. (Author)

  16. Natural gas and local heat supply. Erdgas und Nahwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, W. (Gasversorgungsgesellschaft Filstal mbH (Germany, F.R.) Stadtwerke Goeppingen (Germany, F.R.))

    Local heat supply consists of a thermal power station of a dual-purpose plant, a heat destribution system and the heating systems of the users. A combination of gas heat-pumps, cogeneration plant and gas turbine operated as basic load aggregates is a precondition for the flexible application of energy-saving though investment-intensive technologies. Several existing plants are described in order to explain the structure and functioning of various types of plants. (BWI).

  17. Local and systemic antimicrobial therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Matesanz, Paula; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Sanz, Mariano

    2012-09-01

    This review aimed to update the current evidence on the efficacy of the adjunctive use of local and systemic antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis and to assess whether it might improve the clinical limitations and shortcomings of standard nonsurgical treatment in the management of periodontitis. Relevant randomized clinical trials (RCT) with more than 3 months of follow-up, published from 2010 to 2012 for systemic antimicrobials and from 2008 to 2012 for local antimicrobials, were searched in Medline and critically analyzed. Scientific evidence evaluated in different systematic reviews and reviews presented at European and World Workshops were also included. Only adjunctive therapies were considered in the present review: articles comparing debridement alone or plus placebo, versus debridement plus systemic or local antimicrobials were included. Adjunctive systemic antimicrobials have been evaluated both in aggressive and chronic periodontitis: in aggressive periodontitis, amoxicillin and metronidazole have been extensively studied, reporting clinical and microbiological benefits; in chronic periodontitis, different products are under scrutiny, such as azithromycin. The clinical efficacy of local antimicrobials, although extensively demonstrated, is still surrounded by a constant debate on the cost-effectiveness evaluation and on its adequate indications. Despite the clinical efficacy of the adjunctive use of local and systemic antimicrobials, demonstrated in RCTs and in systematic reviews, there is a lack of evidence to support well-defined clinical protocols, including products and dosages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Local heat transfer coefficient for turbulent flow in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1983-03-01

    The correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients in heated triangular array of rod bundles, in terms of the flow hydrodynamic parameters is presented. The analysis is made first for fluid with Prandtl numbers varying from moderated to high (Pr>0.2), and then extended to fluids with low Prandtl numbers (0.004 [pt

  19. Heating GLOBAL vs LOCAL Contamination. Problematic National

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Fernandez Rondon, Manuel; Meneses Ruiz, Elieza; Rivero Oliva, Jesus; Diaz Rivero, Norberto; Sanchez Gacita, Madeleine; Curbelo Garea, Lariza

    2007-01-01

    The tendency of growth year after year of the half temperature of the planet in correspondence with the increase of the concentrations of gases of greenhouse effect in the atmosphere, is an unequivocal sign that the greenhouse effect and its consequence, the one global heating, is a threat that hangs on the Earth. At national level and international conscience of this situation is won and the actions are increased directed to to mitigate it. The contribution of the energy sector to these emissions is considerable. The work it analyzes the contribution from Cuba to the global climatic change

  20. Global and local Joule heating effects seen by DE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    In the altitude region between 350 and 550 km, variations in the ion temperature principally reflect similar variations in the local frictional heating produced by a velocity difference between the ions and the neutrals. Here, the distribution of the ion temperature in this altitude region is shown, and its attributes in relation to previous work on local Joule heating rates are discussed. In addition to the ion temperature, instrumentation on the DE 2 satellite also provides a measure of the ion velocity vector representative of the total electric field. From this information, the local Joule heating rate is derived. From an estimate of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity it is also possible to estimate the global (height-integrated) Joule heating rate. Here, the differences and relationships between these various parameters are described.

  1. Experimental determination of local heat flux variation in an electrically heated BR-2 rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.; Merschroth, F.

    1977-08-01

    The installation of thermocouples within the cladding of an electrically heated BR-2 rod might cause local variations of heat flux. In order to detect a resulting temperature variation at the outer surface, experiments with a single electrically heated rod with heat fluxes up to 30.80 W/cm 2 and heat transfer coefficients up to 1000 W/m 2 K by forced convection in air were conducted. The surface temperatures were measured with an optical pyrometer. The experiment showed about 0.6% variation in the surface temperature. An analysis with the TAC2D-code shows that local variation in the heat flux under these conditions is less than 1.2%. (orig.) [de

  2. Photo-induced-heat localization on nanostructured metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ceren; Kahler, Niloofar; Grave de Peralta, Luis; Kumar, Golden; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials with large photo-thermal energy conversion efficiency are essential for renewable energy applications. Photo-excitation is an effective approach to generate controlled and localized heat at relatively low excitation optical powers. However, lateral heat diffusion to the surrounding illuminated areas accompanied by low photo-thermal energy conversion efficiency remains a challenge for metallic surfaces. Surface nanoengineering has proven to be a successful approach to further absorption and heat generation. Here, we show that pronounced spatial heat localization and high temperatures can be achieved with arrays of amorphous metallic glass nanorods under infrared optical illumination. Thermography measurements revealed marked temperature contrast between illuminated and non-illuminated areas even under low optical power excitation conditions. This attribute allowed for generating legible photo-induced thermal patterns on textured metallic glass surfaces.

  3. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  4. Experimental study on local heat transfer characteristics of porous media with internal heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan Yuanfeng; Wang Taotao; Xiao Zejun; Wang Fei; Huang Yanping

    2008-01-01

    Model of porous media with internal heat source is established. The model uses water as flowing media, and the stainless steel test section is packed with steel spheres in manner of regular triangle, respectively. The armoured resistance wire is inserted inside the steel sphere. On the basis of the experimental model, many parameters of the local heat transfer characteristics including current velocity and wall temperature of steel sphere are measured. The experimental results show that the coefficient of heat transfer scarcely changes with pressure. The coefficient of heat transfer increases with the surface heat flux of steel sphere. When raising the inlet temperature of the cooling water, the coefficient of heat transfer presents the descending trend. In addition, the influence of entrance effect on heat transfer is discovered in the experiment, which is much less than the liquid flow in the light tube. After experiment data are analyzed and processed, the relation model of heat transfer on local heat transfer characteristic of porous media with internal heat source was described with a power-law-equation. The deviations between calculation and experimental values are within ±10%. (authors)

  5. A non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Itoh, S.I.; Yagi, M.; Stroth, U.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in high temperature plasma has been studied for a long time, from the beginning of the fusion research. Since the electron channel in stellarators and tokamaks is clearly anomalous, it is of fundamental importance to investigate the electron heat diffusivity coefficient, χ e and to understand the physical mechanism. Recently, the experimental data for the transient transport of the heat pulse propagation in fusion plasma has been accumulated. An observation was reported on W7-AS which the heat flux changes faster than the change of the temperature profile, responding to the switching on off of the central heating power. The observation on the transient response has simulated the transport modeling, e.g., the critical marginality which implies the existence of a finite threshold in ∇T for the excitation of the turbulence, or the model in which the thermal conductivity is assumed to depend on the heating power. Extensive study is made by use of these models, and the critical marginally model seems to be insufficient to explain various transient transport. The rapid change of the plasma state and its hysteresis nature were successfully modeled by a heating-power-dependent model. The foundation of this model, however, is left for future work. The development of the transport modeling remains to be an urgent problem. In this paper, we investigate the role of the non-locality of the plasma transport in the study of the heat pulse propagation. For this purpose, a model equation is proposed, in which the non-local effect is taken into account in the heat flux. The properties of this model are investigated by performing a transport simulation. The organization of this paper is as follows: In Sec. II, the model equation is proposed and the properties of the model are explained. Using the model equation, the switching on off experiment is simulated in Sec. III. Summary and discussion are given in Sec. IV. (author)

  6. Conversion to biofuel based heating systems - local environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2003-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems today is the global warming, i.e.climate changes caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases originate from combustion of fossil fuels and changes the atmospheric composition. As a result of the climate change, the Swedish government has decided to make a changeover of the Swedish energy system. This involves an increase of the supply of electricity and heating from renewable energy sources and a decrease in the amount electricity used for heating, as well as a more efficient use of the existing electricity system. Today, a rather large amount electricity is used for heating in Sweden. Furthermore, nuclear power will be phased out by the year 2010 in Sweden. Bio fuels are a renewable energy source and a conceivable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, an increase of bio fuels will be seen the coming years. Bio fuels have a lot of environmental advantages, mainly for the global environment, but might also cause negative impacts such as depletion of the soils where the biomass is grown and local deterioration of the air quality where the bio fuels are combusted. These negative impacts are a result of the use of wrong techniques and a lack of knowledge and these factors have to be improved if the increase of the use of bio fuels is to be made effectively. The aim of this master thesis is to evaluate the possibilities for heating with bio fuel based systems in housing areas in the municipalities of Trollhaettan, Ulricehamn and Goetene in Vaestra Goetalands County in the South West of Sweden and to investigate which environmental and health effects are caused by the conversion of heating systems. The objective is to use the case studies as examples on preferable bio fuel based heating systems in different areas, and to what environmental impact this conversion of heating systems might cause. The housing areas for this study have been chosen on the basis of present heating system, one area

  7. Multimodality therapy of local regional esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, David P

    2005-12-01

    Recent trials regarding the use of multimodality therapy for patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have not conclusively shown benefit. Regimens containing cisplatin and fluorouracil administered preoperatively appear to be tolerable and do not increase operative morbidity or mortality when compared with surgery alone. Yet clinical trials have not clearly shown that such regimens improve outcome as measured by survival. Likewise, trials of postoperative chemoradiation have not reported a significant improvement in median or overall survival. The reasons for the lack of clinical benefit from multimodality therapy are not completely understood, but improvements in systemic therapy will probably be necessary before disease-free or overall survival improves substantially. Some new single agents such as the taxanes (docetaxel or paclitaxel) and the camptothecan analog irinotecan have shown modest activity for palliative therapy.

  8. Development and fabrication of heat-sterilizable inhalation therapy equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a completely heat sterilizable intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) ventilator in an effort to reduce the number of hospital acquired infections is reported. After appropriate changes in materials and design were made, six prototype units were fabricated and were successfully field tested in local hospitals. Most components of the modified ventilators are compatible with existing machines. In all but a few instances, such as installation of bacteria-retentive filters and a modified venturi, the change over from non-heat-sterilizable to sterilizable units was accomplished by replacement of heat labile materials with heat stable materials.

  9. Local heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Busoul, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the local heat transfer coefficient. The experiments was conducted inside a reactor with inner diameter (I D = 142mm) at atmospheric conditions (temperature mean value = 29 deg.) The bed was heated by means of a parochial electric heater with a diameter of (d h = 29 mm) and a constant power of 5W. The following factors varied: particles type and diameter, fluid velocity, bed height and heater position inside the reactor. The results were presented and discussed. (author). 15 refs., 7 figs

  10. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  11. Heat Transfer Analysis of Localized Heat-Treatment for Grade 91 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jacob D.

    Many of the projects utilizing Grade 91 steel are large in scale, therefore it is necessary to assemble on site. The assembly of the major pieces requires welding in the assembly; this drastically changes the superior mechanical properties of Grade 91 steel that it was specifically developed for. Therefore, because of the adverse effects of welding on the mechanical properties of Grade 91, it is necessary to do a localized post weld heat treatment. As with most metallic materials grade 91 steel requires a very specific heat treatment process. This process includes a specific temperature and duration at that temperature to achieve the heat treatment desired. Extensive research has been done to determine the proper temperatures and duration to provide the proper microstructure for the superior mechanical properties that are inherent to Grade 91 steel. The welded sections are typically large structures that require local heat treatments and cannot be placed in an oven. The locations of these structures vary from indoors in a controlled environment to outdoors with unpredictable environments. These environments can be controlled somewhat, however in large part the surrounding conditions are unchangeable. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to accurately apply the surrounding conditions and geometries to a theoretical model in order to provide the proper requirements for the local heat treatment procedure. Within this requirement is the requirement to define unknowns used in the heat transfer equations so that accurate models can be produced and accurate results predicted. This study investigates experimentally and numerically the heat transfer and temperature fields of Grade 91 piping in a local heat treatment. The objective of this thesis research is to determine all of the needed heat transfer coefficients. The appropriate heat transfer coefficients are determined through the inverse heat conduction method utilizing a ceramic heat blanket. This will be done

  12. Local and Nonlocal Parallel Heat Transport in General Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the study of parallel transport in magnetized plasmas is presented. The method avoids numerical pollution issues of grid-based formulations and applies to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields with local or nonlocal parallel closures. In weakly chaotic fields, the method gives the fractal structure of the devil's staircase radial temperature profile. In fully chaotic fields, the temperature exhibits self-similar spatiotemporal evolution with a stretched-exponential scaling function for local closures and an algebraically decaying one for nonlocal closures. It is shown that, for both closures, the effective radial heat transport is incompatible with the quasilinear diffusion model.

  13. Refining Preoperative Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the PROSPECT trial, patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy or neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy, with chemoradiation reserved for nonresponders.

  14. Maximum skin hyperaemia induced by local heating: possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Kim M; Hannemann, Michael M; Tooke, John E; Clough, Geraldine F; Shore, Angela C

    2006-01-01

    Maximum skin hyperaemia (MH) induced by heating skin to > or = 42 degrees C is impaired in individuals at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interpretation of these findings is hampered by the lack of clarity of the mechanisms involved in the attainment of MH. MH was achieved by local heating of skin to 42-43 degrees C for 30 min, and assessed by laser Doppler fluximetry. Using double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study designs, the roles of prostaglandins were investigated by inhibiting their production with aspirin and histamine, with the H1 receptor antagonist cetirizine. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME), and enhanced by sildenafil (prevents breakdown of cGMP). MH was not altered by aspirin, cetirizine or sildenafil, but was reduced by L-NAME: median placebo 4.48 V (25th, 75th centiles: 3.71, 4.70) versus L-NAME 3.25 V (3.10, 3.80) (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Inhibition of NO production (L-NAME) resulted in a more rapid reduction in hyperaemia after heating (p = 0.011), whereas hyperaemia was prolonged in the presence of sildenafil (p = 0.003). The increase in skin blood flow was largely confined to the directly heated area, suggesting that the role of heat-induced activation of the axon reflex was small. NO, but not prostaglandins, histamine or an axon reflex, contributes to the increase in blood flow on heating and NO is also a component of the resolution of MH after heating. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the local condensation heat transfer in a plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabenstein, V; Kabelac, S

    2012-01-01

    Plate heat exchanger (PHE) are today widely used in industrial heat transfer applications due to their good thermal performance, modest space requirement, easy accessibility to all areas and their lower capital and operating costs as compared to shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Although authoritative models for the design of PHE used as condensers are missing, the number of applications where a PHE is operating as a condenser increases. On the way to a reliable model based on physical approaches for the prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop during the condensation process inside a PHE, the flow and heat interactions as well as their dependence on the geometrical parameters of the corrugated plates and the operating conditions must be studied in detail. In this work the stepwise procedure for the fundamental construction of such a model is described. An experimental setup was built to analyze the characteristics of the two-phase-flow in PHE. A single gap, consisting of two transparent corrugated plates, was tested with a two-phase flow of air/water and also with boiling refrigerant R365mfc. Flow pattern maps were constructed for plates with corrugation angles of 27 and 63 degrees relative to the direction of flow. Investigations of the local heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drop were done with the same plates. The measurement of the local heat transfer coefficients was carried out by the use of the 'Temperature Oscillation InfraRed Thermography' (TOIRT) method. Based on these results three main flow patterns are defined: film flow, bubbly flow and slug flow. For each of the three flow patterns an own model for the heat transfer and pressure drop mechanism are developed and the heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor is calculated with different equations depending on the actual steam quality, mass flow and geometrical parameters by means of a flow pattern map. The theory of the flow pattern based prediction models is proved with own

  16. Localized Electron Heating by Strong Guide-Field Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuehan; Sugawara, Takumichi; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yamasaki, Kotaro; Ono, Yasushi; UTST Team

    2015-11-01

    Localized electron heating of magnetic reconnection was studied under strong guide-field (typically Bt 15Bp) using two merging spherical tokamak plasmas in Univ. Tokyo Spherical Tokamak (UTST) experiment. Our new slide-type two-dimensional Thomson scattering system documented for the first time the electron heating localized around the X-point. The region of high electron temperature, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field, was found to have a round shape with radius of 2 [cm]. Also, it was localized around the X-point and does not agree with that of energy dissipation term Et .jt . When we include a guide-field effect term Bt / (Bp + αBt) for Et .jt where α =√{ (vin2 +vout2) /v∥2 } , the energy dissipation area becomes localized around the X-point, suggesting that the electrons are accelerated by the reconnection electric field parallel to the magnetic field and thermalized around the X-point. This work was supported by JSPS A3 Foresight Program ``Innovative Tokamak Plasma Startup and Current Drive in Spherical Torus,'' a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.

  17. Response of melanoma to heat and radiation therapy--a review of the literature and experience from The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameghan, H; Knittel, T

    1988-11-07

    Our review of the literature indicates that radiotherapy and/or heat therapy can provide local control of recurrent or metastatic melanoma in a large proportion of patients. This has undoubted value in the local palliation of symptoms and, in the absence of disseminated disease, can be curative. At The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, we have studied the response of melanoma lesions to heat and radiation therapy and have assessed the reaction in the adjacent normal skin. Thirty-two melanoma lesions that were measurable in 12 patients received radiotherapy and heat therapy in different combinations and dose schedules (15 lesions received radiotherapy alone, six lesions received heat therapy alone, and 11 lesions received combined radiation and heat therapy). The acute normal skin reaction was compared between lesions that received single modality radiation or heat therapy and those that received the combination of heat and radiation therapy. A moderate or severe reaction developed at six of the 21 sites that were treated by a single modality, and at four of the 11 sites that received combined heat and radiation therapy (P = 0.7), and all healed within a few days. Evaluation of the melanoma response to therapy was possible only in 26 of the 32 lesions that were treated because two patients died soon after therapy and the response of their six lesions was not evaluable. A complete response occurred in 14 (54%) of 26 lesions and a partial response occurred in 10 (38%) of 26 lesions. The objective response by treatment modality was 10 of 15 lesions for radiotherapy, six of six lesions for heat therapy and eight of 11 lesions for both therapies combined. We conclude that radiotherapy and heat therapy, separately or combined, produce acceptably-low damage to normal tissue and highly-satisfactory local control of melanoma.

  18. Local heat transfer measurement and thermo-fluid characterization of a pulsating heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mameli, Mauro; Marengo, Marco; Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    A compact Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP), filled with ethanol (65% v/v), made of four transparent glass tubes forming the adiabatic section and connected with copper U-turns in the evaporator and condenser sections respectively, is designed in order to perform comprehensive thermal-hydraulic performance investigation. Local heat transfer coefficient is estimated by measurement of tube wall and internal fluid temperatures in the evaporator section. Simultaneously, fluid pressure oscillations are recorded together with the corresponding flow patterns. The thermal performances are measured for different heat input levels and global orientation of the device with respect to gravity. One exploratory test is also done with azeotropic mixture of ethanol and water. Results show that a stable device operation is achieved (i.e. evaporator wall temperatures can reach a pseudo-steady-state) only when a circulating flow mode is established superimposed on local pulsating flow. The heat transfer performance strongly depends on the heat input level and the inclination angle, which, in turn, also affect the ensuing flow pattern. The spectral analysis of the pressure signal reveals that even during the stable performance regimes, characteristic fluid oscillation frequencies are not uniquely recognizable. Equivalent thermal conductivities of the order of 10-15 times that of pure copper are achieved. Due to small number of turns horizontal mode operation is not feasible. Preliminary results indicate that filling azeotropic mixture of ethanol and water as working fluid does not alter the thermal performance as compared to pure ethanol case. (authors)

  19. Effect of three-dimensional deformations on local heat transfer to a nonuniformly heated falling film of liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnov, E.A.; Kabov, O.A.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental study on the heat transfer by the water film heated vertical flow is studied within the Reynolds number values from 1 to 45. The chart of the liquid film flow modes is plotted and the heat exchange areas are separated. The data on the dependence of the temperature of the heater walls and local heat flux at the heater symmetry axis on the longitudinal coordinate are obtained. The local heat exchange coefficients are measured. The comparison of the experimental data with the numerical calculations for the smooth film is carried out. The effect of the jet flow formation on the heat transfer to the liquid film is analyzed [ru

  20. The relationship between the local temperature and the local heat flux within a one-dimensional semi-infinite domain of heat wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulish Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the local temperature and the local heat flux has been established for the homogeneous hyperbolic heat equation. This relationship has been written in the form of a convolution integral involving the modified Bessel functions. The scale analysis of the hyperbolic energy equation has been performed and the dimensionless criterion for the mode of energy transport, similar to the Reynolds criterion for the flow regimes, has been proposed. Finally, the integral equation, relating the local temperature and the local heat flux, has been solved numerically for those processes of surface heating whose time scale is of the order of picoseconds.

  1. Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Smith, Ronald B.; Oleson, Keith

    2014-07-01

    The urban heat island (UHI), a common phenomenon in which surface temperatures are higher in urban areas than in surrounding rural areas, represents one of the most significant human-induced changes to Earth's surface climate. Even though they are localized hotspots in the landscape, UHIs have a profound impact on the lives of urban residents, who comprise more than half of the world's population. A barrier to UHI mitigation is the lack of quantitative attribution of the various contributions to UHI intensity (expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas, ΔT). A common perception is that reduction in evaporative cooling in urban land is the dominant driver of ΔT (ref. 5). Here we use a climate model to show that, for cities across North America, geographic variations in daytime ΔT are largely explained by variations in the efficiency with which urban and rural areas convect heat to the lower atmosphere. If urban areas are aerodynamically smoother than surrounding rural areas, urban heat dissipation is relatively less efficient and urban warming occurs (and vice versa). This convection effect depends on the local background climate, increasing daytime ΔT by 3.0 +/- 0.3 kelvin (mean and standard error) in humid climates but decreasing ΔT by 1.5 +/- 0.2 kelvin in dry climates. In the humid eastern United States, there is evidence of higher ΔT in drier years. These relationships imply that UHIs will exacerbate heatwave stress on human health in wet climates where high temperature effects are already compounded by high air humidity and in drier years when positive temperature anomalies may be reinforced by a precipitation-temperature feedback. Our results support albedo management as a viable means of reducing ΔT on large scales.

  2. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkin MJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary Jane Minkin,1 Ricardo Maamari,2 Suzanne Reiter3 1Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, NJ, USA; 3Mid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USA Abstract: Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ≥18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ≥1 year or with a double oophorectomy, and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1–6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator], completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88% and applied it at bedtime (71%, a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes. Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%, or lower-than-recommended doses (45%, most frequently to avoid messiness (33% or leakage (30%. More tablet users (69% than cream users (14% were "extremely satisfied" with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which

  3. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  4. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  5. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  6. Research on suitable heating conditions during local PWHT. Pt. 1. Influence of heating conditions on temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Jinkichi; Horii, Yukihiko; Sato, Masanobu; Murakawa, Hidekazu; Wang Jianhua

    1999-01-01

    To improve weld joint properties a heat treatment so called post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is often implemented for steel weldment. Generally, the PWHT is conducted in a furnace at a factory. But in site welds such as the girth joint of pipe, a local PWHT is applied using electric heater and so on. In the local PWHT steep temperature gradient occurs depending on the heating condition and it leads to rise of the thermal stress in addition to the welding residual stress. However, heating condition is not always defined the same in some standards. Therefore, suitable heat conditions for the local PWHT were studied supposing the power plant and so on experimentally and theoretically. Temperature distribution and thermal strains under different heating conditions were measured during the local PWHT using carbon steel pipes of 340 mm in diameter and 53 mm in wall thickness. The temperature gradient, thermal strain were also analyzed using Finite Element Method (FEM) as axis-symmetric model. Further, the influences of pipe size and heat transfer coefficient on the temperature distribution were analyzed and suitable heating source widths for various pipe sizes were proposed from the viewpoint of temperature distribution. (orig.)

  7. Feasibility study of local ultrasound hyperthermia in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.G.; Straube, W.; Emami, B.; Perez, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a retrospective analysis of patients treated at Washington University for recurrent or persistent cancer with Ultrasound Hyperthermia between October 1984 and June 1986. Fifteen of 102 lesions were treated during this time period with Ultrasound Hyperthermia instead of microwave hyperthermia due to the size of the lesion needing heat at depths greater than 4 cm. Also, the patients' lesion could not be implanted for interstitial microwave hyperthermia. Fourteen of the treated patients received concomitant radiotherapy, while one received concomitant Bleomycin. There were 79 total hyperthermia treatments delivered, of which 67 achieved a therapeutic temperature of 43 0 C for 60 minutes. During 15/79 treatments, patients experienced pain; of which 11/15 lead to poor heating. Only one treatment of the twelve poor treatments was secondary to technical difficulties. Complete local control was accomplished in seven patients, a partial response in four patients. The results of therapeutic heating and its relationship to the site of treatment and local control are presented, along with phantom studies of Ultrasound microwave hyperthermia reemphasizing the feasibility of using Ultrasound Hyperthermia

  8. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertürk, M. Arcan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Division of MR Research, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A., E-mail: bottoml@mri.jhu.edu [Division of MR Research, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  9. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  10. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  11. Excellent local tumor response after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Y. C.; Lim, D. H.; Choi, D. R.; Kim, D. K.; Kim, D. Y.; Huh, S. J.; Baek, C. H.; Chu, K. C.; Yoon, S. S.; Park, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    This study is to report experience with Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (FSRT) for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer after curative conventional radiation therapy. Three patients with locally recurrent and symptomatic nasopharynx cancer were given FSRT as reirradiation method between the period of September of 1995 and August of 1996. For two patients, application of FSRT is their third radiation therapy directed to the nasopharynx. Two patients were given low dose chemotherapy as radiation sensitizer concurrently with FSRT. Authors used 3-dimensional coordinate system by individually made, relocatable Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) stereotactic frame and multiple non-coplanar arc therapy dose planning was done using XKnife-3. Total of 45 Gy/18 fractions or 50 Gy/20 fractions were given. Authors observed satisfactory symptomatic improvement and remarkable objective tumor size decrease by follow-up MR images taken 1 month post-FSRT in all three patients, while no neurologic side effect attributable to reirradiation was noticed. Two died at 7 and 9 months with loco-regional and distant seeding outside FSRT field, while one patient is living for 4 month. Authors experienced satisfactory therapeutic effectiveness and safety of FSRT as reirradiation method for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer. Development of more effective systemic chemotherapeutic regimen is desired for distant metastasis. (author)

  12. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  13. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy: a comparative study of heating for different particle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattani, Varun P; Tunnell, James W

    2012-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles enhance photothermal therapy of tumors. In this procedure, systemically delivered gold nanoparticles preferentially accumulate at the tumor site and when irradiated using laser light, produce localized heat sufficient to damage tumor cells. Gold nanoshells and nanorods have been widely studied for this purpose, and while both exhibit strong NIR absorption, their overall absorption and scattering properties differ widely due to their geometry. In this paper, we compared the photothermal response of both nanoparticle types including the heat generation and photothermal efficiency. Tissue simulating phantoms, with varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles, were irradiated with a near-infrared diode laser while concurrently monitoring the surface temperature with an infrared camera. We calculated nanoshell and nanorod optical properties using the Mie solution and the discrete dipole approximation, respectively. In addition, we measured the heat generation of nanoshells and nanorods at the same optical density to determine the photothermal transduction efficiency for both nanoparticle types. We found that the gold nanoshells produced more heat than gold nanorods at equivalent number densities (# of nanoparticles/ml), whereas the nanorods generated more heat than nanoshells at equivalent extinction values at the irradiance wavelength. To reach an equivalent heat generation, we found that it was necessary to have ∼36× more nanorods than nanoshells. However, the gold nanorods were found to have two times the photothermal transduction efficiency than the gold nanoshells. For the nanoparticles tested, the nanoshells generated more heat, per nanoparticle, than nanorods, primarily due to their overall larger geometric cross-section. Conversely, we found that the gold nanorods had a higher photothermal efficiency than the gold nanoshells. In conclusion, the ideal choice of plasmonic nanoparticle requires not only per

  14. Local pool boiling heat transfer on a 3 Degree inclined tube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied for a long time. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for the purpose of acquiring inherent safety functions in case of no power supply. To design more efficient heat exchangers, effects of several parameters on heat transfer must be studied in detail. One of the major issues is variation in local heat transfer coefficients on a tube. Lance and Myers reported that the type of boiling liquid can change the trend of local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery. Lance and Myers said that as the liquid is methanol the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom while the maximum was at the tube sides as the boiling liquid was n hexane. Corn well and Einarsson reported that the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom, as the boiling liquid was R113. Corn well and Houston explained the reason of the difference in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube circumference with introducing effects of sliding bubbles on heat transfer. According to Gu pta et al., the maximum and the minimum local heat transfer coefficients were observed at the bottom and top regions of the tube circumference, respectively, using a tube bundle and water. Kang also reported the similar results using a single horizontal tube and water. However, the maximum heat transfer coefficient was observed at the angle of 45 deg. Sateesh et al. investigated variations in local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery as the inclination angle was changed. Summarizing the published results, some parts are still remaining to be investigated in detail. Although pool boiling analysis on a nearly horizontal tube is necessary for the design of the advanced power reactor plus, no previous results are published yet. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study variations in local pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for a 3 degree inclined

  15. Locally advanced cervix carcinoma - innovation in combined modality therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Patrick S.

    1996-01-01

    Locally advanced cervical carcinoma continues to be a challenge to the clinician due to local failure as well as systemic metastases. Standard intracavitary and external beam techniques result in local control rates of only 35-65%, with long term survival rates of 25-60% in patients with state IIIA-IVA disease, indicating the need to identify new treatment strategies. Optimization programs for remote-afterloading interstitial brachytherapy allow the delivery of higher local doses of radiation to volumes that more closely approximate tumor target volumes as identified on MR scans, leading to improved therapeutic ratios. Identification of subsets of patients more likely to fail standard therapy, either locally or systemically, may be possible through such techniques as in vivo measurements of hypoxia with Eppendorf oxygen electrodes, interstitial fluid pressure measurements, the Comet assay, and nitroimidazole binding methods. Traditional chemotherapies, administered in either a neoadjuvant role or concomitantly with radiation have been disappointing in prospective trials. A variety of new agents are being investigated to determine if they can increase the frequency or duration of complete response. The taxanes, with response rates of 17-23% by themselves, are being assessed as potential radiosensitizers. The camptotheicin CRT-11 (Irinotecan) has demonstrated activity in platinum resistant cervix cancer, with response rates of 24%. Bioradiotherapeutic approaches, using 13-cis-retinoic acid and interferon-2a, are undergoing phase II studies. Neoangiogenesis inhibitors and vaccines against HPV are also being examined. The aggressive pursuit of techniques that help identify those patients most likely to fail, that allow the delivery of higher radiation doses more safely to the target volume, and that incorporate the use of more effective systemic therapies is necessary to improve the outcome for this disease

  16. Cold local heating. Agrothermal heat supply of an ecovillage; Kalt Nahwaerme. Agrothermische Waermeversorgung einer Plusenergiesiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietruschka, Dirk [Hochschule fuer Technik Stuttgart (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Nachhaltige Energietechnik; Kluge, Juergen [Doppelacker GmbH, Petershagen-Eggersdorf (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    An ecovillage with highly efficient residential buildings is arisen in the Swabian community Wuestenrot. The power generation in these residential buildings by means of photovoltaic power plants is greater than the energy consumption. Decentralized heat plants supply thermal energy for the space heating and industrial waste. Central agrothermal collectors provide the necessary low-temperature heat for the effective operation of heat pumps over a so-called cold heat grid.

  17. The non-differentiable solution for local fractional Laplace equation in steady heat-conduction problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the local fractional Laplace equation in the steady heat-conduction problem. The solutions involving the non-differentiable graph are obtained by using the characteristic equation method (CEM via local fractional derivative. The obtained results are given to present the accuracy of the technology to solve the steady heat-conduction in fractal media.

  18. Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Cancer therapy by localized immune response, Magneto -rehological Fluids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cahit Evrensel...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing

  19. Improving the performance of district heating systems by utilization of local heat boosters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, A.; Dominkovic, D. F.; Pedersen, A. S.

    was to evaluate the possibilities to lower the forward temperature of the heat supply in order to reduce the heat losses of the system. Booster heat pumps are introduced to increase the water temperature close to the final users. A Matlab model was developed to simulate the state of the case study DH network...... was set to minimize the system heat losses. * Corresponding author 0303-1 1 This goal was achieved by lowering the forward temperature to 40°C and relying on the installed heat pumps to boost the water temperature to the admissible value needed for the domestic hot water preparation. Depending......District Heating (DH) plays an important role into the Danish energy green transition towards the future sustainable energy systems. The new, 4 th generation district heating network, the so called Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH), tends to lower the supply temperature of the heat down to 40...

  20. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Nicolucci, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  1. Local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients during the heat treatment of a workpiece in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W.M.; Kong, L.X.; Hodgson, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    The heat-transfer coefficients around a workpiece immersed in an electrically heated heat treatment fluidised bed were studied. A suspension probe designed to simulate a workpiece of complex geometry was developed to measure local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients at a high bed temperature. The probe consisted of an energy-storage region separated by insulation from the fluidised bed, except for the measuring surface, and a multi-thermocouple measurement system. Experiments in the fluidised bed were performed for a fluidising medium of 120-mesh alumina, a wide temperature range of 110-1050 deg. C and a fluidising number range of 1.18-4.24. It was found that the workpiece surface temperature has a more significant effect on heat transfer than the bed temperature. The total heat-transfer coefficient at the upper surface of the workpiece sharply decreased at the start of heating, and then steadily increased as heating progressed, while a sharp decrease became a rapid increase and then a slow increase for the radiative heat-transfer coefficient. A great difference in the heat-transfer coefficients around the workpiece was observed

  2. Chitosan in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Focus on Local Vaginal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances.

  3. Simulation of air-heated evaporators using a method of local analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, J.A.R.; Cartwright, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    The development and application of an analytical method for the performance prediction of air-heated evaporators are presented. A local analysis is employed in which the evaporator is considered as a three dimensional matrix of elementary heat transfer modules. For each element, local film coefficients for both air and the evaporating fluid are determined appropriate to the local conditions, including the two-phase flow regime. An application of the method is considered. (Author) [pt

  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy for locally advanced gynecological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddock, M.G.; Petersen, I.A.; Webb, M.J.; Wilson, T.O.; Podratz, K.C.; Gunderson, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate disease control and survival in patients with locally advanced gynecological malignancies who received intraoperative radiation therapy with electrons (IOERT) as a component of treatment. Methods and Materials: Between March 1983 and June 1995, 63 patients (pts) with locally advanced primary (9 pts) or recurrent (54 pts) gynecological malignancies received IOERT as a component of attempted curative therapy. The site of origin was uterine cervix in 40 pts, uterine corpus in 16 pts, vagina in 5 pts, and ovary in 2 pts. Thirty-eight patients with recurrent disease had been previously irradiated (median prior RT dose 5040 cGy, range 900-8400). External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was given to 43 of 63 pts either before or after IOERT (900-6570 cGy, median 4960 cGy). Chemotherapy was given to 21 pts prior to IOERT and following IOERT in 2 pts. IOERT doses ranged from 800 cGy to 2500 cGy with a median of 1750 cGy. The median IOERT dose was 2000 cGy in 20 patients with gross residual disease and 1500 cGy in 43 patients with microscopic residual disease. Endpoints included central control within the IOERT cone, local control, distant failure, disease free survival and overall survival. Variables evaluated for impact on disease outcome included tumor grade, primary site, prior RT, IOERT dose, EBRT dose, residual disease at time of IOERT, and use of chemotherapy. Results: Survival and disease control data are presented in the table below. There was no impact of any disease or treatment related variable on local or central failure. Pts with microscopic residual disease at the time of IOERT had significantly fewer distant metastases than pts with gross residual (5 yr 31% vs. 77%, p = 0.001) and improved survival (5 yr 37% vs. 10%, p = 0.02). Patients with recurrent disease after previous RT had survival and disease control rates which were similar to those seen in pts without priot RT. Toxicity ≥ grade 3 due to IOERT was observed in 11 pts (17%). Conclusion: A

  5. Localized Electrical Heating System for Various Types of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelehov, I. Y.; Smirnov, E. I.; Inozemsev, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents an overview of the factors determining the establishment of zones with high temperature in industrial, public and administrative buildings. The authors state the task on the improvement of the electric energy use efficiency and cost savings associated with the heating of these buildings by infrared electric heater devices. Materials and methods: The experiments were conducted in a room with the sizes of 3x6 m2 with a ceiling height of 3 m, the concrete floor was covered with laminate, in which increments of 250 mm were drilled and installed the thermocouple. In the process, had used the patented heating element with distributed heating layer. Signals from the thermocouples were recorded by instruments of the firm “ARIES” brand TPM138 with the standard software delivered together with devices (Owen Process Manager). The obtained distributions of the temperature fields were imported into MS Excel. Control voltage, current consumption, power was carried out by the device of firm “ARIES” brand of IMS. The results of the study: the article defines the purpose of the study and carried out the characterization of infrared heaters with various types of heating elements. The authors detail the main parameters of different types of infrared heaters, evaluated its possibility for application in other areas where the need to create areas of increased temperature. Discussion and conclusion: the result of this work it was determined that heating appliances that use patented heating element with distributed heating layer, improve thermal performance and bring you maximum comfort at a much greater distance compared to existing similar devices

  6. Calculation of local bed to wall heat transfer in a fluidized-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkis, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    Surface to bed heat transfer in a fluidized-bed largely depends upon its local and global hydrodynamical behavior including particle velocity, particle trajectory, gas velocity, and void fraction. In this study, a computer program was developed in order to calculate the local bed to wall heat transfer, by accounting for the local and global instantaneous hydrodynamics of the bed. This is accomplished by utilizing the CHEMFLUB computer program. This information at a given location is interpreted so that the most appropriate heat transfer model is utilized for each time increment. These instantaneous heat transfer coefficient for the given location. Repeating the procedure for different locations, a space average heat transfer coefficient is also calculated. This report briefly summarizes the various heat transfer models employed and gives sample computer results reporting the case study for Mickley - Trilling's experimental set-up. Comparisons with available experimental data and correlations are also provided in order to compare and evaluate the computer results

  7. Local heat transfer where heated rods touch in axially flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, S.J.

    1983-05-01

    An anlaytic model is developed to predict the azimuthal width of a stablesteam blanket region near the line of contact between two heated rods cooled by axially flowing water at high pressure. The model is intended to aid analysis of reduced surface heat transfer capability for the abnormal configuration of nuclear fuel rods bowed into contact in the core of a pressurized water nuclear reactor. The analytic model predicts the azimuthal width of the steam blanket zone having reduced surface heat transfer as a function of rod average heat flux, subchannel coolant conditions and rod dimensions. The analytic model is developed from a heat balance between the heat generated in the wall of a heated empty tube and the heat transported away by transverse mixing and axial convection in the coolant subchannel. The model is developed for seveal geometries including heated rods in line contact, a heated rod touching a short insulating plane and a heated rod touching the inside of a metal guide tube

  8. Response of eddy activities to localized diabatic heating in Held-Suarez simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanluan; Zhang, Jishi; Li, Xingrui; Deng, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Widespread air pollutions, such as black carbon over East Asia in recent years, could induce a localized diabatic heating, and thus lead to localized static stability and meridional temperature gradient (MTG) changes. Although effect of static stability and MTG on eddies has been addressed by the linear baroclinic instability theory, impacts of a localized heating on mid-latitude eddy activities have not been well explored and quantified. Via a series of idealized global Held-Suarez simulations with different magnitudes of localized heating at different altitudes and latitudes, responses of mid-latitude eddy activity and circulation to these temperature perturbations are systematically investigated. Climatologically, the localized heating in the lower atmosphere induces a wave-like response of eddy activity near the mid-latitude jet stream. Over the heating region, eddy activity tends to be weakening due to the increased static stability. However, there are cyclonic anomalies over the upstream and downstream of the heating region. The zonal mean eddy activity weakens along the baroclinic zone due to reduced MTG and increased static stability. Furthermore, the response of eddy activity increased as the heating magnitude is increased and moved to higher altitudes. The influence of the heating decreases as the heating is prescribed further away from the climatological mid-latitude jet. This implies that the localized heating is most effective over the region with the maximum baroclinicity. Besides, enhanced storm track downstream of the localized heating area found here suggests that increased aerosols over East Asia might strengthen the North Pacific storm track.

  9. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing heating comfort is minimised. The private solution may deviate from the socio-economical optimal solution and we suggest changes to policy to incentivise the individuals to make choices more in line with the socio-economic optimal mix of energy savings and technologies. The households can combine their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due to a combination of low costs of primary fuel and low environmental performance of woodstoves today, included health costs lead to decreased use of secondary heating. Overall the interdependence of heat generation technology- and heat saving-choice is significant. The total optimal level of heat savings for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. - Highlights: • Heat saving investment and heat technology choice are interdependent. • Health damage costs should be included in private heating choice optimisation. • Flexibility in heating technology choice reduce the optimal level of saving investments. • Models of private and socioeconomic optimal heating produce different technology mix. • Rebound effects are moderate but varies greatly among consumer categories

  10. Optimization of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; From, Niels

    2011-01-01

    are calculated for various local fuels in energyPRO. A comparison has been made between the reference model and the basis for individual solutions. The greatest reduction in heat price is obtained by replacing one engine with a new biogas where heat production is divided by 66% of biogas, 13% natural gas engines......, an investigation has been made to reduce the use of fossil fuels for district heating system and make use of the local renewable resources (Biogas, Solar and Geothermal) for district heating purpose. In this article, the techno-economic assessment is achieved through the development of a suite of models...

  11. The effects of topical heat therapy on chest pain in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ali; Mohammadian, Batol; Basiri Moghadam, Mehdi; Nematollahi, Mahmoud Reza

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of local heat therapy on chest pain in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Chest pain is a very common complaint in patients with acute coronary syndrome. It is managed both pharmacologically and nonpharmacologically. Pharmacological pain management is associated with different side effects. This was a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 2013. A convenience sample of 66 patients with acute coronary syndrome was selected from a coronary care unit of a local teaching hospital affiliated to Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the placebo group. Patients in the experimental and the placebo groups received local heat therapy using a hot pack warmed to 50 and 37 °C, respectively. We assessed chest pain intensity, duration and frequency as well as the need for opioid analgesic therapy both before and after the study. The study instrument consisted of a demographic questionnaire, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and a data sheet for documenting pain frequency and duration as well as the need for analgesic therapy. The placebo heat therapy did not significantly decrease the intensity, the duration and the frequency of pain episodes. However, pain intensity, duration and frequency in the experimental group decreased significantly after the study. Moreover, the groups differed significantly in terms of the need for opioid analgesic therapy neither before nor after the intervention. Local heat therapy is an effective intervention for preventing and relieving chest pain in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Effective pain management using local heat therapy could help nurses play an important role in providing effective care to patients with acute coronary syndrome and in minimising adverse effects associated with pain medications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Solving fractal steady heat-transfer problems with the local fractional Sumudu transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the linear oscillator problem in fractal steady heat-transfer is studied within the local fractional theory. In particular, the local fractional Sumudu transform (LFST will be used to solve both the homogeneous and the non-homogeneous local fractional oscillator equations (LFOEs under fractal steady heat-transfer. It will be shown that the obtained non-differentiable solutions characterize the fractal phenomena with and without the driving force in fractal steady heat transfer at low excess temperatures.

  13. The impact of heat waves on surface urban heat island and local economy in Cluj-Napoca city, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Ioana; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Rus, Adina Viorica; Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Ciupertea, Antoniu-Flavius; Rus, Ionuţ

    2017-07-01

    The association between heat waves and the urban heat island effect can increase the impact on environment and society inducing biophysical hazards. Heat stress and their associated public health problems are among the most frequent. This paper explores the heat waves impact on surface urban heat island and on the local economy loss during three heat periods in Cluj-Napoca city in the summer of 2015. The heat wave events were identified based on daily maximum temperature, and they were divided into three classes considering the intensity threshold: moderate heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 90th percentile), severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature over the 95th percentile), and extremely severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 98th percentile). The minimum length of an event was of minimum three consecutive days. The surface urban heat island was detected based on land surface temperature derived from Landsat 8 thermal infrared data, while the economic impact was estimated based on data on work force structure and work productivity in Cluj-Napoca derived from the data released by Eurostat, National Bank of Romania, and National Institute of Statistics. The results indicate that the intensity and spatial extension of surface urban heat island could be governed by the magnitude of the heat wave event, but due to the low number of satellite images available, we should consider this information only as preliminary results. Thermal infrared remote sensing has proven to be a very efficient method to study surface urban heat island, due to the fact that the synoptic conditions associated with heat wave events usually favor cloud free image. The resolution of the OLI_TIRS sensor provided good results for a mid-extension city, but the low revisiting time is still a drawback. The potential economic loss was calculated for the working days during heat waves and the estimated loss reached more than 2.5 mil. EUR for each heat wave day

  14. Use of lipid emulsion therapy in local anesthetic overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Karcioglu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE therapy as antidote in systemic toxicity of certain agents has gained widespread support. There are increasing data suggesting use of ILE in reversing from local anesthetic-induced systemic toxicity severe, life-threatening cardiotoxicity, although findings are contradictory. Efficiency of ILE was demonstrated in animal studies in the treatment of severe impairment of cardiac functions, via a mechanism for trapping lipophilic drugs in an expanded plasma lipid compartment (“lipid sink”. In patients with hemodynamic compromise and/or cardiovascular collapse due to lipid-soluble agents, ILE may be considered for resuscitation in the acute setting by emergency physicians. The most common adverse effects from standard ILE include hypertriglyceridemia, fat embolism, infection, vein irritation, pancreatitis, electrolyte disturbances and allergic reactions. The advantages of ILE include an apparent wide margin of safety, relatively low cost, long shelf-life, and ease of administration.

  15. Prediction of critical heat flux by a new local condition hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J. H.; Jun, K. D.; Sim, J. W.; Deng, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux(CHF) was predicted for uniformly heated vertical round tube by a new local condition hypothesis which incorporates a local true steam quality. This model successfully overcame the difficulties in predicted the subcooled and quality CHF by the thermodynamic equilibrium quality. The local true steam quality is a dependent variable of the thermodynamic equilibrium quality at the exit and the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization(OSV). The exit thermodynamic equilibrium quality was obtained from the heat balance, and the quality at OSV was obtained from the Saha-Zuber correlation. In the past CHF has been predicted by the experimental correlation based on local or non-local condition hypothesis. This preliminary study showed that all the available world data on uniform CHF could be predicted by the model based on the local condition hypothesis

  16. Thermal Heat and Power Production with Models for Local and Regional Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Sturla

    1999-07-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is the description and modelling of combined heat and power systems as well as analyses of thermal dominated systems related to benefits of power exchange. Large power plants with high power efficiency (natural gas systems) and heat production in local heat pumps can be favourable in areas with low infrastructure of district heating systems. This system is comparable with typical combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on natural gas with respect to efficient use of fuel energy. The power efficiency obtainable from biomass and municipal waste is relatively low and the advantage of CHP for this system is high compared to pure power production with local heat pumps for heat generation. The advantage of converting pure power systems into CHP systems is best for power systems with low power efficiency and heat production at low temperature. CHP systems are divided into two main groups according to the coupling of heat and power production. Some CHP systems, especially those with strong coupling between heat and power production, may profit from having a thermal heat storage subsystem. District heating temperatures direct the heat to power ratio of the CHP units. The use of absorption chillers driven by district heating systems are also evaluated with respect to enhancing the utilisation of district heating in periods of low heat demand. Power exchange between a thermal dominated and hydropower system is found beneficial. Use of hydropower as a substitute for peak power production in thermal dominated systems is advantageous. Return of base load from the thermal dominated system to the hydropower system can balance in the net power exchange.

  17. Early experience of proton beam therapy combined with chemotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Youjirou; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Takada, Akinori; Takayama, Kanako; Makita, Chiyoko; Suzuki, Motohisa; Azami, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Fuwa, Nobukazu

    2013-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, 10 patients with advanced oropharyngeal cancer underwent proton therapy combined with chemotherapy. The initial results of this therapy were 8 complete response (CR) and 2 partial response (PR), local recurrence was detected 1 patient. Proton beam therapy combined with chemotherapy is thought to be an effective treatment for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. (author)

  18. Reversed shear Alfven eigenmode stabilization by localized electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zeeland, M A; Hyatt, A W; Lohr, J; Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608 San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Heidbrink, W W [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Nazikian, R; Solomon, W M; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Berk, H L [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Holcomb, C T; Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); McKee, G R [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Sharapov, S E [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rhodes, T L [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, 90095 (United States)], E-mail: vanzeeland@fusion.gat.com

    2008-03-15

    Reversed shear Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) activity in DIII-D is stabilized by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) applied near the minimum of the magnetic safety factor (q{sub min}) in neutral beam heated discharges with reversed-magnetic shear. The degree of RSAE stabilization, fast ion density and the volume averaged neutron production (S{sub n}) are highly dependent on ECH deposition location relative to q{sub min}. While discharges with ECH stabilization of RSAEs have higher S{sub n} and more peaked fast ion profiles than discharges with significant RSAE activity, neutron production remains strongly reduced (up to 60% relative to TRANSP predictions assuming classical fast ion transport) even when RSAEs are stabilized.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    are calculated using the same procedure according to the use of various local renewable fuels known as “biogas option,” “solar option,” “heat pump option,” and “imported heat option.” A comparison has been made between the reference option and other options. The greatest reduction in heat cost is obtained from......, an investigation has been made to reduce the use of fossil fuels for district heating system and make use of the local renewable resources (biogas, solar, and heat pump) for district heating purposes. In this article, the techno-economic assessment is achieved through the development of a suite of models...... the biogas option by replacing a new engine, where 66 % of the current fuel is substituted with biogas....

  20. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  1. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  2. Hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: options for localization and surgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Todd P W; Learoyd, Diana L; Williams, David C; Sywak, Mark S; Sidhu, Stan B; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2010-08-01

    Hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy is a threat to the health of both mother and fetus. The mothers suffer commonly from nephrolithiasis, hyperemesis, or even hypercalcemic crisis. Untreated disease will commonly complicate fetal development and fetal death is a significant risk. Treatment options, including medical and surgical therapy, are debated in the literature. This is a case series comprising seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy. Data collected included symptoms at diagnosis, biochemical abnormalities, pathologic findings, treatment regimes, and subsequent maternal and fetal outcomes. Seven women, aged 20 to 39 years, presented with hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy. The earliest presented at 8 weeks and the latest at 38 weeks. Four of seven patients experienced renal calculi. Calcium levels were 2.7-3.5 mmol/l. All were found to have solitary parathyroid adenomas, of which two were in ectopic locations. Fetal complications included three preterm deliveries and one fetal death with no cases of neonatal tetany. Maternal and fetal complications could not be predicted based on duration or severity of hypercalcemia. Three patients were treated during pregnancy with surgery, and two of these had ectopic glands that required reoperations with a novel approach using Tc-99m sestamibi scanning during pregnancy to assist in localizing the abnormal gland. Four cases were treated postpartum with a combination of open and minimally invasive approaches after localization. No operative complications or fetal loss related to surgery were observed in this cohort. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy represents a significant risk for maternal and fetal complications that cannot be predicted by duration of symptoms or serum calcium levels. Surgical treatment should be considered early, and a minimally invasive approach with ultrasound is best suited to mitigating risk to mother and fetus. Equally important, Tc-99m sestamibi imaging may be used

  3. Effect of local heat flux spikes on DNB in non-uniformly heated rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadek, F.F.; Hill, K.W.; Motley, F.E.

    1975-02-01

    High pressure water tests were carried out to measure the DNB heat flux using an electrically heated rod bundle in which three adjacent rods had 20 percent heat flux spikes at the axial location where DNB is most likely to occur. This test series was run at the same conditions as those of two earlier test series which had unspiked rods, so that spiked and unspiked runs could be paired and spike effects could thus be isolated. Results are described. 7 references. (U.S.)

  4. A local heating system using wood fuel from farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Kurvinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a part of the a project on sustainable biomass utilization chains. The project belongs to a larger group of studies on northern biomass utilization by the Thule Institute and the University of Oulu. A cooperative energy society working in the municipality of Perho (3400 inhabitants) in Finland has been studied in this report. The cooperative energy society delivers energy which is generated from wood chips to the Perho municipality. Generated energy has a competitive price compared with fuel oils. In addition, harvesting, chipping and transporting give the members of the society an extra income. Members need not to make any investments in new equipment in order to work in the co-operative society because the machinery needed is the same as the one they use for other forestry activities. The price of the energy generated by wood chips is bound to the price of alternative fuels. There is a 5 MW district heating plant in Perho municipality containing a 1.4 MW solid fuel fired boiler with grate and 1.6 MW and 2.0 MW oil fired boilers. An investment in a heating plant containing a solid fuel fired boiler is often many times greater than that of one containing an oil fired boiler. There are many advantages which are hard to evaluate in generating energy from wood fuel. E.g. employment, increased income from taxes, an increase in the cash flow in the municipality and the advantages for forest growth. When undersized trees are removed from a forest stand, the remaining trees will grow better. The advantage of forestry is, however, hard to evaluate in cash terms. There has been an estimate that the advantage is 50-100 FIM/ha/a when compared to the yield of unthinned pine forest. Studies have shown that the money paid for energy in the area may be recycled several times in purchasing products and services in the area. In Perho municipality, it has been estimated that over half million FIM of extra cash has been generated and invested in the area by the

  5. Sensitivities Affecting Heat and Urban Heat Island Effect on Local Scale Projected to Neighborhood Scale in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Scott, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban regions are often impacted more by heat than adjacent rural areas, which is a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban areas are also highly heterogeneous and notoriously difficult to monitor using standard meteorological protocols—the hottest microclimates within a city often occur in locations that lack open, representative installation sites that are an adequate distance from buildings and direct heat sources. To investigate the challenges of monitoring urban heat, this study examines the sensitivity of temperature and humidity sensors currently used in a Baltimore UHI monitoring network to differences in sun exposure, material on which the data collecting instrument is attached, and land cover class of the vicinity. Sensitivity to sun exposure and attachment site can be interpreted as sources of uncertainty for urban heat monitoring, while sensitivity to land cover may reflect a true source of local temperature and humidity variability. In this study, we present results from a test deployment designed to assess the sensitivity of heat measurements to each of these three factors. We then apply these results to interpret measurements taken across the entire Baltimore UHI monitoring network. These results can then be used to improve heat measurements and more accurately represent and quantify the UHI effect on a broader scale, such as in neighborhoods or urban centers.

  6. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  7. A technical basis for the flux corrected local conditions critical heat flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The so-called 'flux-corrected' local conditions CHF correlation was developed at Ontario Hydro in the 1980's and was demonstrated to successfully correlate the Onset of Intermittent Dryout (OID) CHF data for 37-element fuel with a downstream-skewed axial heat flux distribution. However, because the heat flux correction factor appeared to be an ad-hoc, albeit a successful modifying factor in the correlation, there was reluctance to accept the correlation more generally. This paper presents a thermalhydraulic basis, derived from two-phase flow considerations, that supports the appropriateness of the heat flux correction as a local effects modifying factor. (author)

  8. The effect of heat transfer laws and thermal conductances on the local stability of an endoreversible heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Vargas, L; Reyes-Ramirez, I; Sanchez, N

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper (Santillan et al 2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 2068-72) the local stability of a Curzon-Ahlborn-Novikov (CAN) engine with equal conductances in the coupling with thermal baths was analysed. In this work, we present a local stability analysis of an endoreversible engine operating at maximum power output, for common heat transfer laws, and for different heat conductances α and β, in the isothermal couplings of the working substance with the thermal sources T 1 and T 2 (T 1 > T 2 ). We find that the relaxation times, in the cases analysed here, are a function of α, β, the heat capacity C, T 1 and T 2 . Besides, the eigendirections in a phase portrait are also functions of τ = T 1 /T 2 and the ratio β/α. From these findings, phase portraits for the trajectories after a small perturbation over the steady-state values of internal temperatures are presented, for some significant situations. Finally, we discuss the local stability and energetic properties of the endoreversible CAN heat engine

  9. Experimental determination of the local heat transfer coefficient in a closely packed pin arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1982-09-01

    The determination of the heat transfer coefficient of the pins of the Spallation Neutron Source is a very important problem for the development of this facility, as data for thermal and structural studies. For this purpose, a test apparatus was built, in scale 1:1, for the simulation of the thermal and hydraulical conditions of the Neutron Source. This apparatus is a pin bank, with one of the pins electrically heated. Performance of measurements gave the values for the heat transfer coefficient, here presented in the Nusselt Number form, and its local distribution. Results show the linear dependence of Nusselt Number on Reynolds Number, for a constant heat production. (orig.) [de

  10. Heat pulse analysis in JET and relation to local energy transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Han, W.; Sack, C.; Taroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of a perturbation T e of the electron temperature depends on the linearised expression of the heat flux q e and may be not simply related to the local value of the electron heat conductivity χ e . It is possible that local heat transport models predicting similar temperature profiles and global energy confinement properties, imply a different propagation of heat pulses. We investigate here this possibility for the case of two models developed at JET. We also present results obtained at JET on a set of discharges covering the range of currents from 2 to 5 MA. Only L-modes, limiter discharges are considered here. Experimental results on the scaling of χ HP , the value of χ e related to heat pulse propagation, are compared with those of χ HP derived from the models. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Post-operative radiation therapy for locally advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yoshida, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcomes of post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) after radical surgery for locally advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma. From August 2000 to July 2009, 62 patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated with radical surgery followed by PORT in our institute. All patients were followed up for more than 6 months or until any events. All patients underwent a total laryngectomy and neck node dissection prior to PORT. There were 55 male and 7 female patients, with ages ranging from 45 to 82 years (median: 64). Pathologic stage was IVA in 55 and IVB in 7 patients. Irradiation dose ranged from 46 to 70 Gy (median: 60). Twenty-four patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 43 months. The 3-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 56% and 51%, respectively. There was 1 patient with local recurrence and 9 patients with neck node recurrence, and the 3-year loco-regional control rate was 85%. There were 16 patients with distant metastases and the 3-year freedom form distant metastasis rate was 71%. Patients with extra nodal invasion (ENI) had a statistically poorer prognosis (p=0.008). The incidence rate of loco-regional recurrence and distant metastasis were statistically higher in the patients with ENI (p=0.017 and p=0.009, respectively). PORT with concurrent chemotherapy is deemed to be a standard treatment for such high-risk patients. Conformal and precise radiation treatment such as IMRT might also be considered for such high-risk patients in the near future. (author)

  12. Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani

    2017-06-01

    Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.

  13. Local therapy for small cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, C.; Chen, Y.; DuBeshter, B.; Angel, C.; Dawson, A.; Casey, W.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare and aggressive tumor. This tumor is similar to small cell carcinoma of the lung with a tendency to metastasize early. While there has been an increasing interest in the use of chemotherapy regimens similar to those used for small cell carcinoma of the lung, the optimum local therapy for small cell carcinoma of the cervix remains unknown. We reviewed the treatment outcome of patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in our cancer center with an emphasis on the local/regional disease control. Material and Methods: Between 1983 and 1993, medical records of patients diagnosed with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were reviewed. There were 281 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix referred to our department for radiation treatment. Seven patients had pathologic diagnosis of either small cell or neuroendocrine histology. Details of the treatments and follow-up information of these patients were reviewed with a medium follow-up period of three years (range - 1 to 4 years). Results: Five patients had pure small cell histology. Two patients had mixed histology: one with mixed small cell anaplastic neuroendocrine cells and a small foci of adenocarcinoma, the other had mixed small cell and squamous cell histology. Four patients had clinical stage IB disease. The others had IIA, IIB, and IIIB disease, respectively. All patients received either irradiation (XRT) alone or as part of the local therapy. Three patients received XRT alone, one received surgery followed by XRT, one received XRT followed by surgery, and the remaining two had triple modality treatment (chemotherapy, surgery, and XRT). Three patients were alive without evidence of disease recurrence at the last follow-up. Two of these received adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to local therapy. The third patient, whose tumor was smaller than one cm at the time of diagnosis, received XRT alone. Four patients died with disease

  14. National conference on centralized heat supply from heat feeders in selected localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The proceedings contain 8 contributions, out of which 5 have been inputted in INIS. These deal with centralized heat supply systems, hydraulic and thermal parameters of the hot water distribution systems, and the feasibility of including nuclear sources into the systems. Treated are both actual systems and calculation models. (B.S.)

  15. Heating patterns during cancer heat therapy as a function of blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendecki, J.; Friedenthal, E.; Botstein, C.; Sterzer, F.; Paglione, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Heating patterns as a function of regional blood flow were evaluated in healthy tissues with different vascular characteristics as well as in a variety of tumors submitted to microwave and RF-induced hyperthermia. Generally, faster heating and slower cooling was demonstrated for tumors. Definite correlation was found between the power needed to heat given tissue volume to a specific temperature and the ability of this tissue to dissipate heat via vascular flow. The measurements show that during the early phase of heating of tumors temperature rises slowly up to about 40 0 C. indicating good heat exchanges but that at this level rapid increase of temperature occurs for relatively small increments of power input. It is suggested that blood flow in malignant tissue remains competent and responsive to low grade heating, but that at higher temperature levels, in contrast to normal tissue, tumor blood flow rapidly decreases indicating compromised vascular system. Implication for treatment protocols are discussed

  16. Salvage radiation therapy for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, To-Wai; Tung, Stewart Y.; Sze, Wing-Kin; Sze, Wai-Man; Wong, Victy Y.W.; Wong, Chi-Sing; O, Sai-Ki

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the treatment outcome in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to explore whether a combination of high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (ERT) could improve the therapeutic ratio. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one patients with nonmetastatic locally recurrent NPC who were treated with curative intent during the years 1990-1999 were retrospectively analyzed. Eighty-two patients had histologically proven carcinoma. The remaining 9 had clinical and imaging features suggestive of local recurrence. The Ho's T-stage distribution at recurrence (rT) was as follows: rT1-37, rT2-14, rT3-40. Total equivalent dose (TED) was calculated by the linear-quadratic formula without a time factor correction. For those treated by combined-modality treatment (CMT), the TED was taken as the summation of the equivalent dose by ERT and the absolute dose delivered to floor of the sphenoid by brachytherapy. Eight patients were treated solely with brachytherapy, all receiving 24-45 Gy in 3-10 sessions. Forty-one patients were treated with ERT alone receiving a median TED of 57.3 Gy (range, 49.8-62.5 Gy). Forty-two patients were treated by CMT with a median equivalent dose of 50 Gy (range, 40-60 Gy) given by ERT and 14.8 Gy by brachytherapy (range, 3-29.6 Gy). Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox regression proportional hazards model. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate, disease specific survival rate and local failure-free survival (LFFS) rate for the whole group were 30%, 33.3% and 37.8%, respectively. The 3-year LFFS rates of rT1, rT2, and rT3 diseases were 64%, 61.5%, and 18.4%, respectively (p = 0.001). Of the 8 patients treated with brachytherapy alone, 4 failed locally. Further analyses were concentrated on the ERT (41 patients) and CMT (42 patients) groups. The 3-year LFFS rates of rT1, rT2, and rT3 diseases were 66.7%, 66.7%, and 18.4%, respectively (p 0

  17. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Botryomycosis with a Combination of Minocycline and Topical Heat Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Ishibashi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous botryomycosis is a chronic focal infection characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment requires antibiotic therapy and may also require surgical debridement. We employed topical heat therapy and oral minocycline. The lesions became flattened and pigmented after 1 month. We consider that this simple treatment can be an effective and harmless complementary therapy for cutaneous botryomycosis.

  18. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing hea...... for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights reserved......The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing...

  19. Localized Beampipe Heating due to $e^{-}$ Capture and Nuclear Excitation in Heavy Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, S R

    2001-01-01

    At heavy ion colliders, two major sources of beam loss are expected to be $e^+e^-$ production, where the $e^-$ is bound to one of the nuclei, and photonuclear excitation and decay via neutron emission. Both processes alter the ions charged to mass ratio by well defined amounts, creating beams of particles with altered magnetic rigidity. These beams will deposit their energy in a localized region of the accelerator, causing localized heating, The size of the target region depends on the collider optics. For medium and heavy ions, at design luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider, local heating may be more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. This could cause magnet quenches if the local cooling is inadequate. The altered-rigidity beams will also produce localized radiation damage. The beams could also be extracted and used for fixed target experiments.

  20. Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cahit A. Evrensel...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible... Magneto -rheological Fluid (MRF) iron nano-particles were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique and coated with poly(NIPAAm). The size

  1. Resonance localization and poloidal electric field due to cyclo- tron wave heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.Y.; Chan, V.S.; Harvey, R.W.; Prater, R.; Wong, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The perpendicular heating in cyclotron waves tends to pile up the resonant particles toward the low magnetic field side with their banana tips localized to the resonant surface. A poloidal electric field with an E x B drift comparable to the ion vertical drift in a toroidal magnetic field may result. With the assumption of anomalous electron and neoclassical ion transport, density variations due to wave heating are discussed

  2. Photoinduced local heating in silica photonic crystals for fast and reversible switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Gómez, Francisco; Blanco, Alvaro; López, Cefe

    2012-12-04

    Fast and reversible photonic-bandgap tunability is achieved in silica artificial opals by local heating. The effect is fully reversible as heat rapidly dissipates through the non-irradiated structure without active cooling and water is readsorbed. The performance is strongly enhanced by decreasing the photoirradiated opal volume, allowing bandgap shifts of 12 nm and response times of 20 ms. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Stabilization of a magnetic island by localized heating in a tokamak with stiff temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maget, Patrick; Widmer, Fabien; Février, Olivier; Garbet, Xavier; Lütjens, Hinrich

    2018-02-01

    In tokamaks plasmas, turbulent transport is triggered above a threshold in the temperature gradient and leads to stiff profiles. This particularity, neglected so far in the problem of magnetic island stabilization by a localized heat source, is investigated analytically in this paper. We show that the efficiency of the stabilization is deeply modified compared to the previous estimates due to the strong dependence of the turbulence level on the additional heat source amplitude inside the island.

  4. Birth ball or heat therapy? A randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of birth ball usage with sacrum-perineal heat therapy in labor pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Labor pain and its management is a major concern for childbearing women, their families and health care providers. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two non-pharmacological methods such as birth ball and heat therapy on labor pain relief. This randomized control trial was undertaken on 90 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old who were randomly assigned to two intervention (birth ball and heat) and control groups. The pain score was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before the intervention and every 30 min in three groups until cervical dilatation reached 8 cm. The mean pain severity score in the heat therapy group was less than that of in control group at 60 and 90 min after intervention (p pain scores in the birth ball group after all three investigated times in comparison to control group. Both heat therapy and birth ball can use as inexpensive complementary and low risk treatment for labor pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservative treatment of rectal cancer with local excision and postoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional surgical treatment for patients with potentially curable transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer is a low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy as primary therapy for selected rectal cancers. The limited data suggest that the approach of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy should be limited to patients with either T 1 tumours with adverse pathological factors or T 2 tumours. Transmural tumours, which have a 24% local failure rate, are treated more effectively with standard surgery and pre- or postoperative therapy. The results of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy are encouraging, but more experience is needed to determine if this approach ultimately has similar local control and survival rates as standard surgery. (author)

  6. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Technical Thermodynamics], e-mail: pstephan@ttd.tu-darmstadt.de

    2009-07-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 {mu}m thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  7. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 μm thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  8. Local entropy generation analysis of a rotary magnetic heat pump regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The rotary magnetic heat pump has attractive thermodynamic performance but it is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of the regenerator. This paper uses local entropy generation analysis to evaluate the regenerator design and to suggest design improvements. The results show that performance of the proposed design is dominated by heat transfer related entropy generation. This suggests that enhancement concepts that improve heat transfer should be considered, even if the enhancement causes a significant increase in viscous losses (pressure drop). One enhancement technique, the use of flow disruptors, was evaluated and the results showed that flow disruptors can significantly reduce thermodynamic losses

  9. Nanoimprinted polymer chips for light induced local heating of liquids in micro- and nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A nanoimprinted polymer chip with a thin near-infrared absorber layer that enables light-induced local heating (LILH) of liquids inside micro- and nanochannels is presented. An infrared laser spot and corresponding hot-spot could be scanned across the device. Large temperature gradients yield...... a 785 nm laser diode was focused from the backside of the chip to a spot diameter down to 5 ..m in the absorber layer, yielding a localized heating (Gaussian profile) and large temperature gradients in the liquid in the nanochannels. A laser power of 38 mW yielded a temperature of 40°C in the center...

  10. Realising local government visions for developing district heating: Experiences from a learning country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, Ruth E.; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Taylor, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) has an important role to play in enabling cities to transition to low-carbon heating. Although schemes are commonplace in some countries, in ‘learning countries’ where building-level technologies make up the majority of heating systems there are numerous barriers to introducing DH. Local governments are seen as key actors in helping to create a ‘shared vision’ for DH amongst stakeholders. This study uses interviews with stakeholders from a range of sectors in the UK (an example of a learning country) to examine the visions of local actors for developing DH and the types of national policy that would support local implementation of these visions. The analysis shows that in engaging with DH development local governments seek multiple types of value. Realising this value will most likely happen by taking a long-term, planned approach to development. In contrast, national government policy is geared towards techno-economic criteria and may lead to only a minority of potential sites being developed, without realisation of wider social or environmental benefits aligned to local visions. The work highlights the importance of local strategic planning, enabled by aligned national policy, in realising the full economic, environmental and social benefits of DH. - Highlights: • Local governments are key to the development of district heating (DH). • Local government-led visions of DH seek to deliver complex value. • In the UK development is led by funding and commercial factors and is not strategic. • To enable DH, national policy must align with the vision of local actors. • Social and environmental criteria must be incorporated in decision-making.

  11. Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation vs. Local Impacts of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, H.

    2007-12-01

    Urban heat islands and their mitigation take on added significance, both negative and positive, when viewed from a climate-change perspective. In negative terms, urban heat islands can act as local exacerbating factors, or magnifying lenses, to the effects of regional and large-scale climate perturbations and change. They can locally impact meteorology, energy/electricity generation and use, thermal environment (comfort and heat waves), emissions of air pollutants, photochemistry, and air quality. In positive terms, on the other hand, mitigation of urban heat islands (via urban surface modifications and control of man-made heat, for example) can potentially have a beneficial effect of mitigating the local negative impacts of climate change. In addition, mitigation of urban heat islands can, in itself, contribute to preventing regional and global climate change, even if modestly, by helping reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other sources as a result of decreased energy use for cooling (both direct and indirect) and reducing the rates of meteorology-dependent emissions of air pollutants. This presentation will highlight aspects and characteristics of heat islands, their mitigation, their modeling and quantification techniques, and recent advances in meso-urban modeling of California (funded by the California Energy Commission). In particular, the presentation will focus on results from quantitative, modeling-based analyses of the potential benefits of heat island mitigation in 1) reducing point- and area-source emissions of CO2, NOx, and VOC as a result of reduced cooling energy demand and ambient/surface temperatures, 2) reducing evaporative and fugitive hydrocarbon emissions as a result of lowered temperatures, 3) reducing biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from existing vegetative cover, 4) slowing the rates of tropospheric/ground-level ozone formation and/or accumulation in the urban boundary layer, and 5) helping improve air quality. Quantitative estimates

  12. Adjuvant neutron therapy in complex treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisin, V. A.; Velikaya, V. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Popova, N. O.; Goldberg, V. E.

    2017-09-01

    The study included 128 patients with stage T2-4N0-3M0 locally advanced breast cancer. All patients were divided into two groups. Group I (study group) consisted of 68 patients, who received neutron therapy, and group II (control group) comprised 60 patients, who received electron beam therapy. Neutron therapy was well tolerated by the patients and 1-2 grade radiation skin reactions were the most common. Neutron therapy was shown to be effective in multimodality treatment of the patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The 8-year recurrence-free survival rate in the patients with locally advanced breast cancer was 94.5 ± 4.1% after neutron therapy and 81.4 ± 5.9% after electron beam therapy (p = 0.05).

  13. Novel localized heating technique on centrifugal microfluidic disc with wireless temperature monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Karunan; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Cho, Jongman

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of centrifugal microfluidic disc suggest the need for electrical interface in the disc to perform active biomedical assays. In this paper, we have demonstrated an active application powered by the energy harvested from the rotation of the centrifugal microfluidic disc. A novel integration of power harvester disc onto centrifugal microfluidic disc to perform localized heating technique is the main idea of our paper. The power harvester disc utilizing electromagnetic induction mechanism generates electrical energy from the rotation of the disc. This contributes to the heat generation by the embedded heater on the localized heating disc. The main characteristic observed in our experiment is the heating pattern in relative to the rotation of the disc. The heating pattern is monitored wirelessly with a digital temperature sensing system also embedded on the disc. Maximum temperature achieved is 82 °C at rotational speed of 2000 RPM. The technique proves to be effective for continuous heating without the need to stop the centrifugal motion of the disc.

  14. Local Heat Transfer and CHF for Subcooled Flow Boiling - Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    Subcooled flow boiling in heated coolant channels is an important heat transfer enhancement technique in the development of fusion reactor components, where high heat fluxes must be accommodated. As energy fluxes increase in magnitude, additional emphasis must be devoted to enhancing techniques such as sub cooling and enhanced surfaces. In addition to subcooling, other high heat flux alternatives such as high velocity helium and liquid metal cooling have been considered as serious contenders. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages [1], which must be weighed as to reliability and reduced cost of fusion reactor components. Previous studies [2] have set the stage for the present work, which will concentrate on fundamental thermal hydraulic issues associated with the h-international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Engineering Design Activity (EDA). This proposed work is intended to increase our understanding of high heat flux removal alternatives as well as our present capabilities by: (1) including single-side heating effects in models for local predictions of heat transfer and critical heat flux; (2) inspection of the US, Japanese, and other possible data sources for single-side heating, with the aim of exploring possible correlations for both CHF and local heat transfer; and (3) assessing the viability of various high heat flux removal techniques. The latter task includes: (a) sub-cooled water flow boiling with enhancements such as twisted tapes, and hypervapotrons, (b) high velocity helium cooling, and (c) other potential techniques such as liquid metal cooling. This assessment will increase our understanding of: (1) hypervapotron heat transfer via fins, flow recirculation, and flow oscillation, and (2) swirl flow. This progress report contains selective examples of ongoing work. Section II contains an extended abstract, which is part of and evolving technical paper on single-side f heating. Section III describes additional details

  15. Regimes of heating and dynamical response in driven many-body localized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Demler, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    We explore the response of many-body localized (MBL) systems to periodic driving of arbitrary amplitude, focusing on the rate at which they exchange energy with the drive. To this end, we introduce an infinite-temperature generalization of the effective "heating rate" in terms of the spread of a random walk in energy space. We compute this heating rate numerically and estimate it analytically in various regimes. When the drive amplitude is much smaller than the frequency, this effective heating rate is given by linear response theory with a coefficient that is proportional to the optical conductivity; in the opposite limit, the response is nonlinear and the heating rate is a nontrivial power law of time. We discuss the mechanisms underlying this crossover in the MBL phase. We comment on implications for the subdiffusive thermal phase near the MBL transition, and for response in imperfectly isolated MBL systems.

  16. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-11-11

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59-95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40-1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications.

  17. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59–95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40–1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications

  18. Local Equation of State for Protons, and Implications for Proton Heating in the Solar Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Kasper, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind protons temperature is observed to decrease with distance to the Sun at a slower rate than expected from an adiabatic expansion law: the protons are therefore said to be heated. This observation raises the question of the evaluation of the heating rate, and the question of the heat source.These questions have been investigated by previous authors by gathering proton data on various distances to the Sun, using spacecraft as Helios or Ulysses, and then computing the radial derivative of the proton temperature in order to obtain a heating rate from the internal energy equation. The problem of such an approach is the computation of the radial derivative of the temperature profile, for which uncertainties are very large, given the dispersion of the temperatures measured at a given distance.An alternative approach, that we develop in this paper, consists in looking for an equation of state that links locally the pressure (or temperature) to the mass density. If such a relation exists then one can evaluate the proton heating rate on a local basis, without having any space derivative to compute.Here we use several years of STEREO and WIND proton data to search for polytropic equation of state. We show that such relationships are indeed a good approximation in given solar wind's velocity intervals and deduce the associated protons heating rates as a function of solar wind's speed. The obtained heating rates are shown to scale from around 1 kW/kg in the slow wind to around 10 kW/kg in the fast wind, in remarkable agreement with the rate of energy observed by previous authors to cascade in solar wind's MHD turbulence at 1 AU. These results therefore support the idea of proton turbulent heating in the solar wind.

  19. Local linear heat rate ramps in the WWER-440 transient regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brik, A.N.; Bibilashvili, Ju.L.; Bogatyr, S.M.; Medvedev, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of the WWER-440 reactors must be accomplished in such a way that the fuel rods durability would be high enough during the whole operation period. The important factors determining the absence of fuel rod failures are the criteria limiting the core characteristics (fuel rod and fuel assembly power, local linear heat rate, etc.). For the transient and load follow conditions the limitations on the permissible local linear rate ramp are also introduced. This limitation is the result of design limit of stress corrosion cracking of the fuel cladding and depends on the local fuel burn-up. The control rod motion is accompanied by power redistribution, which, in principle, can result in violating the design and operation limitations. Consequently, this motion have to be such as the core parameters, including the local ramps of the linear heat generation rates would not exceed the permissible ones.The paper considers the problem of WWER-440 reactor control under transient and load follow conditions and the associated optimisation of local linear heat generation rate ramps. The main factors affecting the solution of the problem under consideration are discussed. Some recommendations for a more optimal reactor operation are given.(Author)

  20. Management of Biochemical Recurrence after Primary Localized Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Oussama M.; Raj, Ganesh V.

    2012-01-01

    Clinically localized prostate cancer is typically managed by well established therapies like radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. While many patients can be cured with definitive local therapy, some will have biochemical recurrence (BCR) of disease detected by a rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Management of these patients is nuanced and controversial. The natural history indicates that a majority of patients with BCR will not die from prostate cancer but from other causes. Despite this, a vast majority of patients with BCR are empirically treated with non-curable systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), with its myriad of real and potential side effects. In this review article, we examined the very definition of BCR after definitive local therapy, the current status of imaging studies in its evaluation, the need for additional therapies, and the factors involved in the decision making in the choice of additional therapies. This review aims to help clinicians with the management of patients with BCR. The assessment of prognostic factors including absolute PSA level, time to recurrence, PSA kinetics, multivariable nomograms, imaging, and biopsy of the prostatic bed may help stratify the patients into localized or systemic recurrence. Patients with low-risk of systemic disease may be cured by a salvage local therapy, while those with higher risk of systemic disease may be offered the option of ADT or a clinical trial. An algorithm incorporating these factors is presented.

  1. Local Arterial Therapies in the Management of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouli, Samdeep K; Goff, Laura W

    2017-10-27

    Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present with intermediate to advanced disease, where curative therapies are no longer an option. These patients with intermediate to advanced disease represent a heterogeneous population with regard to tumor burden, liver function, and performance status. While the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system offers guidelines for the management of these patients, strict adherence to these guidelines may limit treatment options for these patients. Several locoregional therapies exist for these patients, including conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting embolization (DEE), and radioembolization. Evidence is also emerging for the role of radiation therapy including most notably stereotactic body radiation therapy and proton therapy, although at the current time, clinical trial participation is encouraged. While cTACE is traditionally recommended for BCLC B disease, both cTACE and radioembolization are increasingly used for patients with intermediate disease, as well as in select patients with BCLC A and C disease. TAE and DEE are limited in their use currently, due to lack of clear survival benefits or clinical advantages over cTACE. While several studies have demonstrated similar OS between cTACE and radioembolization, radioembolization provides a longer time to progression and fewer toxicities compared to cTACE. This is particularly relevant in the setting of advanced BCLC B and early BCLC C disease, where patients may have limited reserve. Radioembolization also has additional roles as an alternative to ablation, inducing liver hypertrophy, treating patients with PVT, and downstaging lesions to transplant. Ongoing studies will further define the role of locoregional treatment potentially in combination with and in light of developments in systemic therapy.

  2. Laplace transform series expansion method for solving the local fractional heat-transfer equation defined on Cantor sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Huan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the Laplace transform series expansion method to find the analytical solution for the local fractional heat-transfer equation defined on Cantor sets via local fractional calculus.

  3. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm iii for the diffusion model associated with non-differentiable heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new application of the local fractional variational iteration algorithm III to solve the local fractional diffusion equation defined on Cantor sets associated with non-differentiable heat transfer.

  4. Ion Heating During Local Helicity Injection Plasma Startup in the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas in the Pegasus ST are initiated either through standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of impurity ion heating has been observed, with the passively measured impurity Ti as high as 800 eV compared to Ti ~ 60 eV and Te ~ 175 eV during standard inductive current drive discharges. In addition, non-thermal ion velocity distributions are observed and appear to be strongest near the helicity injectors. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n =1 MHD mode. An approximate temporal scaling of the heating with the amplitude of higher frequency magnetic fluctuations has also been observed, with large amounts of power spectral density present at several impurity ion cyclotron frequencies. Recent experiments have focused on investigating the impurity ion heating scaling with the ion charge to mass ratio as well as the reconnecting field strength. The ion charge to mass ratio was modified by observing different impurity charge states in similar LHI plasmas while the reconnecting field strength was modified by changing the amount of injected edge current. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  5. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  6. Absence of local thermal equilibrium in two models of heat conduction

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Abhishek; Dhar, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    A crucial assumption in the conventional description of thermal conduction is the existence of local thermal equilibrium. We test this assumption in two simple models of heat conduction. Our first model is a linear chain of planar spins with nearest neighbour couplings, and the second model is that of a Lorentz gas. We look at the steady state of the system when the two ends are connected to heat baths at temperatures T1 and T2. If T1=T2, the system reaches thermal equilibrium. If T1 is not e...

  7. Phase coherence of 0.1 Hz microvascular tone oscillations during the local heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeva, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the mechanisms of blood flow oscillations at low frequencies is discussed. It is known that even isolated arteriole demonstrates oscillations with the frequency close to 0.1 Hz, which is caused by the synchronous activity of myocyte cells. On the other hand, oscillations with close frequency are found in the heart rate, which are associated with quite different mechanism. The main purpose of this work is to study phase coherence of the blood flow oscillations in the peripheral vessels under basal and perturbed conditions. Local heating which locally influences the microvascular tone, as one of currently elucidated in sufficient detail physiological test, was chosen. During such provocation blood flow though the small vessels significantly increases because of vasodilation induced by the local synthesis of nitric oxide. In the first part of the paper microvascular response to the local test is quantified in healthy and pathological conditions of diabetes mellitus type 1. It is obtained that regardless of the pathology, subjects with high basal perfusion had lower reserve for vasodilation, which can be caused by the low elasticity of microvascular structure. Further synchronization of pulsations of the heated and undisturbed skin was evaluated on the base of wavelet phase coherency analysis. Being highly synchronised in basal conditions 0.1 Hz pulsations became more independent during heating, especially during NO-mediated vasodilation.

  8. Fuel-element temperature nonstationary distribution caused by local pulsations of the factor of heat transfer to a coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupko, V.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The equation of nonstationary heat transfer caused by the appearance of a local pulse jump in the factor of heat transfer to a coolant is solved analytically for a cylindrical fuel element. The problem solution is generalized to a case of the periodically pulsating factor of heat transfer according to its value in an arbitrary point of the fuel element surface

  9. Local or district heating by natural gas: Which is better from energetic, environmental and economic point of views?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarin, R.; Noro, M.

    2006-01-01

    Generally, a CHP plant coupled with district heating is considered more efficient than traditional local heating systems from an economic and environmental point of view. This is certainly true for municipal waste CHP plants, but for plants fuelled by natural gas the important developments of the last years regarding both boilers (premixed and modulating burners, condensing boilers, etc.) and mechanical vapour compression and absorption heat pumps can change the traditional view. At the same time also district heating plants improved. Therefore it is worth to analyse the whole matter comparing advantages and disadvantages of the different alternatives, with a wide difference between them. The paper reports on the analysis of major district heating natural gas based technologies (vapour and gas turbines, internal combustion engine, combined cycles); the cost of heat and power produced in these plants is compared to the cost of producing the same quantity of electrical energy by a reference GTCC-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (actually the most efficient technology for pure electrical production) and the cost of heat production by modern local heating technologies using natural gas as fuel (condensing boilers, electrical, gas engine and absorption heat pumps). Regarding energy efficiency and emissions, modern local heating turns out to be more efficient than district heating for most CHP technologies. However, the same does not happen from an economic point of view, because in Italy natural gas used by cogeneration plants is subjected to a much lower taxation than local heating technologies

  10. POSSIBILITIES OF LOCAL THERAPY FOR LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chugunov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common pain syndromes caused by musculoarticular pathology. Analgesics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, myorelaxants, and non-drug therapies are used to treat patients with LBP. The sufficient efficiency of this type of therapy is strongly supported by the results of clinical trials; its fundamentals have been embodied in a number of regional and international guidelines for the management of patients with LBP. Alongside the sufficient efficacy of NSAIDs, their use, their long-term use in particular, is associated with a wide range of adverse reactions. The increased efficiency of treatment in patients with LBP is frequently achieved by the application of topical dosage forms. Whether the new Russian drug Nanoplast forte may be used to treat patients with LBP is considered.

  11. German guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Worm, Margitta; Wenzel, Jörg; Moinzadeh, Pia; Kuhn, Annegret; Aberer, Elisabeth; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Horneff, Gerd; Reil, Emma; Weberschock, Tobias; Hunzelmann, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Localized scleroderma designates a heterogeneous group of sclerotic skin disorders. Depending on the subtype, severity, and site affected, adjacent structures such as adipose tissue, muscles, joints, and bones may be involved. This is an update of the existing German AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany) guidelines (classification: S2k). These guidelines provide an overview of the definition, epidemiology, classification, pathogenesis, laboratory workup, histopathology, clinical scoring systems, as well as imaging and device-based workup of localized scleroderma. Moreover, consensus-based recommendations are given on the management of localized scleroderma depending on its clinical subtype. Treatment recommendations are presented in a therapeutic algorithm. No financial support was given by any pharmaceutical company. The guidelines are valid until July 2019. © 2016 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  12. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm II for non-homogeneous model associated with the non-differentiable heat flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we begin with the non-homogeneous model for the non-differentiable heat flow, which is described using the local fractional vector calculus, from the first law of thermodynamics in fractal media point view. We employ the local fractional variational iteration algorithm II to solve the fractal heat equations. The obtained results show the non-differentiable behaviors of temperature fields of fractal heat flow defined on Cantor sets.

  13. Impact of bulk atmospheric motion on local and global containment heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.A.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    Local and global correlations for condensing energy transfer in the presence of noncondensable gases in a containment facility have been evaluated. The database employed stems from the E11.2 and E11.4 tests conducted at the German HDR facility. The HDR containment is a 11060-ml, 60-m-high decommissioned light water reactor. The tests simulated long-term (up to 56 h) accident conditions. Numerous instrumented structural blocks (concrete and lead) were located throughout the containment to provide detailed local heat transfer measurements. These data represent what is probably the most extensive database of integral energy transfer measurements available. It is well established that the major resistance to condensation heat transfer in the presence of noncondensable gases is a gaseous boundary layer that builds up in front of the condensing surface. Correlations that seek to model heat transfer for these conditions should depend on parameters that most strongly determine the buildup and thickness of this boundary layer. Two of the most important parameters are the vapor/noncondensable concentration ratio and the local atmospheric motion. Secondary parameters include the atmosphere-to-surface temperature difference, the pressure, and condensing surface properties. The HDR tests are unique in terms of the quantity and variety of instrumentation employed. However, one of the most important parameters, the local bulk atmospheric velocity, is inherently difficult to measure, and only fragmentary measurements are available even in the HDR data-base. A detailed analysis of these data is presented by Green. This study uses statistical methods to evaluate local and global empirical correlations that do not include the atmospheric velocity. The magnitude of the differences between the correlations emphasizes the importance of the local atmospheric velocity and serves to illustrate the accuracy limits of correlations that neglect this essential parameter

  14. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  15. Chemoradiation therapy efficacy in patients with local cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemal'tsova, O.A.

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of the original chronomodulation chemoradiation for local cervical cancer (CC) comparing it with the results of the standard treatment protocol and Hydrea administration as a radiomodifier. The use of the original protocol reduced the number of long-term metastases 6.3 times when compared with Hydrea use and 4.5 times when compared with the traditional treatment

  16. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress – such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage – is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  17. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam, E-mail: sganesh@iitk.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress – such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage – is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  18. Full melting of a two-dimensional complex plasma crystal triggered by localized pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couëdel, L.; Nosenko, V.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Zhdanov, S.; Elskens, Y.; Hall, T.; Ivlev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The full melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal was induced in a principally stable monolayer by localized laser stimulation. Two distinct behaviors of the crystal after laser stimulation were observed depending on the amount of injected energy: (i) below a well-defined threshold, the laser melted area recrystallized; (ii) above the threshold, it expanded outwards in a similar fashion to mode-coupling instability-induced melting, rapidly destroying the crystalline order of the whole complex plasma monolayer. The reported experimental observations are due to the fluid mode-coupling instability, which can pump energy into the particle monolayer at a rate surpassing the heat transport and damping rates in the energetic localized melted spot, resulting in its further growth. This behavior exhibits remarkable similarities with impulsive spot heating in ordinary reactive matter.

  19. An improved local radial point interpolation method for transient heat conduction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lin, Gao; Zheng, Bao-Jing; Hu, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    The smoothing thin plate spline (STPS) interpolation using the penalty function method according to the optimization theory is presented to deal with transient heat conduction problems. The smooth conditions of the shape functions and derivatives can be satisfied so that the distortions hardly occur. Local weak forms are developed using the weighted residual method locally from the partial differential equations of the transient heat conduction. Here the Heaviside step function is used as the test function in each sub-domain to avoid the need for a domain integral. Essential boundary conditions can be implemented like the finite element method (FEM) as the shape functions possess the Kronecker delta property. The traditional two-point difference method is selected for the time discretization scheme. Three selected numerical examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate the availability and accuracy of the present approach comparing with the traditional thin plate spline (TPS) radial basis functions.

  20. An improved local radial point interpolation method for transient heat conduction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Lin Gao; Hu Zhi-Qiang; Zheng Bao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    The smoothing thin plate spline (STPS) interpolation using the penalty function method according to the optimization theory is presented to deal with transient heat conduction problems. The smooth conditions of the shape functions and derivatives can be satisfied so that the distortions hardly occur. Local weak forms are developed using the weighted residual method locally from the partial differential equations of the transient heat conduction. Here the Heaviside step function is used as the test function in each sub-domain to avoid the need for a domain integral. Essential boundary conditions can be implemented like the finite element method (FEM) as the shape functions possess the Kronecker delta property. The traditional two-point difference method is selected for the time discretization scheme. Three selected numerical examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate the availability and accuracy of the present approach comparing with the traditional thin plate spline (TPS) radial basis functions

  1. A simple model for local scale sensible and latent heat advection contributions to snowmelt

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Phillip; Pomeroy, John W.; Helgason, Warren D.

    2018-01-01

    Local-scale advection of energy from warm snow-free surfaces to cold snow-covered surfaces is an important component of the energy balance during snowcover depletion. Unfortunately, this process is difficult to quantify in one-dimensional snowmelt models. This manuscript proposes a simple sensible and latent heat advection model for snowmelt situations that can be readily coupled to one-dimensional energy balance snowmelt models. An existing advection parameterization was coupled to a concept...

  2. Light-Induced Local Heating for Thermophoretic Manipulation of DNA in Polymer Micro- and Nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Larsen, Niels Bent; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for making polymer chips with a narrow-band near-infrared absorber layer that enables light-induced local heating of liquids inside fluidic micro- and nanochannels fabricated by thermal imprint in polymethyl methacrylate. We have characterized the resulting liquid temperature...... profiles in microchannels using the temperature dependent fluorescence of the complex [Ru(bpy)3]2+. We demonstrate thermophoretic manipulation of individual YOYO-1 stained T4 DNA molecules inside micro- and nanochannels....

  3. Initiative for local district heating. New chances for municipal utilities. Boundary conditions for the heat market; Initiative Nahwaerme. Neue Chancen fuer Stadtwerke. Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Michael [K.Group GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Nachhaltige Energieversorgung und Stadtentwicklung

    2009-06-15

    In the regulated market, municipal utilities are forced to find new fields of activity. The heat market offers good chances. For example, local district heating grids can be established, independent power generation can be encouraged, and new services can be offered which may increase customer loyalty. The district heating initiative of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Minister of the Environment was launched early in 2009 with the intention to offer valuable assistance to the municipal utilities. (orig.)

  4. Sexual function with localized prostate cancer: active surveillance vs radical therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Korfage, Ida J.; Roobol, Monique J.; Bangma, Chris H.; de Koning, Harry J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare sexual function of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS) with similar patients who received radical therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two groups of men with screening-detected localized PCa were compared. The first were men on AS within the prospective

  5. Systematic review of innovative ablative therapies for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, S. J. E.; Vogel, J. A.; van Santvoort, H. C.; van Lienden, K. P.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Besselink, M. G. H.; Molenaar, I. Q.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundLocally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is associated with a very poor prognosis. Current palliative (radio)chemotherapy provides only a marginal survival benefit of 2-3 months. Several innovative local ablative therapies have been explored as new treatment options. This systematic

  6. Measurement of the local void fraction at high pressures in a heating channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.

    1969-01-01

    Void fraction measurements were made in two phase flow boiling systems at high pressures in a uniformly heated, rectangular channel with a high aspect ratio. The local void fraction values were calculated from measurements of the absorption of a thin collimated X-ray beam (2 mm x 0.05 mm). The mean void fraction in a horizontal section results from integration of the local values across the section. At a fixed measuring station the quality and- void fraction were varied by changing the heat flux, flow rate and pressure systematically. Two channels were used differing in length and thickness (150.8 cm x 5.3 cm x 0.2 cm and the significant features of this study are: -1) The void fraction measurements are among the first obtained at such high pressure (80 to 140 kg/cm 2 ); -2) In the experimental region under consideration the measurements are systematic and numerous enough to allow accurate interpolations: mass velocity from 50 to 220 g/cm 2 .s, heat flux from 40 to 170 W/cm 2 and calculated steam quality from -0.2 to 0.2; -3) Many tests were performed under local boiling conditions with the mean temperature of the fluid below the saturation temperature; and -4) These results were compared to the predictions of certain models presented in the literature and simple empirical formulae were developed to fit the experimental results. (author) [fr

  7. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, T.K.; Blomqvist, C.P.; Kajanti, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of male cancer deaths. However, the routine diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. Although the outcome of surgical and radiotherapeutical approaches has frequently been reported to be comparable, the profile of side effects is different. This could offer the basis for selecting the treatment of choice in individual cases. During the last decade the radiotherapeutical technique has markedly improved, in part due to the achievements in the field of computer assisted tomography planning and conformal technique; the outcome of side-effects has decreased with concurrent increase in the rate of local control. The prescribing, recording and reporting of irradiation have also recently developed, as well as the staging of the disease. Therefore we consider it timely to review progress in this subject and to emphasize the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer. (orig.)

  8. [Is therapy with local infiltrations feasible in primary care consultations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña Loarte, J E; Pérez Franco, J; Sánchez Sánchez, G

    1999-01-01

    To study the feasibility of local infiltration in primary care consultations. Before-and-after intervention study. Two clinics at an urban health centre. Patients diagnosed with pathology of tender areas and treated with corticosteroid infiltration between May 1997 and May 1998. Corticoid infiltration plus local anaesthetic. Weekly check-up. Analysis of the variables: sex, age, diagnosis, time elapsed between indication and start of treatment, subjective assessment of pain before and after treatment (VRS scale), number of infiltrations per patient, side-effects. Evaluation of overall and individual effectiveness. 41 patients were infiltrated. Average age was 58. Most common pathologies were: rotary joint tendinitis (48.7%), anserine bursitis (24.4%), plantar fasciitis (7.3%). Average number of infiltrations per pathology: 1.3. Mean waiting time: 3.5 days. Comparison of pain by means of VRS (range 0-5) before and after treatment used the Wilcoxon test, with a statistically significant difference and p < 0.001 (z = -5.5109). For 35 patients (85.4%), pain was solved very well (values 0 and 1 on the VRS). For 3 patients (7.3%), improvement was moderate; and for 3 (7.3%) there was no improvement. 1. Treatment with local infiltration of corticosteroids is effective in dealing with pain, and is an alternative to treatment with NSAIDs. 2. It is feasible in primary care, and there are many advantages if the general practitioner employs this therapeutic technique.

  9. The influence of local versus global heat on the healing of chronic wounds in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Lawson, Daryl; Suh, Hye Jin; Rossi, Christine; Zapata, Karina; Broadwell, Erin; Littleton, Lindsay

    2007-12-01

    In a previous study, it was shown that placing a subject with chronic diabetic ulcers in a warm room prior to the use of electrical stimulation dramatically increased the healing rate. However, global heating is impractical in many therapeutic environments, and therefore in the present investigation the effect of global heat versus using a local heat source to warm the wound was investigated. Twenty-nine male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to determine the healing associated with electrical stimulation with the application of local heat through a heat lamp compared to global heating of the subject in a warm room. Treatment consisted of biphasic electrical stimulation at currents at 20 mA for 30 min three times per week for 4 weeks in either a 32 degrees C room or, with the application of local heat, to raise skin temperature to 37 degrees C. Skin blood flow was measured by a laser Doppler imager. Blood flow increased with either local or global heating. During electrical stimulation, blood flow almost doubled on the outside and on the edge of the wound with a smaller increase in the center of the wound. However, the largest increase in blood flow was in the subjects exposed to global heating. Further, healing rates, while insignificant for subjects who did not receive electrical stimulation, showed 74.5 +/- 23.4% healing with global heat and 55.3 +/- 31.1% healing with local heat in 1 month; controls actually had a worsening of their wounds. The best healing modality was global heat. However, there was still a significant advantage in healing with local heat.

  10. Local heat transfer performance and exit flow characteristics of a miniature axial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, Jason; Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional restrictions in electronic equipment have resulted in miniaturization of many existing cooling technologies. In addition to this, cooling solutions are required to dissipate increased thermal loads to maintain component reliability. Axial fans are widely used in electronics cooling to meet such thermal demands. However, if the extent of non-uniform heat transfer rates, produced by highly three-dimensional air patterns is unknown in the design stages, premature component failure may result. The current study highlights these non-uniformities in heat transfer coefficient, using infrared thermography of a miniature axial fan impinging air on a flat plate. Fan rotational speed and distance from the flat plate are varied to encompass heat transfer phenomena resultant from complex exit air flow distribution. Local peaks in heat transfer coefficient have been shown to be directly related to the air flow and fan motor support interaction. Optimum locations for discrete heat source positioning have been identified which are a function of fan to plate spacing and independent of fan rotational speed when the Reynolds number effect is not apparent.

  11. Simplified model for determining local heat flux boundary conditions for slagging wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingzhi Li; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa [Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre

    2009-07-15

    In this work, two models for calculating heat transfer through a cooled vertical wall covered with a running slag layer are investigated. The first one relies on a discretization of the velocity equation, and the second one relies on an analytical solution. The aim is to find a model that can be used for calculating local heat flux boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of such processes. Two different cases where molten deposits exist are investigated: the black liquor recovery boiler and the coal gasifier. The results show that a model relying on discretization of the velocity equation is more flexible in handling different temperature-viscosity relations. Nevertheless, a model relying on an analytical solution is the one fast enough for a potential use as a CFD submodel. Furthermore, the influence of simplifications to the heat balance in the model is investigated. It is found that simplification of the heat balance can be applied when the radiation heat flux is dominant in the balance. 9 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Treatment of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johung, Kimberly; Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Chang, Bryan W.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection can be curative, but the majority of patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Treatment for patients with locally advanced disease is controversial. Therapeutic options include systemic therapy alone, concurrent chemoradiation, or induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. We review the evidence to date regarding the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), as well as evolving strategies including the emerging role of targeted therapies. We propose that if radiation is used for patients with LAPC, it should be delivered with concurrent chemotherapy and following a period of induction chemotherapy.

  13. Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-15

    A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water

  14. Radiation therapy for unresectable locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Noriko; Inoue, Masayoshi; Uehara, Tomoko; Miyasaka, T.; Miyasaka, M.; Tabata, Yoji; Sakamoto, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cases of inoperable advanced breast cancer were treated with radiotherapy between 2002 to 2012 at Nara Prefectural Hospital. All cases were treated by radiotherapy and chemo-endocrine therapy. Patients received 60-81 Gy (median 60 Gy) to the primary breast tumor. Response of the breast tumors were complete response in 3 cases (23%), partial response in 8 cases (62%) and stable disease in 2 cases (15%) (response rate: 85%). All breast tumors had been controlled and skin troubles were reduced. Radiotherapy for breast cancer is useful for primary tumor control and improved quality of life (QOL). Radiotherapy should be considered to be useful modality in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. (author)

  15. Robust non-local effects of ocean heat uptake on radiative feedback and subtropical cloud cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2016-02-01

    moisture. Our results suggest that cloud feedback under transient climate change is partly modulated by ocean heat uptake through robust but non-local atmospheric processes, and has implications on a timescales ranging from inter-annual to multi-centennial.

  16. Exclusive radiation therapy for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognoni, P.; Bossi, A.; Molteni, M.; Richetti, A.; Tordiglione, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors analyse a retrospective series of 90 consecutive patients (pts) affected with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma (T3-4, N0-3 - TNM, UICC 1978) who were radically irradiated from November 1979 to December 1986 at the Radiotherapy Department of the General Hospital of Varese. All the patients were treated with 60 Co and two opposed parallel lateral fields and progressive shrinkage: 66 conventional fractionation (2 Gy once a day, 5 times a week), 24 with an accelerated hyperfractionated regimen (1.5 Gy twice a day, 5 times a week). The median total dose delivered to the tumor and clinically involved nodes was 64 Gy (1678 reu, CRE). Median follow-up was 21 months (range: 3-113). The 5-year overall survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 40.5%. The 5-year disease-free survival, for 47 patients in complete remission at the end of radiotherapy, was 51.9% after irradiation alone and 56.7% with salvage surgery. There were no statistically significant differences in survival according to local spread (T3 vs T4), nodal status (N0 vs N1-3) and dose fractionation regimen (conventional vs accelerated hyper-fractionated). Isoeffect (CRE) values above 1751 reu obtained a 3-year loco-regional control rate was 33.3%. Relevant late sequelae were not observed. Our findings suggest that primary radiotherapy with salvage surgery in reserve could be considered as an effective choice for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma, at least in selected groups of patients

  17. Spinal cord stimulation therapy for localized central pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirato, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akio; Watanabe, Katsushige; Kazama, Ken; Yoshimoto, Yuhei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the pathophysiology of localized central pain and the surgical result of spinal cord stimulation. There were 10 cases; 7 males and 3 females from 24 to 77 years old. Pain was caused by peripheral nerve injury in one case, spinal cord injury in two cases and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (thalamic pain) in 7 cases. All cases were treated by epidural spinal cord stimulation and followed from 0.8 to 8.8 years. Sufficient pain relief was achieved in one case of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury and in 4 cases of CVD. Moderate pain control was achieved in 2 cases of CVD. In one each case of spinal cord injury and of CVD, pain control was ineffective. In cases with thalamic pain, we studied the correlation between the surgical result of spinal cord stimulation and the clinical features, MRI, fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) findings before operation. MRI revealed a small to moderate sized lesion on the thalamus or putamen in each case. PET also showed decreased accumulation of FDG on the affected thalamus. In all cases without one fair responder to spinal cord stimulation, we could recognize definite SEP originating in the sensory cortex ipsilateral side to the CVD lesion during contralateral median or posterior tibial nerve stimulation. In the good responders, we could recognize SEP originating in the sensory cortex of the lesion side with less delayed latency or decreased amplitude than in the moderate responders. In this group, test stimulation with low voltage on the spinal cord evoked a sensory effect (paresthesia) over the painful part of the body. Spinal cord stimulation proved to be an effective treatment for localized central pain. In cases with localized central pain after CVD, we could expect to ameliorate the intractable pain in those cases in which SEP or spinal cord test stimulation revealed that the thalamo-cortical system was preserved. (author)

  18. The survival analysis on localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong; Li Gaofeng; Wu Qinhong; Li Xuenan; Zhong Qiuzi; Xu Yonggang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively investigate clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Between March 2003 and October 2008, 54 localized prostate cancer treated by IMRT were recruited. All patients had received endocrine therapy before IMRT. The endocrine therapy included surgical castration or medical castration in combination with antiandrogens. The target of IMRT was the prostate and seminal vesicles with or without pelvis. The biochemical failure was defined according to the phoenix definition. By using the risk grouping standard proposed by D'Amico, patients were divided into three groups: low-risk group (n = 5), intermediate-risk group (n = 12), and high-risk group (n = 37). Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the overall survival rate. Prognostic factors were analyzed by univariate and multiple Cox regression analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 98%. The number of patients under follow-up was 39 at 3 years and 25 at 5 years. Potential prognostic factors, including risk groups, mode of endocrine therapy, time of endocrine therapy, phoenix grouping before IMRT, the prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) before radiotherapy, PSA value before IMRT, interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT, irradiation region, and irradiation dose were analyzed by survival analysis. In univariate analysis, time of endocrine therapy (75 % vs 95 %, χ 2 = 6. 45, P = 0. 011), phoenix grouping before IMRT (87% vs 96%, χ 2 = 4. 36, P = 0. 037), interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT (80% vs 95%, χ 2 = 11.60, P= 0. 001), irradiation dose (75% vs 91%, χ 2 =5.92, P= 0. 015) were statistically significant prognostic factors for 3 - year overall survival , and risk groups (85 vs 53 vs 29, χ 2 = 6. 40, P =0. 041) and PSADT before IMRT (62 vs 120, U =24. 50, P =0. 003) were significant factors for the median survival time. In the multiple Cox

  19. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response.

  20. Assessment of Global Emissions, Local Emissions and Immissions of Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Erdmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses and compares existing and new technologies for space heating in Germany (e.g., heat pumps, and solar thermal and wood pellet systems in terms of their environmental impacts. The various technologies were analyzed within the context of the new German legislation. The assessment was carried out on three levels: 1. Global emissions: a life cycle assessment was carried out in order to find the global environmental footprint of the various technologies; 2. Local emissions: the effects of local emissions on human health were analyzed; and 3. Immissions: the immissions were evaluated for the various technologies using a dispersion calculation. A special feature of this study is the substitution of frequently used database emission values by values obtained from field studies and our own measurements. The results show large differences between the different technologies: while electric heat pumps performed quite well in most categories, wood pellet systems performed the best with respect to climate change. The latter, however, are associated with high impacts in other environmental impact categories and on a local scale. The promotion of some technologies (especially systems based on fuel oil, a mixture of fuel oil and rapeseed oil, or a mixture of natural gas and biomethane by the newly introduced German legislation is doubtful. In terms of the immissions of wood pellet systems, it can be concluded that, even for extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, the regulatory limits are not exceeded and the heating systems have a negligible influence on the total PM load in the ambient air.

  1. Invasive Fetal Therapy: Global Status and Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few congenital anomalies that can be treated in utero, despite the rapid development of fetal medicine. The number of available antenatal treatments is growing with the advance of supplementary tools, especially ultrasound and endoscopy. Disorders involving accumulation of excessive fluid in the amniotic cavity (polyhydramnios, chest (hydrothorax, abdomen (ascites and urinary system (obstructive uropathy are regularly treated using aspiration or shunt drainage under ultrasound monitoring. Electrolyte solutions or concentrated blood component supplements are used to treat oligohydramnios (amnioinfusion and amniopatch and fetal anemia (fetal transfusion. Placental tumor (chorioangioma and fetal tumors (cystic hygroma and sacrococcygeal teratoma are also successfully treated by antenatal injection of medications. Fetoscopic procedures, especially obstetric endoscopy, are now used regularly in North America, Europe, Australasia and Japan after the validity was established in the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome when compared with traditional amnioreduction. However, most procedures involving surgical fetoscopy or open fetal surgery remain experimental. Their validity and efficacy are not confirmed in a number of fetal diseases for which they were claimed to be effective. A brief review of the global status and history of invasive fetal therapy is given, and its status in Taiwan is also described. Future development in this field relies on greater understanding of the basic physiology and pathology of the diseases involved, as well as on the progress of sophisticated instrumentation.

  2. Local Agenda 21. Settlement pattern and energy for transportation and heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orderud, Geir Inge

    1998-01-01

    This document deals with Local Agenda 21 (LA21) and the relationship between settlement pattern and the consumption of energy in transportation and heating of houses. Local Agenda 21 originates from the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 and draws up the strategies by which the local communities should participate in realizing the recommendations of the summit. So far much of the research around LA21 has examined how well the individual countries that ratified the Rio document have fulfilled the recommendations of Article 28 on local responsibility. From the point of view of research, however, the challenge is rather to investigate the conditions for realizing the broad participation of the people. From the administrative point of view, the important issue is the relationship between the representative channels and the direct participation of local people in the decision processes, as well as the delegation of decision-making authority from national to regional or local level. One recommendation in Agenda 21 is to emit less greenhouse gases. In this connection, a central issue is transportation, which is affected by the settlement pattern. A denser settlement within an urban area is supposed to reduce the transportation and the use of private cars. Thus the local development and area policy is a topic of current interest in the study of how LA21 works locally, especially so because sparsely built-up areas with single family houses are considered as the good way of living. Densely populated urban areas may conflict with the need for arable land and green space. LA 21 and the settlement pattern are both parts of a larger social environment and it is important know these relationships when local measures and actions are analysed. The possibility of a sustainable development must be assessed in relation to the fact that more power is gathered in the global flow of capital. 26 refs

  3. Local heat stress and skin blood flowmotion in subjects with familial predisposition or newly diagnosed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewska, Barbara; Nęcki, Mirosław; Cwynar, Marcin; Baron, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin microcirculation blood flow and flowmotion response to heat stress in normotensive subjects with familial predisposition to hypertension and in hypertensive patients. Normotensives without [NT(-)] or with [NT(+)] familial predisposition and subjects with newly diagnosed hypertension (HT) were studied. Clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring as well as laboratory assessments were performed. Resting (RF), heat (HF) and maximal heat (MHF) blood flows were measured using PeriFlux laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and expressed as absolute units (AU) and as index of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Spectral analysis of the skin LDF signal was performed by means of the Perisoft dedicated software. Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance, χ(2) statistic and multivariate reverse regression analysis were used for calculation. The studied population consisted of 70 persons (mean age 36.1 ± 10.3 years, 44.3% women): 17 NT(-), 22 NT(+) and 31 HT, age and gender matched. Higher values of body mass index (BMI), and insulin, glucose and triglyceride levels were observed in HT than in NT groups. RF, HF and MHF were similar in all study groups, but CVC of maximal heat flow differed (p=0.02); in particular, lower values were observed in the HT than in NT(-) group (p=0.01). The study groups differed with regard to total power (p=0.01) and myogenic (p=0.03) origin flowmotion with the lowest values in the NT(+) group. BMI and night BP characteristics were strong predictors of reduction of CVC, MHF and myogenic origin flowmotion. Skin microcirculation response to local heat stress is altered in hypertensive patients with decrease in maximal heat CVC values. Moreover, normotensive subjects with familial predisposition to hypertension are characterized by diminished myogenic origin of skin blood flowmotion.

  4. Effect of sacrum-perineum heat therapy on active phase labor pain and client satisfaction: a randomized, controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Haghani, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Reduction of labor pain is one of the most important aspects of obstetric care. Heat therapy, typically applied to the woman's back, lower abdomen, groin, and/or perineum during last stage of labor, is an easy pain relief method that does not require highly skilled care. The effectiveness of heat therapy applied to the perineum during the first stage of labor has not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of heat therapy for pain and woman's satisfaction during physiological labor. Sixty primiparous women aged 18-35 years old were randomly assigned to heat therapy and control groups. Pain and satisfaction scores were measured by visual analog scale. The measurements of satisfaction were accomplished after birth. Data were analyzed by using the t-test and chi-square Mean pain scores in the heat therapy group were significantly lower than the control group (P heat therapy group was significantly higher than in the control group (P Heat therapy, an inexpensive complementary treatment with low risk, can reduce the intensity of pain and increase mothers' satisfaction with care during the active phase of labor. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of local heat on term neonates pain intensity during heel-blood sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GHobadi Mohebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Newborns are more sensitive to pain than adults and are more susceptible to the long-term complications of pain. So, it is necessary to use procedures for reducing pain in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of local heat on the pain intensity of heel-blood sampling in the term newborns. Material & Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, in 2012, 63 healthy 3 to 5-day newborns who were referred to Shahid Delkhah Health Center in Ferdows were selected by random sampling method and randomly divided into 3 groups (21 people in each group: test (heat, placebo (sound and control. The pain intensity of newborns before, during and after heel-blood sampling was evaluated. The data collection tools were demographic questionnaire and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14.5 software and chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test, and ANOVA with repeated observations. Finding: The mean pain intensity in the three groups was not significantly different before intervention (p=0.86, but the mean pain intensity was lower in the test group than in the other two groups (p=0.006. After heel-blood sampling, the mean pain intensity was the least in the test group and was the most in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Local heat during and after heel blood sampling decreases pain intensity in the term newborns.

  6. A Study on Infrared Local Heat Treatment for AA5083 to Improve Formability and Automotive Part Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, SeJin

    2017-10-01

    Automotive industries are increasingly employing aluminum alloys for auto parts to reduce vehicle weight. However, the low formability of aluminum alloys has been an obstacle to their application. To resolve the formability problem, some studies involving heat treatments under laboratory conditions have been reported. However, for industrial applications, the heat treatment sequence, heating energy efficiency, and a commercial part test should be studied. This work shows an infrared (IR) local heat treatment, heating only small areas where the heat treatment is required, for an aluminum alloy to improve the formability with a reduction of heating energy. The experiment shows that the formability drastically increases when the aluminum alloy is heat treated between two forming stages, referred to as intermediate heat treatment. The microstructures of the test pieces are evaluated to identify the cause of the increase in the formability. For an industrial application, an aluminum tailgate, which cannot be manufactured without heat treatment, was successfully manufactured by the IR local heat treatment with a reduction of energy. A simulation was also conducted with a stress-based forming limit diagram, which is not affected by the strain path and heat treatment histories. The simulation gives a good prediction of the formability improvement.

  7. Role of radiation therapy in locally advanced thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgesi, A.; Monetti, U.; Rossi, G.; Ricardi, U.; Casadio, C.

    1990-01-01

    The records of all patients treated for thymoma in the Department of Radiotherapy of Torino University between 1970 and 1988 were reviewed. There were 59 in stage 3 and 18 in stage 4a; 74 patients were operated before radiotherapy and 3 had a pre-operative irradiation followed by surgery and post-operative boost. Complete resection was possible in 55.9 per cent of stage 3 cases and in none with stage 4a. Subtotal resection was done in 36.6 per cent of stage 3 patients and 83.3 per cent in stage 4a. 8 patients had only biopsy: 5 in stage 3 (8.5 per cent) and 3 in stage 4a (16.6 per cent). Post-operative radiation doses ranged between 39.6 and 46 Gy to the whole mediastinum followed by a 10-16 Gy boost on smaller fields in cases presenting residual disease after surgery. The pre-operative dose was 30 Gy followed by a post-operative boost of 16-24 Gy. Conventional fraction sizes of 1.8-2 Gy were always used. The 10 years survival rate was 58.3 per cent. There was a significant difference between stage 3 (70.9 per cent) and stage 4a (26.3 per cent)(p<0.0004). Survival of patients in stage 3 was not significantly affected by the type of surgery. No significant difference in survival or recurrence rate was observed in patients with different histologies and in patients with or without myasthenia. Thoracic relapses occurred in 15. 2 per cent of stage 3 patients and in 50 per cent of stage 4a patients (p<0.01). Only 7 relapses (9.1 per cent) were within the limits of the radiation field. Radiotherapy seems to be effective in reducing the risk of local recurrence and prolonging survival in patients operated upon for locally advanced thymoma. More patients are alive and free of disease at 10 years than those who received radical surgery. (author). 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  8. Local Entropy Production in Turbulent Shear Flows: A Tool for Evaluating Heat Transfer Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. HERWIG; F. KOCK

    2006-01-01

    Performance evaluation of heat transfer devices can be based on the overall entropy production in these devices.In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy production due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to heat conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy production can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy production rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy production terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as heat transfer promoter it is shown that based on the overall entropy production rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy production compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and heat transfer data are given.

  9. Analysis and modeling of localized heat generation by tumor-targeted nanoparticles (Monte Carlo methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanattalab, Ehsan; SalmanOgli, Ahmad; Piskin, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the tumor-targeted nanoparticles that influence heat generation. We suppose that all nanoparticles are fully functionalized and can find the target using active targeting methods. Unlike the commonly used methods, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the treatment procedure proposed in this study is purely noninvasive, which is considered to be a significant merit. It is found that the localized heat generation due to targeted nanoparticles is significantly higher than other areas. By engineering the optical properties of nanoparticles, including scattering, absorption coefficients, and asymmetry factor (cosine scattering angle), the heat generated in the tumor's area reaches to such critical state that can burn the targeted tumor. The amount of heat generated by inserting smart agents, due to the surface Plasmon resonance, will be remarkably high. The light-matter interactions and trajectory of incident photon upon targeted tissues are simulated by MIE theory and Monte Carlo method, respectively. Monte Carlo method is a statistical one by which we can accurately probe the photon trajectories into a simulation area.

  10. Study of flow control by localized volume heating in hypersonic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. A.; Kloker, M. J.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Boundary-layer flow control is a prerequisite for a safe and efficient operation of future hypersonic transport systems. Here, the influence of an electric discharge—modeled by a heat-source term in the energy equation—on laminar boundary-layer flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient at Mach 3, 5, and 7 is investigated numerically. The aim was to appraise the potential of electro-gasdynamic devices for an application as turbulence generators in the super- and hypersonic flow regime. The results with localized heat-source elements in boundary layers are compared to cases with roughness elements serving as classical passive trips. The numerical simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS FLUENT (by ITAM) and the high-order finite-difference DNS code NS3D (by IAG), the latter allowing for the detailed analysis of laminar flow instability. For the investigated setups with steady heating, transition to turbulence is not observed, due to the Reynolds-number lowering effect of heating.

  11. Conformal radiation therapy with or without intensity modulation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Peignaux, K.; Ammor, A.; Bolla, M.

    2005-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy has now to be considered as a standard treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinomas. Using conformational methods and intensity modulated radiation therapy requires a rigorous approach for their implementation in routine, focused on the reproducibility of the treatment, target volume definitions, dosimetry, quality control, setup positioning. In order to offer to the largest number of patients high-dose treatment, the clinicians must integrate as prognostic factors accurate definition of microscopic extension as well as the tolerance threshold of critical organs. High-dose delivery is expected to be most efficient in intermediary risks and locally advanced diseases. Intensity modulated radiation therapy is specifically dedicated to dose escalation. Perfect knowledge of classical constraints of conformal radiation therapy is required. Using such an approach in routine needs a learning curve including the physicists and a specific quality assurance program. (author)

  12. Application of the predicted heat strain model in development of localized, threshold-based heat stress management guidelines for the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, Steve; Jia, Yunyan Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Existing heat stress risk management guidelines recommended by international standards are not practical for the construction industry which needs site supervision staff to make instant managerial decisions to mitigate heat risks. The ability of the predicted heat strain (PHS) model [ISO 7933 (2004). Ergonomics of the thermal environment analytical determination and interpretation of heat stress using calculation of the predicted heat strain. Geneva: International Standard Organisation] to predict maximum allowable exposure time (D lim) has now enabled development of localized, action-triggering and threshold-based guidelines for implementation by lay frontline staff on construction sites. This article presents a protocol for development of two heat stress management tools by applying the PHS model to its full potential. One of the tools is developed to facilitate managerial decisions on an optimized work-rest regimen for paced work. The other tool is developed to enable workers' self-regulation during self-paced work.

  13. Studying the Dynamics of Breakdown of Thin Horizontal Liquid Layers with Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spesivtsev Serafim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of liquid layers breakdown when heated locally from the substrate side was made. Water and ethanol were used as working liquids with a layer thickness of 300 μm. Basic steps of the breakdown process were found and mean velocities of the dry spot formation were determined; the values are 0.06 mm/sec for ethanol and 5.15 mm/sec for water. The formation of residual layer over the hot-spot before the breakdown has been found for both liquids. The creation of a droplet cluster near the heating region is observed when using water as a working fluid. It was shown that evaporation is one of the general factors influencing the process of layer breakdown and dry spot formation as well as thermocapillary effect.

  14. Dynamical contribution to the heat conductivity in stochastic energy exchanges of locally confined gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre; Gilbert, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    We present a systematic computation of the heat conductivity of the Markov jump process modeling the energy exchanges in an array of locally confined hard spheres at the conduction threshold. Based on a variational formula (Sasada 2016 (arXiv:1611.08866)), explicit upper bounds on the conductivity are derived, which exhibit a rapid power-law convergence towards an asymptotic value. We thereby conclude that the ratio of the heat conductivity to the energy exchange frequency deviates from its static contribution by a small negative correction, its dynamic contribution, evaluated to be -0.000 373 in dimensionless units. This prediction is corroborated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which were substantially improved compared to earlier results.

  15. Local interfacial structure of subcooled boiling flow in a heated annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Seong-O; Yun, Byong-Jo; Park, Goon-Cherl; Hibiki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Local measurements of flow parameters were performed for vertical upward subcooled boiling flows in an internally heated annulus. The annulus channel consisted of an inner heater rod with a diameter of 19.0 mm and an outer round tube with an inner diameter of 37.5 mm, and the hydraulic equivalent diameter was 18.5 mm. The double-sensor conductivity probe method was used for measuring the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble Sauter mean diameter and gas velocity, whereas the miniature Pitot tube was used for measuring the local liquid velocity. A total of 32 data sets were acquired consisting of various combinations of heat flux, 88.1-350.9 kW/m 2 , mass flux, 469.7-1061.4kg(m 2 s) and inlet liquid temperature, 83.8-100.5degC. Six existing drift-flux models, six exiting correlations of the interfacial area concentration and bubble layer thickness model were evaluated using the data obtained in the experiment. (author)

  16. Vertical integration of local fuel producers into rural district heating systems – Climate impact and production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, Å.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes. - Highlights: • Five DH production systems based on different fuels and ownership were analysed. • Lower GHG emissions were obtained when farmers integrate fully into the DH chain. • Lower heat price was obtained by full vertical integration of farmers. • Salix and straw-based production resulted in the lowest GHG and heat price

  17. Should the General Practitioner Consider Mesotherapy (Intradermal Therapy) to Manage Localized Pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Mammucari, M; Maggiori, E; Lazzari, M; Natoli, S

    2016-01-01

    Wide variations in the types of pain and response to analgesic pharmacotherapy mean that a variety of treatment strategies are needed. One approach is mesotherapy (intradermal therapy). This consists of microinjections into the skin and is ideally suited to the management of localized pain. Advantages include increasing the duration of drug activity, reduced risk of adverse events and interactions, and possible synergy with other therapies. Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with anot...

  18. Should the General Practitioner Consider Mesotherapy (Intradermal Therapy) to Manage Localized Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammucari, Massimo; Maggiori, Enrica; Lazzari, Marzia; Natoli, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Wide variations in the types of pain and response to analgesic pharmacotherapy mean that a variety of treatment strategies are needed. One approach is mesotherapy (intradermal therapy). This consists of microinjections into the skin and is ideally suited to the management of localized pain. Advantages include increasing the duration of drug activity, reduced risk of adverse events and interactions, and possible synergy with other therapies. Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with another tool for the treatment of local pain. However, it is important to provide patients with full details of the pros and cons of this approach and obtain informed patient consent.

  19. STOMATOLOGIC ASPECTS IN THERAPY OF LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED CANCER OF ORAL CAVITY MUCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Matyakin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to improve prophylaxis of dental complications during the therapy in the patients with locally distributed cancer of oral cavity mucus.Materials. Results of sanation of oral cavity in 305 patients with cancer of oral and pharyngeal area are analyzed.Results. The best results are noted in the patients given surgical sanation before chemo-radial therapy. The most number of complications is observed when teeth were extracted after chemical therapy in the period of radial therapy at summary focal dose above 20 Gy as well as in the late periods after radial therapy.Conclusion. A complex of preventive measures with using haemostatic sponge with canamycin in such patients decreases the number of complications and the terms of healing of alveoli of extracted teeth.

  20. A model for particle and heat losses by type I edge localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, M Z; Gupta, A; Kalupin, D; Singh, R

    2007-01-01

    A model to estimate the particle and energy losses caused in tokamaks by type I edge localized modes (ELMs) is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that the increase in transport by ELM is due to flows along magnetic field lines perturbed by ballooning-peeling MHD modes. The model reproduces well the experimentally found variation of losses with the plasma collisionality ν*, namely, the weak dependence of the particle loss and significant reduction of the energy loss with increasing ν*. It is argued that the electron parallel heat conductivity is dominating in the energy loss at not very large ν*

  1. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  2. Multimodal therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: the roles of radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and their combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Kwan Ho [The Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPC) is defined as histologically proven T3–4 prostatic adenocarcinoma. In this review, we define the individual roles of radiotherapy (RT), short-term (ST-) and long-term (LT-) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and their combination in multimodal therapy for LAPC. Despite limitations in comparing the clinical outcomes among published papers, in the present study, a trend of 10-year clinical outcomes was roughly estimated by calculating the average rates weighted by the cohort number. With RT alone, the following rates were estimated: 87% biochemical failure, 34% local failure (LF), 48% distant metastasis (DM), 38% overall survival (OS), and 27% disease-specific mortality (DSM). Those associated with ADT alone were 74% BCF, 54% OS, and 25% DSM, which appeared to be better than those of RT alone. The addition of ADT to RT produced a notable local and systemic effect, regardless of ST- or LT-ADT. The LF rate decreased from 34% with RT alone to 21% with ST-ADT and further to 15% with LT-ADT. The DM and DSM rates also showed a similar trend among RT alone, RT+ST-ADT, and RT+LT-ADT. The combination of RT+LT-ADT resulted in the best long-term clinical outcomes, indicating that both RT and ADT are important parts of multimodal therapy.

  3. Multimodal therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: the roles of radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and their combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2017-01-01

    Locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPC) is defined as histologically proven T3–4 prostatic adenocarcinoma. In this review, we define the individual roles of radiotherapy (RT), short-term (ST-) and long-term (LT-) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and their combination in multimodal therapy for LAPC. Despite limitations in comparing the clinical outcomes among published papers, in the present study, a trend of 10-year clinical outcomes was roughly estimated by calculating the average rates weighted by the cohort number. With RT alone, the following rates were estimated: 87% biochemical failure, 34% local failure (LF), 48% distant metastasis (DM), 38% overall survival (OS), and 27% disease-specific mortality (DSM). Those associated with ADT alone were 74% BCF, 54% OS, and 25% DSM, which appeared to be better than those of RT alone. The addition of ADT to RT produced a notable local and systemic effect, regardless of ST- or LT-ADT. The LF rate decreased from 34% with RT alone to 21% with ST-ADT and further to 15% with LT-ADT. The DM and DSM rates also showed a similar trend among RT alone, RT+ST-ADT, and RT+LT-ADT. The combination of RT+LT-ADT resulted in the best long-term clinical outcomes, indicating that both RT and ADT are important parts of multimodal therapy

  4. Costs for Alternatives to District Heating. A study of real costs on local heating markets; Alternativkostnad till fjaerrvaerme. En studie av verkliga kostnader paa lokala vaermemarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Annelie; Lehtmets, Marti; Andersson, Sofie

    2008-07-01

    Heating comprise the major part of the cost of supporting a building with necessities like electricity, heat, refuse collection and water and sewage. As these costs increase, it is becoming more interesting to find other solutions in order to reduce them. One alternative is to convert to another heating system. Several price analyses comparing different heating systems have been performed. Avgiftsgruppen publishes one report on a yearly basis, where the costs to support a building with necessities and how they vary between communities are listed. The latest report states that it is less expensive in 75 % of the communities in Sweden to convert from district heating to a pellets boiler or a ground-source pump. However, other studies have established that the heat market is a local market with local conditions. Therefore you need to compare alternative heating costs that are specific to the area instead of estimated average costs at a national level. The purpose of this survey is to study a local heat market in order to verify the real cost of the alternative heating systems to district heating and if these costs vary between different communities. The hypothesis is that it is not possible to generalize the heating cost on a national level. Instead, a local market should be studied to make an accurate cost comparison between heating options. Three communities are studied in order to find real and verified investment costs in pellet boilers and heat pumps. The investments that are of primary interest are those performed in buildings similar to the multi-dwelling house used in earlier price analyses. Furthermore, the building should be located within the distribution network of district heating in order to illustrate the competition between the heating alternatives. The result of the study illustrates the difficulties to find real and verified costs of completed investments in alternative heating systems in buildings that is of primary interest for this study. Contacts

  5. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... responsive. The yields obtained suggest that these local landraces of watermelon are valuable plant genetic resources for securing food supply in arid, heat- and drought-prone areas....

  6. About the possible options for models of convective heat transfer in closed volumes with local heating source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. Is carried out the analysis of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient at interfaces “air – enclosures”. The distributions average along the gas temperature range are obtained.

  7. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  8. On uncertainty and local sensitivity analysis for transient conjugate heat transfer problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The need for simulating real-world behavior of automobiles has led to more and more sophisticated models being added of various physical phenomena for being coupled together. This increases the number of parameters to be set and, consequently, the required knowledge of their relative importance for the solution and the theory behind them. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides the knowledge of parameter importance. In this paper a thermal radiation solver is considered that performs conduction calculations and receives heat transfer coefficient and fluid temperate at a thermal node. The equations of local, discrete, and transient sensitivities for the conjugate heat transfer model solved by the finite difference method are being derived for some parameters. In the past, formulations for the finite element method have been published. This paper builds on the steady-state formulation published previously by the author. A numerical analysis on the stability of the solution matrix is being conducted. From those normalized sensitivity coefficients are calculated dimensionless uncertainty factors. On a simplified example the relative importance of the heat transfer modes at various locations is then investigated by those uncertainty factors and their changes over time

  9. Modeling of fuel vapor jet eruption induced by local droplet heating

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2014-01-10

    The evaporation of a droplet by non-uniform heating is numerically investigated in order to understand the mechanism of the fuel-vapor jet eruption observed in the flame spread of a droplet array under microgravity condition. The phenomenon was believed to be mainly responsible for the enhanced flame spread rate through a droplet cloud at microgravity conditions. A modified Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a local phase change model is utilized to describe the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It is found that the localized heating creates a temperature gradient along the droplet surface, induces the corresponding surface tension gradient, and thus develops an inner flow circulation commonly referred to as the Marangoni convection. Furthermore, the effect also produces a strong shear flow around the droplet surface, thereby pushing the fuel vapor toward the wake region of the droplet to form a vapor jet eruption. A parametric study clearly demonstrated that at realistic droplet combustion conditions the Marangoni effect is indeed responsible for the observed phenomena, in contrast to the results based on constant surface tension approximation

  10. 3D conformal radiation therapy and hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer: Is age a limiting factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, A.; Negrea, T.; Lechevallier, E.; Coulange, C.; Murraciole, X.; Jouvea, E.; Sambuca, R.; Cowen, D.

    2011-01-01

    No study on side effects had showed that conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer is more harmful in patients older than 70 years to patients younger. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of conformal radiotherapy, with high dose for localized prostate cancer in patients older than 70 years and compared to patients younger than 70 years. Between 1996 and 2009, 104 patients were treated with radiation therapy and hormonal therapy for localized cancer prostate. Median follow-up was 105 months (9 300). Acute (occurred at ≤ three months) and late side effects of 55 patients older than 70 years (median age: 75 [71 92]) were graded according to the CTCAE 3.0 criteria and compared to the younger population. Median dose to the prostate was 75.6 Gy (67 80) in both groups. There were no significant differences in acute and late side effects between age groups. For patients above 70 years, the incidence of grade II or higher acute and late side effects were respectively 27 and 22% for urologic symptoms and 13 and 16% for rectal symptoms. The frequency of grade III late symptoms was low and ranged between 0 and 6% for the evaluated symptoms, irrespective of age group. Older patients had a better biochemical recurrence-free survival than younger patients (86 versus 77% at four years, P ≡ ns). High dose 3D conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer was well tolerated in patients older than 70 years. Age is not a limiting factor for conformal radiation therapy and hormonotherapy for older patients. (authors)

  11. The Effect of Inclination Angle on Critical Heat Flux in a Locally Heated Liquid Film Moving Under the Action of Gas Flow in a Mini-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Egor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films moving under the action of the cocurrent gas flow in a microchannel are promising for the use in modern cooling systems of semiconductor devices with high local heat release. This work has studied the dependence of the critical heat flux on the inclination angle of the channel. It has been found that the inclination angle in the plane parallel to the flow has no significant effect on the critical heat flux. Whereas the inclination angle in the plane perpendicular to the flow, on the contrary, significantly changes the value of the critical heat flux. However, for a given flow rate of fluid there is a threshold gas velocity at which the critical heat flux does not differ from the case of zero inclination of the channel. Thus, it can be concluded that the cooling system based on shear-driven liquid films can be potentially used when direction of the gravity changes.

  12. Subarachnoid dissemination of pineal germinoma 9 years after radiation therapy without local relapse; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Murase, Shizuo; Yagishita, Saburo [Kanagawa Rehabilitation Center, Atsugi (Japan); Kyuma, Yoshikazu

    1991-11-01

    A 22-year-old female developed intracranial and spinal subarachnoid metastases 9 years after radiation therapy for a pineal germinoma. Computed tomographic scans showed no evidence of local recurrence. Cerebrospinal axis irradiation achieved total remission. Delayed subarachnoid dissemination may be caused by germinoma cells remaining dormant in the subarachnoid space, outside the radiation field. (author).

  13. User involvement in measuring service quality of local authority occupational therapy services: a new approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, S.; Calnan, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold: (i) to describe the development of a new measuring instrument for quality of care from the perspective of the users of local authority Occupational Therapy (OT) services, and (ii) to evaluate the potential of the new instrument as a standardized approach for the

  14. Quality of local authority occupational therapy services: developing an instrument to measure the user's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calnan, S.; Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered

  15. TENS and heat therapy for pain relief and quality of life improvement in individuals with primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwea, Sylvester Emeka; Tabansi-Ochuogu, Chidinma Samantha; Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor

    2016-08-01

    The present systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence for the effectiveness of TENS and heat therapy interventions from randomized trials. Six relevant databases were searched for studies on TENS and heat therapy for primary dysmenorrhea. Menstrual pain intensity and quality of life were the primary and secondary outcomes respectively. The search yielded 46 citations from which six studies on TENS and three studies on heat therapy were systematically reviewed. On the PEDRO quality scale, the trials methodological quality was 4.8 out of 10 for TENS and 6.3 out of 10 for heat therapy. TENS and heat therapy both showed evidence of pain reduction, but no study included quality of life as an outcome. Meta-analysis was not possible due to substantial heterogeneity in included studies. TENS and heat therapy show potential as adjunct remedies in the management of primary dysmenorrhea, but rigorous high quality trials are still needed to made conclusive recommendation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cf-252 neutron brachytherapy: an advance for bulky localized cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and radiobiogical basis as well as the rationale for neutron brachytherapy, using Cf-252, in human cancer therapy is reviewed. Cf-252 brachytherapy represents an economical and effective form of neutron radiotherapy that is readily and safely applied clinically. It can be used anywhere in the world without unusual personnel, equipment or facilities, or prohibitive expenses or maintenance costs. Used on bulky head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, brain and appendage cancers, it overcomes hypoxic radioresistance and produces remarkable rates of tumor clearance. It is easily combined with photon radiotherapy and in proper schedules and doses, it can control advanced but still localized regional cancers to produce tumor cure. It will clear the local manifestations of recurrent or metastatic tumors or advanced stages of primary tumors and therefore in conjunction with other adjuvant therapies offers much more effective tumor control and palliation than present conventional therapy. (Auth.)

  17. The effect of dry spots on heat transfer in a locally heated liquid film moving under the action of gas flow in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, D. V.; Tkachenko, E. M.; Bykovskaya, E. F.

    2017-11-01

    Intensive evaporation of a thin liquid film, moving in a flat micro-/minichannel under the action of gas flow is very promising for the use in cooling systems of modern semiconductor devices with localized heat sources of high intensity. In this work, using the high-speed visualization, the effect of the formation of dry spots on heat transfer in a locally heated liquid film shear-driven in a channel was investigated. It was found that the maximum intensity of heat removal from the heater is achieved in the mode, when the film flow continuity is broken. During the experiment the total area of dry spots increases with increasing heat flux and heater temperature, but when the heater reaches a certain temperature (≈100°C), the total area begins to decrease. However, the length of contact line increases with increasing heat flux and reaches a maximum in the pre-crisis regime. Intensive evaporation in the region of the contact line may explain the achievement of high heat fluxes in the shear-driven liquid film.

  18. Numerical analysis for the conjugate heat transfer of skin under various temperature conditions of contrast therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Da Ae; Oh, Han Nah; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byoung Jin; Kim, Eun Jeoung; Lee, Seung Deok [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, the contrast therapy of skin was numerically investigated by solving the conjugate heat transfer problem. A finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the axisymmetric incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with an energy equation. These equations are strongly coupled with the Pennes bio-heat equation in order to consider the effect of blood perfusion rate. We investigated the thermal response of skin at some selected depths for various input temperature profiles of a stimulator for contrast therapy. From the numerical simulations, the regions with cold/hot threshold temperatures were found for five input temperature profiles. It was shown that the temperature varies mildly for different input profiles as the depth increases, owing to the Pennes effect. The input temperatures for effective hot/cold stimulation of dermis layer were found to be 47 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. The present numerical results will be used for finding an optimal temperature profile of a stimulator for contrast therapy.

  19. A study on the flow field and local heat transfer performance due to geometric scaling of centrifugal fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, Jason; Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Velocity field and local heat transfer trends of centrifugal fans. ► Time-averaged vortices are generated by flow separation. ► Local vortex and impingement regions are evident on surface heat transfer maps. ► Miniature centrifugal fans should be designed with an aspect ratio below 0.3. ► Theory under predicts heat transfer due to complex, unsteady outlet flow. - Abstract: Scaled versions of fan designs are often chosen to address thermal management issues in space constrained applications. Using velocity field and local heat transfer measurement techniques, the thermal performance characteristics of a range of geometrically scaled centrifugal fan designs have been investigated. Complex fluid flow structures and surface heat transfer trends due to centrifugal fans were found to be common over a wide range of fan aspect ratios (blade height to fan diameter). The limiting aspect ratio for heat transfer enhancement was 0.3, as larger aspect ratios were shown to result in a reduction in overall thermal performance. Over the range of fans examined, the low profile centrifugal designs produced significant enhancement in thermal performance when compared to that predicted using classical laminar flow theory. The limiting non-dimensional distance from the fan, where this enhancement is no longer apparent, has also been determined. Using the fundamental information inferred from local velocity field and heat transfer measurements, selection criteria can be determined for both low and high power practical applications where space restrictions exist.

  20. Adjuvant VHF therapy in locally recurrent and primary unresectable rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, J.M.; Lamb, M.H.; Bayliss, E.J.; Edis, A.J.; Blackwell, J.B.; Shepherd, J.M.; Cassidy, B.

    1996-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study, 434 MHz microwave therapy combined with external beam radiotherapy (VHF+RT) was compared with standard external beam radiotherapy (RT) in controlling locally recurrent or unresectable primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Independent assessors documented quality of life scores, performance status, toxicities local response to treatment, and systemic disease progression before treatment and after treatment and every 8 week thereafter. Of 75 patients randomized, 73 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Forty-three of these patients had local pelvic tumour recurrence only and 21 also had distant metastases. In addition, nine patients had primary inoperable carcinomas, two of whom also had metastases. Thirty-seven patients were randomized to RT and 36 to VHF+RT. Th median dose of radiation in the VHF+RT arm was 4275 cGy with a median fraction size of 150 cGy and median duration of therapy of 48.5 days versus 4500 cGy in the RT-only arm with a median fraction size of 180 cGy and median duration of therapy of 38 days. These doses are unlikely to be significantly different in biological effect. No significant difference between the two groups was observed in extent and duration of local control, measures of toxicity or quality of life scores. Additionally, survival and cumulative incidence of pelvic site of first progression did not differ significantly between the groups. It is concluded that VHF microwave therapy in conjunction with radiotherapy produces no therapeutic advantage over conventional radiation therapy alone in the treatment of locally recurrent rectal carcinoma. 35 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Numerical prediction of local transitional features of turbulent forced gas flows in circular tubes with strong heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Shehata, A.M.; McEligot, D.M.

    1997-03-01

    Previous numerical simulation for the laminarization due to heating of the turbulent flow in pipe were assessed by comparison with only macroscopic characteristics such as heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, since no experimental data on the local distributions of the velocity and temperature in such flow situation was available. Recently, Shehata and McEligot reported the first measurements of local distributions of velocity and temperature for turbulent forced air flow in a vertical circular tube with strongly heating. They carried out the experiments in three situations from turbulent flow to laminarizing flow according to the heating rate. In the present study, we analyzed numerically the local transitional features of turbulent flow evolving laminarizing due to strong heating in their experiments by using the advanced low-Re two-equation turbulence model. As the result, we successfully predicted the local distributions of velocity and temperature as well as macroscopic characteristics in three turbulent flow conditions. By the present study, a numerical procedure has been established to predict the local characteristics such as velocity distribution of the turbulent flow with large thermal-property variation and laminarizing flow due to strong heating with enough accuracy. (author). 60 refs

  2. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for reirradiation of localized adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lominska Chris E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control rates are poor in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the role of hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for salvage or boost treatment after conventional doses of external beam radiation therapy. Methods All patients treated with SBRT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at Georgetown University from June 2002 through July 2007 were examined. Eligible patients had prior external beam radiation therapy to the pancreas. Treatment parameters and clinical and radiographic follow-up were evaluated. Results Twenty-eight patients were identified who received SBRT after a median prior external beam radiotherapy dose of 50.4 Gy. The median patient age was 63 years old and the median follow-up was 5.9 months. Twelve of fourteen (85.7% evaluable patients were free from local progression, with three partial responses and nine patients with stable disease. Toxicity consisted of one case of acute Grade II nausea/vomiting, and two cases of Grade III late GI toxicity. The median overall survival was 5.9 months, with 18% survival and 70% freedom from local progression at one year. Conclusions Hypofractionated SBRT reirradiation of localized pancreatic cancer is a well-tolerated treatment. Most patients are free from local progression, albeit with limited follow-up, but overall survival remains poor.

  3. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Hammer, Gary D.; Jolly, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed

  4. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Else, Tobias [Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Center for Cancer Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Williams, Andrew [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Miller, Barbra S. [Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of General Surgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Worden, Francis [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Hammer, Gary D. [Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Jolly, Shruti, E-mail: shrutij@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.

  5. Hit by waves-living with local advanced or localized prostate cancer treated with endocrine therapy or under active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervik, Bente; Nordøy, Tone; Asplund, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of living with prostate cancer have shown that the illness and the treatment cause physical as well as psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to illuminate men's experiences living with localized or local advanced prostate cancer when curative treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy is not an option at the time of diagnosis. The study was conducted via qualitative interviews, using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Ten men treated with endocrine therapy or under active surveillance were interviewed. Being diagnosed with prostate cancer was described as a shock, with different aspects of the illness revealed gradually. The limited amount of time available for meeting with health care providers contributed to patients' feelings of being left alone with difficulty getting information and help. Sexual and urinary problems were perceived as a threat to their manhood. The spouses provided the closest everyday support. The life situation of these patients can be understood as living in a "state of readiness," expecting something to happen regarding their illness, and not always knowing where to get help. The results confirm existing knowledge of patient's experiences in living with prostate cancer regarding the initial shock perceived by the patients, the bodily alterations, and the important role of their spouses. Nurses, as well as general practitioners, must play a more active role in follow-up to ensure that the men and their spouses receive better help and support.

  6. Bio-heat transfer model of electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of biological properties on induced temperature variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marilia M; Wen, Paul; Ahfock, Tony

    2016-08-01

    A realistic human head model consisting of six tissue layers was modelled to investigate the behavior of temperature profile and magnitude when applying electroconvulsive therapy stimulation and different biological properties. The thermo-electrical model was constructed with the use of bio-heat transfer equation and Laplace equation. Three different electrode montages were analyzed as well as the influence of blood perfusion, metabolic heat and electric and thermal conductivity in the scalp. Also, the effect of including the fat layer was investigated. The results showed that temperature increase is inversely proportional to electrical and thermal conductivity increase. Furthermore, the inclusion of blood perfusion slightly drops the peak temperature. Finally, the inclusion of fat is highly recommended in order to acquire more realistic results from the thermo-electrical models.

  7. Effect of the Local Heat on the Pain of Vitamin K Injection in the Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Zahed Pasha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe absence of pain relief in infants can lead to harmful effects; so, this study aimed to investigate the effect of local heat on the pain of vitamin K injection in the infants.Materials and MethodsThis randomized clinical trial was conducted on 80 healthy infants. For the control group, 1 mg vitamin K was injected into the vastus lateralis muscle by a nurse. In the 3 intervention groups, respectively 5, 10 and 15 minutes before the injection, hot-water bag at 37 °C was placed on the quadriceps muscle and then injection was done with the same condition as in the control group. Immediately after the injection, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS was completed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0 software.Results41(51.25% girls and 39 (48.75% boys were participated. First-minute Apgar of all samples were 8.64±0.557. Birth weight was 3335.37±339.51 grams and the minimum gestational age 36.37±1.01 weeks. The mean pain score in the first minute in the control group was 3.6± 2.136, which was 3.3± 1.976 in the 5-minute warm-up group, and this amount was reached to 1.6± 1.569 in 10-minute warm up group, and 0.6± 0.821 in 15 minute warm-up group (P=0.008. The mean pain scores in the control group for the second minute was 1.0±1.835, which was reduced to 0.25± 0.716 in the 10-minute and 15-minute warm-up group (P=0.023.ConclusionLocal heating before the injection procedure can be effective in reducing pain in infants and the pain will reduce by increasing the local heating time (15 minutes.

  8. Impact of heated humidification with automatic positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Sara Moreira da Silva Trindade; Boléo-Tomé, José Pedro Correia Fernandes; Canhão, Cristina Maria Sardinha; Dias, Ana Rita Tavares; Teixeira, Joana Isaac; Pinto, Paula Maria Gonçalves; Caetano, Maria Cristina de Brito Eusébio Bárbara Prista

    2008-09-01

    To study the impact that heated humidification instituted in the beginning of automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy has on compliance with and the side effects of the treatment. Thirty-nine treatment-naïve patients with obstructive sleep apnea were randomized into two groups to receive APAP using one of two modalities: with heated humidification (APAPwith group); and without heated humidification (APAPw/o group).Patients were evaluated at 7 and 30 days after APAP initiation. The following parameters were analyzed: compliance with treatment (mean number of hours/night); side effects (dry nose or mouth, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea); daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale score) and subjective comfort (visual analog scale score). Patients were also evaluated in terms of residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), as well as mean pressures and leaks registered in the ventilators. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of mean age (APAPwith: 57.4 +/- 9.2; APAPw/o: 56.5 +/- 10.7 years), AHI (APAPwith: 28.1 +/- 14.0; APAPw/o: 28.8 +/- 20.5 events/hour of sleep), baseline Epworth score (APAPwith: 11.2 +/- 5.8; APAPw/o: 11.9 +/- 6.3) and initial nasal symptoms. Compliance was similar in both groups (APAPwith: 5.3 +/- 2.4; APAPw/o: 5.2 +/- 2.3 h/night). There were no differences in any of the other parameters analyzed. The introduction of heated humidification at the beginning of APAP therapy provided no advantage in terms of treatment compliance or side effects of treatment.

  9. Increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-da; Luo, Cheng-qun; Xie, Hui-qing; Nie, Xin-min; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Wang, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi; Pokharel, Pashupati Babu; Xu, Dan

    2008-07-20

    Chronic dermal ulcers are also referred to as refractory ulcers. This study was conducted to elucidate the therapeutic effect of laser on chronic dermal ulcers and the induced expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in wound tissues. Sixty patients with 84 chronic dermal ulcers were randomly divided into traditional therapy and laser therapy groups. Laser treatment was performed in addition to traditional therapy in the laser therapy group. The treatment efficacy was evaluated after three weeks. Five tissue sections of healing wounds were randomly collected along with five normal skin sections as controls. HSP70-positive cells from HSP70 immunohistochemical staining were counted and the gray scale of positive cells was measured for statistical analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HSF1 and HSP70. The cure rate of the wounds and the total efficacy in the laser therapy group were significantly higher than those in the traditional therapy group (P ulcers plays a facilitating role in healing due to the mechanism of laser-activated endogenous heat shock protection in cells in wound surfaces.

  10. Outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for inoperable locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ningning; Jin Jing; Li Yexiong; Yu Zihao; Liu Xinfan; Wang Weihu; Wang Shulian; Song Yongwen; Liu Yuping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2007, 41 patients with inoperable locally advanced (stage III) pancreatic cancer were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Among these patients, 30 received concurrent radio-chemo-therapy. Results: The median survival time(MST) and 1-year overall survival were 9.2 months and 23%. Patients with pretreatment KPS ≥ 80, no regional lymph nodes metastasis, and CR/PR after radiotherapy had better prognosis. The corresponding MSTs were 11.1 months vs 5.8 months (χ 2 =7.50, P=0.006), 10.8 months vs 6.5 months(χ 2 =5.67, P=0.017), and 19.5 months vs 9.1 months (χ 2 =7.28, P=0.007), respectively. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy tended to improve the overall survival(χ 2 =3.25, P=0.072). After radiotherapy, 18 patients had clinical benefit response, mainly being abdominal pain relief. Neither grade 4 hematologic nor grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: For patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, both 3DCRT and IMRT are effective in alleviation of disease-related symptoms. Patients with better performance status before treatment, no regional lymph nodes metastasis, and better response to radiotherapy may have better prognosis. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy trend to improve overall survival when compared with radiotherapy alone. (authors)

  11. Feasibility of combined modality therapy for localized high-grade soft tissue sarcomas in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, R.H.; Greenberger, J.S.; Wilson, R.E.; Corson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients with localized, high grade soft tissue sarcomas had resection of their primary tumor, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The soft tissue sarcoma was primary in 14 patients and regionally recurrent in 3 patients. Chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide 500 mg/M 2 day 1, Adriamycin (ADR) 60 mg/M 2 day 2, and DTIC 400 mg/M 2 days 1 and 2, given every 21 days to a maximum ADR dose of 450 mg/M 2 . Cyclophosphamide and DTIC were then given to a total duration of 1 year. Radiation therapy consisted of 4000 to 5000 rad by megavoltage photons in 5 weeks, and in selected cases, an additional 1500 to 2000 rad by electron beam boost in the tumor bed delivered over 2 additional weeks. Following surgery, 12 patients were treated sequentially with an interval of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and then the completion of chemotherapy. The added morbidity of this sequential approach is minimal: one patient of 12 had delayed primary healing of her wound, 1 of 10 patients required a break in radiation therapy because of skin erythema. Four patients were treated with intensive pre-chemotherapy radiation therapy because of inadequate surgical margins. The median time on study was 18 months from onset of treatment (range, 8 to 41 months). Although there have been no local, regional or distant recurrences, the follow-up time is inadequate to assess the therapeutic benefit of this combined modality treatment

  12. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-10-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Peng; Sun, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of carbon ion radiation therapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobaraki, A.; Ohno, Tatsuya; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi; Yamada Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of carbon ion radiotherapy compared with conventional multimodality therapy in the treatment of patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Direct costs for diagnosis, recurrent treatment, follow-up, visits, supportive therapy, complications, and admission were computed for each individual using a sample of 25 patients presenting with local recurrent rectal cancer at the National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) and Gunma University Hospital (GUH). Patients received only radical surgery for primary rectal adenocarcinoma and had isolated unresectable pelvic recurrence. Fourteen and 11 patients receiving treatment for the local recurrence between 2003 and 2005 were followed retrospectively at NIRS and GUH, respectively. Treatment was carried out with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) alone at NIRS, while multimodality therapy including three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia was performed at GUH. The 2-year overall survival rate was 85% and 55% for CIRT and multimodality treatment, respectively. The mean cost was 4803946 yen for the CIRT group and 4611100 yen for the multimodality treatment group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CIRT was 6428 yen per 1% increase in survival. The median duration of total hospitalization was 37 days for CIRT and 66 days for the multimodality treatment group. In conclusion, by calculating all direct costs, CIRT was found to be a potential cost effective treatment modality as compared to multimodality treatment for locally recurrent rectal cancer. (author)

  16. Geothermal modelling and geoneutrino flux prediction at JUNO with local heat production data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y.; Wipperfurth, S. A.; McDonough, W. F.; Sramek, O.; Roskovec, B.; He, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geoneutrinos are mostly electron antineutrinos created from natural radioactive decays in the Earth's interior. Measurement of a geoneutrino flux at near surface detector can lead to a better understanding of the composition of the Earth, inform about chemical layering in the mantle, define the power driving mantle convection and plate tectonics, and reveal the energy supplying the geodynamo. JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector currently under construction with an expected start date in 2020. Due to its enormous mass, JUNO will detect about 400 geoneutrinos per year, making it an ideal tool to study the Earth. JUNO is located on the passive continental margin of South China, where there is an extensive continental shelf. The continental crust surrounding the JUNO detector is between 26 and 32 km thick and represents the transition between the southern Eurasian continental plate and oceanic plate of the South China Sea.We seek to predict the geoneutrino flux at JUNO prior to data taking and announcement of the particle physics measurement. To do so requires a detail survey of the local lithosphere, as it contributes about 50% of the signal. Previous estimates of the geoneutrino signal at JUNO utilized global crustal models, with no local constraints. Regionally, the area is characterized by extensive lateral and vertical variations in lithology and dominated by Mesozoic granite intrusions, with an average heat production of 6.29 μW/m3. Consequently, at 3 times greater heat production than the globally average upper crust, these granites will generate a higher than average geoneutrino flux at JUNO. To better define the U and Th concentrations in the upper crust, we collected some 300 samples within 50 km of JUNO. By combining chemical data obtained from these samples with data for crustal structures defined by local geophysical studies, we will construct a detailed 3D geothermal model of the region. Our

  17. Magnetic resonance guided focalized ultrasound thermo-ablation: A promising oncologic local therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannessi, A.; Doyen, J.; Leysalle, A.; Thyss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Pain management of bone metastases is usually made using systemic and local therapy. Even though radiations are nowadays the gold standard for painful metastases, innovations regarding minimally invasive treatment approaches have been developed because of the existing non-responder patients [1]. Indeed, cementoplasty and thermo-ablations like radiofrequency or cryotherapy have shown to be efficient on pain [2-4]. Among thermo-therapy, magnetic resonance guided focalized ultrasound is now a new non-invasive weapon for bone pain palliation. (authors)

  18. The ways of improvement of combination therapy results in patients with local cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilo, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    A new solutions of a scientific task of modern oncogynecology, improvement of the efficacy of treatment for local cervical cancer on the account of expansion of the indications to operative treatment is presented on the clinical material (275 patients with stage II-III CC). The use of the developed technique of multimodality therapy based on the split course of combination radiation therapy against a background of neoadjuvant chemotherapy allowed to convert in 49.6% of cases of immobile tumor process to an operable stage followed by uterus and adnexae removal while at the traditional combination radiotherapy the resectability index was 6.9%.

  19. Risk Factors for Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Røhl, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    and underwent external beam radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 25 fractions (node-negative patients) or 50 Gy in 25 fractions with a simultaneous integrated boost of 60 Gy in 30 fractions (node-positive patients). Pulsed dose rate magnetic resonance imaging guided adaptive brachytherapy was given in addition......PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after definitive chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 101 patients with LACC treated from 2008-2014. Patients received weekly cisplatin...

  20. Welding of 3D-printed carbon nanotube–polymer composites by locally induced microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Charles B.; Lackey, Blake A.; Pospisil, Martin J.; Achee, Thomas C.; Hicks, Victoria K.; Moran, Aaron G.; Teipel, Blake R.; Saed, Mohammad A.; Green, Micah J.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing through material extrusion, often termed three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a burgeoning method for manufacturing thermoplastic components. However, a key obstacle facing 3D-printed plastic parts in engineering applications is the weak weld between successive filament traces, which often leads to delamination and mechanical failure. This is the chief obstacle to the use of thermoplastic additive manufacturing. We report a novel concept for welding 3D-printed thermoplastic interfaces using intense localized heating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by microwave irradiation. The microwave heating of the CNT-polymer composites is a function of CNT percolation, as shown through in situ infrared imaging and simulation. We apply CNT-loaded coatings to a 3D printer filament; after printing, microwave irradiation is shown to improve the weld fracture strength by 275%. These remarkable results open up entirely new design spaces for additive manufacturing and also yield new insight into the coupling between dielectric properties and radio frequency field response for nanomaterial networks. PMID:28630927

  1. Welding of 3D-printed carbon nanotube-polymer composites by locally induced microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Charles B; Lackey, Blake A; Pospisil, Martin J; Achee, Thomas C; Hicks, Victoria K; Moran, Aaron G; Teipel, Blake R; Saed, Mohammad A; Green, Micah J

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing through material extrusion, often termed three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a burgeoning method for manufacturing thermoplastic components. However, a key obstacle facing 3D-printed plastic parts in engineering applications is the weak weld between successive filament traces, which often leads to delamination and mechanical failure. This is the chief obstacle to the use of thermoplastic additive manufacturing. We report a novel concept for welding 3D-printed thermoplastic interfaces using intense localized heating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by microwave irradiation. The microwave heating of the CNT-polymer composites is a function of CNT percolation, as shown through in situ infrared imaging and simulation. We apply CNT-loaded coatings to a 3D printer filament; after printing, microwave irradiation is shown to improve the weld fracture strength by 275%. These remarkable results open up entirely new design spaces for additive manufacturing and also yield new insight into the coupling between dielectric properties and radio frequency field response for nanomaterial networks.

  2. Combining the pressure effect with local heat treatment for improving the sheet metal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, G.; Piccininni, A.; Guglielmi, P.; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with the advantages in the Hydromechanical Deep Drawing (HDD) when AA5754 Tailored Heat Treated Blanks (THTBs) are adopted. It is well known that the creation of a suitable distribution of material properties increases the process performance. When non heat-treatable alloys are considered, the THTB approach can be successfully applied to increase the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) by changing the peripheral zone into the annealed state starting from a cold-worked blank. If this approach is combined with the advantages of a counterpressure, even more remarkable improvements can be achieved. Due to the large number of involved parameters, the optimized design of both the local treatment and the pressure profile were investigated coupling an axial symmetric Finite Element model with the integration platform modeFRONTIER. Results confirmed the possibility of increasing the LDR from 2.0 (Deep Drawing using a blank in the annealed state) up to about 3.0 if combining the adoption of a THTB with the optimal pressure profile.

  3. Multi objective genetic algorithm to optimize the local heat treatment of a hardenable aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccininni, A.; Palumbo, G.; Franco, A. Lo; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.; Russello, G.

    2018-05-01

    The continuous research for lightweight components for transport applications to reduce the harmful emissions drives the attention to the light alloys as in the case of Aluminium (Al) alloys, capable to combine low density with high values of the strength-to-weight ratio. Such advantages are partially counterbalanced by the poor formability at room temperature. A viable solution is to adopt a localized heat treatment by laser of the blank before the forming process to obtain a tailored distribution of material properties so that the blank can be formed at room temperature by means of conventional press machines. Such an approach has been extensively investigated for age hardenable alloys, but in the present work the attention is focused on the 5000 series; in particular, the optimization of the deep drawing process of the alloy AA5754 H32 is proposed through a numerical/experimental approach. A preliminary investigation was necessary to correctly tune the laser parameters (focus length, spot dimension) to effectively obtain the annealed state. Optimal process parameters were then obtained coupling a 2D FE model with an optimization platform managed by a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The optimal solution (i.e. able to maximize the LDR) in terms of blankholder force and extent of the annealed region was thus evaluated and validated through experimental trials. A good matching between experimental and numerical results was found. The optimal solution allowed to obtain an LDR of the locally heat treated blank larger than the one of the material either in the wrought condition (H32) either in the annealed condition (H111).

  4. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  5. Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino J.; Li, Yupeng; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates potential gains of an improved beam angle arrangement compared to a conventional fixed gantry setup in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment for localized prostate cancer patients based on a proof of principle study. Materials and Methods: Three patients with localized prostate cancer retrospectively selected from our institution were studied. For each patient, IMPT plans were designed using two, three and four beam angles, respectively, obtained from a beam angle optimization algorithm. Those plans were then compared with ones using two lateral parallel-opposed beams according to the conventional planning protocol for localized prostate cancer adopted at our institution. Results: IMPT plans with two optimized angles achieved significant improvements in rectum sparing and moderate improvements in bladder sparing against those with two lateral angles. Plans with three optimized angles further improved rectum sparing significantly over those two-angle plans, whereas four-angle plans found no advantage over three-angle plans. A possible three-beam class solution for localized prostate patients was suggested and demonstrated with preserved dosimetric benefits because individually optimized three-angle solutions were found sharing a very similar pattern. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potential of using an improved beam angle arrangement to better exploit the theoretical dosimetric benefits of proton therapy and provided insights of selecting quality beam angles for localized prostate cancer treatment

  6. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  7. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-05-12

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  8. The role of local estrogen therapy in the management of pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzur, T; Yohai, D; Weintraub, A Y

    2016-04-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common and bothersome problems that include a variety of conditions. These conditions greatly affect the performance of daily activities and social function such as work, traveling, physical exercise, sleep and sexual function. Aging is a well-known factor affecting the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract anatomy and function. It is clear that the pelvic organs and their surrounding muscular and connective tissue support are estrogen-responsive. Treatment of pelvic floor disorders requires significant health-care resources and their impact is likely to increase in the near future. This literature review aims to provide an overview of both research and clinical aspects of the pathophysiology of urogenital estrogen deficiency and the role of local estrogen therapy as part of the management strategy of different pelvic floor disorders. The safety and risk concerns regarding the use of local estrogen therapy are addressed as well.

  9. Local ablation therapy with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma: a practical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyoung Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A successful program for local ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC requires extensive imaging support for diagnosis and localization of HCC, imaging guidance for the ablation procedures, and post-treatment monitoring. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS has several advantages over computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI, including real-time imaging capability, sensitive detection of arterial-phase hypervascularity and washout, no renal excretion, no ionizing radiation, repeatability, excellent patient compliance, and relatively low cost. CEUS is useful for image guidance for isoechoic lesions. While contrast-enhanced CT/MRI is the standard method for the diagnosis of HCC and post-ablation monitoring, CEUS is useful when CT/MRI findings are indeterminate or CT/MRI is contraindicated. This article provides a practical review of the role of CEUS in imaging algorithms for pre- and post-ablation therapy for HCC.

  10. Measurement of local heat transfer coefficient during gas–liquid Taylor bubble train flow by infra-red thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; D h = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time

  11. Targeted therapy for localized non-small-cell lung cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleiron N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas Paleiron,1 Olivier Bylicki,2 Michel André,1 Emilie Rivière,1 Frederic Grassin,1 Gilles Robinet,3 Christos Chouaïd4 On behalf of the GFPC Group 1Chest Department, HIA Clermont Tonnerre, Brest, 2Chest Department, HIA Percy, Clamart, 3Chest Department, CHU de Brest, Brest, 4GRC OncoEst, Université Paris XII, Paris, France Abstract: Targeted therapies have markedly improved the management of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, but their efficacy in localized NSCLC is less well established. The aim of this review is to analyze trials of targeted therapies in localized NSCLC. In patients with wild-type EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown no efficacy in Phase III trials. Few data are available for EGFR-mutated localized NSCLC, as routine biological profiling is not recommended. Available studies are small, often retrospectives, and/or conducted in a single-center making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Ongoing prospective Phase III trials are comparing adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor administration versus adjuvant chemotherapy. By analogy with the indication of bevacizumab in advanced NSCLC, use of antiangiogenic agents in the perioperative setting is currently restricted to nonsquamous NSCLC. Several trials of adjuvant or neoadjuvant bevacizumab are planned or ongoing, but for the moment there is no evidence of efficacy. Data on perioperative use of biomarkers in early-stage NSCLC come mainly from small, retrospective, uncontrolled studies. Assessment of customized adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy in localized NSCLC (with or without oncogenic driver mutations is a major challenge. Keywords: targeted therapy, non-small-cell lung cancer, adjuvant, neo-adjuvant, surgery 

  12. Radiation therapy in the management of locally advanced and disseminated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, F.C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation theraoy should be fully used in the management of advanced breast cancer. Locally advanced primary or recurrent carcinoma, with limited extent, should be treated aggressively, aimed at permanent control. Palliative treatment of incurable or metastatic lesions relieves symptoms and improves patient's quality of survival. Some metastatic lesions involving vital structures may create emergencies. Prompt institution of radiation therapy may reverse the serious complication and save the patient's life

  13. Assessment of extensive surgery for locally advanced lung cancer. Safety and efficacy of induction therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hiroshi; Nakamae, Katsumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Kani, Hisanori; Maemoto, Katsutoshi; Mizuno, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Locally advanced lung cancer has a poor prognosis, despite extensive surgery conducted in an effort to improve survival. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of induction therapy prior to extensive surgery for locally advanced lung cancer. Primary resection for lung cancer was done in 549 consecutive patients divided into three groups; 446 undergoing standard pulmonary resection (no extensive surgery), 87 undergoing extensive surgery without induction therapy, and 16 undergoing surgery after induction therapy. Morbidity was 23.5%, 28.6%, and 43.8%, respectively. The rate was significantly higher in the induction group compared with the no extensive surgery group (P<0.05). Surgical mortality was 0.67%, 3.4%, and 6.3%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant between the no extensive surgery and extensive surgery groups (P<0.02), and between the no extensive surgery and induction groups (P<0.02). Hospital mortality was 2.2%, 9.2%, and 6.3%, respectively. The rates were significantly higher in the extensive surgery (P<0.01) and induction (P<0.05) groups compared to the no extensive surgery group. Five-year survival was 50.3% for the patients who received induction therapy, and 14.7% for the patients who did not receive induction therapy. Survival differences between the induction and non induction groups were not significant, but some patients with T3 or T4 disease may benefit from induction therapy. The high morbidity of induction treatment should be recognized, and strict candidate selection and careful postoperative care used to help prevent increased mortality. (author)

  14. Continuous, edge localized ion heating during non-solenoidal plasma startup and sustainment in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    Plasmas in the Pegasus spherical tokamak are initiated and grown by the non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive technique. The LHI system consists of three adjacent electron current sources that inject multiple helical current filaments that can reconnect with each other. Anomalously high impurity ion temperatures are observed during LHI with T i,OV  ⩽  650 eV, which is in contrast to T i,OV  ⩽  70 eV from Ohmic heating alone. Spatial profiles of T i,OV indicate an edge localized heating source, with T i,OV ~ 650 eV near the outboard major radius of the injectors and dropping to ~150 eV near the plasma magnetic axis. Experiments without a background tokamak plasma indicate the ion heating results from magnetic reconnection between adjacent injected current filaments. In these experiments, the HeII T i perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to scale with the reconnecting field strength, local density, and guide field, while {{T}\\text{i,\\parallel}} experiences little change, in agreement with two-fluid reconnection theory. This ion heating is not expected to significantly impact the LHI plasma performance in Pegasus, as it does not contribute significantly to the electron heating. However, estimates of the power transfer to the bulk ion are quite large, and thus LHI current drive provides an auxiliary ion heating mechanism to the tokamak plasma.

  15. Delayed esophageal perforation from stereotactic body radiation therapy for locally recurrent central nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sainathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT is a novel form of external beam radiation therapy. It is used to treat early and locally recurrent nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSLC in medically inoperable patients. It uses high dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy, with targeting of the tumor by precise spatial localization, thus minimizing injury to surrounding tissues. It can be safely used to ablate NSLC in both central and peripheral locations. We present two cases of delayed esophageal perforation after SBRT for locally recurrent central NSLC. The perforations occurred several months after the therapy. They were treated with covered esophageal stents, with mortality, due to the perforation in one of the patients. SBRT should be judiciously used to ablate centrally located NSLC and patients who develop episodes of esophagitis during or after SBRT, need to be closely followed with endoscopy to look for esophageal ulcerations. These ulcers should be closely followed for healing as these may degenerate into full thickness perforations several months after SBRT.

  16. Monthly rifampicin, ofloxacin, and minocycline therapy for generalized and localized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The localized form of granuloma annulare is usually self-limiting, resolving within 2 years. Generalized granuloma annulare, on the other hand, runs a protracted course, with spontaneous resolution being rare. It is also characterized by a later age of onset, an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, poor response to therapy, and an increased prevalence of HLA Bw35. Objective: To assess the efficacy of monthly pulsed rifampicin, ofloxacin, and minocycline (ROM therapy in the management of granuloma annulare. Methods : Six biopsy proven patients of granuloma annulare were included in the study, five of the generalized variety, and one localized. Three of these patients were resistant to standard modalities of treatment. All six patients were treated with pulses of once monthly ROM till complete resolution of all lesions. Results were analyzed in terms of complete resolution of lesions and side effects. Presence of comorbid conditions was noted. Result: All six patients were successfully treated with 4-8 pulses of monthly ROM. None of the patients reported any adverse effects. Limitations: Small sample size and the lack of a control group are limitations. Conclusion: Treatment with pulses of once monthly ROM caused complete resolution of lesions in both localized and generalized granuloma annulare, even in cases recalcitrant to conventional therapy. There were no side effects in any of the patients. Larger trials are needed to substantiate the efficacy of monthly ROM in granuloma annulare.

  17. Heat transfer due to electroconvulsive therapy: Influence of anisotropic thermal and electrical skull conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes de Oliveira, Marilia; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and head models to investigate temperature profiles arising when anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivities are considered in the skull layer. The aim was to numerically investigate the threshold for which this therapy operates safely to the brain, from the thermal point of view. A six-layer spherical head model consisting of scalp, fat, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid, grey matter and white matter was developed. Later on, a realistic human head model was also implemented. These models were built up using the packages from COMSOL Inc. and Simpleware Ltd. In these models, three of the most common electrode montages used in ECT were applied. Anisotropic conductivities were derived using volume constraint and included in both spherical and realistic head models. The bio-heat transferring problem governed by Laplace equation was solved numerically. The results show that both the tensor eigenvalues of electrical conductivity and the electrode montage affect the maximum temperature, but thermal anisotropy does not have a significant influence. Temperature increases occur mainly in the scalp and fat, and no harm is caused to the brain by the current applied during ECT. The work assures the thermal safety of ECT and also provides a numerical method to investigate other non-invasive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Locally Progressive and Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer after Prior Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Sutera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy that has consistently demonstrated poor outcomes despite aggressive treatments. Despite multimodal treatment, local disease progression and local recurrence are common. Management of recurrent or progressive pancreatic carcinomas proves a further challenge. In patients previously treated with radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT is a promising modality capable of delivering high dose to the tumor while limiting dose to critical structures. We aimed to determine the feasibility and tolerability of SBRT for recurrent or local pancreatic cancer in patients previously treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT.Materials and methodsPatients treated with EBRT who developed recurrent or local pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated with SBRT reirradiation at our institution, from 2004 to 2014 were reviewed. Our primary endpoints included overall survival (OS, local control, regional control, and late grade 3+ radiation toxicity. Endpoints were analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method. The association of these survival endpoints with risk factors was studied with univariate Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsWe identified 38 patients with recurrent/progressive pancreatic cancer treated with SBRT following prior radiation therapy. Prior radiation was delivered to a median dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. SBRT was delivered to a median dose of 24.5 Gy in 1–3 fractions. Surgical resection was performed on 55.3% of all patients. Within a median follow-up of 24.4 months (inter-quartile range, 14.9–32.7 months, the median OS from diagnosis for the entire cohort was 26.6 months (95% CI: 20.3–29.8 with 2-year OS of 53.0%. Median survival from SBRT was 9.7 months (95% CI, 5.5–13.8. The 2-year freedom from local progression and regional progression was 58 and 82%, respectively. For the entire cohort, 18.4 and 10.5% experienced late grade 2

  19. Local Control With 21-Gy Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Modak, Shakeel; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control after 21-Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the primary site in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Methods and Materials: After receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy and gross total resection (GTR), 246 patients (aged 1.2-17.9 years, median 4.0 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 2000 to 2014. Radiation therapy consisted of 21 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each. Local failure (LF) was correlated with biologic prognostic factors and clinical findings at the time of diagnosis and start of RT. Results: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.4 years. Cumulative incidence of LF was 7.1% at 2 years after RT and 9.8% at 5 years after RT. The isolated LF rate was 3.0%. Eighty-six percent of all local failures were within the RT field. Local control was worse in patients who required more than 1 surgical resection to achieve GTR (22.4% vs 8.3%, P=.01). There was also a trend toward inferior local control with MYCN-amplified tumors or serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥1500 U/L (P=.09 and P=.06, respectively). Conclusion: After intensive chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking, hyperfractionated RT with 21 Gy in high-risk neuroblastoma results in excellent local control. Given the young patient age, concern for late effects, and local control >90%, dose reduction may be appropriate for patients without MYCN amplification who achieve GTR.

  20. Local Control With 21-Gy Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Dana L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Modak, Shakeel [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control after 21-Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the primary site in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Methods and Materials: After receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy and gross total resection (GTR), 246 patients (aged 1.2-17.9 years, median 4.0 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 2000 to 2014. Radiation therapy consisted of 21 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each. Local failure (LF) was correlated with biologic prognostic factors and clinical findings at the time of diagnosis and start of RT. Results: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.4 years. Cumulative incidence of LF was 7.1% at 2 years after RT and 9.8% at 5 years after RT. The isolated LF rate was 3.0%. Eighty-six percent of all local failures were within the RT field. Local control was worse in patients who required more than 1 surgical resection to achieve GTR (22.4% vs 8.3%, P=.01). There was also a trend toward inferior local control with MYCN-amplified tumors or serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥1500 U/L (P=.09 and P=.06, respectively). Conclusion: After intensive chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking, hyperfractionated RT with 21 Gy in high-risk neuroblastoma results in excellent local control. Given the young patient age, concern for late effects, and local control >90%, dose reduction may be appropriate for patients without MYCN amplification who achieve GTR.

  1. Local superficial hyperthermia in combination with low-dose radiation therapy for palliation of superficially localized metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, G.; Miszczyk, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of superficially located metastases and local toxicity to microwave hyperthermia combined with radiation therapy. From May 2003 through December 2004 58 patients (33 male, 25 female; mean age 60 years) with lymph nodes or skin metastases were treated with microwave superficial hyperthermia combined with low-dose radiation therapy. Hyperthermia was administered twice weekly with high frequency applicator (∼900 Mhz) with water bolus. The temperature was set to 43 o C for 45 minutes. Radiotherapy was performed daily with dose 2 Gy or 4 Gy per fraction, to a total dose 20 Gy. There were 47 patients with carcinoma, 4 with sarcoma, 7 with melanoma. Treated regions were: head and neck (37 patients), chest wall 8, abdomen wall and groins 4, upper and lower limb 2 and 8 patients respectively. Primary tumor sites were: head and neck region (9 patients), lung 15, alimentary tract 8, breast 5, soft tissue 8, urogenital 4 and 9 patients with primary tumor site unknown. The toxicity was evaluated using 6 step scale: 0-no skin reaction, 1-faint red mark, 2-distinct red mark, 3-blisters, 4-brown mark, 5-necrosis. Presence of pain and its intensity were also analyzed. Diameter of tumor after the treatment was observed. Complete response was achieved in 5 patients (8.5 %), and partial response in 29 patients (50 %), no response was observed in 12 patients (20 %) and progression of tumor in 7 patients (12 %). No skin reaction was observed in 3 patients, faint red mark in 14 patients, distinct red mark in 28 patients, blisters in 8 patients, brown mark in 4 patients and necrosis in 1 patient. The pain occurred in 9 patients but it was no the cause of stopping treatment. Local superficial hyperthermia combined with low-dose radiation therapy is an effective method of treatment in a proportion of patients with superficial metastases. This combination of treatment modalities is well tolerated and is useful for palliation

  2. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi

    2011-07-01

    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  3. Evolution of nodule stiffness might predict response to local ablative therapy: A series of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Praktiknjo

    Full Text Available Early information on treatment response of HCC to local ablative therapy is crucial. Elastography as a non-invasive method has recently been shown to play a potential role in distinguishing between benign and malignant liver lesions. Elastography of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in early response to local ablative therapy has not been studied to date.We prospectively included a cohort of 14 patients with diagnosis of HCC who were treated with local ablative therapy (transarterial chemoembolization, TACE and/or radiofrequency ablation, RFA. We used 2D shear-wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE to examine stiffness of HCC lesion before and 3, 30 and 90 days after local ablative therapy. Contrast-enhanced imaging after 90 days was performed to evaluate treatment response. Primary endpoint was stiffness of HCC in response to local ablative therapy. Secondary end point was tumor recurrence.Stiffness of HCC nodules and liver showed no significant difference prior to local ablative therapy. As early as three days after treatment, stiffness of responding HCC was significantly higher compared to non-responding. Higher stiffness before treatment was significantly associated with tumor recurrence.Nodule stiffness in general and RT 2D-SWE in particular could provide a useful tool for early prediction of HCC response to local ablative therapy.

  4. A study on the flow field and local heat transfer performance due to geometric scaling of centrifugal fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, Jason, E-mail: jason.stafford@ul.ie [Stokes Institute, Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa [Stokes Institute, Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Velocity field and local heat transfer trends of centrifugal fans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-averaged vortices are generated by flow separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local vortex and impingement regions are evident on surface heat transfer maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Miniature centrifugal fans should be designed with an aspect ratio below 0.3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theory under predicts heat transfer due to complex, unsteady outlet flow. - Abstract: Scaled versions of fan designs are often chosen to address thermal management issues in space constrained applications. Using velocity field and local heat transfer measurement techniques, the thermal performance characteristics of a range of geometrically scaled centrifugal fan designs have been investigated. Complex fluid flow structures and surface heat transfer trends due to centrifugal fans were found to be common over a wide range of fan aspect ratios (blade height to fan diameter). The limiting aspect ratio for heat transfer enhancement was 0.3, as larger aspect ratios were shown to result in a reduction in overall thermal performance. Over the range of fans examined, the low profile centrifugal designs produced significant enhancement in thermal performance when compared to that predicted using classical laminar flow theory. The limiting non-dimensional distance from the fan, where this enhancement is no longer apparent, has also been determined. Using the fundamental information inferred from local velocity field and heat transfer measurements, selection criteria can be determined for both low and high power practical applications where space restrictions exist.

  5. The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Paluso, Dominic; Anderson, Devyn; Swan, Kristin; Yim, Jong Eun; Murugesan, Vengatesh; Chindam, Tirupathi; Goraksh, Neha; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Trivedi, Moxi; Hudlikar, Akshay N; Katrak, Vahishta

    2011-04-01

    As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of metastasis-directed therapy and local therapy of the primary tumor in the management of oligometastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongchan; Park, Jee Soo; Ham, Won Sik

    2017-09-01

    Oligometastasis has been proposed as an intermediate stage of cancer spread between localized disease and widespread metastasis. Oligometastatic malignancy is now being diagnosed more frequently as the result of improvements in diagnostic modalities such as functional imaging. The importance of oligometastasis in managing metastatic prostate cancer is that it is possible to treat with a curative aim by metastasis-directed or local therapy in selected patients. Many studies have shown that these aggressive treatments lead to improved survival in other oligometastatic malignancies. However, few studies have shown definitive benefits of metastasis-directed or local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer. Review of the available studies suggests that stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) of metastatic lesions in oligorecurrent disease is a feasible and safe modality for managing oligometastatic prostate cancer. Also, stereotactic RT can delay the start of androgen deprivation therapy. Many retrospective studies of metastatic prostate cancer have shown that patients undergoing local therapy seem to have superior overall and cancer-specific survival compared with patients not receiving local therapy. Ongoing prospective randomized trials would be helpful to evaluate the role of local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer.

  7. The role of metastasis-directed therapy and local therapy of the primary tumor in the management of oligometastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligometastasis has been proposed as an intermediate stage of cancer spread between localized disease and widespread metas-tasis. Oligometastatic malignancy is now being diagnosed more frequently as the result of improvements in diagnostic modalities such as functional imaging. The importance of oligometastasis in managing metastatic prostate cancer is that it is possible to treat with a curative aim by metastasis-directed or local therapy in selected patients. Many studies have shown that these aggressive treatments lead to improved survival in other oligometastatic malignancies. However, few studies have shown definitive benefits of metastasis-directed or local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer. Review of the available studies suggests that stereotac-tic radiotherapy (RT of metastatic lesions in oligorecurrent disease is a feasible and safe modality for managing oligometastatic prostate cancer. Also, stereotactic RT can delay the start of androgen deprivation therapy. Many retrospective studies of metastatic prostate cancer have shown that patients undergoing local therapy seem to have superior overall and cancer-specific survival compared with patients not receiving local therapy. Ongoing prospective randomized trials would be helpful to evaluate the role of local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer.

  8. Local Failure in Resected N1 Lung Cancer: Implications for Adjuvant Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Kristin A.; Chino, Junzo P.; Berry, Mark; Ready, Neal; Boyd, Jessamy; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate actuarial rates of local failure in patients with pathologic N1 non–small-cell lung cancer and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with an increased risk of local failure after resection. Methods and Materials: All patients who underwent surgery for non–small-cell lung cancer with pathologically confirmed N1 disease at Duke University Medical Center from 1995–2008 were identified. Patients receiving any preoperative therapy or postoperative radiotherapy or with positive surgical margins were excluded. Local failure was defined as disease recurrence within the ipsilateral hilum, mediastinum, or bronchial stump/staple line. Actuarial rates of local failure were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with a higher risk of local recurrence. Results: Among 1,559 patients who underwent surgery during the time interval, 198 met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 50 (25%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Actuarial (5-year) rates of local failure, distant failure, and overall survival were 40%, 55%, and 33%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of local failure included a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5; p = 0.01), visceral pleural invasion (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04), and increasing number of positive N1 lymph nodes (HR, 1.3 per involved lymph node; p = 0.02). Chemotherapy was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of local failure that was not statistically significant (HR, 0.61; p = 0.2). Conclusions: Actuarial rates of local failure in pN1 disease are high. Further investigation of conformal postoperative radiotherapy may be warranted.

  9. Local Failure in Resected N1 Lung Cancer: Implications for Adjuvant Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Kristin A., E-mail: kristin.higgins@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Berry, Mark [Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ready, Neal [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Boyd, Jessamy [US Oncology, Dallas, TX (United States); Yoo, David S; Kelsey, Chris R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate actuarial rates of local failure in patients with pathologic N1 non-small-cell lung cancer and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with an increased risk of local failure after resection. Methods and Materials: All patients who underwent surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer with pathologically confirmed N1 disease at Duke University Medical Center from 1995-2008 were identified. Patients receiving any preoperative therapy or postoperative radiotherapy or with positive surgical margins were excluded. Local failure was defined as disease recurrence within the ipsilateral hilum, mediastinum, or bronchial stump/staple line. Actuarial rates of local failure were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with a higher risk of local recurrence. Results: Among 1,559 patients who underwent surgery during the time interval, 198 met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 50 (25%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Actuarial (5-year) rates of local failure, distant failure, and overall survival were 40%, 55%, and 33%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of local failure included a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5; p = 0.01), visceral pleural invasion (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04), and increasing number of positive N1 lymph nodes (HR, 1.3 per involved lymph node; p = 0.02). Chemotherapy was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of local failure that was not statistically significant (HR, 0.61; p = 0.2). Conclusions: Actuarial rates of local failure in pN1 disease are high. Further investigation of conformal postoperative radiotherapy may be warranted.

  10. Local Recurrence After Uveal Melanoma Proton Beam Therapy: Recurrence Types and Prognostic Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caujolle, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: ncaujolle@aol.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, Nice (France); Paoli, Vincent [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, Nice (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Maschi, Celia; Baillif, Stéphanie [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, Nice (France); Herault, Joël [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Gastaud, Pierre [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, Nice (France); Hannoun-Levi, Jean Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To study the prognosis of the different types of uveal melanoma recurrences treated by proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 61 cases of uveal melanoma local recurrences on a total of 1102 patients treated by PBT between June 1991 and December 2010. Survival rates have been determined by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Prognostic factors have been evaluated by using log-rank test or Cox model. Results: Our local recurrence rate was 6.1% at 5 years. These recurrences were divided into 25 patients with marginal recurrences, 18 global recurrences, 12 distant recurrences, and 6 extrascleral extensions. Five factors have been identified as statistically significant risk factors of local recurrence in the univariate analysis: large tumoral diameter, small tumoral volume, low ratio of tumoral volume over eyeball volume, iris root involvement, and safety margin inferior to 1 mm. In the local recurrence-free population, the overall survival rate was 68.7% at 10 years and the specific survival rate was 83.6% at 10 years. In the local recurrence population, the overall survival rate was 43.1% at 10 years and the specific survival rate was 55% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis of death risk factors has shown a better prognosis for marginal recurrences. Conclusion: Survival rate of marginal recurrences is superior to that of the other recurrences. The type of recurrence is a clinical prognostic value to take into account. The influence of local recurrence retreatment by proton beam therapy should be evaluated by novel studies.

  11. Local Recurrence After Uveal Melanoma Proton Beam Therapy: Recurrence Types and Prognostic Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caujolle, Jean-Pierre; Paoli, Vincent; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Maschi, Celia; Baillif, Stéphanie; Herault, Joël; Gastaud, Pierre; Hannoun-Levi, Jean Michel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the prognosis of the different types of uveal melanoma recurrences treated by proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 61 cases of uveal melanoma local recurrences on a total of 1102 patients treated by PBT between June 1991 and December 2010. Survival rates have been determined by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Prognostic factors have been evaluated by using log-rank test or Cox model. Results: Our local recurrence rate was 6.1% at 5 years. These recurrences were divided into 25 patients with marginal recurrences, 18 global recurrences, 12 distant recurrences, and 6 extrascleral extensions. Five factors have been identified as statistically significant risk factors of local recurrence in the univariate analysis: large tumoral diameter, small tumoral volume, low ratio of tumoral volume over eyeball volume, iris root involvement, and safety margin inferior to 1 mm. In the local recurrence-free population, the overall survival rate was 68.7% at 10 years and the specific survival rate was 83.6% at 10 years. In the local recurrence population, the overall survival rate was 43.1% at 10 years and the specific survival rate was 55% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis of death risk factors has shown a better prognosis for marginal recurrences. Conclusion: Survival rate of marginal recurrences is superior to that of the other recurrences. The type of recurrence is a clinical prognostic value to take into account. The influence of local recurrence retreatment by proton beam therapy should be evaluated by novel studies

  12. Morbidity and mortality of local failure after definitive therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhammer, P.F.; Whitmore, R.B. III; Kuban, D.A.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Ladaga, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with morbidity and mortality associated with clinical local failure after definitive therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate by interstitial 125-iodine implantation, external beam radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. Morbid complications included unilateral ureteral obstruction; bladder obstruction and/or incontinence requiring treatment by transurethral resection, or placement of a urethral or suprapubic catheter; hematuria requiring intervention for clot evacuation or fulguration, and perineal and/or pelvic pain. Lethal complications included bilateral ureteral obstruction or bowel obstruction. We treated 108 patients with 125-iodine, 178 with external beam radiotherapy and 67 with radical prostatectomy. Clinical local failure occurred in 26 per cent of the 125-iodine, 17 per cent of the external beam radiotherapy and 12 per cent of the radical prostatectomy groups. The total incidence of local failure with 125-iodine was statistically higher than for radical prostatectomy. Stage C and poorly differentiated tumors were associated with a statistically higher incidence of local failure compared to lower stage and grade tumors. However, within each stage and grade there was no significant difference in local failure between treatment modalities. There was negligible morbidity or mortality secondary to local failure associated with stage A2, stage B1 or well differentiated tumors regardless of treatment modality. There was no difference in the morbidity and mortality between treatment modalities for stage C or poorly differentiated tumors. However, for stage B2 or moderately differentiated tumors treated by 125-iodine implantation there was a statistically greater incidence of morbidity and mortality than that associated with external beam radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy

  13. Photodynamic Therapy Oxidative Stress as a Molecular Switch Controlling Therapeutic Gene Expression for the Treatment of Locally Recurrent Breast Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ... a procedure offering local tumoricidal activity. We have demonstrated that PDT-mediated oxidative stress is a strong transcriptional inducer of stress proteins belonging to the heat shock protein (hsp...

  14. Effect of Local Post Weld Heat Treatment on Tensile Properties in Friction Stir Welded 2219-O Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guannan; Sun, Lei; Lin, Caiyuan; Lin, Yanli

    2017-11-01

    To improve the formability of the aluminum alloy welds and overcome the size limitation of the bulk post weld heat treatment (BPWHT) on large size friction stir welded joints, a local post weld heat treatment method (LPWHT) was proposed. In this method, the resistance heating as the moving heat source is adopted to only heat the weld seam. The temperature field of LPWHT and its influence on the mechanical properties and formability of FSW 2219-O Al alloy joints was investigated. The evaluation of the tensile properties of FSW samples was also examined by mapping the global and local strain distribution using the digital image correlation methodology. The results indicated that the formability was improved greatly after LPWHT, while the hardness distribution of the FSW joint was homogenized. The maximum elongation can reach 1.4 times that of as-welded joints with increase the strength and the strain of the nugget zone increased from 3 to 8% when annealing at 300 °C. The heterogeneity on the tensile deformation of the as-welded joints was improved by the nugget zone showing large local strain value and the reason was given according to the dimple fracture characteristics at different annealing temperatures. The tensile strength and elongation of LPWHT can reach 93.3 and 96.1% of the BPWHT, respectively. Thus, the LPWHT can be advantageous compared to the BPWHT for large size welds.

  15. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  16. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Badellino, Serena [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ceccarelli, Manuela [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Guarneri, Alessia [Radiation Oncology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Franco, Pierfrancesco [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monagheddu, Chiara [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Spadi, Rosella [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Racca, Patrizia [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials.

  17. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Badellino, Serena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Guarneri, Alessia; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Monagheddu, Chiara; Spadi, Rosella; Ragona, Riccardo; Racca, Patrizia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials

  18. Local heat transfer around a wall-mounted cube at 45 deg. to flow in a turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hajime; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Tsutsui, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    The flow and local heat transfer around a wall-mounted cube oriented 45 deg. to the flow is investigated experimentally in the range of Reynolds number 4.2 x 10 3 -3.3 x 10 4 based on the cube height. The distribution of local heat transfer on the cube and its base wall are examined, and it is clarified that the heat transfer distribution under the angled condition differs markedly to that for cube oriented perpendicular to the flow, particularly on the top face of the cube. The surface pressure distribution is also investigated, revealing a well-formed pair of leading-edge vortices extending from the front corner of the top face downstream along both front edges for Re>(1-2)x10 4 . Regions of high heat transfer and low pressure are formed along the flow reattachment and separation lines caused by these vortices. In particular, near the front corner of the top face, pressure suction and heat transfer enhancement are pronounced. The average heat transfer on the top face is enhanced at Re>(1-2)x10 4 over that of a cube aligned perpendicular to the flow

  19. Systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma--current concepts and novel targets for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Oliver; Cozzio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Skin and organ fibrosis are key manifestations of SSc, for which no generally accepted therapy is available. Thus, there is a high unmet need for novel anti-fibrotic therapeutic strategies in SSc. At the same time, important progress has been made in the identification and characterization of potential molecular targets in fibrotic diseases over the recent years. In this review, we have selected four targeted therapies, which are tested in clinical trials in SSc, for in depths discussion of their preclinical characterization. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators such as riociguat might target both vascular remodeling and tissue fibrosis. Blockade of interleukin-6 might be particularly promising for early inflammatory stages of SSc. Inhibition of serotonin receptor 2b signaling links platelet activation to tissue fibrosis. Targeting simultaneously multiple key molecules with the multityrosine kinase-inhibitor nintedanib might be a promising approach in complex fibrotic diseases such as SSc, in which many partially independent pathways are activated. Herein, we also give a state of the art overview of the current classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and treatment options of localized scleroderma. Finally, we discuss whether the novel targeted therapies currently tested in SSc could be used for localized scleroderma.

  20. A mathematical model for localized corrosion in steam generator crevices under heat transfer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, G.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Sikora, J.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    A predictive and self-consistent mathematical model has been developed to describe the localized corrosion in steam generators. The model recognizes that the internal and external environment are coupled by the need to conserve charge in the system. Thus, solution of Laplace's equation for the external environment (outside the crevice) provides the boundary condition for the electric potential at the crevice mouth, which is needed for solving the system of mass transfer equations for the internal environment (inside the crevice). Mass transfer by diffusion, ion migration, and convection was considered. Heat and momentum transfer equations are solved simultaneously, with the mass balance equation for each species and the condition of electroneutrality inside the cavity being considered. The model takes into account the porosity and tortuosity in the corrosion product deposit in the crevice. The homogeneous chemical reactions (hydrolysis of the products of the anodic reaction and the autoprotolysis of water) are included in the model. The model, in this preliminary form predicts the solution chemistry, potential drop, and temperature distribution inside the crevice. An order of magnitude estimate of the crevice corrosion rate also obtained. At this point, the model predicts only the steady state solution, but it is recognized that a steady state may not exist under normal conditions

  1. Adjuvant therapy for locally advanced renal cell cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Carmen SP

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adjuvant trials have been undertaken in an attempt to reduce the risk of recurrence among patients who undergo surgical resection for locally advanced renal cancer. However, no clear benefit has been identified to date. This systematic review was conducted to examine the exact role of adjuvant therapy in renal cancer setting. Methods Randomized controlled trials were searched comparing adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, vaccine, immunotherapy, biochemotherapy versus no active treatment after surgery among renal cell cancer patients. Outcomes were overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, and severe toxicities. Risk ratios (RR, hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. Different strategies of adjuvant treatment were evaluated separately. Results Ten studies (2,609 patients were included. Adjuvant therapy provided no benefits in terms of OS (HR 1.07; 95%CI 0.89 to 1.28; P = 0.48 I2 = 0% or DFS (HR 1.03; 95%CI 0.87 to 1.21; P = 0.77 I2 = 15% when compared to no treatment. No subgroup analysis (immunotherapy, vaccines, biochemotherapy and hormone therapy had relevant results. Toxicity evaluation depicted a significantly higher frequency of serious adverse events in the adjuvant group. Conclusions This analysis provided no support for the hypothesis that the agents studied provide any clinical benefit for renal cancer patients although they increase the risk of toxic effects. Randomized trials are underway to test targeted therapies, which might open a new therapeutic frontier. Until these trials yield results, no adjuvant therapy can be recommended for patients who undergo surgical resection for renal cell cancer.

  2. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation and simulation of experiments in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka; Stroth, U.

    1999-01-01

    A new model equation which includes the non-local effect in the hear flux is introduced to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [U. Stroth et al.: Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 (1996) 1087] and the power modulation experiments [L. Giannone et al.: Nucl. Fusion 32 (1992) 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to estimate the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  3. Entropy Generation Due to Natural Convection in a Partially Heated Cavity by Local RBF-DQ Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, S.; Qajarjazi, A.; Bararnia, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Local Radial Basis Function-Differential Quadrature (RBF-DQ) method is applied to twodimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive form. Numerical results of heatlines and entropy generation due to heat transfer and fluid friction have been obtained for laminar natural...

  4. Delayed postoperative radiation therapy in local control of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amar, Ali; Chedid, Helma Maria; Curioni, Otavio Alberto; Rapoport, Abrao, E-mail: arapoport@uol.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dedivitis, Rogerio Aparecido; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Brandao, Lenine Garcia [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao aulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Objective: to evaluate the effect of time between surgery and postoperative radiation therapy on local recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Methods: a total of 154 patients treated between 1996 and 2007 were selected considering local recurrence rate and time of the adjuvant radiotherapy. Results: local recurrence was diagnosed in 54 (35%) patients. Radiation therapy reduced the rate of local recurrences, although with no statistical significance. The time between surgery and initiation of postoperative radiotherapy did not significantly influence the risk of local recurrence in patients referred to adjuvant treatment (p=0.49). Conclusion: in the presence of risk factors for local recurrence, a short delay in starting the adjuvant radiation therapy does not contraindicate its performance. (author)

  5. Influence of time presetting procedure for rapid local heat;.ng on brazing temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezhnin, G.P.; Tul'skikh, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation of known and suggested presetting procedures for heating period during induction brazing was conducted. It is shown that brazing time must be established considering heat propagation during heating in order to obtain the assigned joint temperature regardless of heating rate change. Methods for temperature calculation in assigned zones of the joint are suggested. The suggested presetting procedure for heating time was applied for induction vacuum brazing of a tube of 12Kh18N10T steel to a pipe connection of VT20 alloy

  6. Measurement of subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tube under LPLF conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Bisht, G.S.; Gupta, S.K.; Prabhu, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measured subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tubes. ► Infra-red thermal imaging is used for wall temperature measurement. ► Developed correlations for pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient. -- Abstract: Horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Study of horizontal flow under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions is important in understanding the nuclear core behavior during situations like LOCA (loss of coolant accidents). In the present work, local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are measured in a horizontal tube under LPLF conditions of subcooled boiling. Geometrical parameters covered in this study are diameter (5.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 9.5 mm) and length (550 mm, 750 mm and 1000 mm). The operating parameters varied are mass flux (450–935 kg/m 2 s) and inlet subcooling (29 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C). Infra-red thermography is used for the measurement of local wall temperature to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in single phase and two phase flows with water as the working medium at atmospheric pressure. Correlation for single phase diabatic pressure drop ratio (diabatic to adiabatic) as a function of viscosity ratio (wall temperature to fluid temperature) is presented. Correlation for pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions as a function of Boiling number (Bo) and Jakob number (Ja) is obtained. Correlation for single phase heat transfer coefficient in the thermal developing region is presented as a function of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr) and z/d (ratio of axial length of the test section to diameter). Correlation for two phase heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is developed as a function of boiling number (Bo), Jakob number (Ja) and Prandtl number (Pr)

  7. Current trends in local antibacterial therapy of periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bozhkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of antibiotics in the treatment of orthopedic infection still presents a significant problem. Local antibiotic delivery systems enable to achieve effective concentrations of drugs in the focus of bone infection without the development of toxicity. It is the important accompaniment to systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis. The data collected through the PubMed and eLIBRARY databases (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed, 1995-2015; http://elibrary.ru, 2005-2015 years present the information about bone substitutes used for local antibiotic therapy in scientific investigations and in clinical practice. The information is submitted in accordance with the groups of materials: cements based on polymethylmethacrylate, bone grafts, demineralized bone matrix, bioceramics, natural and synthetic polymers, combined antibiotic delivery systems. The majority of these materials have only been studied experimentally and only a limited range of them is registered for use in clinical practice. Informing orthopedic surgeons about current methods of local antibiotic use is the key to the development of a modern integrated approach to the therapy of infectious complications after orthopedic surgery.

  8. Vasomotion in human skin before and after local heating recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry. A method for induction of vasomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1989-01-01

    neurogenic origin. A method for induction of regular amplified alpha-oscillations was discovered and evaluated. When heating the skin locally to 42 degrees C the blood cell flux increased and the pre-heating alpha- and beta-oscillations disappeared. During the post-heating period, amplified regular rhythmic......Rhythmical variations in blood cell flux in human skin have been studied using laser Doppler flowmetry. The fluctuations in blood cell flux could be divided into two different categories named alpha- and beta-oscillations with a median frequency of 6.8 min-1 and 1.5 min-1, respectively...... alpha-oscillations appeared. At the end of the post-heating period beta-oscillations re-appeared....

  9. Calculation of the heat flow peak in case of local defect of the fuel plate of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrega, Serge

    1965-11-01

    The author reports the calculation of the local thermal flow which exits a fuel plate in a nuclear reactor, where a fabrication defect creates a much localized peak of the power density released in the plate. He first reports the development of the problem equations: hypotheses and data, equation elaboration, simplification and resolution. He presents the results of a numeric application to actual cases, and describes how the conduction in the sheath is taken into account (study of the influence of peak width and shape), and gives a synthetic presentation of the formula for the approximate calculation of the heat flow in case of local defect [fr

  10. Outcomes for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and an Analysis of Predictors of Local Recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Tao, Randa; Rebueno, Neal C.; Christensen, Eva N.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin A.; Amini, Behrang; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Li, Jing; Chang, Eric L.; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate local control, survival outcomes, and predictors of local relapse for patients treated with spine stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 332 spinal metastases consecutively treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy between 2002 and 2012. The median follow-up for all living patients was 33 months (range, 0-111 months). Endpoints were overall survival and local control (LC); recurrences were classified as either in-field or marginal. Results: The 1-year actuarial LC and overall survival rates were 88% and 64%, respectively. Patients with local relapses had poorer dosimetric coverage of the gross tumor volume (GTV) compared with patients without recurrence (minimum dose [Dmin] biologically equivalent dose [BED] 23.9 vs 35.1 Gy, P<.001; D98 BED 41.8 vs 48.1 Gy, P=.001; D95 BED 47.2 vs 50.5 Gy, P=.004). Furthermore, patients with marginal recurrences had poorer prescription coverage of the GTV (86% vs 93%, P=.01) compared with those with in-field recurrences, potentially because of more upfront spinal canal disease (78% vs 24%, P=.001). Using a Cox regression univariate analysis, patients with a GTV BED Dmin ≥33.4 Gy (median dose) (equivalent to 14 Gy in 1 fraction) had a significantly higher 1-year LC rate (94% vs 80%, P=.001) compared with patients with a lower GTV BED Dmin; this factor was the only significant variable on multivariate Cox analysis associated with LC (P=.001, hazard ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.60) and also was the only variable significant in a separate competing risk multivariate model (P=.001, hazard ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.62). Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy offers durable control for spinal metastases, but there is a subset of patients that recur locally. Patients with local relapse had significantly poorer tumor coverage, which was likely attributable to treatment planning directives that prioritized the

  11. Outcomes for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and an Analysis of Predictors of Local Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Tao, Randa [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rebueno, Neal C. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Christensen, Eva N.; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin A. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Amini, Behrang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tannir, Nizar M. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tatsui, Claudio E.; Rhines, Laurence D. [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, USC Norris Cancer Hospital, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ghia, Amol J., E-mail: ajghia@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate local control, survival outcomes, and predictors of local relapse for patients treated with spine stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 332 spinal metastases consecutively treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy between 2002 and 2012. The median follow-up for all living patients was 33 months (range, 0-111 months). Endpoints were overall survival and local control (LC); recurrences were classified as either in-field or marginal. Results: The 1-year actuarial LC and overall survival rates were 88% and 64%, respectively. Patients with local relapses had poorer dosimetric coverage of the gross tumor volume (GTV) compared with patients without recurrence (minimum dose [Dmin] biologically equivalent dose [BED] 23.9 vs 35.1 Gy, P<.001; D98 BED 41.8 vs 48.1 Gy, P=.001; D95 BED 47.2 vs 50.5 Gy, P=.004). Furthermore, patients with marginal recurrences had poorer prescription coverage of the GTV (86% vs 93%, P=.01) compared with those with in-field recurrences, potentially because of more upfront spinal canal disease (78% vs 24%, P=.001). Using a Cox regression univariate analysis, patients with a GTV BED Dmin ≥33.4 Gy (median dose) (equivalent to 14 Gy in 1 fraction) had a significantly higher 1-year LC rate (94% vs 80%, P=.001) compared with patients with a lower GTV BED Dmin; this factor was the only significant variable on multivariate Cox analysis associated with LC (P=.001, hazard ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.60) and also was the only variable significant in a separate competing risk multivariate model (P=.001, hazard ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.62). Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy offers durable control for spinal metastases, but there is a subset of patients that recur locally. Patients with local relapse had significantly poorer tumor coverage, which was likely attributable to treatment planning directives that prioritized the

  12. Pain Relief with Wet Cupping Therapy in Rats is Mediated by Heat Shock Protein 70 and ß-Endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subadi, Imam; Nugraha, Boya; Laswati, Hening; Josomuljono, Harjanto

    2017-07-01

    Wet cupping therapy is a complementary therapy in pain management. The mechanism of this therapy, however, needs further elucidation. Cells injured by wet cupping therapy seem to stimulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Its benefit in pain reduction could be mediated by the expression of ß-endorphin. This study aimed at determining the correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin after wet cupping therapy. Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG; n=8) and treatment (TG; n=8) groups. The rats in both groups were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at the footpad. In the TG, wet cupping therapy was done at the left and right paralumbar regions 48 hours after the CFA injection. Twenty-four hours after therapy, the hot plate test was done to assess pain threshold. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry from the skin subjected to wet cupping therapy was conducted for HSP70 and ß-endorphin. The expression of HSP70 was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (20.25±3.53; Pcupping therapy was significantly higher in the TG (22.81±6.34 s; P=0.003) than in the CG (11.78±3.56 s). The benefit of wet cupping therapy in terms of pain reduction in rats could be mediated by the expression of HSP70 and ß-endorphin.

  13. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mansfield, Paul F. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam; Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92–1.01). The median V 30 (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V 20 (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V 40 (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate pathologic

  15. [The influence of drug liberation from drug forms on local therapy of infected bone cavities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, W; Wehr, M

    1984-09-01

    With regard to an optimum local pharmaco-therapy in infected bone cavities, in vitro examinations by means of a flow model based on the half-change method had been performed to liberate Gentamycin from globular embeddings in polymethylmethacrylate. The Gentamycin had been determined in a micro-biological manner. The release behaviour of the polymere carrier could be controlled by adding Polyethylenglycol 400 as softener or butane dioldimethacrylate as wettener. Adding 20 vol.-% of Polyethylenglycol 400, the Gentamycin release could be increased to the 8-fold, whereas the addition of 5 vol.-% of butane dioldimethacrylate resulted in a decrease amounting to 7/8 exit value.

  16. Radiation or chemoradiation: initial utility study of selected therapy for local advanced stadium cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, D. A.; Gondhowiardjo, S.; Nuranna, L.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare radiation only or chemo radiation treatment of local advanced cervical cancers by examining the initial response of tumors and acute side effects. An initial assessment employed value based medicine (VBM) by obtaining utility values for both types of therapy. The incidences of acute lower gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematology side effects in patients undergoing chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those undergoing radiation alone. Utility values for patients who underwent radiation alone were higher compared to those who underwent chemoradiation. It was concluded that the complete response of patients who underwent chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those who underwent radiation alone.

  17. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD; Joyce Niland, PhD; Anna ter Veer, MS; Tanios Bekaii-Saab, MD; Lily Lai, MD; Joshua E. Meyer, MD; Steven J. Nurkin, MD, MS; Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH; John M. Skibber, MD, FACS; Al B. Benson, MD; Martin R. Weiser, MD; Christopher H. Crane, MD; Karyn A. Goodman, MD, MS

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been rapidly incorporated into clinical practice because of its technological advantages over 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT). We characterized trends in IMRT utilization in trimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network cancer centers between 2005 and 2011. Methods and materials: Using the prospective National Comprehensive Cancer Network Colorectal Cancer Database, ...

  18. Intersections between Music Education and Music Therapy: Education Reform, Arts Education, Exceptionality, and Policy at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Pasiali, Varvara

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a music teacher educator and a music therapy clinician and educator discuss special education policy and arts instruction at the district level. To illustrate the gulf between federal and local policies with regard to exceptional learners and arts instruction, we examine the intersections of music therapy and music education with…

  19. 77 FR 24959 - Scientific Information Request on Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g., ablation, radiotherapy, or embolization devices). Scientific information is being solicited to inform our Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the AHRQ Effective Health Care Program. Access to published and unpublished pertinent scientific information on this device will improve the quality of this comparative effectiveness review. AHRQ is requesting this scientific information and conducting this comparative effectiveness review pursuant to Section 1013 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-173.

  20. Bicalutamide as immediate therapy either alone or as adjuvant to standard care of patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer: first analysis of the early prostate cancer program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, William A; Wirth, Manfred P; McLeod, David G

    2002-01-01

    We determine the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide as immediate therapy, either alone or as adjuvant to treatment of curative intent, in patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer.......We determine the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide as immediate therapy, either alone or as adjuvant to treatment of curative intent, in patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer....

  1. Experiment of flow regime map and local condensing heat transfer coefficients inside three dimensional inner microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Xin, Ming Dao

    1999-03-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube. The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper. The flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow, stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically carried out. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out. As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes, those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region, 38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75% for the intermittent flow, respectively. The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1.8-6.9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  2. The foci of DNA double strand break-recognition proteins localize with γH2AX after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there have been many reports concerning proteins which can recognize DNA double strand break (DSBs), and such proteins include histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phospho-serine 1981, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phospho-threonine 2609, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) phospho-serine 343, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), phospho-threonine 68, and structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) phospho-serine 966. Thus, it should be possible to follow the formation of DSBs and their repair using immunohistochemical methods with multiple antibodies to detect these proteins. When normal human fibroblasts (AG1522 cells) were exposed to 3 Gy of X-rays as a control, clearly discernable foci for these proteins were detected, and these foci localized with γH2AX foci. After heat treatment at 45.5 deg C for 20 min, these proteins are partially localized with γH2AX foci. Here we show that there were slight differences in the localization pattern among these proteins, such as a disappearance from the nucleus (phospho-ATM) and translocation to the cytoplasm (phospho-NBS1) at 30 min after heat treatment, and some foci (phospho-DNA-PKcs and phospho-CHK2) appeared at 8 h after heat treatment. These results are discussed from perspectives of heat-induced denaturation of proteins and formation of DSBs. (author)

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko; Atula, Timo; Collan, Juhani; Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Maekitie, Antti; Seppaenen, Marko; Minn, Heikki; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli; Kouri, Mauri; Joensuu, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Head and neck carcinomas that recur locally after conventional irradiation pose a difficult therapeutic problem. We evaluated safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of such cancers. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with inoperable, recurred, locally advanced (rT3, rT4, or rN2) head and neck cancer were treated with BNCT in a prospective, single-center Phase I-II study. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 56-74 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed using the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria and adverse effects using the National Cancer Institute common toxicity grading v3.0. Intravenously administered boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F, 400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Ten patients received BNCT twice; 2 were treated once. Ten (83%) patients responded to BNCT, and 2 (17%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.5 and 7.6 months. The median duration of response was 12.1 months; six responses were ongoing at the time of analysis or death (range, 4.9-19.2 months). Four (33%) patients were alive without recurrence with a median follow-up of 14.0 months (range, 12.8-19.2 months). The most common acute adverse effects were mucositis, fatigue, and local pain; 2 patients had a severe (Grade 3) late adverse effect (xerostomia, 1; dysphagia, 1). Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy is effective and safe in the treatment of inoperable, locally advanced head and neck carcinomas that recur at previously irradiated sites

  4. High-dose rate intra-operative radiation therapy for local advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.B.; Mychalczak, B.; Enker, W.; Anderson, L.; Cohen, A.E.; Minsky, B.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to improve the local control for advanced and recurrent cancers of the rectum, we have integrated high-dose rate intra-operative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) into the treatment program. Between 11/92 and 10/95, 47 patients (pts) were treated. There were 26 males and 21 females whose ages ranged from 30-80 (median = 62) years. There were 19 pts with primary unresectable rectal cancer, and 28 pts who were treated for recurrent rectal cancer. Histology was adenocarcinoma - 45 pts, squamous cancer - 2 pts. The range of follow-up is 1-34 months (median = 14 months). The majority of primary unresectable pts received pre-operative radiation therapy (4500-5040 cGy) with chemotherapy (5-FU with Leucovorin) 4-6 weeks later, they underwent resection + HDR-IORT (1200 cGy). For the 28 pts with recurrent cancer, the majority received surgery and HDR-IORT alone because they had received prior RT. For the pts with primary unresectable disease, actuarial 2-year local control was 77%, actuarial distant metastasis-free survival was 71%, disease free survival was 66%, and overall survival was 84%. For those pts with recurrent disease, actuarial 2-year local control rate was 65%, distant metastasis-free survival was 65%, disease free survival was 47%, and overall survival was 61%. Complications occurred in 36%. There were no cases where the anatomical distribution of disease, or technical limitations prevented the adequate delivery of HDR-IORT. We conclude that this technique was most versatile, and enabled all appropriate pts to receive IORT. The preliminary data in terms of local control are encouraging, even for the poor prognostic sub-group of pts with recurrent cancer

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in the Salvage of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Sufang; Lin Shaojun; Tham, Ivan W.K.; Pan Jianji; Lu Jun; Lu, Jiade J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be salvaged by reirradiation with conventional techniques, but with significant morbidity. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing doses to normal tissue. The aim of this study was to address the efficacy and toxicity profile of IMRT for a cohort of patients with locally recurrent NPC. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2009, 70 patients with radiologic or pathologically proven locally recurrent NPC were treated with IMRT. The median time to recurrence was 30 months after the completion of conventional radiation to definitive dose. Fifty-seven percent of the tumors were classified asrT3–4. The minimum planned doses were 59.4 to 60 Gy in 1.8- to 2-Gy fractions per day to the gross disease with margins, with or without chemotherapy. Results: The median dose to the recurrent tumor was 70 Gy (range, 50–77.4 Gy). Sixty-five patients received the planned radiation therapy; 5 patients received between 50 and 60 Gy because of acute side effects. With a median follow-up time of 25 months, the rates of 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 65.8%, 65.8%, and 67.4%, respectively. Moderate to severe late toxicities were noted in 25 patients (35.7%). Eleven patients (15.7%) had posterior nasal space ulceration, 17 (24.3%) experienced cranial nerve palsies, 12 (17.1%) had trismus, and 12 (17.1%) experienced deafness. Extended disease-free interval (relative risk 2.049) and advanced T classification (relative risk 3.895) at presentation were adverse prognostic factors. Conclusion: Reirradiation with IMRT provides reasonable long-term control in patients with locally recurrent NPC.

  6. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habr-Gama, Angelita; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; São Julião, Guilherme P.; Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B.; Perez, Rodrigo O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation

  7. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habr-Gama, Angelita, E-mail: gamange@uol.com.br [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); São Julião, Guilherme P. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Colorectal Surgery Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Perez, Rodrigo O. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, São Paulo Branch (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation.

  8. Interactive effect of aging and local muscle heating on renal vasoconstriction during isometric handgrip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the interactive effect of aging and forearm muscle heating on renal vascular conductance and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during ischemic isometric handgrip. A tube-lined, water-perfused sleeve was used to heat the forearm in 12 young (27 +/- 1 yr) and 9 older (63 +/- 1 yr) subjects. Ischemic isometric handgrip was performed before and after heating. Muscle temperature (intramuscular thermistor) was 34.3 +/- 0.2 and 38.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C during normothermia and heating, respectively. At rest, heating had no effect on renal blood velocity (Doppler ultrasound) or renal vascular conductance in either group (young, n = 12; older, n = 8). Heating compared with normothermia caused a significantly greater increase in renal vasoconstriction during exercise and postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) in both groups. However, the increase in renal vasoconstriction during heating was greater in the older compared with the young subjects (18 +/- 3 vs. 8 +/- 3%). During handgrip, heating elicited greater increases in MSNA responses in the older group (young, n = 12; older, n = 6), whereas no statistical difference was observed between groups during PEMI. In summary, aging augments renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip during heating of the exercising muscle. The greater renal vasoconstriction was associated with augmented MSNA in the older subjects.

  9. Local heat transfer estimation in microchannels during convective boiling under microgravity conditions: 3D inverse heat conduction problem using BEM techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, S.; LeNiliot, C.

    2008-11-01

    Two-phase and boiling flow instabilities are complex, due to phase change and the existence of several interfaces. To fully understand the high heat transfer potential of boiling flows in microscale's geometry, it is vital to quantify these transfers. To perform this task, an experimental device has been designed to observe flow patterns. Analysis is made up by using an inverse method which allows us to estimate the local heat transfers while boiling occurs inside a microchannel. In our configuration, the direct measurement would impair the accuracy of the searched heat transfer coefficient because thermocouples implanted on the surface minichannels would disturb the established flow. In this communication, we are solving a 3D IHCP which consists in estimating using experimental data measurements the surface temperature and the surface heat flux in a minichannel during convective boiling under several gravity levels (g, 1g, 1.8g). The considered IHCP is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem and solved using the boundary element method (BEM).

  10. MRI evaluation following partial HIFU therapy for localized prostate cancer: A single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquetis, L; Malavaud, B; Game, X; Beauval, J B; Portalez, D; Soulie, M; Rischmann, P

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the value of MRI for surveillance of primary hemi-HIFU therapy for localized PCa in a single-center. Patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with hemi-HIFU from October 2009 to March 2014. All patients performed MRI before focal therapy, the reader was blinded to the treatment. Oncological failure was defined as positive biopsy or biochemical recurrence (Phoenix). Twenty-five patients were treated with hemi-HIFU in one center. The median nadir PSA was 1.45±1.4ng/mL. Prostate volume decreased from 45 cc to 25 cc on MRI findings. At 20 months, none of the patients had histological recurrence. Biochemical-free survival rate was 88%. MRI evaluation had a negative predictive value of 100% on the treated area and 81% on the untreated area. PSAd≥0.1ng/mL(2) was a predictive factor for cancer on untreated area (P=0.042). MRI control at 6 months is a potentially effective evaluation of treated area after hemi-HIFU and may replace randomized biopsies if PSAd<0.1ng/mL(2) during follow-up. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex- and limb-specific differences in the nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Greaney, Jody L.; Larry Kenney, W.

    2014-01-01

    Local heating of the skin is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvasculature function. Controversy exists as to whether there are limb or sex differences in the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent contribution to this vasodilation, as well as the NO synthase (NOS) isoform mediating the responses. We tested the hypotheses that 1) NO-dependent vasodilation would be greater in the calf compared with the forearm; 2) total NO-dependent dilation would not be different between sexes within limb; and 3) women would exhibit greater neuronal NOS (nNOS)-dependent vasodilation in the calf. Two microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the ventral forearm and the calf of 19 (10 male and 9 female) young (23 ± 1 yr) adults for the local delivery of Ringer solution (control) or 5 mM Nω-propyl-l-arginine (NPLA; nNOS inhibition). Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) at each site, after which 20 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) was perfused for within-site assessment of NO-dependent vasodilation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximum (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, 43°C). Total NO-dependent vasodilation in the calf was lower compared with the forearm in both sexes (Ringer: 42 ± 5 vs. 62 ± 4%; P 0.05). These data suggest that the NO-dependent component of local heating-induced cutaneous vasodilation is lower in the calf compared with the forearm. Contrary to our original hypothesis, there was no contribution of nNOS to NO-dependent vasodilation in either limb during local heating. PMID:25100074

  12. Experimental Methodology for Estimation of Local Heat Fluxes and Burning Rates in Steady Laminar Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay V; Gollner, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided.

  13. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts.Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry.Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann–Whitney, p = 0.153, as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354. The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F(24, 264 = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer (p < 0.05 in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects.Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years. However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  14. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Burton, Samantha; Gordon, Christopher; Mack, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts. Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old) participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann-Whitney, p = 0.153), as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively) and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354). The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F (24, 264) = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer ( p < 0.05) in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years). However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  15. Survival After Conservative Management Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Oglio, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.delloglio@gmail.com [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Boehm, Katharina [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Trudeau, Vincent [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Tian, Zhe [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Larcher, Alessandro [Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Moschini, Marco; Capitanio, Umberto [Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Shariat, Shahrokh F. [Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital, Vienna (Austria); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To compare survival in elderly men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) according to treatment type, defined as radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus conservative management (observation). Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database, we identified 23,790 patients aged 80 years or more with clinically localized PCa treated with either RT or observation between 1991 and 2009. Competing risks analyses focused on cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality, after accounting for confounders. All analyses were repeated after stratification according to grade (well-differentiated vs moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated disease), race, and United States region, in patients with no comorbidities and in patients with at least 1 comorbidity. Analyses were repeated within most contemporary patients, namely those treated between 2001 and 2009. Results: Radiation therapy was associated with more favorable cancer-specific mortality rates than observation in patients with moderately differentiated disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; P=.009) and in patients with poorly differentiated disease (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P<.001). Conversely, the benefit of RT was not observed in well-differentiated disease. The benefit of RT was confirmed in black men (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.83; P=.004), across all United States regions (all P≤.004), in the subgroups of the healthiest patients (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78; P<.001), in patients with at least 1 comorbidity (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56-0.83; P<.001), and in most contemporary patients (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.46-0.66; P<.001). Conclusions: Radiation therapy seems to be associated with a reduction in the risk of death from PCa relative to observation in elderly patients with clinically localized PCa, except for those with well-differentiated disease.

  16. Survival After Conservative Management Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Boehm, Katharina; Trudeau, Vincent; Tian, Zhe; Larcher, Alessandro; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Moschini, Marco; Capitanio, Umberto; Shariat, Shahrokh F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare survival in elderly men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) according to treatment type, defined as radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus conservative management (observation). Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database, we identified 23,790 patients aged 80 years or more with clinically localized PCa treated with either RT or observation between 1991 and 2009. Competing risks analyses focused on cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality, after accounting for confounders. All analyses were repeated after stratification according to grade (well-differentiated vs moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated disease), race, and United States region, in patients with no comorbidities and in patients with at least 1 comorbidity. Analyses were repeated within most contemporary patients, namely those treated between 2001 and 2009. Results: Radiation therapy was associated with more favorable cancer-specific mortality rates than observation in patients with moderately differentiated disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; P=.009) and in patients with poorly differentiated disease (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P<.001). Conversely, the benefit of RT was not observed in well-differentiated disease. The benefit of RT was confirmed in black men (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.83; P=.004), across all United States regions (all P≤.004), in the subgroups of the healthiest patients (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78; P<.001), in patients with at least 1 comorbidity (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56-0.83; P<.001), and in most contemporary patients (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.46-0.66; P<.001). Conclusions: Radiation therapy seems to be associated with a reduction in the risk of death from PCa relative to observation in elderly patients with clinically localized PCa, except for those with well-differentiated disease.

  17. Local transdermal therapy to the breast for breast cancer prevention and DCIS therapy: preclinical and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oukseub; Ivancic, David; Allu, Subhashini; Shidfar, Ali; Kenney, Kara; Helenowski, Irene; Sullivan, Megan E; Muzzio, Miguel; Scholtens, Denise; Chatterton, Robert T; Bethke, Kevin P; Hansen, Nora M; Khan, Seema A

    2015-12-01

    Women at high risk of breast cancer and those with carcinoma in situ need non-toxic, well-tolerated preventive interventions. One promising approach is drug delivery through the breast skin (local transdermal therapy, LTT). Our goal was to test novel drugs for LTT, to establish that LTT is applicable to non-steroidal drugs. Athymic nude rats were treated with oral tamoxifen, transdermal 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) or endoxifen gel applied daily to the axillary mammary gland for 6 weeks (Study 1). Study 2 was identical to Study 1, testing transdermal telapristone acetate (telapristone) gel versus subcutaneous implant. At euthanasia, mammary glands and blood were collected. In Study 3, consenting women requiring mastectomy were randomized to diclofenac patch applied to the abdomen or the breast for 3 days preoperatively. At surgery, eight tissue samples per breast were collected from predetermined locations, along with venous blood. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Mammary tissue concentrations of 4-OHT, endoxifen, and telapristone were significantly higher in the axillary glands of the gel-treated animals, compared to inguinal glands or to systemically treated animals. Plasma concentrations were similar in gel and systemically treated animals. The clinical trial showed significantly higher mammary concentrations when diclofenac was applied to the breast skin versus the abdominal skin, but concentrations were variable. These results demonstrate that lipophilic drugs can be developed for LTT; although the nude rat is suitable for testing drug permeability, delivery is systemic. In human, however, transdermal application to the breast skin provides local delivery.

  18. Retrospective analysis of multidisciplinary therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Seo, Yuji; Nakajima, Kaori; Miyano, Takashi [Asahikawa Medical Univ., Hokkaido (Japan); Kikuchi, Yuzou [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the efficacy of multidisciplinary therapy (concomitant radiotherapy and intra-arterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by maxillectomy) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. We reviewed 71 patient records with locally advanced but respectable carcinoma of the maxillary sinus treated by means of multidisciplinary therapy between 1978 through 1997. The clinical T factor for these patients, according to the UICC definitions (1997), was 12 for T2, 46 for T3, and 13 for T4. Twelve patients were diagnosed as node-positive at initial presentation. Intra-arterial 5-FU was delivered via a superficial temporal artery in accordance with radiotherapy, and the cumulative 5-FU dose ranged from 2,900 mg to 5,250 mg (median 5,000 mg). The total radiotherapy dose ranged from 29 Gy to 48 Gy (median 48 Gy) with conventional fractionation. Patients underwent radical maxillectomy thereafter. The 5-year overall survival rate and disease-specific survival rate of all the patients were 58% and 68%, respectively. There was no significant correlation of clinical T factor or N factor with disease-specific survival on univariate and multivariate analysis. The overall treatment-related mortality rate was 3.7%. Radiation cataract later developed in all evaluable patients whose lenses were within the treatment volume. About a half of the operable T4 patients survived over 5 years by means of the above-mentioned multidisciplinary therapy. This multidisciplinary therapy should be compared to treatment with a combination of surgery and postoperative chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  19. Retrospective analysis of multidisciplinary therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Seo, Yuji; Nakajima, Kaori; Miyano, Takashi; Kikuchi, Yuzou

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the efficacy of multidisciplinary therapy (concomitant radiotherapy and intra-arterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by maxillectomy) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. We reviewed 71 patient records with locally advanced but respectable carcinoma of the maxillary sinus treated by means of multidisciplinary therapy between 1978 through 1997. The clinical T factor for these patients, according to the UICC definitions (1997), was 12 for T2, 46 for T3, and 13 for T4. Twelve patients were diagnosed as node-positive at initial presentation. Intra-arterial 5-FU was delivered via a superficial temporal artery in accordance with radiotherapy, and the cumulative 5-FU dose ranged from 2,900 mg to 5,250 mg (median 5,000 mg). The total radiotherapy dose ranged from 29 Gy to 48 Gy (median 48 Gy) with conventional fractionation. Patients underwent radical maxillectomy thereafter. The 5-year overall survival rate and disease-specific survival rate of all the patients were 58% and 68%, respectively. There was no significant correlation of clinical T factor or N factor with disease-specific survival on univariate and multivariate analysis. The overall treatment-related mortality rate was 3.7%. Radiation cataract later developed in all evaluable patients whose lenses were within the treatment volume. About a half of the operable T4 patients survived over 5 years by means of the above-mentioned multidisciplinary therapy. This multidisciplinary therapy should be compared to treatment with a combination of surgery and postoperative chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  20. Photodynamic therapy as a local therapeutic adjunct for the treatment of vertebral metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Albert; Burch, Shane; Akens, Margarete; Won, Emily; Lo, Victor; Wise-Milestone, Lisa; Bisland, Stuart; Theriault, Aimee; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C.; Whyne, Cari

    2013-03-01

    Metastatic cancer causes the majority of tumors in bone, most frequently detected in the spinal column. Skeletal complications cause pain and neurologic impairment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat a variety of cancers. Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) strategies may allow targeted light application essential for PDT within bone structures. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an update on pre-clinical status as well as early clinical experience of a Phase I clinical trial on vertebral PDT. A pre-clinical (rnu/rnu rat) vertebral metastasis model of osteolytic (MT-1 breast cancer) was optimized and used to evaluate the effect of vertebral PDT. PDT alone and in combination with other standard local (radiation therapy, RT) and systemic (bisphosphonates, BP) therapies was evaluated through bioluminescence imaging, micro-CT based stereology, histology, and biomechanical testing. Single PDT treatment (photosensitizer BPD-MA, 690nm light) ablated tumor tissue in targeted vertebrae. PDT led to significant increases in bone structural properties, with greatest benefits observed from combined BP+PDT therapy: 76% and 19% increases in bone volume fraction in treated tumor-bearing and healthy untreated controls, respectively. Similar synergistic improvements (but of lesser magnitude) were found in combined PDT+RT treatments. The safety and feasibility of MIS+PDT were evaluated in scale-up animal studies, refining surgical technique for clinical translation. Following appropriate institutional review board as well as Health Canada approval, 5 patients (light only control group) have undergone protocoled treatment to date. These patients have guided further refinement of human therapeutic application from a laser delivery and vertebral bone access perspective.

  1. Scaling up local energy infrastructure; An agent-based model of the emergence of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonathan; Roelich, Katy; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Knoeri, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of local energy infrastructure – such as heat networks – to the transition to a low carbon economy is increasingly recognised in international, national and municipal policy. Creating the policy environment to foster the scaling up of local energy infrastructure is, however, still challenging; despite national policy action and local authority interest the growth of heat networks in UK cities remains slow. Techno-economic energy system models commonly used to inform policy are not designed to address institutional and governance barriers. We present an agent-based model of heat network development in UK cities in which policy interventions aimed at the institutional and governance barriers faced by diverse actors can be explored. Three types of project instigators are included – municipal, commercial and community – which have distinct decision heuristics and capabilities and follow a multi-stage development process. Scenarios of policy interventions developed in a companion modelling approach indicate that the effect of interventions differs between actors depending on their capabilities. Successful interventions account for the specific motivations and capabilities of different actors, provide a portfolio of support along the development process and recognise the important strategic role of local authorities in supporting low carbon energy infrastructure. - Highlights: • Energy policy should account for diverse actor motivations and capabilities. • Project development is a multi-stage process, not a one-off event. • Participatory agent-based modelling can inform policy that accounts for complexity. • Policy should take a portfolio approach to providing support. • Local authorities have an important strategic role in local infrastructure.

  2. Experimental data and calculation studies of critical heat fluxes at local disturbances of geometry of WWER fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar, L.L.; Oleksyuk, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of experiments executed in RRC 'Kurchatov Institute on the thermal-physical critical facility SVD are presented herein. The experiments modeled the drawing of two fuel rods to each other till touching WWER-1000 reactor in FA. The experimental model is a 7-rod bundle with the heated length of 1 m. The primary goal of experiments was to acquire the quantitative factors of the reduction in the critical heat fluxes as contrasted to the basic model (without disturbances of FA geometry) at the expense of local disturbance of a rod bundle geometry. As it follows from the experiment, the effect of decrease of the critical heat rate depends on combination of regime parameters and it makes 15% in the most unfavorable case (Authors)

  3. Management of locally recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma after prior surgery and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Mylin A.; Ballo, Matthew T.; Butler, Charles E.; Feig, Barry W.; Cormier, Janice N.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Pollock, Raphael E.; Pisters, Peter W.; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome and treatment toxicity after wide local re-excision (WLE), with or without additional radiation therapy, for patients with isolated first local recurrence of soft-tissue sarcoma arising within a previously irradiated field. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 62 consecutive patients. All patients underwent prior resection and external beam radiation. For recurrent disease, 25 patients were treated with WLE alone, and 37 patients were treated with WLE and additional radiation (45- 64 Gy). In 33 patients, the radiation was delivered via an afterloaded brachytherapy, single-plane implant. Results: The 5-year disease specific and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 65% and 73%, respectively. Local control (LC) at 5 years was 51%, and on multivariate analysis, a positive surgical resection margin (p< 0.001) was associated with a lower rate of LC. Reirradiation was not associated with improved LC; however complications requiring outpatient or surgical management were more common in patients who had undergone reirradiation (80% vs. 17%, p < 0.001). Amputation was also more common in the subgroup of patients who underwent extremity reirradiation (35% with radiation vs. 11% without, p = 0.05), although only one amputation was performed to resolve a treatment complication. Conclusion: Conservative surgery alone results in LC in a minority of patients who have failed locally after previous excision and external beam radiation. Although selection biases and small patient numbers confound the analysis, local treatment intensification with additional radiation does not clearly improve outcome after surgical excision alone, and is associated with an increase in complications

  4. Lithuanian heat sector: Today based on imported fossil fuel, tomorrow - On local biofuel and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janukonis, Andrius

    2010-09-15

    District heating sector is one of the most important energy sectors in Lithuania, operation of which is closely related to other energy sectors such as electricity, natural gas, oil products, renewable energy sources. Main priorities of Lithuanian energy policy based on the experience of the neighboring countries and directives of the European Union's environmental protection, security and reliability of energy supply and availability of district heating services to all users. It is necessary to use widely the biofuel in the DHS sector for the heat production, unused amounts of which are very big.

  5. Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Anna Lia; Gui, Benedetta; D’Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Mattiucci, Giancarlo; Clementi, Valeria; Di Molfetta, Ippolita Valentina; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Mantini, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate results of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and time since external beam irradiation (EBRT) in patients treated with long-term hormone therapy (HT) and EBRT for locally advanced disease to verify successful treatment by documenting the achievement of metabolic atrophy (MA). Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 109 patients were consecutively enrolled. MA was assessed by choline and citrate peak area-to-noise-ratio 1.5:1 or choline signal-to-noise-ratio >5:1. To test the strength of association between MRSI results and the time elapsed since EBRT (TEFRT), PSA levels, Gleason score (GS), and stage, logistic regression (LR) was performed. p value 2 years. MA was detected in 54.1% of patients of group 1, 88.9% of group 2, and in 94.5% of group 3 (100% when PSA nadir was reached). CM was detected in 50% of patients with reached PSA nadir in group 1. Local relapse was found in 3 patients previously showing CM at long TEFRT. Conclusion: MA detection, indicative of successful treatment because growth of normal or abnormal cells cannot occur without metabolism, increases with decreasing PSA levels and increasing time on HT after EBRT. This supports long-term HT in advanced prostate cancer. Larger study series are needed to assess whether MRSI could predict local relapse by detecting CM at long TEFRT.

  6. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Pløen, John; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Bentzen, Søren M.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is part of the standard treatment of locally advanced rectal cancers. Tumor regression at the time of operation is desirable, but not much is known about the relationship between radiation dose and tumor regression. In the present study we estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect of including clinical parameters in the model was examined. The radiation dose-response relationship for a specific grade of histopathologic tumor regression was parameterized in terms of the dose required for 50% response, D 50,i , and the normalized dose-response gradient, γ 50,i . Results: A highly significant dose-response relationship was found (P=.002). For complete response (TRG1), the dose-response parameters were D 50,TRG1 = 92.0 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 79.3-144.9 Gy), γ 50,TRG1 = 0.982 (CI 0.533-1.429), and for major response (TRG1-2) D 50,TRG1 and 2 = 72.1 Gy (CI 65.3-94.0 Gy), γ 50,TRG1 and 2 = 0.770 (CI 0.338-1.201). Tumor size and N category both had a significant effect on the dose-response relationships. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant dose-response relationship for tumor regression after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer for tumor dose levels in the range of 50.4-70 Gy, which is higher than the dose range usually considered.

  7. Localized dryout: An approach for managing the thermal hydrologi-cal effects of decay heat at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Nitao, J.J.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1995-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, there are two thermal loading approaches to using decay heat constructively -- that is, to substantially reduce relative humidity and liquid flow near waste packages for a considerable time, and thereby limit waste package degradation and radionuclide dissolution and release. ''Extended dryout'' achieves these effects with a thermal load high enough to generate large-scale (coalesced) rock dryout. ''Localized dryout''(which uses wide drift spacing and a thermal load too low for coalesced dryout) achieves them by maintaining a large temperature difference between the waste package and drift wall; this is done with close waste package spacing (generating a high line-heat load) and/or low-thermal-conductivity backfill in the drift. Backfill can greatly reduce relative humidity on the waste package in both the localized and extended dryout approaches. Besides using decay heat constructively, localized dryout reduces the possibility that far-field temperature rise and condensate buildup above the drifts might adversely affect waste isolation

  8. Local description of the energy transfer process in a packed bed heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L.M.; Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1990-01-01

    The energy transfer process in a packed-bed heat exchanger, in counter0flow arrangement is considered. The phenomenon is described through a Continuum Theory of Mixtures approach, in which fluid and solid (porous matrix) are regarded as continuous constituents possessing, each one, its own temperature and velocity fields. The heat 'exchangers consists of two channels, separated by an impermeable wall without thermal resistence, in which there exists a saturated flow. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)

  9. Design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers when the fouling depends on local temperature and velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, D. [HTFS, Hyprotech, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are normally designed on the basis of a uniform and constant fouling resistance that is specified in advance by the exchanger user. The design process is then one of determining the best exchanger that will achieve the thermal duty within the specified pressure drop constraints. It has been shown in previous papers [Designing shell-and-tube heat exchangers with velocity-dependant fouling, 34th US national Heat Transfer Conference, 20-22 August 2000, Pittsburg, PA; Designing shell-and-tube heat exchangers with velocity-dependant fouling, 2nd Int. Conf. on Petroleum and Gas Phase Behavior and Fouling, 27-31 August 2000, Copenhagen] that this approach can be extended to the design of exchangers where the design fouling resistance depends on velocity. The current paper briefly reviews the main findings of the previous papers and goes on to treat the case where the fouling depends also on the local temperatures. The Ebert-Panchal [Analysis of Exxon crude-oil, slip-stream coking data, Engineering Foundation Conference on Fouling Mitigation of Heat Exchangers, 18-23 June 1995, California] form of fouling rate equation is used to evaluate this fouling dependence. When allowing for temperature effects, it becomes difficult to divorce the design from the way the exchanger will be operated up to the point when the design fouling is achieved. However, rational ways of separating the design from the operation are proposed. (author)

  10. Stereotactic body radiation therapy planning with duodenal sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: A dosimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rachit; Wild, Aaron T.; Ziegler, Mark A.; Hooker, Ted K.; Dah, Samson D.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Kang, Jun; Smith, Koren; Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401N. Broadway, Weinberg Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Pawlik, Timothy M. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401N. Broadway, Weinberg Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401N. Broadway, Weinberg Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) achieves excellent local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), but may increase late duodenal toxicity. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a rotating gantry rather than multiple fixed beams. This study dosimetrically evaluates the feasibility of implementing duodenal constraints for SBRT using VMAT vs IMRT. Non–duodenal sparing (NS) and duodenal-sparing (DS) VMAT and IMRT plans delivering 25 Gy in 1 fraction were generated for 15 patients with LAPC. DS plans were constrained to duodenal D{sub max} of<30 Gy at any point. VMAT used 1 360° coplanar arc with 4° spacing between control points, whereas IMRT used 9 coplanar beams with fixed gantry positions at 40° angles. Dosimetric parameters for target volumes and organs at risk were compared for DS planning vs NS planning and VMAT vs IMRT using paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Both DS VMAT and DS IMRT achieved significantly reduced duodenal D{sub mean}, D{sub max}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 4%}, and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} compared with NS plans (all p≤0.002). DS constraints compromised target coverage for IMRT as demonstrated by reduced V{sub 95%} (p = 0.01) and D{sub mean} (p = 0.02), but not for VMAT. DS constraints resulted in increased dose to right kidney, spinal cord, stomach, and liver for VMAT. Direct comparison of DS VMAT and DS IMRT revealed that VMAT was superior in sparing the left kidney (p<0.001) and the spinal cord (p<0.001), whereas IMRT was superior in sparing the stomach (p = 0.05) and the liver (p = 0.003). DS VMAT required 21% fewer monitor units (p<0.001) and delivered treatment 2.4 minutes faster (p<0.001) than DS IMRT. Implementing DS constraints during SBRT planning for LAPC can significantly reduce duodenal point or volumetric dose parameters for both VMAT and IMRT. The primary consequence of implementing DS constraints for VMAT is increased dose to other organs at

  11. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Gemcitabine for Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoto, Makoto, E-mail: shinoto@saga-himat.jp [Hospital of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamada, Shigeru [Hospital of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yasuda, Shigeo [Hospital of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko [Hospital of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Saisho, Hiromitsu [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Kaken Hospital, Chemotherapy Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Asano, Takehide; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Amano, Hodaka; Ishihara, Takeshi; Otsuka, Masayuki; Matsuda, Masamichi; Kainuma, Osamu; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Furuse, Junji; Nakagori, Toshio; Okusaka, Takuji; and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To determine, in the setting of locally advanced pancreatic cancer, the maximum tolerated dose of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) and gemcitabine dose delivered concurrently and to estimate local effect and survival. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included pathologic confirmation of pancreatic invasive ductal carcinomas and radiographically unresectable disease without metastasis. Concurrent gemcitabine was administered on days 1, 8, and 15, and the dose levels were escalated from 400 to 1000 mg/m{sup 2} under the starting dose level (43.2 GyE) of C-ion RT. The dose levels of C-ion RT were escalated from 43.2 to 55.2 GyE at 12 fractions under the fixed recommended gemcitabine dose determined. Results: Seventy-six patients were enrolled. Among the 72 treated patients, dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 3 patients: grade 3 infection in 1 patient and grade 4 neutropenia in 2 patients. Only 1 patient experienced a late grade 3 gastric ulcer and bleeding 10 months after C-ion RT. The recommended dose of gemcitabine with C-ion RT was found to be 1000 mg/m{sup 2}. The dose of C-ion RT with the full dose of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2}) was safely increased to 55.2 GyE. The freedom from local progression rate was 83% at 2 years using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The 2-year overall survival rates in all patients and in the high-dose group with stage III (≥45.6 GyE) were 35% and 48%, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon ion RT with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine was well tolerated and effective in patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  12. Endoscopic Criteria for Evaluating Tumor Stage after Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Su; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Byung Chang; Hong, Chang Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Sun Young; Baek, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Ju; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Local excision may be an another option for selected patients with markedly down-staged rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT), and proper evaluation of post-CRT tumor stage (ypT) is essential prior to local excision of these tumors. This study was designed to determine the correlations between endoscopic findings and ypT of rectal cancer. In this study, 481 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgical resection between 2004 and 2013 at a single institution were evaluated retrospectively. Pathological good response (p-GR) was defined as ypT ≤ 1, and pathological minimal or no response (p-MR) as ypT ≥ 2. The patients were randomly classified according to two groups, a testing (n=193) and a validation (n=288) group. Endoscopic criteria were determined from endoscopic findings and ypT in the testing group and used in classifying patients in the validation group as achieving or not achieving p-GR. Based on findings in the testing group, the endoscopic criteria for p-GR included scarring, telangiectasia, and erythema, whereas criteria for p-MR included nodules, ulcers, strictures, and remnant tumors. In the validation group, the kappa statistic was 0.965 (p < 0.001), and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.362, 0.963, 0.654, and 0.885, respectively. The endoscopic criteria presented are easily applicable for evaluation of ypT after preoperative CRT for rectal cancer. These criteria may be used for selection of patients for local excision of down-staged rectal tumors, because patients with p-MR could be easily ruled out.

  13. Locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma: molecular pathways, treatment options and new targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Salas, Veronica; Alegre, Marta; Garcés, Joan Ramón; Puig, Lluis

    2014-06-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified as important to normal embryonic development in living organisms and it is implicated in processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and tissue patterning. Aberrant Hh pathway has been involved in the pathogenesis and chemotherapy resistance of different solid and hematologic malignancies. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma are two well-recognized cancers with mutations in components of the Hh pathway. Vismodegib has recently approved as the first inhibitor of one of the components of the Hh pathway (smoothened). This review attempts to provide current data on the molecular pathways involved in the development of BCC and the therapeutic options available for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic BCC, and the new targeted therapies in development.

  14. Local delivery of hormonal therapy with silastic tubing for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeenah; Thomas, Scott; Zhong, Allison Y; Wolfe, Alan R; Krings, Gregor; Terranova-Barberio, Manuela; Pawlowska, Nela; Benet, Leslie Z; Munster, Pamela N

    2018-01-08

    Broad use of germline testing has identified an increasing number of women at risk for breast cancer with a need for effective chemoprevention. We report a novel method to selectively deliver various anti-estrogens at high drug levels to the breast tissue by implanting a device comprised of silastic tubing. Optimized tubing properties allow elution of otherwise poorly bioavailable anti-estrogens, such as fulvestrant, into mammary tissue in vitro and in vivo with levels sufficient to inhibit estrogen receptor activation and tumor cell proliferation. Implantable silastic tubing delivers fulvestrant selectively to mouse mammary fat tissue for one year with anti-tumor effects similar to those achieved with systemic fulvestrant exposure. Furthermore, local delivery of fulvestrant significantly decreases cell proliferation, as assessed by Ki67 expression, most effectively in tumor sections adjacent to tubing. This approach may thereby introduce a potential paradigm shift and offer a promising alternative to systemic therapy for prevention and early interception of breast cancer.

  15. The relationship between technical parameters of external beam radiation therapy and complications for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Keishiro

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to review retrospectively the clinical course of chronic rectal bleeding as a complication of external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer and to analyze the relationship between technical parameters of radiation therapy and the complications. Seventy-one patients with stages A2, B and C were treated with local-field radiotherapy (total dose 52.5-66 Gy, daily dose 2.0-3.28 Gy, field area 30-81 cm 2 , number of fields 3-15 ports, planning simulations X-ray or CT-based) between 1989 and 1998 at three institutions. The protocols were consistent during this same period at these institutions. Multivariate analysis revealed pretreatment PSA and Gleason sum to be statistically significant predictors of 5 year prostatic specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free rates in a median follow-up period of 42 months (range 12-119 months). The significant risk factors for higher grading of acute morbidity were a biological equivalent dose, α/β=10 (BED 10 ) ≥65 Gy, dose per fraction ≥3.0 Gy, field area ≥42 cm 2 , fewer ports and X-ray planning simulation. However, no parameter was associated with higher grading of late morbidity. Eleven patients (15.4%) experienced a late GI complication: grade 1 (4.2%), grade 2 (9.8%), grade 3 (1.4%). The median time to occurrence of rectal bleeding was 12 months after radiotherapy and the mean duration of morbidity was 11 months. Higher total dose and dose per fraction, larger field area, fewer ports and X-ray simulation increased the grades of acute morbidity. A majority of chronic rectal bleedings were transient and responded to conservative treatment. (author)

  16. Very accelerated radiation therapy: preliminary results in locally unresectable head and neck carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourhis, Jean; Fortin, Andre; Dupuis, Olivier; Domenge, Christian; Lusinchi, Antoine; Marandas, Patrick; Schwaab, Guy; Armand, Jean Pierre; Luboinski, Bernard; Malaise, Edmond; Eschwege, Francois; Wibault, Pierre

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: To report preliminary results of a very accelerated radiation therapy Phase I/II trial in locally advanced head and squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Between 01/92 and 06/93, 35 patients with an unresectable HNSCC were entered in this study. Thirty-two (91%) had Stage IV, and 3 had Stage III disease. The mean nodal diameter, in patients with clinically involved nodes (83%), was 6.3 cm. The median Karnovsky performance status was 70. The treatment consisted of a twice daily schedule (BID) giving 62 Gy in 20 days. Results: In all cases, confluent mucositis was observed, which started about day 15 and resolved within 6 to 10 weeks. Eighty percent of patients had enteral nutritional support. The nasogastric tube or gastrostomy was maintained in these patients for a mean duration of 51.8 days. Eighteen patients (53%) were hospitalized during the course of treatment due to a poor medical status or because they lived far from the center (mean 25 days). Nineteen patients (56%) (some of whom were initially in-patients) were hospitalized posttreatment for toxicity (mean 13 days). Five patients (15%) were never hospitalized. During the follow-up period, 12 local and/or regional failures were observed. The actuarial 18-month loco-regional control rate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 45-73%). Conclusions: The dramatic shortening of radiation therapy compared to conventional schedules in our series of very advanced HNSCC resulted in: (a) severe acute mucosal toxicity, which was manageable but required intensive nutritional support in all cases; and (b) high loco-regional response rates, strongly suggesting that the time factor is likely to be critical for tumor control in this type of cancer.

  17. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeev eDash

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is a common side-effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment.Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a minimum of 12 months follow-up were included in this analysis. Self-reported fatigue and other quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-SBRT.Results: Mean levels of fatigue were elevated at 1 month post-SBRT compared to baseline values (p=0.02. Fatigue at the 3-month follow-up and later were higher but not statistically significantly different compared to baseline. African-American patients reported higher fatigue post-SBRT than Caucasian patients. Fatigue was correlated with hormonal symptoms as measured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC quality of life questionnaire, but not with urinary, bowel, or sexual symptoms. Age, co-morbidities, smoking, prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, testosterone levels, and tumor stage were not associated with fatigue. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate fatigue as a side-effect of SBRT. In contrast to standard radiation therapy, results suggest SBRT-related fatigue is short-term rather than a long-term side effect of SBRT. These results also suggest post-SBRT fatigue to be a more frequent complication in African-Americans than Caucasians.

  18. Local control of murine melanoma xenografts in nude mice by neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Corderoy-Buck, S.; Moore, D.E.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development and implementation of neutron capture therapy (NCT) for the treatment of cancer. In particular, the boron analogue of the melanin precursor phenylalanine, i.e., DL-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used to demonstrate the regression and cure of Harding-Passey (HP) melanoma in syngeneic mice. However, 18 to 25% cures were obtained for neutron irradiations without boron, suggesting that the neutron dose alone plays an important role. Neutron capture therapy of B-16 melanoma xenografts in nude mice showed substantial tumor regression over 35 days, but the survival rate of NCT treated mice after 7 weeks was only 40-60%. In this paper the authors demonstrate the equivalence of the nude mouse model with a syngeneic model, using the same Harding-Passey murine melanoma line, and delineate the conditions required for maximum differential response between neutron irradiation with and without BPA administration, with complete local control as the end point

  19. Determining if pretreatment PSA doubling time predicts PSA trajectories after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Daniel E.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Pan, Charlie C.; Williams, Scott G.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To determine if pretreatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) can predict post-radiation therapy (RT) PSA trajectories for localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-five prostate cancer patients treated with external beam RT without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified with an adequate number of PSA values. We utilized a linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to model longitudinal PSA data sets after definitive treatment. Post-treatment PSA trajectories were allowed to depend on the pre-RT PSA-DT, pre-RT PSA (iPSA), Gleason score (GS), and T-stage. Results: Pre-RT PSA-DT had a borderline impact on predicting the rate of PSA rise after nadir (p = 0.08). For a typical low risk patient (T1, GS ≤ 6, iPSA 10), the predicted PSA-DT post-nadir was 21% shorter for pre-RT PSA-DT 24 month (19 month vs. 24 month). Additional significant predictors of post-RT PSA rate of rise included GS (p < 0.0001), iPSA (p < 0.0001), and T-stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We observed a trend between rapidly rising pre-RT PSA and the post-RT post-nadir PSA rise. This effect appeared to be independent of iPSA, GS, or T-stage. The results presented suggest that pretreatment PSA-DT may help predict post-RT PSA trajectories

  20. New combined therapy of radiation and local administration of OK-432 for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Minoru; Morita, Shinroku; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We devised new combination therapy of radiation and local administration of OK-432 and performed for 26 patients with esophageal cancer between March, 1987 and December, 1988 as a pilot study. The average age was 73 years. Among 26 patients, males were 20 and females were six. Patients were irradiated at the schedule of under 2 Gy/day and the dose of TDF (time, dose and fractionation factor) 100 totally. OK-432, 10KE was endoscopically administered around cancer lesion at the beginning of the radiotherapy, and two weeks later, 5KE was given in the same manner. Complete response was obtained in 20 out of 26 cases (77%) and partial response was obtained in the remaining six cases (23%). All six patients with tumor length less than five cm showed complete response. All 16 patients who could not eat food orally before treatment, became to take food enough orally after the treatment and could discharge in good condition. One year and two years survival rate of 26 patients by Kaplan Meier method were 67.4% and 47.2%, respectively. Six patients with tumor length less than five cm, are all alive without a sign of recurrence. This combination therapy will improve not only the response rate and the survival rate, but also the quality of life of patients with esophageal cancer. (author)

  1. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Local Failure After Primary Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearn, Jason W.D., E-mail: hearnj@ccf.org; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Djemil, Toufik; Stephans, Kevin L.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Local failure after definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is uncommon. We report the safety and efficacy of SBRT for salvage of local failure after previous SBRT with a biologically effective dose (BED) of ≥100 Gy{sub 10}. Methods and Materials: Using an institutional review board–approved lung SBRT registry, we identified all patients initially treated for early-stage NSCLC between August 2004 and January 2012 who received salvage SBRT for isolated local failure. Failure was defined radiographically and confirmed histologically unless contraindicated. All patients were treated on a Novalis/BrainLAB system using ExacTrac for image guidance, and received a BED of ≥100 Gy{sub 10} for each SBRT course. Tumor motion control involved a Bodyfix vacuum system for immobilization along with abdominal compression. Results: Of 436 patients treated from August 2004 through January 2012, we identified 22 patients with isolated local failure, 10 of whom received SBRT for salvage. The median length of follow-up was 13.8 months from salvage SBRT (range 5.3-43.5 months). Median tumor size was 3.4 cm (range 1.7-4.8 cm). Two of the 10 lesions were “central” by proximity to the mediastinum, but were outside the zone of the proximal bronchial tree. Since completing salvage, 3 patients are alive and without evidence of disease. A fourth patient died of medical comorbidities without recurrence 13.0 months after salvage SBRT. Two patients developed distant disease only. Four patients had local failure. Toxicity included grade 1-2 fatigue (3 patients) and grade 1-2 chest wall pain (5 patients). There was no grade 3-5 toxicity. Conclusions: Repeat SBRT with a BED of ≥100 Gy{sub 10} after local failure in patients with early-stage medically inoperable NSCLC was well tolerated in this series and may represent a viable salvage strategy in select patients with peripheral tumors ≤5 cm.

  2. Paving the Way for Heat. Local Government Policies for Developing Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johnsen Rygg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local governments play dual roles in developing renewable energy projects. They are the targets of many goals concerning energy and climate, set by national and international actors, and they are important actors in energy planning, regulation setting, and the development of infrastructure and residential areas. In this paper, I study how local governments’ technology policies affect the actual outcome of project development based on experiences from 14 local governments. Technology policies are studied from the perspective of Sørensen’s [1] four areas of concern: direct support of innovation, infrastructure, regulation (protection and standards and public engagement. I find that local governments use policy instruments within all four areas, and that the way local governments involves in the process of bioenergy development are surprisingly similar despite differences in location and size of both the local government and the project.

  3. Consistent pattern of local adaptation during an experimental heat wave in a pipefish-trematode host-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Landis

    Full Text Available Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the interaction between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle as a host and its digenean trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua. In a fully reciprocal laboratory infection experiment, pipefish from three different coastal locations were exposed to sympatric and allopatric trematode cercariae. In order to examine whether an extreme climatic event disrupts patterns of locally adapted host-parasite combinations we measured the parasite's transmission success as well as the host's adaptive and innate immune defence under control and heat wave conditions. Independent of temperature, sympatric cercariae were always more successful than allopatric ones, indicating that parasites are locally adapted to their hosts. Hosts suffered from heat stress as suggested by fewer cells of the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes compared to the same groups that were kept at 18°C. However, the proportion of the innate immune cells (monocytes was higher in the 18°C water. Contrary to our expectations, no interaction between host immune defence, parasite infectivity and temperature stress were found, nor did the pattern of local adaptation change due to increased water temperature. Thus, in this host-parasite interaction, the sympatric parasite keeps ahead of the coevolutionary dynamics across sites, even under increasing temperatures as expected under marine global warming.

  4. [A Case of Locally Advanced Thoracic Esophageal Cancer with Larynx Preservation and Curative Resection via Combined Modality Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Mitsuru; Kimura, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Osamu; Kato, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Yoko; Tanaka, Yumiko; Yasuda, Atsushi; Shinkai, Masayuki; Imano, Motohiro; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    Prognosis of locally advanced esophageal cancer is poor. The greatest prognostic factor of locally advanced esophageal cancer is a local control. We experienced a case of T4 locally advanced thoracic esophageal cancer who was successfully resected without any combined resection after multimodality therapy. A male in 75-year-old. was diagnosed with type 3 locally advanced upper thoracic esophageal cancer whose metastatic right recurrent laryngeal lymph node invaded into the trachea. Definitive chemoradiation therapy(CRT)was performed, leading to a significant shrinkage of the main tumor, but T4 lesion remained. Next, adding DCF therapy(docetaxel, CDDP and 5-FU), a relief of T4 was finally obtained. Then, salvage surgery with subtotalesophagectomy and retrosternalesophagealreconstruction with gastric tube was performed, resulting in R0 resection without any combined resection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has been alive without recurrence for 1 year after surgery. In locally advanced cancer, focusing on T4 downstaging, it is significantly important in terms of safety, curativity and organ preservation to perform surgery after a sure sign of T4 relief by multimodality therapy.

  5. Interleukin-6 responses to water immersion therapy after acute exercise heat stress: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elaine C; Watson, Greig; Casa, Douglas; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Kraemer, William; Vingren, Jakob L; Spiering, Barry A; Maresh, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    Cold-water immersion is the criterion standard for treatment of exertional heat illness. Cryotherapy and water immersion also have been explored as ergogenic or recovery aids. The kinetics of inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), during cold-water immersion have not been characterized. To characterize serum IL-6 responses to water immersion at 2 temperatures and, therefore, to initiate further research into the multidimensional benefits of immersion and the evidence-based selection of specific, optimal immersion conditions by athletic trainers. Controlled laboratory study. Human performance laboratory Patients or Other Participants: Eight college-aged men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.08 m, mass = 77.14 ± 9.77 kg, body fat = 10% ± 3%, and maximal oxygen consumption = 50.48 ± 4.75 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)). Participants were assigned randomly to receive either cold (11.70°C ± 2.02°C, n = 4) or warm (23.50°C ± 1.00°C, n = 4) water-bath conditions after exercise in the heat (temperature = 37°C, relative humidity = 52%) for 90 minutes or until volitional cessation. Whole-body cooling rates were greater in the cold water-bath condition for the first 6 minutes of water immersion, but during the 90-minute, postexercise recovery, participants in the warm and cold water-bath conditions experienced similar overall whole-body cooling. Heart rate responses were similar for both groups. Participants in the cold water-bath condition experienced an overall slight increase (30.54% ± 77.37%) in IL-6 concentration, and participants in the warm water-bath condition experienced an overall decrease (-69.76% ± 15.23%). We have provided seed evidence that cold-water immersion is related to subtle IL-6 increases from postexercise values and that warmer water-bath temperatures might dampen this increase. Further research will elucidate any anti-inflammatory benefit associated with water-immersion treatment and possible multidimensional uses of cooling

  6. Sequential and selective localized optical heating in water via on-chip dielectric nanopatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed M; Biswas, Roshni; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2017-07-24

    We study the use of nanopatterned silicon membranes to obtain optically-induced heating in water. We show that by varying the detuning between an absorptive optical resonance of the patterned membrane and an illumination laser, both the magnitude and response time of the temperature rise can be controlled. This allows for either sequential or selective heating of different patterned areas on chip. We obtain a steady-state temperature of approximately 100 °C for a 805.5nm CW laser power density of 66 µW/μm 2 and observe microbubble formation. The ability to spatially and temporally control temperature on the microscale should enable the study of heat-induced effects in a variety of chemical and biological lab-on-chip applications.

  7. Doing It Collaboratively! Addressing the Dilemmas of Designing Quantitative Effect Studies on Narrative Family Therapy in a Local Clinical Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Ditte; Jørring, Nina Tejs

    2017-01-01

    suggest that involving narrative clinicians and clients in the development of a research design in the local clinical context might be helpful in overcoming narrative skepticism and criticism towards quantitative effect research. It is our hope that this article will inspire more narrative therapists...... in a local clinical context. The article offers a detailed case description of implementing psychometric effect measurements on narrative family therapy and of creating a shared collaborative stance for researchers using quantitative effect measurements and clinicians using narrative therapy. Our findings......This article suggests an approach for addressing the dilemmas narrative therapists face, wanting to make narrative therapy accessible to people seeking help in contexts favoring evidence-based therapy. The approach is inspired by participatory action research and involves clinicians and clients...

  8. Cisplatin, hyperthermia, and radiation (trimodal therapy) in patients with locally advanced head and neck tumors: A phase I-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amichetti, M.; Graiff, C.; Fellin, G.; Pani, G.; Bolner, A.; Maluta, S.; Valdagni, R.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia is now being widely used to treat clinical malignancies, especially combined with radiotherapy and more rarely with chemotherapy. The combination of heat, radiation, and chemotherapy (trimodality) can lead to potent interaction. The present Phase I-II study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acute toxicity of a combination of cisplantin, hyperthermia, and irradiation in the treatment of superficial cervical nodal metastases from head and neck cancer. Eighteen patients with measurable neck metastases from previously untreated squamous cell head and neck tumors were entered into the trial. Therapy consisted of a conventional irradiation (total dose 70 Gy, 2 Gy five times a week) combined with a weekly administration of 20 mg/m 2 iv of cisplatin and a total of two sessions of local external microwave hyperthermia (desired temperature of 42.5 degrees C for 30 min). Feasibility of the treatment was demonstrated. Acute local toxicity was mild; no thermal blisters or ulcerations were reported and only two patients experienced local pain during hyperthermia. Cutaneous toxicity appeared greater than in previous studies with irradiation plus hyperthermia and irradiation plus cisplatin. Systematic toxicity was moderate with major toxic effects observed in three patients (World Health Organization (WHO) grade 3 anaemia). Even though it was not an aim of the study to evaluate the nodal response, they observed a complete response rate of 72.2% (95% confidence interval 51-93.4%), 16.6% of partial response and 11.1% of no change. The study confirms the feasibility of the combination of cisplantin, heat, and radiation with an acceptable toxicity profile. The trimodal therapy deserves further evaluation as a way to enhance the efficacy of irradiation in the treatment of nodal metastases from head and neck tumors. 43 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Specific heat jump at T/sub c/ of proximity effect sandwiches containing nonmagnetic localized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneeratankul, S.; Tang, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease in the transition temperature and the jump in the specific heat at T/sub c/ of proximity effect sandwiches containing nonmagnetic Anderson impurities in the normal layer are studied. The effects of the resonant scattering by the impurities are treated in the same manner as that used by Kaiser in his study of the effects of resonant scattering on the properties of bulk superconductors. Numerical calculations of the decrease in T/sub c/ and the jump in the specific heat at T/sub c/ as a function of the thickness of the normal layer are presented

  10. Finite speed heat transport in a quantum spin chain after quenched local cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Pascal; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2017-04-01

    We study the dynamics of an initially thermalized spin chain in the quantum XY-model, after sudden coupling to a heat bath of lower temperature at one end of the chain. In the semi-classical limit we see an exponential decay of the system-bath heatflux by exact solution of the reduced dynamics. In the full quantum description however, we numerically find the heatflux to reach intermediate plateaus where it is approximately constant—a phenomenon that we attribute to the finite speed of heat transport via spin waves.

  11. Local Heat Transfer and CHF for Subcooled Flow Boiling - Annual Report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    For the past decade, efforts have been growing in the development of high heat flux (HHF) components for many applications, including fusion and fission reactor components, advanced electronic components, synchrotrons and optical components, and other advanced HHF engineering applications. From a thermal prospective, work in the fusion reactor development arena has been underway in a number of areas including: (1) Plasma thermal, and electro-magnetics, and particle transport, (2) Fusion material, rheology, development, and expansion and selection; (3) High heat flux removal; and (4) Energy production and efficiency

  12. Nursing care for patients with local recurrent rectal cancer after CT-guided 125I seed implantation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Li; Wei Fan; Ren Caifeng; Tu Mingmei; Qian Guixiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the nursing care strategy for patients with local recurrent rectal cancer who has been treated with CT-guided 125 I seed implantation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with local recurrent rectal cancer received a series of nursing interventions, including comfort care and pain care. The clinical results were observed and analyzed. Results: The therapy was smoothly accomplished in all patients. The pain was remarkably relived and the anxiety was alleviated. No displacement of implanted 125 I seed occurred. Conclusion: For patients with local recurrent rectal cancer occurred after CT-guided 125 I seed implantation therapy, careful nursing can effectively relieve the pain and anxiety feeling,and the living quality can also be markedly improved. (authors)

  13. Multimodality therapy approaches, local and systemic treatment, compared with chemotherapy alone in recurrent glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Navarria, Pierina; Pessina, Federico; Ascolese, Anna Maria; D’Agostino, Giuseppe; Tomatis, Stefano; De Rose, Fiorenza; Villa, Elisa; Maggi, Giulia; Simonelli, Matteo; Clerici, Elena; Soffietti, Riccardo; Santoro, Armando; Cozzi, Luca; Bello, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Long-term local control in Glioblastoma is rarely achieved and nearly all patients relapse. In this study we evaluated the clinical effect of different treatment approaches in recurrent patients. Forty-three patients, with median age of 51 years were evaluated for salvage treatment: re-resection and/or re-irradiation plus chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone. Response was recorded using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. Hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0. Twenty-one patients underwent chemotherapy combined with local treatment, surgery and/or radiation therapy, and 22 underwent chemotherapy only. The median follow up was 7 months (range 3–28 months). The 1 and 2-years Progression Free Survival was 65 and 10 % for combined treatment and 22 and 0 % for chemotherapy alone (p < 0.01). The 1 and 2-years overall survival was 69 and 29 % for combined and 26 and 0 % for chemotherapy alone (p < 0.01). No toxicity greater than grade 2 was recorded. These data showed that in glioblastoma recurrence the combination of several approaches in a limited group of patients is more effective than a single treatment alone. This stress the importance of multimodality treatment whenever clinically feasible

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Georgetown University experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Leonard N; Lei, Siyuan; Batipps, Gerald P; Kowalczyk, Keith; Bandi, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers fewer high-dose fractions of radiation which may be radiobiologically favorable to conventional low-dose fractions commonly used for prostate cancer radiotherapy. We report our early experience using SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Patients treated with SBRT from June 2008 to May 2010 at Georgetown University Hospital for localized prostate carcinoma, with or without the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), were included in this retrospective review of data that was prospectively collected in an institutional database. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® with doses of 35 Gy or 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Biochemical control was assessed using the Phoenix definition. Toxicities were recorded and scored using the CTCAE v.3. Quality of life was assessed before and after treatment using the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12), the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaires. Late urinary symptom flare was defined as an AUA score ≥ 15 with an increase of ≥ 5 points above baseline six months after the completion of SBRT. One hundred patients (37 low-, 55 intermediate- and 8 high-risk according to the D’Amico classification) at a median age of 69 years (range, 48–90 years) received SBRT, with 11 patients receiving ADT. The median pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 6.2 ng/ml (range, 1.9-31.6 ng/ml) and the median follow-up was 2.3 years (range, 1.4-3.5 years). At 2 years, median PSA decreased to 0.49 ng/ml (range, 0.1-1.9 ng/ml). Benign PSA bounce occurred in 31% of patients. There was one biochemical failure in a high-risk patient, yielding a two-year actuarial biochemical relapse free survival of 99%. The 2-year actuarial incidence rates of GI and GU toxicity ≥ grade 2 were 1% and 31%, respectively. A median baseline AUA symptom score of 8 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p = 0.001), however returned to

  15. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: r.kumar@neu.edu [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Belz, Jodi [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Markovic, Stacey [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niedre, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  16. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Belz, Jodi; Markovic, Stacey; Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William; Niedre, Mark; Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G.; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  17. An analysis of the 'costs and effectiveness' of post-mastectomy local-regional radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.B.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Hardenbergh, P.H.; Winer, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the 'cost/effectiveness' ratio for post-mastectomy local-regional radiation therapy (LR-XRT) for patients with breast cancer. As the risk of local-regional recurrence (LRR) is related to the number of positive axillary lymph nodes, the cost/effectiveness ratio of LR-XRT was assessed for a variable number of positive axillary nodes. For overall survival (OS), the cost per additional life-year is estimated as a function of follow-up duration. Methods/Assumptions: Literature data indicate that the risk of LRR is related to the number of positive axillary nodes (e.g. Fowble, Kuske). For example, the LRR rate is ∼10% for patients with negative nodes, increasing to ∼40% for patients with ≥4 positive nodes. Such data are used to linearly relate the number of positive nodes with the risk of LRR. Additional assumptions include: RT reduces the risk of LRR by 67%; local recurrences are treated with exision/biopsy, LR-XRT and systemic chemotherapy; half of the local recurrences are controlled locally and half will require additional salvage treatment with surgery or chemotherapy. The 5, 10 and 15 yr improvements in OS provided by LR-XRT are estimated to be 3, 7, and 10%, respectively, based on the literature (Overgaard, Ragaz, Klefstrom, Rutqvist). For each year following LR-XRT, the accrued life-years gained are estimated from the published survival curves. Professional and technical charges are used as a surrogate for costs, as follows (in thousands): LR-XRT-15; evaluation of recurrence-2; biopsy plus pathology-1; resection plus pathology-7, chemotherapy-10. Results: The cost per LRR prevented with the addition of routine post-mastectomy LR-XRT is shown, as a function of the number of positive axillary nodes. The cost per additional life-year gained with LR-XRT, as a function of follow-up duration, is shown. With increasing follow-up, the cost per life-year gained decreases as the additional life-years accrue. Conclusions: The cost per LRR

  18. Disparities in the Use of Radiation Therapy in Patients With Local-Regionally Advanced Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Steve R.; Beal, Shannon H.; Chen, Steven L.; Canter, Robert J.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Chen, Allen; Bold, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is indicated for the treatment of local-regionally advanced breast cancer (BCa). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that black and Hispanic patients with local-regionally advanced BCa would receive lower rates of RT than their white counterparts. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with invasive BCa and ≥10 metastatic lymph nodes diagnosed between 1988 and 2005. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression evaluated the relationship of race/ethnicity with use of RT. Multivariate models stratified for those undergoing mastectomy or lumpectomy. Results: Entry criteria were met by 12,653 patients. Approximately half of the patients did not receive RT. Most patients were white (72%); the remainder were Hispanic (10.4%), black (10.3%), and Asian (7.3%). On univariate analysis, Hispanics (odd ratio [OR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.00) and blacks (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89) were less likely to receive RT than whites. On multivariate analysis, blacks (OR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.86) and Hispanics (OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90) were less likely than whites to receive RT. Disparities persisted for blacks (OR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85) and Hispanics (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89) who received mastectomy, but not for those who received lumpectomy. Conclusions: Many patients with local-regionally advanced BCa do not receive RT. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to receive RT. This disparity was noted predominately in patients who received mastectomy. Future efforts at improving rates of RT are warranted. Efforts at eliminating racial/ethnic disparities should focus on black and Hispanic candidates for postmastectomy RT.

  19. Local photodynamic therapy delays recurrence of equine periocular squamous cell carcinoma compared to cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Philip J; Delgado, Cherlene; Pearce, Jacqueline W; Moore, Cecil P

    2014-07-01

    (i) To report the successful treatment of 10 cases of equine periocular squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) with surgical excision and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using verteporfin. (ii) To evaluate time to first tumor recurrence between PDT-treated horses and horses treated with surgical excision and cryotherapy. A total of 24 equine PSCC cases were included: group 1 (n = 14) had excision and cryotherapy (1993–2003), group 2 (n = 10), excision and local PDT (2006–2010). Evaluated data: signalment, treatment method, tumor location, size, and time to first recurrence. Groups were compared via chi-square test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for numeric variables. Time to tumor recurrence was examined using Kaplan–Meier product-limit survival analysis. Of 24 cases, nine breeds were affected. Mean age at treatment in years: 14 (range 5–24) in group 1; 11 (range 8–18) in group 2. Median tumor size: 163 mm2 (range 20–625 mm2) in group 1; 195 mm2 (range 45–775 mm2) in group 2. Signalment, tumor laterality, and size were not significantly different between groups. Time to recurrence was significantly different between groups (Logrank test, P = 0.0006). In group 1, 11/14 horses had tumor regrowth with median time to recurrence in months: 10 (range 1–44). In group 2 (minimum follow-up of 25 months; range 25–50), no horse demonstrated tumor recurrence after one treatment with excision and PDT. This represents the first report of local PDT using verteporfin for treatment of equine PSCC. Following surgery, the likelihood of tumor recurrence was significantly reduced with local PDT compared with cryotherapy. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Influence of local noxious heat stimulation on sensory nerve activity in the feline dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, K F

    1978-05-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to develop an experimental model in which noxious heat stimulation was used to produce increased intradental sensory nerve activity in canine teeth of anesthetized cats. Two techniques were evaluated in which both the method of recording and the nature of the stimulus varied. Slow heating (approx 1 degree C/s) to 47 degree C of the tooth surface (combined with recording from electrodes in open dentinal cavities) did not produce any persistent nerve activity. Repeated periods of brief intense heating (approx 60 degrees C/s) (combined with recording from amalgam electrodes placed on cavity floors) resulted in an immediate response and an afterdischarge (phase 3) generally persisting for 20--60 min. Maximum phase 3 activity was characteristic for the individual cat and ranged from 0.2 to 50.2 imp/s. mean value 10.6 imp/s (S.D. +/- 9.2). A systematically higher phase 3 activity was recorded in lower compared to upper canine teeth (p less than 0.05). The maximum phase 3 response generally occurred after 3-8 stimulations; the median number of required stimuli was 3. Repeated brief heat stimulations combined with the closed cavity recording technique may be used as an experimental model by which the mechanisms behind increases in intradental sensory nerve activity associated with tissue damage can be studied.

  1. Lattice specific heat and local density of states of Ni-based dilute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The required perfect lattice phonons of Ni are calculated using a general 4 Th neighbour force model derived by Birge- neau et al [14], on the basis of Born Von Karman fit to the measured dispersion curves in neutron scattering experiments. A comparison of calculated and experi- mental lattice specific heat provides us an ...

  2. Locally-rotationally-symmetric Bianchi type-V cosmology with heat flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LRS) Bianchi type-V cosmological model with perfect fluid and heat flow. A general approach is introduced to solve Einstein's field equations using a law of variation for the mean Hubble parameter, which is related to average scale factor of the ...

  3. A comparison of laparoscopic and open surgery following pre-operative chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced lower rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Toru; Inomata, Masafumi; Hiratsuka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Although pre-operative chemoradiation therapy for advanced lower rectal cancer is a controversial treatment modality, it is increasingly used in combination with surgery. Few studies have considered the combination of chemoradiation therapy followed by laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced lower rectal cancer; therefore, this study aimed to assess the usefulness of this therapeutic combination. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with locally advanced lower rectal cancer treated by pre-operative chemoradiation therapy and surgery from February 2002 to November 2012 at Oita University. We divided patients into an open surgery group and a laparoscopic surgery group and evaluated various parameters by univariate and multivariate analyses. In total, 33 patients were enrolled (open surgery group, n=14; laparoscopic surgery group, n=19). Univariate analysis revealed that compared with the open surgery group, operative time was significantly longer, whereas intra-operative blood loss and intra-operative blood transfusion requirements were significantly less in the laparoscopic surgery group. There were no significant differences in post-operative complication and recurrence rates between the two groups. According to multivariate analysis, operative time and intra-operative blood loss were significant predictors of outcome in the laparoscopic surgery group. This study suggests that laparoscopic surgery after chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced lower rectal cancer is a safe procedure. Further prospective investigation of the long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery after chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced lower rectal cancer is required to confirm the advantages of laparoscopic surgery over open surgery. (author)

  4. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  5. Analysis of the effect of local heat island in Seoul using LANDSAT image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. I.; Ryu, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in the rate of industrialization due to urbanization has caused the Urban Heat Island phenomenon which means that the temperature of the city is higher than the surrounding area, and its intensity is increasing with climate change. Among the cities where heat island phenomenon occur, Seoul city has different degree of urbanization, green area ratio, energy consumption, and population density by each district unit. As a result, the strength of heat island phenomenon is also different. The average maximum temperature in each region may differ by more than 3 °, which is bigger than the suburbs in Seoul and it means that analysis of UHI effect by regional unit is needed. Therefore, this study is to extract the UHI Intensity of the regional unit of the Seoul Metropolitan City using the satellite image, analyzed the difference of intensity according to the regional unit. And do linear regression analysis with variables included in three categories(regional meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat generation, land use factors). As a result, The UHI Intensity value of the Gu unit is significantly different from the UHI Intensity distribution of the Dong unit. The variable having the greatest positive correlation with UHI Intensity was NDBI(Normalized Difference Built-up Index) which shows the distribution of urban area, and Urban area ratio also has high correlation. There was a negative correlation between mean wind speed but there was no significant correlation between population density and power consumption. The result of this study is to identify the regional difference of UHI Intensity and to identify the factors inducing heat island phenomenon. so It is expected that it will provide direction in urban thermal environment design and policy development in the future.

  6. [To the issue of local treatment in combination therapy of chronic urethritis, associated with sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrahmanov, R M; Fajzullina, E V; Abdrahmanov, A R; Haliullin, R R

    2015-12-01

    The article shows the high efficacy of the additional local use of the drug Miramistin in combination therapy of chronic urethritis, associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine, patients were assigned to the study group (n=110) treated with conventional therapy and Miramistin, and the comparison group (n=40) treated with conventional therapy only. The between-group comparison of treatment effectiveness was carried out by matching results of the etiological healing, the changes of the endoscopic picture of the urethra, and basic clinical manifestations of STI: the degree of inflammatory reaction of urethral mucous membrane, dysuria, pain and sexual syndrome.

  7. NEW DIRECTION IN LOCAL THERAPY OF OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Tsvetkova,

    2014-01-01

    decreased only with the use of the active Nanoplast forte patch (p = 0.05; ANOVA two-factor analysis, and evident decreasing of pain was marked as quickly as on the 4th day of application. Due to the therapy, morning stiffness was evidently decreased and functional activity was increased in the main group. The general state of patients in accordance with their subjective assessment (p = 0.05 and with the doctor’s opinion (p = 0.01 was improved with statistic significance. Elimination and decreasing of the dose of NSAIDs took place evidently more frequently (p = 0.007; Fisher exact criterion in the group of patients that applied active Nanoplast forte patch than in the placebo group. All patients completed the study in the active therapy group. No side effects associated with application of the Nanoplast forte patch were revealed. Due to application of the Nanoplast forte patch, 50 percent of patients eliminated or decreased the dose of previously prescribed NSAIDs, while only 25 % of patients did the same in the placebo group.Conclusion. Nanoplast forte may be recommended as an efficient and safe method of local therapy of OA of the KJ.

  8. NEW DIRECTION IN LOCAL THERAPY OF OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Tsvetkova,

    2015-01-01

    decreased only with the use of the active Nanoplast forte patch (p = 0.05; ANOVA two-factor analysis, and evident decreasing of pain was marked as quickly as on the 4th day of application. Due to the therapy, morning stiffness was evidently decreased and functional activity was increased in the main group. The general state of patients in accordance with their subjective assessment (p = 0.05 and with the doctor’s opinion (p = 0.01 was improved with statistic significance. Elimination and decreasing of the dose of NSAIDs took place evidently more frequently (p = 0.007; Fisher exact criterion in the group of patients that applied active Nanoplast forte patch than in the placebo group. All patients completed the study in the active therapy group. No side effects associated with application of the Nanoplast forte patch were revealed. Due to application of the Nanoplast forte patch, 50 percent of patients eliminated or decreased the dose of previously prescribed NSAIDs, while only 25 % of patients did the same in the placebo group.Conclusion. Nanoplast forte may be recommended as an efficient and safe method of local therapy of OA of the KJ.

  9. Study by Hall probe mapping of the trapped flux modification produced by local heating in YBCO HTS bulks for different surface/volume ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Ph; Mathieu, J-P; Mattivi, B; Fagnard, J-F; Meslin, S; Noudem, J G; Ausloos, M; Cloots, R; Vanderbemden, Ph

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this report is to compare the trapped field distribution under a local heating created at the sample edge for different sample morphologies. Hall probe mappings of the magnetic induction trapped in YBCO bulk samples maintained out of thermal equilibrium were performed on YBCO bulk single domains, YBCO single domains with regularly spaced hole arrays, and YBCO superconducting foams. The capability of heat draining was quantified by two criteria: the average induction decay and the size of the thermally affected zone caused by a local heating of the sample. Among the three investigated sample shapes, the drilled single domain displays a trapped induction which is weakly affected by the local heating while displaying a high trapped field. Finally, a simple numerical modelling of the heat flux spreading into a drilled sample is used to suggest some design rules about the hole configuration and their size

  10. Kinetic-freezing and unfreezing of local-region fluctuations in a glass structure observed by heat capacity hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2015-06-07

    Fluctuations confined to local regions in the structure of a glass are observed as the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Properties of these regions and their atomic configuration are currently studied by relaxation techniques, by electron microscopy, and by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure methods. One expects that these fluctuations (i) would kinetically freeze on cooling a glass, and the temperature coefficient of its enthalpy, dH/dT, would consequently show a gradual decrease with decrease in T, (ii) would kinetically unfreeze on heating the glass toward the glass-liquid transition temperature, T{sub g}, and dH/dT would gradually increase, and (iii) there would be a thermal hysteresis indicating the time and temperature dependence of the enthalpy. Since no such features have been found, thermodynamic consequences of these fluctuations are debated. After searching for these features in glasses of different types, we found it in one of the most stable metal alloy glasses of composition Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20}. On cooling from its T{sub g}, dH/dT decreased along a broad sigmoid-shape path as local-region fluctuations kinetically froze. On heating thereafter, dH/dT increased along a similar path as these fluctuations unfroze, and there is hysteresis in the cooling and heating paths, similar to that observed in the T{sub g}-endotherm range. After eliminating other interpretations, we conclude that local-region fluctuations seen as the JG relaxation in the non-equilibrium state of a glass contribute to its entropy, and we suggest conditions under which such fluctuations may be observed.

  11. Kinetic-freezing and unfreezing of local-region fluctuations in a glass structure observed by heat capacity hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations confined to local regions in the structure of a glass are observed as the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Properties of these regions and their atomic configuration are currently studied by relaxation techniques, by electron microscopy, and by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure methods. One expects that these fluctuations (i) would kinetically freeze on cooling a glass, and the temperature coefficient of its enthalpy, dH/dT, would consequently show a gradual decrease with decrease in T, (ii) would kinetically unfreeze on heating the glass toward the glass-liquid transition temperature, T g , and dH/dT would gradually increase, and (iii) there would be a thermal hysteresis indicating the time and temperature dependence of the enthalpy. Since no such features have been found, thermodynamic consequences of these fluctuations are debated. After searching for these features in glasses of different types, we found it in one of the most stable metal alloy glasses of composition Pd 40 Ni 10 Cu 30 P 20 . On cooling from its T g , dH/dT decreased along a broad sigmoid-shape path as local-region fluctuations kinetically froze. On heating thereafter, dH/dT increased along a similar path as these fluctuations unfroze, and there is hysteresis in the cooling and heating paths, similar to that observed in the T g -endotherm range. After eliminating other interpretations, we conclude that local-region fluctuations seen as the JG relaxation in the non-equilibrium state of a glass contribute to its entropy, and we suggest conditions under which such fluctuations may be observed

  12. Up-conversion luminescence and local heating in Er{sup 3+} doped tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Rai, S.B. [Banaras Hindu University, Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Physics Department, Varanasi, UP (India)

    2012-10-15

    The present article discusses the up-conversion and thermometric properties of Er doped tellurite glass on excitation with 976 nm laser radiation. Temperature has been measured using fluorescence intensity ratio variation, in 528/548 and 801/828 nm, with temperature. Temperature at laser focus spot has been estimated by comparing the intensity ratios at different laser powers with the intensity ratio at different temperatures when sample was heated externally. (orig.)

  13. The Effect of Contact Angle on Dynamics of Dry Spots Spreading in a Horizontal Layer of Liquid at Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equilibrium contact angle on dynamics of dry spot spreading at disruption of a horizontal water layer heated locally from the substrate was studied using the high-speed Schlieren technique. Different methods of working surface processing were applied; this allowed variations of the equilibrium contact angle from 27±6° to 74±9° without a change in thermal properties of the system. It is found out that substrate wettability significantly affects the propagation velocity of dry spot and its final size. It is also found out that the velocity of contact line propagation is higher in the areas of substrate with a higher temperature.

  14. An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M. W.

    1980-04-01

    A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

  15. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  16. The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, Jenny Y; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable

  17. Hormonal changes after localized prostate cancer treatment. Comparison between external beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Maldonado, X; Trilla, E; Salvador, C; Lorente, D; Regis, L; Cuadras, M; Carles, J; Morote, J

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on the hypothalamic pituitary axis of 120 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with RP or EBRT exclusively. 120 patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled. Ninety two patients underwent RP and 28 patients EBRT exclusively. We measured serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (T), free testosterone, and estradiol at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment completion. Patients undergoing RP were younger and presented a higher prostate volume (64.3 vs. 71.1 years, p<0.0001 and 55.1 vs. 36.5 g, p<0.0001; respectively). No differences regarding serum hormonal levels were found at baseline. Luteinizing hormone and FSH levels were significantly higher in those patients treated with EBRT at three months (luteinizing hormone 8,54 vs. 4,76 U/l, FSH 22,96 vs. 8,18 U/l, p<0,0001) while T and free testosterone levels were significantly lower (T 360,3 vs. 414,83ng/dl, p 0,039; free testosterone 5,94 vs. 7,5pg/ml, p 0,018). At 12 months FSH levels remained significantly higher in patients treated with EBRT compared to patients treated with RP (21,01 vs. 8,51 U/l, p<0,001) while T levels remained significantly lower (339,89 vs. 402,39ng/dl, p 0,03). Prostate cancer treatment influences the hypothalamic pituitary axis. This influence seems to be more important when patients with prostate cancer are treated with EBRT rather than RP. More studies are needed to elucidate the role that prostate may play as an endocrine organ. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years ± 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V 0-20Gy , V 20-40Gy , V 40-65Gy ) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V 0-20Gy , p = 0.01; V 20-40Gy , p 40-65Gy , p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location

  19. Salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia for local recurrence after radiation therapy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukielka, A.M.; Hetnal, M.; Dabrowski, T.; Walasek, T.; Brandys, P.; Reinfuss, M. [Centre of Oncology, M. Sklodowska - Curie Institute, Krakow Branch, Department of Radiotherapy, Krakow (Poland); Nahajowski, D.; Kudzia, R.; Dybek, D. [Centre of Oncology, M. Sklodowska - Curie Institute, Krakow Branch, Department of Medical Physics, Department of Radiotherapy, Krakow (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present retrospective study is to evaluate toxicity and early clinical outcomes of interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) combined with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in patients with biopsy-confirmed local recurrence of prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy. Between September 2008 and March 2013, 25 patients with local recurrence of previously irradiated prostate cancer were treated. The main eligibility criteria for salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia were biopsy confirmed local recurrence and absence of nodal and distant metastases. All patients were treated with a dose of 30 Gy in 3 fractions at 21-day intervals. We performed 62 hyperthermia procedures out of 75 planned (83 %). The aim of the hyperthermia treatment was to heat the prostate to 41-43 C for 60 min. Toxicity for the organs of the genitourinary system and rectum was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, v. 4.03). Determination of subsequent biochemical failure was based on the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/ml). The median age was 71 years (range 62-83 years), the median initial PSA level was 16.3 ng/ml (range 6.37-64 ng/ml), and the median salvage PSA level was 2.8 ng/ml (1.044-25.346 ng/ml). The median follow-up was 13 months (range 4-48 months). The combination of HDR brachytherapy and IHT was well tolerated. The most frequent complications were nocturia, weak urine stream, urinary frequency, hematuria, and urgency. Grade 2 rectal hemorrhage was observed in 1 patient. No grade 3 or higher complications were observed. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of biochemical control after salvage treatment was 74 %. The PSA in 20 patients decreased below the presalvage level, while 11 patients achieved a PSA nadir < 0.5 ng/ml. All patients are still alive. Of the 7 patients who experienced biochemical failure, bone metastases were found in 2 patients. IHT in combination

  20. Increase in protoporphyrin IX after 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy is due to local re-synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Henriëtte S.; Kruijt, Bastiaan; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angélique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2007-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence that is bleached during aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) increases again in time after treatment. In the present study we investigated if this increase in PpIX fluorescence after illumination is the result of local re-synthesis or of

  1. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdial...

  2. Local therapy in localized Ewing tumors: results of 1058 patients treated in the CESS 81, CESS 86, and EICESS 92 trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Andreas; Ahrens, Susanne; Paulussen, Michael; Kuhlen, Michaela; Koenemann, Stefan; Ruebe, Christian; Winkelmann, Winfried; Kotz, Rainer; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of different local therapy approaches on local control, event-free survival, and secondary malignancies in the CESS 81, CESS 86, and EICESS 92 trials was investigated. Methods and Materials: The data of 1058 patients with localized Ewing tumors were analyzed. Wherever feasible, a surgical local therapy approach was used. In patients with a poor histologic response or with intralesional and marginal resections, this was to be followed by radiotherapy (RT). In EICESS 92, preoperative RT was introduced for patients with expected close resection margins. Definitive RT was used in cases in which surgical resection seemed impossible. In CESS 81, vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and actinomycin D was used. In CESS 86, vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide, and actinomycin D was introduced for patients with central tumors or primaries >100 cm 3 . In CESS 92, etoposide, vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide, and actinomycin D was randomized against vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide, and actinomycin D in patients with primaries >100 cm 3 . Results: The rate of local failure was 7.5% after surgery with or without postoperative RT, and was 5.3% after preoperative and 26.3% after definitive RT (p=0.001). Event-free survival was reduced after definitive RT (p=0.0001). Irradiated patients represented a negatively selected population with unfavorable tumor sites. Definitive RT showed comparable local control to that of postoperative RT after intralesional resections. Patients with postoperative RT had improved local control after intralesional resections and in tumors with wide resection and poor histologic response compared with patients receiving surgery alone. Patients with marginal resections with or without postoperative radiotherapy showed comparable local control, yet the number of patients with good histologic response was higher in the latter treatment group (72.2% vs. 38.5%). Conclusion: Patients with resectable tumors after initial

  3. Tokamak local transport model and scaling relations under high power heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Bingren

    1997-05-01

    A simple, phenomenologically determined thermal conductivity model is suggested which will suit for L-mode and H-mode confinement analysis for high auxiliary heatings. By assuming that the central conductivity is proportional to the central temperature, the resultant energy confinement time will be automatically proportional to P tot -1/2 . The sawtooth effect, edge H-mode and central thermal barrier situations are discussed. This model can be extended to discuss the D, T burning process to greatly improve the usually used zero-dimensional POPC on analysis. (9 figs.)

  4. Two-phase flow in the localized boiling field adjacent to a heated wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, F.J.; Clausse, A.; Converti, J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment performed in a small horizontal heater immersed in refrigerant FC-72 is presented. The spatial distribution of the vapor is measured using a hot wire anemometer located over the heater, for different heat power inputs. The experimental data is analyzed using a probabilistic model to obtain information about the void fraction, bubble size and vapor velocity. A theoretical model based in conservation equations is derived which accounts for a comprehensive description of the experimental results. Moreover, a unified explanation of the interrelation between the mechanisms of nucleate boiling and boiling crisis is concluded. (Author)

  5. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  6. Self-assembled nanoformulation of methylprednisolone succinate with carboxylated block copolymer for local glucocorticoid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, Marat I; Đặng, Trinh; Petrova, Natalia V; Laikov, Alexander V; Luong, Duong; Akhmadishina, Rezeda A; Lukashkin, Andrei N; Abdullin, Timur I

    2018-04-01

    A new self-assembled formulation of methylprednisolone succinate (MPS) based on a carboxylated trifunctional block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (TBC-COOH) was developed. TBC-COOH and MPS associated spontaneously at increased concentrations in aqueous solutions to form almost monodisperse mixed micelles (TBC-COOH/MPS) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 19.6 nm, zeta potential of -27.8 mV and optimal weight ratio ∼1:6.3. Conditions for the effective formation of TBC-COOH/MPS were elucidated by comparing copolymers and glucocorticoids with different structure. The micellar structure of TBC-COOH/MPS persisted upon dilution, temperature fluctuations and interaction with blood serum components. TBC-COOH increased antiradical activity of MPS and promoted its intrinsic cytotoxicity in vitro attributed to enhanced cellular availability of the mixed micelles. Intracellular transportation and hydrolysis of MPS were analyzed using optimized liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring which showed increased level of both MPS and methylprednisolone in neuronal cells treated with the formulated glucocorticoid. Our results identify TBC-COOH/MPS as an advanced in situ prepared nanoformulation and encourage its further investigation for a potential local glucocorticoid therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict local tumor control for HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    This preclinical study examines four dosimetric quantities (light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching ratio, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx)) to predict local control rate (LCR) for 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (135, 250 and 350 J/cm2) and in-air fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) at 0.25 mg/kg HPPH and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 665 nm wavelength. A macroscopic model was used to calculate ([1O2]rx)) based on in vivo explicit dosimetry of the initial tissue oxygenation, photosensitizer concentration, and tissue optical properties. PDT dose was defined as a temporal integral of drug concentration and fluence rate (φ) at a 3 mm tumor depth. Light fluence rate was calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. The tumor volume of each mouse was tracked for 30 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were performed based on a tumor volume <=100 mm3, for four dose metrics: fluence, HPPH photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and ([1O2]rx)). The results of this study showed that ([1O2]rx)) is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR.

  8. Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Anna Lia, E-mail: alvalentini@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Gui, Benedetta [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); D' Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Mattiucci, Giancarlo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiotherapy, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Clementi, Valeria [Clinical Science Development Group, GE Healthcare, Milan (Italy); Di Molfetta, Ippolita Valentina [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi [OU Clinic Radiobiology, I.F.C.A. Florence (Italy); Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiotherapy, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To correlate results of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and time since external beam irradiation (EBRT) in patients treated with long-term hormone therapy (HT) and EBRT for locally advanced disease to verify successful treatment by documenting the achievement of metabolic atrophy (MA). Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 109 patients were consecutively enrolled. MA was assessed by choline and citrate peak area-to-noise-ratio <5:1. Cancerous metabolism (CM) was defined by choline-to-creatine ratio >1.5:1 or choline signal-to-noise-ratio >5:1. To test the strength of association between MRSI results and the time elapsed since EBRT (TEFRT), PSA levels, Gleason score (GS), and stage, logistic regression (LR) was performed. p value <0.05 was statistically significant. The patients' outcomes were verified in 2011. Results: MRSI documented MA in 84 of 109 and CM in 25 of 109 cases. LR showed that age, GS, stage, and initial and recent PSA had no significant impact on MRSI results which were significantly related to PSA values at the time of MRSI and to TEFRT. Patients were divided into three groups according to TEFRT: <1 year, 1-2 years, and >2 years. MA was detected in 54.1% of patients of group 1, 88.9% of group 2, and in 94.5% of group 3 (100% when PSA nadir was reached). CM was detected in 50% of patients with reached PSA nadir in group 1. Local relapse was found in 3 patients previously showing CM at long TEFRT. Conclusion: MA detection, indicative of successful treatment because growth of normal or abnormal cells cannot occur without metabolism, increases with decreasing PSA levels and increasing time on HT after EBRT. This supports long-term HT in advanced prostate cancer. Larger study series are needed to assess whether MRSI could predict local relapse by detecting CM at long TEFRT.

  9. SU-E-J-259: Quantification of Rotational Localization Offset in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y; Nguyen, N; Lee, S; Liu, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the necessity of 6D localization detection and correction in radiation therapy. Methods: An anthropomorphic head and neck phantom was used to test the BrainLab ExacTrac x-ray imaging system. After initial positioning, both ExacTrac and the on-board kV CBCT were used to detect the offset at the same position, using both manual and automatic registration algorithms. Then 6D offset including rotational errors up to 5 degree were introduced. Both ExacTrac and CBCT were used to correct the offsets and the residual errors were evaluated. Finally, 6D offset detected by ExacTrac for a C-Spine patient was reported. Results: The differences in 3D offset detected by ExacTrac and CBCT were 1.5 ± 1.2(Lateral), 2.7 ± 2.7(Vertical), and 4.0 ± 6.3(longitudinal) mm with manual registration while the corresponding differences decreased to 0.6 ± 0.3, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 0.3 ± 0.3 when automatic registration were used. CBCT corrected the translational offset to within 0.5 mm but the rotational errors remained and detected by the ExacTrac system (Yaw=2.1, Roll=1.1, Pitch=1.4 degree). When similar offset was introduced and corrected using ExacTrac, the residual error detected by both CBCT and ExacTrac were within 0.5 mm / 0.5 degree. The average offset from the 112 ExacTrac x-ray corrections for the C-Spine patient was 0.6 ± 1.6 (lateral), 5.4 ± 8(vertical), 1.6±1.1(longitudinal) mm, and 0.7 ± 0.6 (pitch), 0.7 ± 0.4(roll), 1.2 ± 0.7 (yaw) degree. Larger rotational errors, with a maximum of 2.7 degree (corresponds to about 1.5 to 4.5 mm offset for a POI 10 to 30 cm away from the isocenter), were observed when couch rotational were involved. Conclusion: Rotational errors are common in patient localization, especially when couch rotation is involved. Both appropriate imaging system and 6D robotic couch are necessary to detect and correct the rotational localization errors

  10. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Jayant Sastri [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Simpson, Rand [Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsang@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses

  11. Measurement of feline cytokines interleukin-12 and interferon- g produced by heat inducible gene therapy adenoviral vector using real time PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, F.; Avery, P.R.; Ullrich, R.L.; LaRue, S.M.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Li, C.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Biologic tumor therapy using Interleukin-12 (IL-12) has shown promise as an adjuvant to radiation therapy. The goals for cancer gene immunotherapy include effective eradication of established tumors and generation of a lasting systemic immune response. Among the cytokines, IL-12 has been found to be most effective gene in eradicating experimental tumors, preventing the development of metastases, and eliciting long-term antitumor immunity. Depending on the tumor model, IL-12 can exert antitumor activities via T cells, NK cells or NKT cells. It induces the production of IFN-g and IFN-inducible protein-10. It is also postulated to have antiangiogenic effects, thus inhibiting tumor formation and metastases. However, its use in clinical trials has been restricted largely owing to its systemic hematologic and hepatotoxicity. We tested the efficacy of adenovirus mediated expression of feline IL-12 gene placed under the control of an inducible promoter, the heat shock proteins (hsp70B). This places gene expression under the control of an external physical agent (hyperthermia), thus offering an 'on-off' switch and potentially reducing systemic toxicity by restricting its expression locally to the tumor. Crandell Feline Kidney (CrFK) cells were infected using the construct and the supernatant was then used to stimulate production of interferon g (IFN-g) in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). As there is no commercially available ELISA kit currently available to detect or measure feline cytokines, we used real time-PCR to measure cytokine mRNA. These results will be used to initiate a clinical trial in cats with soft tissue sarcomas examining hyperthermia Induced gene therapy in conjunction with radiation therapy. The real time- PCR techniques developed here will be used to quantitatively measure cytokine mRNA levels in the punch biopsy samples obtained from the cats during the clinical trial. Support for this study was in part by NCI grant CA72745

  12. On development of analytical closure relationships for local wall friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients for sub-channel codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornienko, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose has been to describe an approach suggested for constructing generalized closure relationships for local and subchannel wall friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients, with not only axial and transversal parameters taken into account, but azimuthal substance transfer effects as well. These constitutive relations that are primary for description of one- and two-phase one-dimensional flow models can be derived from the initial 3-D drift flux formulation. The approach is based on the Reynolds flux, boundary layer and generalized coefficient of substance transfer. One more task has been to illustrate the validity of the 'conformity principle' for the limiting cases. The method proposed is based on the similarity theory, boundary layer model, and a phenomenological description of the regularities of the substance transfer (momentum, heat, and mass), as well as on an adequate simulation of the forms of flow structure by a generalized approach to build (an integrated in form and semi-empirical in maintenance structure) analytical relationships for wall friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients. (author)

  13. TRACE assessment on local condensation heat transfer in presence of non-condensable gas inside a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kap; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    TRACE assessment was performed to investigate local condensation heat transfer coefficients in the presence of a noncondensable gas inside a vertical tube. The data obtained from pure steam and steam/nitrogen mixture condensation experiments were compared to study the effects of noncondensable nitrogen gas on the annular film condensation phenomena. The condenser tube had a small inner diameter of 13mm (about 1/2-in.) and this experiment had been performed to prove the effectiveness of the a Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), which is a small modular integral-type pressurized water reactor that is developed for the dual purposes of seawater desalination and small-scaled power generation. In the case of nitrogen presence, TRACE results show the converged results but the prediction is different from experimental data. The candidate reasons can be focused on several models, such as the film thickness calculation, surface area, and condensation heat transfer correlations, etc. In the case of pure steam condensation case, TRACE results shows large oscillations and do not converge. This should be investigated in detail to identify the reason. Until now, the oscillation in thermal hydraulic parameters results from the film thickness calculation and surface area calculation. For future works, the whole sets of the experiment will be assessed and the improvement of TRACE will be performed.

  14. TRACE assessment on local condensation heat transfer in presence of non-condensable gas inside a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kap; Kim, Hho Jung

    2009-01-01

    TRACE assessment was performed to investigate local condensation heat transfer coefficients in the presence of a noncondensable gas inside a vertical tube. The data obtained from pure steam and steam/nitrogen mixture condensation experiments were compared to study the effects of noncondensable nitrogen gas on the annular film condensation phenomena. The condenser tube had a small inner diameter of 13mm (about 1/2-in.) and this experiment had been performed to prove the effectiveness of the a Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), which is a small modular integral-type pressurized water reactor that is developed for the dual purposes of seawater desalination and small-scaled power generation. In the case of nitrogen presence, TRACE results show the converged results but the prediction is different from experimental data. The candidate reasons can be focused on several models, such as the film thickness calculation, surface area, and condensation heat transfer correlations, etc. In the case of pure steam condensation case, TRACE results shows large oscillations and do not converge. This should be investigated in detail to identify the reason. Until now, the oscillation in thermal hydraulic parameters results from the film thickness calculation and surface area calculation. For future works, the whole sets of the experiment will be assessed and the improvement of TRACE will be performed

  15. Developing natural convection in a fluid layer with localized heating and large viscosity variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.; Chu, Tze Yao.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments are used to elucidate aspects of transient natural convection in a magma chamber. The magma chamber is modeled as a horizontal fluid layer confined within an enclosure of square planform and heated from below by a strip heater centered on the lower boundary of the enclosure. The width of the strip heater and the depth of the fluid layer are one-fourth of the layer width. Corn syrup is used as the working fluid in order to approximate the large viscosity variation with temperature and the large Prandtl number typical of magma. The quiescent, uniform, fluid layer is subjected to instantaneous heating from the strip heater producing a transient flow which is dominated by two counter-rotating convective cells. Experimentally determined characteristics of the developing flow are compared with numerical simulations carried out with a finite element computer program. The results of numerical simulations are in essential agreement with experimental data. Differences between the numerical simulations and experimental measurements are conjectured to result from non-ideal effects present in the experiment which are difficult to represent accurately in a numerical simulation.

  16. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  17. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W F; Zhang, C J; Lai, D D; Wang, F M; Kuklane, K

    2016-01-13

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  18. 78 FR 24750 - Scientific Information Request Therapies for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...) approaches. b. External Beam Radiotherapy, including standard therapy and therapies designed to decrease..., learning curve)? Key Question 4 How do tumor characteristics (e.g., Gleason score, tumor volume, screen-detected vs. clinically detected tumors, and PSA levels) affect the outcomes of these therapies overall and...

  19. Numerical simulation of time fractional dual-phase-lag model of heat transfer within skin tissue during thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the thermal behavior in living biological tissues using time fractional dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer (DPLBHT) model subjected to Dirichelt boundary condition in presence of metabolic and electromagnetic heat sources during thermal therapy. We solved this bioheat transfer model using finite element Legendre wavelet Galerkin method (FELWGM) with help of block pulse function in sense of Caputo fractional order derivative. We compared the obtained results from FELWGM and exact method in a specific case, and found a high accuracy. Results are interpreted in the form of standard and anomalous cases for taking different order of time fractional DPLBHT model. The time to achieve hyperthermia position is discussed in both cases as standard and time fractional order derivative. The success of thermal therapy in the treatment of metastatic cancerous cell depends on time fractional order derivative to precise prediction and control of temperature. The effect of variability of parameters such as time fractional derivative, lagging times, blood perfusion coefficient, metabolic heat source and transmitted power on dimensionless temperature distribution in skin tissue is discussed in detail. The physiological parameters has been estimated, corresponding to the value of fractional order derivative for hyperthermia treatment therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global and local confinement scaling laws of NBI-heated gas-puffing plasmas on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamada, H.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osakabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between global confinement scaling laws and local transport characteristics is evaluated on the Large Helical Device (LHD). Previous 'new LHD' global scaling laws are revised using the precise plasma edge definition and the recent LHD data of 4th, 5th and 6th experimental campaigns. Strong Gyro-Bohm-like feature of global confinement is reconfirmed. The magnetic field dependence and geometrical scale dependence are stronger than the conventional scaling laws. Using same database of LHD data, the radial profiles of transport coefficients are evaluated, and it is reconfirmed that the local transport in the core is Gyro-Bohm-like, and that near the boundary is strong Gyro-Bohm-like. The global confinement property is consistent with effective transport coefficient near the edge. (author)

  1. Pain Relief with Wet Cupping Therapy in Rats is Mediated by Heat Shock Protein 70 and ß-Endorphin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Subadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wet cupping therapy is a complementary therapy in pain management. The mechanism of this therapy, however, needs further elucidation. Cells injured by wet cupping therapy seem to stimulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70. Its benefit in pain reduction could be mediated by the expression of ß-endorphin. This study aimed at determining the correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin after wet cupping therapy. Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG; n=8 and treatment (TG; n=8 groups. The rats in both groups were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA at the footpad. In the TG, wet cupping therapy was done at the left and right paralumbar regions 48 hours after the CFA injection. Twenty-four hours after therapy, the hot plate test was done to assess pain threshold. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry from the skin subjected to wet cupping therapy was conducted for HSP70 and ß-endorphin. Results: The expression of HSP70 was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (20.25±3.53; P<0.001 than in the keratinocytes of the CG (10.50±2.44; P<0.001. The expression of ß-endorphin was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (22.37±3.52; P<0.001 than in the keratinocytes of the CG (5.12±1.72; P<0.001. The results also revealed a high correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin (β=0.864; P<0.001. Pain threshold after wet cupping therapy was significantly higher in the TG (22.81±6.34 s; P=0.003 than in the CG (11.78±3.56 s. Conclusions: The benefit of wet cupping therapy in terms of pain reduction in rats could be mediated by the expression of HSP70 and ß-endorphin.

  2. Risk Factors for Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlov, Anne, E-mail: anraml@rm.dk [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Erik Morre; Røhl, Lisbeth [Department of Radiotherapy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Worm, Esben [Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Fokdal, Lars; Lindegaard, Jacob Chr. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Tanderup, Kari [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after definitive chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 101 patients with LACC treated from 2008-2014. Patients received weekly cisplatin and underwent external beam radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 25 fractions (node-negative patients) or 50 Gy in 25 fractions with a simultaneous integrated boost of 60 Gy in 30 fractions (node-positive patients). Pulsed dose rate magnetic resonance imaging guided adaptive brachytherapy was given in addition. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging was performed routinely at 3 and 12 months after the end of treatment or based on clinical indication. PIF was defined as a fracture line with or without sclerotic changes in the pelvic bones. D{sub 50%} and V{sub 55Gy} were calculated for the os sacrum and jointly for the os ileum and pubis. Patient- and treatment-related factors including dose were analyzed for correlation with PIF. Results: The median follow-up period was 25 months. The median age was 50 years. In 20 patients (20%), a median of 2 PIFs (range, 1-3 PIFs) were diagnosed; half were asymptomatic. The majority of the fractures were located in the sacrum (77%). Age was a significant risk factor (P<.001), and the incidence of PIF was 4% and 37% in patients aged ≤50 years and patients aged >50 years, respectively. Sacrum D{sub 50%} was a significant risk factor in patients aged >50 years (P=.04), whereas V{sub 55Gy} of the sacrum and V{sub 55Gy} of the pelvic bones were insignificant (P=.33 and P=.18, respectively). A dose-effect curve for sacrum D{sub 50%} in patients aged >50 years showed that reduction of sacrum D{sub 50%} from 40 Gy{sub EQD2} to 35 Gy{sub EQD2} reduces PIF risk from 45% to 22%. Conclusions: PIF is common after treatment of LACC and is mainly seen in patients aged >50 years. Our data indicate that PIFs are not related to lymph node

  3. Local and systemic inflammatory and immunologic reactions to cyathostomin larvicidal therapy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Loynachan, A T; Jacobsen, S; Stewart, J C; Reinemeyer, C R; Horohov, D W

    2015-12-15

    Encysted cyathostomin larvae are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Arrested development occurs in this population and can lead to an accumulation of encysted larvae. Large numbers of tissue larvae place the horse at risk for developing larval cyathostominosis. This disease complex is caused by mass emergence of these larvae and is characterized by a generalized acute typhlocolitis and manifests itself as a profuse protein-losing watery diarrhea with a reported case-fatality rate of about 50%. Two anthelmintic formulations have a label claim for larvicidal therapy of these encysted stages; moxidectin and a five-day regimen of fenbendazole. There is limited knowledge about inflammatory and immunologic reactions to larvicidal therapy. This study was designed to evaluate blood acute phase reactants as well as gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, both locally in the large intestinal walls and systemically. Further, mucosal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically as well as analyzed for gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface proteins, and select transcription factors. Eighteen juvenile horses with naturally acquired cyathostomin infections were randomly assigned to three treatment groups; one group served as untreated controls (Group 1), one received a five-day regimen of fenbendazole (10mg/kg) (Group 2), and one group received moxidectin (0.4mg/kg) (Group 3). Horses were treated on day 0 and euthanatized on days 18-20. Serum and whole blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 18. All horses underwent necropsy with collection of tissue samples from the ventral colon and cecum. Acute phase reactants measured included serum amyloid A, iron and fibrinogen, and the cytokines evaluated included interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukins 1β, 4, 5, 6, and 10. Transcription factors evaluated were FoxP3, GATA3 and tBet, and CD markers included

  4. Trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer in the detroit metropolitan area 1973-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuba, Paul J.; Simon, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer from 1973 through 1992 among residents of the Detroit Metropolitan area. Methods and Materials: Data on surgical and radiation therapy procedures for women with local stage breast cancer were obtained from the population-based Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS). Results: Women age 75 years and older were treated less aggressively than younger women (< age 75) as evidenced by higher rates of simple mastectomy or no treatment among older women. Younger women (< age 75) were more likely to have had optimal breast conservation therapy which consisted of partial mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and radiation therapy, than were women who were older than 75. Partial mastectomy has increased proportionally from 4% of all breast cancer surgeries in the time period 1973 to 1977, to 39% of all surgeries from 1988 through 1992. Conclusion: A marked difference in surgical treatment of breast cancer exists for younger vs. older women. Despite changes in surgical treatment trends for breast cancer, a large proportion of women who are candidates for conservative therapy continue to undergo mastectomy

  5. Long-term survival of bladder preservation therapy with radiation and chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Sumio; Takase, Kazunori; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Mitsunobu; Yao, Masahiro; Hosaka, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    The prognoses and prognostic factors of the 54 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer who underwent bladder preservation therapy at Yokohama City University Hospital between 1977 and 1995 were analyzed statistically. The therapeutic modalities of bladder preservation were mainly radiation or chemotherapy. The prognosis for the patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy was worse than that for the patients who underwent total cystectomy. The prognostic factors of these patients were size and grade of tumor, presence of hydronephrosis and performance status (PS) of the patients by univariate analysis. Tumor grade was the most predictable prognostic factor using multivariate analysis. Only 17 patients survived more than 5 years after treatment; 78% of the survivors had good PS (0 or 1). Five of them died of cancer and two patients were alive with cancer. All of them had G3 tumors. These results suggest that patients with locally invasive G2 tumor could be candiates for bladder preservation therapy and patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy should be evaluated at 10 years post-therapy. (author)

  6. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  7. A Multicenter Phase II Trial of S-1 With Concurrent Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masafumi; Ioka, Tatsuya; Ito, Yoshinori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Nagase, Michitaka; Yamao, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Furuse, Junji; Sato, Keiko; Sato, Tosiya; Okusaka, Takuji

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of S-1 and concurrent radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Locally advanced PC patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma, who had no previous therapy were enrolled. Radiation therapy was delivered through 3 or more fields at a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. S-1 was administered orally at a dose of 80 mg/m 2 twice daily on the day of irradiation during radiation therapy. After a 2- to 8-week break, patients received a maintenance dose of S-1 (80 mg/m 2 /day for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day rest period) was then administered until the appearance of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary efficacy endpoint was survival, and the secondary efficacy endpoints were progression-free survival, response rate, and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) response; the safety endpoint was toxicity. Results: Of the 60 evaluable patients, 16 patients achieved a partial response (27%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-40%). The median progression-free survival period, overall survival period, and 1-year survival rate of the evaluable patients were 9.7 months (95% CI, 6.9-11.6 months), 16.2 months (95% CI, 13.5-21.3 months), and 72% (95%CI, 59%-82%), respectively. Of the 42 patients with a pretreatment serum CA19-9 level of ≥100 U/ml, 34 (81%) patients showed a decrease of greater than 50%. Leukopenia (6 patients, 10%) and anorexia (4 patients, 7%) were the major grade 3-4 toxicities with chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: The effect of S-1 with concurrent radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced PC was found to be very favorable, with only mild toxicity.

  8. A Multicenter Phase II Trial of S-1 With Concurrent Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masafumi, E-mail: masikeda@east.ncc.go.jp [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ioka, Tatsuya [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yonemoto, Naohiro [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Nagase, Michitaka [Department of Clinical Oncology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Yamao, Kenji [Department of Gastroenterology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Miyakawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Sapporo Kosei General Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ishii, Hiroshi [Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Division, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Furuse, Junji [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology School of Medicine, Kyorin University, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Keiko [Kyoto Unit Center, Japan Environment and Children' s Study, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Tosiya [Department of Biostatistics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto (Japan); Okusaka, Takuji [Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of S-1 and concurrent radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Locally advanced PC patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma, who had no previous therapy were enrolled. Radiation therapy was delivered through 3 or more fields at a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. S-1 was administered orally at a dose of 80 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily on the day of irradiation during radiation therapy. After a 2- to 8-week break, patients received a maintenance dose of S-1 (80 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day rest period) was then administered until the appearance of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary efficacy endpoint was survival, and the secondary efficacy endpoints were progression-free survival, response rate, and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) response; the safety endpoint was toxicity. Results: Of the 60 evaluable patients, 16 patients achieved a partial response (27%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-40%). The median progression-free survival period, overall survival period, and 1-year survival rate of the evaluable patients were 9.7 months (95% CI, 6.9-11.6 months), 16.2 months (95% CI, 13.5-21.3 months), and 72% (95%CI, 59%-82%), respectively. Of the 42 patients with a pretreatment serum CA19-9 level of {>=}100 U/ml, 34 (81%) patients showed a decrease of greater than 50%. Leukopenia (6 patients, 10%) and anorexia (4 patients, 7%) were the major grade 3-4 toxicities with chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: The effect of S-1 with concurrent radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced PC was found to be very favorable, with only mild toxicity.

  9. Locally Targeted Delivery of a Micron-Size Radiation Therapy Source Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Seol, Dong Rim [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Mohapatra, Sucheta [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Sunderland, John J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Schultz, Michael K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lim, Tae-Hong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel radiation therapy (RT) delivery modality: locally targeted delivery of micron-size RT sources by using temperature-sensitive hydrogel (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials: Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as the radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and 3 with RT-saline. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT scans were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL was determined by comparison with that of the control datasets by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results: RT-GEL was successfully injected into the tumor by using a 30-gauge needle. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% at 24 h (44% at 48 h, respectively) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%, respectively) for RT-saline. Fused SPECT-CT images of RT-saline showed considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2886%, 261%, and 262% of RT-GEL at 0, 24, and 48 h, respectively). Conclusions: RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity: 170% (200%, respectively), than that of RT-saline at 24 h (48 h, respectively) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the

  10. Prostate-specific antigen and radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagars, Gunar K; Pollack, Alan; Kavadi, Vivek S; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von

    1995-05-15

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to: (a) define the prognostic significance of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in localized prostate cancer treated with radiation; (b) define the prognostic usefulness of postradiation PSA levels; (c) evaluate the outcome of radiation using PSA as an endpoint. Methods and Materials: Disease outcome in 707 patients with Stages T1 (205 men), T2 (256 men), T3 (239 men), and T4 (7 men), receiving definitive external radiation as sole therapy, was evaluated using univariate and multivariate techniques. Results: At a mean follow-up of 31 months, 157 patients (22%) developed relapse or a rising PSA. Multivariate analysis revealed pretreatment PSA level to be the most significant prognostic factor, with lesser though significant contributions due to Gleason grade (2-6 vs. 7-10) and transurethral resection in (T3(T4)) disease. The following four prognostic groupings were defined: group I, PSA {<=} 4 ng/ml, any grade; group II, 4 < PSA {<=} 20, grades 2-6; group III, 4 < PSA {<=} 20, grades 7-10; group IV, PSA > 20, any grade. Five-year actuarial relapse rates in these groups were: I, 12%; II, 34%; III, 40%; and IV, 81%. Posttreatment nadir PSA was an independent determinant of outcome and only patients with nadir values < 1 ng/ml fared well (5-year relapse rate 20%). Using rising PSA as an endpoint the 461 patients with (T1(T2)) disease had an actuarial freedom from disease rate of 70% at 5 years, which appeared to plateau, suggesting that many were cured. No plateau was evident for (T3(T4)) disease. Conclusion: Pretreatment serum PSA is the single most important predictor of disease outcome after radiation for local prostate cancer. Tumor grade has a lesser though significant prognostic role. Postirradiation nadir PSA value during the first year is a sensitive indicator of response to treatment. Only nadir values < 1 ng/ml are associated with a favorable outlook. A significant fraction of men with (T1(T2

  11. Prostate-specific antigen and radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan; Kavadi, Vivek S.; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to: (a) define the prognostic significance of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in localized prostate cancer treated with radiation; (b) define the prognostic usefulness of postradiation PSA levels; (c) evaluate the outcome of radiation using PSA as an endpoint. Methods and Materials: Disease outcome in 707 patients with Stages T1 (205 men), T2 (256 men), T3 (239 men), and T4 (7 men), receiving definitive external radiation as sole therapy, was evaluated using univariate and multivariate techniques. Results: At a mean follow-up of 31 months, 157 patients (22%) developed relapse or a rising PSA. Multivariate analysis revealed pretreatment PSA level to be the most significant prognostic factor, with lesser though significant contributions due to Gleason grade (2-6 vs. 7-10) and transurethral resection in (T3(T4)) disease. The following four prognostic groupings were defined: group I, PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml, any grade; group II, 4 20, any grade. Five-year actuarial relapse rates in these groups were: I, 12%; II, 34%; III, 40%; and IV, 81%. Posttreatment nadir PSA was an independent determinant of outcome and only patients with nadir values < 1 ng/ml fared well (5-year relapse rate 20%). Using rising PSA as an endpoint the 461 patients with (T1(T2)) disease had an actuarial freedom from disease rate of 70% at 5 years, which appeared to plateau, suggesting that many were cured. No plateau was evident for (T3(T4)) disease. Conclusion: Pretreatment serum PSA is the single most important predictor of disease outcome after radiation for local prostate cancer. Tumor grade has a lesser though significant prognostic role. Postirradiation nadir PSA value during the first year is a sensitive indicator of response to treatment. Only nadir values < 1 ng/ml are associated with a favorable outlook. A significant fraction of men with (T1(T2)) disease may be cured with radiation. There was no evidence for a cured fraction among

  12. Palliation by Low-Dose Local Radiation Therapy for Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Elisa K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fung, Sharon [Department of Clinical Study Coordination and Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gospodarowicz, Mary; Hodgson, David; Wells, Woodrow; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pintile, Melania [Department of Clinical Study Coordination and Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsang@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy (total dose, 4 Gy) palliative radiation therapy (RT) regimen for treating patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in terms of response rate, response duration, and symptom relief. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted. Between 2003 and 2007, 54 patients with NHL were treated to 85 anatomical sites with a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy palliative regimen. Local response was assessed by clinical and/or radiographic data. Symptoms before and after treatment for each site treated were obtained from clinical notes in patient medical records. Median follow-up time was 1.3 years. Results: For the 54 patients, the median age at time of treatment was 71.1 years old, and 57% of them were male. Of the 85 disease sites treated, 56% of sites had indolent histology, 28% of sites were diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 13% of sites had aggressive histology, and 2% of sites were shown to have other histology. Overall response rate (ORR) was 81% (49% complete response [CR], 32% partial response [PR]). The 2-year rate for freedom from local progression was 50% (95% CI, 37%-61%). The ORR for follicular lymphoma, Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) histology was 88%, compared with a 59% rate for CLL histology (p = 0.005). While the ORR was similar for tumors of different sizes, the CR rate for patients with tumors <5 cm tended to be higher than those with tumors >10 cm (CR rate of 57% vs. 27%, respectively; p = 0.06). For the 48 sites with clearly documented symptoms at pretreatment, 92% of sites improved after low-dose RT. Conclusions: Short-course low-dose palliative radiotherapy (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) is an effective treatment that results in high response rates for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This treatment regimen provides effective symptomatic relief for tumor bulk of all sizes.

  13. USE OF LOCAL NATURAL SILICEOUS RAW MATERIAL AND WASTES FOR PRODUCTION OF HEAT-INSULATING FOAMCONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  14. Geometric validation of MV topograms for patient localization on TomoTherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Kiely, Janid P.; White, Benjamin M.; Low, Daniel A.; Qi, Sharon X.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to geometrically validate the use of mega-voltage orthogonal scout images (MV topograms) as a fast and low-dose alternative to mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) for daily patient localization on the TomoTherapy system. To achieve this, anthropomorphic head and pelvis phantoms were imaged on a 16-slice kilo-voltage computed tomography (kVCT) scanner to synthesize kilo-voltage digitally reconstructed topograms (kV-DRT) in the Tomotherapy detector geometry. MV topograms were generated for couch speeds of 1-4 cm s-1 in 1 cm s-1 increments with static gantry angles in the anterior-posterior and left-lateral directions. Phantoms were rigidly translated in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and lateral (LAT) directions to simulate potential setup errors. Image quality improvement was demonstrated by estimating the noise level in the unenhanced and enhanced MV topograms using a principle component analysis-based noise level estimation algorithm. Average noise levels for the head phantom were reduced by 2.53 HU (AP) and 0.18 HU (LAT). The pelvis phantom exhibited average noise level reduction of 1.98 HU (AP) and 0.48 HU (LAT). Mattes Mutual Information rigid registration was used to register enhanced MV topograms with corresponding kV-DRT. Registration results were compared to the known rigid displacements, which assessed the MV topogram localization’s sensitivity to daily positioning errors. Reduced noise levels in the MV topograms enhanced the registration results so that registration errors were  pairs in the context bony-anatomy based procedures such as total marrow irradiation, total body irradiation, and cranial spinal irradiation.

  15. Effect of bevacizumab combined with boron neutron capture therapy on local tumor response and lung metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASUNAGA, SHIN-ICHIRO; SAKURAI, YOSHINORI; TANO, KEIZO; TANAKA, HIROKI; SUZUKI, MINORU; KONDO, NATSUKO; NARABAYASHI, MASARU; WATANABE, TSUBASA; NAKAGAWA, YOSUKE; MARUHASHI, AKIRA; ONO, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bevacizumab on local tumor response and lung metastatic potential during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and in particular, the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously administered bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) tumor cells. The tumors were irradiated with thermal neutron beams following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)], with or without the administration of bevacizumab. This was further combined with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH, 40°C for 60 min). Immediately following the irradiation, cells from certain tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q cells and the total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days following irradiation, lung metastases were enumerated. Three days following bevacizumab administration, the sensitivity of the total tumor cell population following BPA-BNCT had increased more than that following BSH-BNCT. The combination with MTH, but not with nicotinamide, further enhanced total tumor cell population sensitivity. Regardless of the presence of a 10B-carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Regardless of irradiation, the administration of bevacizumab, as well as nicotinamide treatment, demonstrated certain potential in reducing the number of lung metastases especially in BPA-BNCT compared with BSH-BNCT. Thus, the current study revealed that BNCT combined with bevacizumab has the potential to sensitize total tumor cells and cause a reduction in the number of lung metastases to a similar level as nicotinamide. PMID:24944637

  16. Percutaneous radiation therapy for localized and generalized stages of prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Schnepper, E.; Castrup, W.

    1981-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with prostatic cancer, who underwent megavoltage therapy of the carcinoma or of its metastases, are reported. The majority of the patients had advanced disease (Stage C or D according to Flocks) when they came to be treated, and thus the general prognosis was bad. Radiation therapy, however, represents on the whole an important constituent of therapy in prostatic cancer, with regard to the practicability as well as to palliative treatment of metastases to the skeleton. (orig.) [de

  17. Patterns of failure following bone marrow transplantation for metastatic breast cancer: the role of consolidative local therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amit B.; Hartsell, William F.; Ghalie, Richard; Kaizer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the patterns of failure and the role of local therapy in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for metastatic or recurrent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1986 and November 1991, 46 patients with hormone unresponsive metastatic or recurrent breast cancer underwent high dose chemotherapy (HDC) with hematopoietic stem cell support. The most commonly used preparative regimen consisted of thiotepa (750 mg/m 2 ), cisplatin (150 mg/m 2 ), and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) followed by autologous BMT. Consolidative surgery or irradiation was considered in patients whose cancer responded to BMT and had localized sites of disease. Results: Six patients (13%) died of BMT-related complications. Of the remaining 40 patients, 22 were candidates for consolidative therapy, and 18 of those patients received consolidative irradiation (17 patients) or surgery (1 patient) to one or more sites. At median follow-up of 27 months (range, 20-78), 12 of 18 (67%) patients have continuous local control at the 22 consolidated sites (1 of 4 controlled at chest wall sites, 7 of 8 at regional nodal sites, 7 of 7 at localized bone sites, and 1 of 3 at lung/mediastinal sites). Toxicity of consolidative irradiation was mainly limited to myelosuppression in 6 of 17 patients. Two patients did not complete the consolidative local therapy, one because of hematologic toxicity and one because of rapid systemic tumor progression during treatment. Conclusion: In patients with localized areas of extravisceral metastases, consolidative irradiation is feasible with acceptable hematologic toxicity. Consolidative irradiation can result in continuous local control, especially in isolated bone metastases and in regional nodal sites; however, the advantage is less clear in patients undergoing consolidative irradiation for chest wall failures. Because distant visceral metastases still remain a major site of failure after this HDC

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of local corticosteroid injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazal, Münevver Serdaroğlu; Devrimsel, Gül

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine and compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and local corticosteroid injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients with lateral epicondylitis were randomly divided into extracorporeal shock wave therapy and steroid injection groups. Patients were evaluated using hand grip strength, visual analog scale, and short-form McGill pain questionnaire at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks post-treatment. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant increase in hand grip strength and decreases on the visual analog scale and short form McGill pain questionnaire overtime. There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of improvement in hand grip strength and on the short-form McGill pain questionnaire between groups at 4 weeks post-treatment, whereas the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group showed better results on the visual analog scale. The percentages of improvements in all 3 parameters were higher in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group than in the injection group at 12 weeks post-treatment. [Conclusion] Both the extracorporeal shock wave therapy and steroid injection were safe and effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, extracorporeal shock wave therapy demonstrated better outcomes than steroid injection at the long-term follow-up.

  19. Analysis of the spatial and temporal accuracy of heating in the prostate gland using transurethral ultrasound therapy and active MR temperature feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Tang, Kee; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Boyes, Aaron; Bronskill, Michael; Sugar, Linda; Appu, Sree; Klotz, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    A new MRI-guided therapy is being developed as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer utilizing high-intensity ultrasound energy to generate a precise region of thermal coagulation within the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the capability to produce a spatial heating pattern in the prostate that accurately matched the shape of a target region using transurethral ultrasound heating and active MR temperature feedback. Experiments were performed in a canine model (n = 9) in a 1.5 T MR imager using a prototype device comprising a single planar transducer operated under rotational control. The spatial temperature distribution, measured every 5 s with MR thermometry, was used to adjust the acoustic power and rotation rate in order to achieve a temperature of 55 0 C along the outer boundary of the target region. The results demonstrated the capability to produce accurate spatial heating patterns within the prostate gland. An average temperature of 56.2 ± 0.6 0 C was measured along the outer boundary of the target region across all experiments in this study. The average spatial error between the target boundary and the 55 0 C isotherm was 0.8 ± 0.7 mm (-0.2 to 3.2 mm), and the overall treatment time was ≤20 min for all experiments. Excellent spatial agreement was observed between the temperature information acquired with MRI and the pattern of thermal damage measured on H and E-stained tissue sections. This study demonstrates the benefit of adaptive energy delivery using active MR temperature feedback, and an excellent capability to treat precise regions within the prostate gland with this technology.

  20. Nonadiabatic effects on surfaces: Kohn anomaly, electronic damping of adsorbate vibrations, and local heating of single molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, J

    2008-01-01

    Three aspects of electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces are reviewed. One aspect is the Kohn effect, which describes an anomalous dispersion relation of surface phonons due to quasi-one-dimensional nesting of Fermi surface contours. The combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy allows us to unambiguously characterize Kohn anomaly systems. A second aspect is the nonadiabatic damping of adsorbate vibrations. Characteristic spectroscopic line shapes of vibrational modes allow us to estimate the amount of energy transfer between the vibrational mode and electron-hole pairs. Case studies of a Kohn anomaly and nonadiabatic damping are provided by the hydrogen- and deuterium-covered Mo(110) surface. As a third aspect of interaction between electrons and phonons, local heating of a C 60 molecule adsorbed on Cu(100) and in contact with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope is covered

  1. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study; Reforco local de dose em radioterapia utilizando nanoparticulas: estudo por simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: laura.emilia.fm@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras

    2014-04-15

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  2. Human hnRNP Q re-localizes to cytoplasmic granules upon PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat-shock treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, Alexandre J.C.; Bressan, G.C.; Gava, L.M.; Lanza, D.C.F.; Ramos, C.H.I; Kobarg, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated on different levels ranging from pre-mRNA processing to translation. One of the most characterized families of RNA-binding proteins is the group of hnRNPs: heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Members of this protein family play important roles in gene expression control and mRNAs metabolism. In the cytoplasm, several hnRNPs proteins are involved in RNA-related processes and they can be frequently found in two specialized structures, known as GW-bodies (GWbs), previously known as processing bodies: PBs, and stress granules, which may be formed in response to specific stimuli. GWbs have been early reported to be involved in the mRNA decay process, acting as a site of mRNA degradation. In a similar way, stress granules (SGs) have been described as cytoplasmic aggregates, which contain accumulated mRNAs in cells under stress conditions and present reduced or inhibited translation. Here, we characterized the hnRNP Q localization after different stress conditions. hnRNP Q is a predominantly nuclear protein that exhibits a modular organization and several RNA-related functions. Our data suggest that the nuclear localization of hnRNP Q might be modified after different treatments, such as: PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat shock. Under different stress conditions, hnRNP Q can fully co-localize with the endoplasmatic reticulum specific chaperone, BiP. However, under stress, this protein only co-localizes partially with the proteins: GW182 - GWbs marker protein and TIA-1 stress granule component

  3. Very Late Local Relapse of Ewing's Sarcoma of the Head and Neck treated with Aggressive Multimodal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thariat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma's relapse rarely occurs more than two years after the initial diagnosis. We report the case of a 26-year-old man with a history of Ewing's sarcoma of the left maxillary sinus at the age of 10 who presented with a very late local relapse, 16 years after the first occurrence of disease. Ultimate control was achieved after multimodal therapy including surgery, high-dose chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. This report indicates that local relapses of Ewing's sarcoma can be treated with curative intent in selected cases.

  4. Reirradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy after prior conventional fractionation radiation for locally recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Koong

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our report shows that SBRT for reirradiation of locally recurrent pancreas adenocarcinoma is a feasible option with good local control and acceptable toxicity rates, especially with a multifraction schedule.

  5. Thermal hydraulics-I. 5. Local Heat Transfer and Flow Transition in U-Tubes During a Reflux Condensation Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Won; Chu, In-Cheol

    2001-01-01

    For the safety analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) mid-loop operation, it is very important to determine the mechanisms governing heat transfer and to investigate the factors affecting the onset of flooding in steam generator U-tubes during a reflux condensation mode. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the local condensation heat transfer with and without non-condensable gases (air) and to investigate the effect of multiple U-tubes on the onset of flooding during a reflux condensation. A schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. 1. In the present study, five U-tubes with the same inner diameter of 0.0162 m are installed in a rectangular pool to simulate the geometry of the pressurized water reactor steam generator U-tubes of the Korea standard NPP (KSNPP) (Ulchin Units 3 and 4, inner diameter≅0.01692 m). One central U-tube (2.8 m high) is fully equipped with 32 thermocouples to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients (HTCs), whereas the others (i.e., two short tubes 2.5 m high and two long tubes 3.3 m high) are used to investigate the effect of multiple U-tubes on the flooding phenomena. The local heat flux through a U-tube wall was evaluated from the temperature gradient of the U-tube wall. The onset of flooding, on the other hand, was determined by measuring the change in pressure difference between the bottom and the top of the U-tubes. A total of 512 data for local condensation HTCs (108 for pure steam flow and 404 for steam-air flow conditions, respectively) have been obtained for various flow rates of steam and air under atmospheric conditions. The experimental results for a pure steam flow, in general, agree with the classical Nusselt theory, as shown in Fig. 2. At a relatively high-steam Reynolds number (i.e., >3500), however, the present data are slightly higher than the values predicted by Nusselt theory because of the influence of interfacial shear. In the case of pure steam condensation, the condensate film acts as

  6. Outcome and Toxicity of an Ifosfamide-Based Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment Protocol in Children. The Importance of Local Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murray Yule

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the survival of children with soft tissue sarcoma (STS has improved considerably, the outcome of patients with metastatic disease, and those with primary tumours of the extremities or parameningeal sites remains disappointing. We describe the clinical outcome of an ifosfamide-based regimen with local therapy directed only to children who failed to achieve a complete response to initial chemotherapy.

  7. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canyilmaz, Emine; Canyilmaz, Fatih; Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif; Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Aynaci, Osman; Yoney, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment

  8. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canyilmaz, Emine, E-mail: dremocan@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Canyilmaz, Fatih [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Yavuz Selim Bone Disease and Rehabilitation Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Uslu, Gonca Hanedan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kanuni Research and Education Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Osman [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Yoney, Adnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment.

  9. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Reduces Local Recurrence Rates in Patients With Microscopically Involved Circumferential Resection Margins After Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberda, Wijnand J.; Verhoef, Cornelis [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nuyttens, Joost J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Meerten, Esther van [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rothbarth, Joost [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Burger, Jacobus W.A., E-mail: j.burger@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is advocated by some for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have involved or narrow circumferential resection margins (CRM) after rectal surgery. This study evaluates the potentially beneficial effect of IORT on local control. Methods and Materials: All surgically treated patients with LARC treated in a tertiary referral center between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome in patients treated with IORT with a clear but narrow CRM (≤2 mm) or a microscopically involved CRM was compared with the outcome in patients who were not treated with IORT. Results: A total of 409 patients underwent resection of LARC, and 95 patients (23%) had a CRM ≤ 2 mm. Four patients were excluded from further analysis because of a macroscopically involved resection margin. In 43 patients with clear but narrow CRMs, there was no difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival of patients treated with (n=21) or without (n=22) IORT (70% vs 79%, P=.63). In 48 patients with a microscopically involved CRM, there was a significant difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival in favor of the patients treated with IORT (n=31) compared with patients treated without IORT (n=17) (84 vs 41%, P=.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that IORT was independently associated with a decreased local recurrence rate (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.86). There was no significant difference in complication rate of patients treated with or without IORT (65% vs 52%, P=.18) Conclusion: The current study suggests that IORT reduces local recurrence rates in patients with LARC with a microscopically involved CRM.

  10. Geometric validation of MV topograms for patient localization on TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Kiely, Janid P; White, Benjamin M; Low, Daniel A; Qi, Sharon X

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to geometrically validate the use of mega-voltage orthogonal scout images (MV topograms) as a fast and low-dose alternative to mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) for daily patient localization on the TomoTherapy system. To achieve this, anthropomorphic head and pelvis phantoms were imaged on a 16-slice kilo-voltage computed tomography (kVCT) scanner to synthesize kilo-voltage digitally reconstructed topograms (kV-DRT) in the Tomotherapy detector geometry. MV topograms were generated for couch speeds of 1–4 cm s −1 in 1 cm s −1 increments with static gantry angles in the anterior-posterior and left-lateral directions. Phantoms were rigidly translated in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and lateral (LAT) directions to simulate potential setup errors. Image quality improvement was demonstrated by estimating the noise level in the unenhanced and enhanced MV topograms using a principle component analysis-based noise level estimation algorithm. Average noise levels for the head phantom were reduced by 2.53 HU (AP) and 0.18 HU (LAT). The pelvis phantom exhibited average noise level reduction of 1.98 HU (AP) and 0.48 HU (LAT). Mattes Mutual Information rigid registration was used to register enhanced MV topograms with corresponding kV-DRT. Registration results were compared to the known rigid displacements, which assessed the MV topogram localization’s sensitivity to daily positioning errors. Reduced noise levels in the MV topograms enhanced the registration results so that registration errors were  <1 mm. The unenhanced head MV topograms had discrepancies  <2.1 mm and the pelvis topograms had discrepancies  <2.7 mm. Result were found to be consistent regardless of couch speed. In total, 64.7% of the head phantom MV topograms and 60.0% of the pelvis phantom MV topograms exactly measured the phantom offsets. These consistencies demonstrated the potential for daily patient positioning using MV topogram pairs

  11. Monotherapy of androgen deprivation therapy versus radical prostatectomy among veterans with localized prostate cancer: comparative effectiveness analysis of retrospective cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jinan Liu1,2, Lizheng Shi1,2,3, Oliver Sartor31Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 2Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, Tulane University, 3School of Medicine and Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, LA, USABackground: This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the comparative effectiveness of monotherapy of primary androgen deprivation therapy or radical prostatectomy.Methods: Male patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2, N0, M0 were identified in the Veterans Affairs Veterans Integrated Service Network 16 data warehouse (January 2003 to June 2006, with one-year baseline and at least three-year follow-up data (until June 2009. Patients were required to be 18–75 years old and without other recorded cancer history. The initiation of primary androgen deprivation therapy or monotherapy of radical prostatectomy within six months after the first diagnosis of prostate cancer was used as the index date. Primary androgen deprivation therapy patients were matched to the radical prostatectomy patients via propensity score, which was predicted from a logistic regression of treatment selection (primary androgen deprivation therapy versus radical prostatectomy on age, race, marital status, insurance type, cancer stage, Charlson comorbidity index, and alcohol and tobacco use. The overall survival from initiation of index treatment was then analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards model.Results: The two cohorts were well matched at baseline (all P > 0.05. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the cumulative incidence of death was 13 (10.57% among 123 primary androgen deprivation therapy patients and four (3.25% among 123 radical prostatectomy patients (P < 0.05. The overall three-year survival rate was 92.68% for primary androgen deprivation therapy and 98.37% for radical prostatectomy (P < 0.05. Patients who received primary androgen deprivation therapy had almost three times as

  12. Loss of proteostatic control as a substrate for Atrial Fibrillation; a novel target for upstream therapy by Heat Shock Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelien Amanda Marjolein Meijering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation (AF is the most common, sustained clinical tachyarrhythmia associated with significant morbidity and mortality. AF is a persistent condition with progressive structural remodeling of the atrial cardiomyocytes due to the AF itself, resulting in cellular changes commonly observed in ageing and in other heart diseases. While rhythm control by electrocardioversion or drug treatment is the treatment of choice in symptomatic AF patients, its effectiveness is still limited. Current research is directed at preventing new-onset AF by limiting the development of substrates underlying AF promotion and resembles mechanism-based therapy. Upstream therapy refers to the use of non-ion channel anti-arrhythmic drugs that modify the atrial substrate- or target-specific mechanisms of AF, with the ultimate aim to prevent the occurrence (primary prevention or recurrence of the arrhythmia following (spontaneous conversion (secondary prevention.Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones and comprise a large family of proteins involved in the protection against various forms of cellular stress. Their classical function is the conservation of proteostasis via prevention of toxic protein aggregation by binding to (partially unfolded proteins. Our recent data reveal that HSPs prevent electrical, contractile and structural remodeling of cardiomyocytes, thus attenuating the AF substrate in cellular, Drosophila melanogaster and animal experimental models. Furthermore, studies in humans suggest a protective role for HSPs against the progression from paroxysmal AF to persistent AF and in recurrence of AF. In this review, we discuss upregulation of the heat shock response system as a novel target for upstream therapy to prevent derailment of proteostasis and consequently promotion and recurrence of AF.

  13. Detection of Local Cancer Recurrence After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Physician Performance Versus Radiomic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Johnson, Carol; Louie, Alexander V.; Landis, Mark; Rodrigues, George; Chan, Ian; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Yeung, Timothy P.C.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is a guideline-specified treatment option for early-stage lung cancer. However, significant posttreatment fibrosis can occur and obfuscate the detection of local recurrence. The goal of this study was to assess physician ability to detect timely local recurrence and to compare physician performance with a radiomics tool. Methods and Materials: Posttreatment computed tomography (CT) scans (n=182) from 45 patients treated with SABR (15 with local recurrence matched to 30 with no local recurrence) were used to measure physician and radiomic performance in assessing response. Scans were individually scored by 3 thoracic radiation oncologists and 3 thoracic radiologists, all of whom were blinded to clinical outcomes. Radiomic features were extracted from the same images. Performances of the physician assessors and the radiomics signature were compared. Results: When taking into account all CT scans during the whole follow-up period, median sensitivity for physician assessment of local recurrence was 83% (range, 67%-100%), and specificity was 75% (range, 67%-87%), with only moderate interobserver agreement (κ = 0.54) and a median time to detection of recurrence of 15.5 months. When determining the early prediction of recurrence within <6 months after SABR, physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury/no recurrence, with a mean error of 35%, false positive rate (FPR) of 1%, and false negative rate (FNR) of 99%. At the same time point, a radiomic signature consisting of 5 image-appearance features demonstrated excellent discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85, classification error of 24%, FPR of 24%, and FNR of 23%. Conclusions: These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence that are not typically considered by physicians. This decision support system could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of

  14. Effect of External Boost Volume in Breast-Conserving Therapy on Local Control With Long-Term Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobsen, Jan J.; Palen, Job van der; Ong, Francisca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of boost volume (BV) in relation to margin status and tumor size on the development of local recurrence with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1995, 1,073 patients with invasive breast cancer underwent 1,101 breast-conserving therapies. Of these 1,101 BCTs, 967 were eligible for analysis. The BV was categorized into tertiles: 3 (n = 330), 66-98 cm 3 (n = 326), and >98 cm 3 (n = 311). The median follow-up was 141 months. Separate analyses were done for women ≤40 years and >40 years. Results: No significant difference in local recurrence was shown between the tertiles and the recurrence site. The 15-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 87.9% for the first tertile, 88.7% for the second, and 89% for the third. For women ≤40 years old, the corresponding 15-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 80%, 74.5%, and 69.2%. For women >40 years old, the corresponding rate was 88.7%, 89.5%, and 90.9%. At 5 years, women >40 years old had significantly more local failures in the first tertile; this difference disappeared with time. A test for trend showed significance at 5 years (p = 0.0105) for positive margins for ductal carcinoma in situ in women >40 years of age. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the size of the external BV has no major impact on local control. For women >40 years old, positive margins for ductal carcinoma in situ showed a trend with respect to BV at 5 years. The BV had no influence on local control in the case of positive margins for invasive carcinoma

  15. Detection of Local Cancer Recurrence After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Physician Performance Versus Radiomic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattonen, Sarah A. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Johnson, Carol [Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V. [Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Landis, Mark [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Rodrigues, George [Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Chan, Ian; Etemad-Rezai, Roya [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Yeung, Timothy P.C. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is a guideline-specified treatment option for early-stage lung cancer. However, significant posttreatment fibrosis can occur and obfuscate the detection of local recurrence. The goal of this study was to assess physician ability to detect timely local recurrence and to compare physician performance with a radiomics tool. Methods and Materials: Posttreatment computed tomography (CT) scans (n=182) from 45 patients treated with SABR (15 with local recurrence matched to 30 with no local recurrence) were used to measure physician and radiomic performance in assessing response. Scans were individually scored by 3 thoracic radiation oncologists and 3 thoracic radiologists, all of whom were blinded to clinical outcomes. Radiomic features were extracted from the same images. Performances of the physician assessors and the radiomics signature were compared. Results: When taking into account all CT scans during the whole follow-up period, median sensitivity for physician assessment of local recurrence was 83% (range, 67%-100%), and specificity was 75% (range, 67%-87%), with only moderate interobserver agreement (κ = 0.54) and a median time to detection of recurrence of 15.5 months. When determining the early prediction of recurrence within <6 months after SABR, physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury/no recurrence, with a mean error of 35%, false positive rate (FPR) of 1%, and false negative rate (FNR) of 99%. At the same time point, a radiomic signature consisting of 5 image-appearance features demonstrated excellent discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85, classification error of 24%, FPR of 24%, and FNR of 23%. Conclusions: These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence that are not typically considered by physicians. This decision support system could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of

  16. Preoperative 5-FU, low-dose leucovorin, and radiation therapy for locally advanced and unresectable rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.; Cohen, Alfred M.; Enker, Warren E.; Saltz, Leonard; Guillem, Jose G.; Paty, Philip B.; Kelsen, David P.; Kemeny, Nancy; Ilson, David; Bass, Joanne; Conti, John

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We report the local control and survival of two Phase I dose escalation trials of combined preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), low-dose leucovorin (LV), and radiation therapy followed by postoperative LV/5-FU for the treatment of patients with locally advanced and unresectable rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 36 patients (30 primary and 6 recurrent) received two monthly cycles of LV/5-FU (bolus daily x 5). Radiation therapy (50.40 Gy) began on day 1 in the 25 patients who received concurrent treatment and on day 8 in the 11 patients who received sequential treatment. Postoperatively, patients received a median of four monthly cycles of LV/5-FU. Results: The resectability rate with negative margins was 97%. The complete response rate was 11% pathologic and 14% clinical for a total of 25%. The 4-year actuarial disease-free survival was 67% and the overall survival was 76%. The crude local failure rate was 14% and the 4-year actuarial local failure rate was 30%. Crude local failure was lower in the four patients who had a pathologic complete response (0%) compared with those who either did not have a pathologic complete response (16%) or who had a clinical complete response (20%). Conclusion: Our preliminary data with the low-dose LV regimen reveal encouraging downstaging, local control, and survival rates. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the 5-year results. The benefit of downstaging on local control is greatest in patients who achieve a pathologic complete response

  17. Large-scale vortex structures and local heat release in lean turbulent swirling jet-flames under vortex breakdown conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Aleksei; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Markovich, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Hanjalic, Kemal

    2017-11-01

    We investigate flame-flow interactions in an atmospheric turbulent high-swirl methane/air lean jet-flame at Re from 5,000 to 10,000 and equivalence ratio below 0.75 at the conditions of vortex breakdown. The focus is on the spatial correlation between the propagation of large-scale vortex structures, including precessing vortex core, and the variations of the local heat release. The measurements are performed by planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl and formaldehyde, applied simultaneously with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique. The data are processed by the proper orthogonal decomposition. The swirl rate exceeded critical value for the vortex breakdown resulting in the formation of a processing vortex core and secondary helical vortex filaments that dominate the unsteady flow dynamics both of the non-reacting and reacting jet flows. The flame front is located in the inner mixing layer between the recirculation zone and the annular swirling jet. A pair of helical vortex structures, surrounding the flame, stretch it and cause local flame extinction before the flame is blown away. This work is supported by Russian Science Foundation (Grant No 16-19-10566).

  18. Long-term effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma ineligible for local ablation therapy or surgical resection. Stereotactic radiotherapy for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hyun; Bae, Si Hyun; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Jang, Hong Seok; Jang, Jeong Won; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew; Chung, Kyu Won

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for primary small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ineligible for local therapy or surgery. Forty-two HCC patients with tumors ≤ 100 cc and ineligible for local ablation therapy or surgical resection were treated with SBRT: 30-39 Gy with a prescription isodose range of 70-85% (median 80%) was delivered daily in three fractions. Median tumor volume was 15.4 cc (3.0-81.8) and median follow-up duration 28.7 months (8.4-49.1). Complete response (CR) for the in-field lesion was initially achieved in 59.6% and partial response (PR) in 26.2% of patients. Hepatic out-of-field progression occurred in 18 patients (42.9%) and distant metastasis developed in 12 (28.6%) patients. Overall in-field CR and overall CR were achieved in 59.6% and 33.3%, respectively. Overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 92.9% and 58.6%, respectively. In-field progression-free survival at 1 and 3 years was 72.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Patients with smaller tumor had better in-field progression-free survival and overall survival rates (<32 cc vs. ≥32 cc, P < 0.05). No major toxicity was encountered but one patient died with extrahepatic metastasis and radiation-induced hepatic failure. SBRT is a promising noninvasive-treatment for small HCC that is ineligible for local treatment or surgical resection

  19. ADMISSIBLE SPEEDS OF THE FIRST HEATING OF DESIGNS OF LINING FROM HEAT RESISTING CONCRETE WITH THE CHAMOTTE SEALER ON THE BASIS OF LOCAL SHALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Manturov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In work results of complex researches by definition of change of temperatures and thermal diffusivity factor on a thickness liner from a refractory concrete on a carborundum-chamotte-silicate- sodium composite knitting are resulted at single-sided heating depending on heating time. Results of definition of admissible speeds of heating liner in a temperature range 200-1000°С are resulted also.

  20. Cost comparison of curative therapies for localized prostate cancer in Japan. A single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    In addition to open surgery, curative therapies for prostate cancer now include endoscopic surgery and radiation therapies. Because of the expansion and subdivision of treatment methods for prostate cancer, the medical fee point schedule in Japan was revised in fiscal year 2006. We examined changes in medical income and expenditure after this revision of the medical fee system. We studied income and expenditure, after institution of the new medical fee schedule, for the five types of therapies for prostate cancer performed at our hospital: two surgical therapies (radical retropubic prostatectomy and laparoscopic prostatectomy) and three radiation therapies (three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 192 Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and 125 I low-dose-rate brachytherapy). Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was found to be associated with a profit of 199 yen per patient. Laparoscopic prostatectomy, a highly advanced medical treatment that the fee revision changed from a partially insured to an insured procedure, yielded a profit of 75672 yen per patient. However, high-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with a loss of 654016 yen per patient. Given the loss in hospital income per patient undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, the medical fee point system for this procedure should be reassessed. (author)

  1. Localizing obstructive sites with dynamic MRI and consequentially proper therapy selection for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    At present, selection of therapies for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) relies on the localizing the obstructive sites and determination of its severity by polysomnography (PSG). Many methods have been applied to localize the obstructive sites. We attempted to evaluate the morphology of upper airway during sleep with dynamic MRI, and assessed the severity of OSAHS and results of therapies in groups classified by the patterns of obstructive sites. A categorizing system was set up, by which the obstructive sites were reviewed on axial and sagittal sections and accordingly classified into four patterns: front-to-back pattern, left-to-right pattern, circular pattern and epiglottis pattern. Comparison of apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), lowest SpO2 and BMI was performed between the different patterns. The results showed that the left-to-right pattern and circular pattern had a higher AHI and lower lowest SpO2, and more cases of obesity with higher BMI were found in these two groups. We also evaluated the results of different therapies for different obstructive site patterns. Radiofrequency coblation of soft palate was found to be effective for the front-to-back pattern. Improvement was found in 67% of all the cases that received uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), while a significant postoperative improvement of AHI was confirmed in left-to-right pattern and circular pattern groups. No significant difference in the results was found between different obstructive sites or patterns when nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) was applied alone. Being completely free from CPAP (completed treatment with improvement of symptoms) was achieved in 71.4% of all the cases and 85.7% in the left-to-right pattern group who received UPPP. We conclude that an optimal treatment results could be achieved by selecting the therapies based on the severity of OSAHS and result of localizing the obstructive sites by dynamic MRI. (author)

  2. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, Thomas J.; Munsell, Mark F.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson; Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A.; Dong, Lei; Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ≥0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ≥2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ≥3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ≥2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a

  3. Numerical research of heat and mass transfer at the ignition of system “fabric – combustible liquid – oxidant” by the local energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical research was executed for macroscopic regularities determination of heat and mass transfer processes under the conditions of phase transformation and chemical reaction at the ignition of vapour coming from fabrics impregnated by typical combustible liquid into oxidant area at the local power supply. Limit conditions of heterogeneous system “fabric – combustible liquid – oxidant” ignition at the heating of single metal particle was established. Dependences of ignition delay time on temperature and rates of local power source were obtained.

  4. Activation of catalase activity by a peroxisome-localized small heat shock protein Hsp17.6CII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Li, Jing; Hao, Rong; Guo, Yan

    2017-08-20

    Plant catalases are important antioxidant enzymes and are indispensable for plant to cope with adverse environmental stresses. However, little is known how catalase activity is regulated especially at an organelle level. In this study, we identified that small heat shock protein Hsp17.6CII (AT5G12020) interacts with and activates catalases in the peroxisome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although Hsp17.6CII is classified into the cytosol-located small heat shock protein subfamily, we found that Hsp17.6CII is located in the peroxisome. Moreover, Hsp17.6CII contains a novel non-canonical peroxisome targeting signal 1 (PTS1), QKL, 16 amino acids upstream from the C-terminus. The QKL signal peptide can partially locate GFP to peroxisome, and mutations in the tripeptide lead to the abolishment of this activity. In vitro catalase activity assay and holdase activity assay showed that Hsp17.6CII increases CAT2 activity and prevents it from thermal aggregation. These results indicate that Hsp17.6CII is a peroxisome-localized catalase chaperone. Overexpression of Hsp17.6CII conferred enhanced catalase activity and tolerance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, overexpression of Hsp17.6CII in catalase-deficient mutants, nca1-3 and cat2 cat3, failed to rescue their stress-sensitive phenotypes and catalase activity, suggesting that Hsp17.6CII-mediated stress response is dependent on NCA1 and catalase activity. Overall, we identified a novel peroxisome-located catalase chaperone that is involved in plant abiotic stress resistance by activating catalase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is obesity associated with healing after non-surgical periodontal therapy? A local vs. systemic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzagac, E; Cifcibasi, E; Erdem, M G; Karabey, V; Kasali, K; Badur, S; Cintan, S

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to detect the role of obesity on the healing response to periodontal therapy in terms of serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and both serum and gingival crevicular fluid adipocytokines. Thirty patients with periodontitis with (CPO) (n = 15) and without (n = 15) obesity and 15 healthy controls were included. Serum high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CRP levels and levels of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 were evaluated before and 3 mo after initial periodontal therapy. Clinical periodontal measurements were also recorded at baseline and 3 mo. Periodontal parameters improved significantly in both periodontitis groups with or without obesity (p 0.05) and change in numbers of sites with probing depth ≥ 4 mm. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased in both groups (p > 0.05). CRP decreased significantly solely in the normal weight group. IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in gingival crevicular fluid improved significantly based on therapy in both groups (p periodontitis without obesity. Patients with CPO respond to periodontal therapy as well as the non-obese controls. This similar response is accompanied with consistent adipokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid. However, obesity affects the CRP and serum adipocytokine levels in response to therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy of locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer; A retrospective analysis of 39 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountzilas, G.; Danilidis, J.; Kosmidis, P.; Srihar, K.S.; Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Nicolaou, A.; Makrantonakis, P.; Banis, K.; Dimitriadis, A.; Sombolos, K.; Zaramboukas, T.; Themelis, C.; Vritsios, A.; Tourkantonis, A. (Ahepa Univ. Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece) Metaxa Cancer Hospital, Piraeaus (Greece) Miami School of Medicine and VA Hospital, FL (United States). Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center)

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed of 39 patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy during the last five years at our departments. There were 26 men and 13 women with median age 55 (24-75) years. Histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 6 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in the remaining 33 patients. Induction chemotherapy consisted of either regimen A (cisplating 100 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, 5-FU 1000 mg/m{sup 2} days 2-6 as continuous infusion, bleomycin 15 mg days 15 and 29 i.m., mitomycin 4 mg/m{sup 2} day 22 and hydroxyurea 1000 mg/m{sup 2} daily days 23-27) or regimen B (carboplatin 300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, 5-FU 1000 mg/m{sup 2} days 1-5 as continuous infusion and methotrexate 1.2 g/m{sup 2} day 14 with leucovorin rescue). After completion of induction chemotherapy 13 patients (33%) had complete remission (CR) and 19 (49%) partial remission (PR). The CR rate was increased after radiation therapy to 72%. Survival rates were 88% at 12 and 78% at 24 months. Median time to progression was 29.5 months. In conclusion, induction chemotherapy with a platinum-based regimen followed by radiation therapy achieved a high rate of local control. If the treatment also prolongs survival must, however, be studied by randomized trials. (orig.).

  7. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ≤3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis

  8. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, A. L.; Ploen, J.; Vogelius, I. R.

    2013-01-01

    estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination...... of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect...... of including clinical parameters in the model was examined. The radiation dose-response relationship for a specific grade of histopathologic tumor regression was parameterized in terms of the dose required for 50% response, D-50,D-i, and the normalized dose-response gradient, gamma(50,i). Results: A highly...

  9. Propensity Score Matched Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy vs Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Survival Analysis from the National Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ricco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNo direct comparisons between extreme hypofractionation and conventional fractionation have been reported in randomized trials for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The goal of this study is to use a propensity score matched (PSM analysis with the National Cancer Database (NCDB for the comparison of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT for organ confined prostate cancer.MethodsMen with localized prostate cancer treated with radiation dose ≥72 Gy for IMRT and ≥35 Gy for SBRT to the prostate only were abstracted from the NCDB. Men treated with previous surgery, brachytherapy, or proton therapy were excluded. Matching was performed to eliminate confounding variables via PSM. Simple 1–1 nearest neighbor matching resulted in a matched sample of 5,430 (2,715 in each group. Subset analyses of men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA > 10, GS = 7, and GS > 7 yielded matched samples of 1,020, 2,194, and 247, respectively.ResultsNo difference in survival was noted between IMRT and SBRT at 8 years (p = 0.65. Subset analyses of higher risk men with PSA > 10 or GS = 7 histology or GS > 7 histology revealed no difference in survival between IMRT and SBRT (p = 0.58, p = 0.68, and p = 0.62, respectively. Variables significant for survival for the matched group included: age (p < 0.0001, primary payor (p = 0.0001, Charlson/Deyo Score (p = 0.0002, PSA (p = 0.0013, Gleason score (p < 0.0001, and use of hormone therapy (p = 0.02.ConclusionUtilizing the NCDB, there is no difference in survival at 8 years comparing IMRT to SBRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Subset analysis confirmed no difference in survival even for intermediate- and high-risk patients based on Gleason Score and PSA.

  10. Severe myositis of the hip flexors after pre-operative chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florczynski, Matthew M.; Sanatani, Michael S.; Mai, Lauren; Fisher, Barbara; Moulin, Dwight E.; Cao, Jeffrey; Louie, Alexander V.; Pope, Janet E.; Leung, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The use of neoadjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma has been shown to reduce disease recurrence when combined with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. We report a case of a patient who developed a debilitating bilateral myopathy of the hip flexors after successful treatment for rectal cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such complication from radiation therapy reported in a patient with colorectal cancer. The disproportionate severity of our patient’s myopathy relative to the dose of radiation used also makes this case unique among reports of neuromuscular complications from radiation therapy. The patient is a 65-year-old male with node negative, high-grade adenocarcinoma of the rectum penetrating through the distal rectal wall. He underwent neoadjuvant concurrent pelvic radiation therapy and capecitabine-based chemotherapy, followed by abdominoperineal resection and post-operative FOLFOX chemotherapy. Five months post-completion of pelvic radiotherapy and 2 months after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, he presented with bilateral weakness of the iliopsoas muscles and severe pain radiating to the groin. The patient improved with 40 mg/d of prednisone, which was gradually tapered to 2 mg/d over 6 months, with substantial recovery of muscle strength and elimination of pain. The timing, presentation and response of our patient’s symptoms to corticosteroids are most consistent with a radiation recall reaction. Radiation recall is a phenomenon whereby previously irradiated tissue becomes vulnerable to toxicity by subsequent systemic therapy and is rarely associated with myopathies. Radiation recall should be considered a potential complication of neoadjuvant radiation therapy for rectal cancer, and for ongoing research into the optimization of treatment for these patients. Severe myopathies caused by radiation recall may be fully reversible with corticosteroid treatment

  11. Severe myositis of the hip flexors after pre-operative chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczynski, Matthew M; Sanatani, Michael S; Mai, Lauren; Fisher, Barbara; Moulin, Dwight E; Cao, Jeffrey; Louie, Alexander V; Pope, Janet E; Leung, Eric

    2016-03-22

    The use of neoadjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma has been shown to reduce disease recurrence when combined with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. We report a case of a patient who developed a debilitating bilateral myopathy of the hip flexors after successful treatment for rectal cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such complication from radiation therapy reported in a patient with colorectal cancer. The disproportionate severity of our patient's myopathy relative to the dose of radiation used also makes this case unique among reports of neuromuscular complications from radiation therapy. The patient is a 65-year-old male with node negative, high-grade adenocarcinoma of the rectum penetrating through the distal rectal wall. He underwent neoadjuvant concurrent pelvic radiation therapy and capecitabine-based chemotherapy, followed by abdominoperineal resection and post-operative FOLFOX chemotherapy. Five months post-completion of pelvic radiotherapy and 2 months after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, he presented with bilateral weakness of the iliopsoas muscles and severe pain radiating to the groin. The patient improved with 40 mg/d of prednisone, which was gradually tapered to 2 mg/d over 6 months, with substantial recovery of muscle strength and elimination of pain. The timing, presentation and response of our patient's symptoms to corticosteroids are most consistent with a radiation recall reaction. Radiation recall is a phenomenon whereby previously irradiated tissue becomes vulnerable to toxicity by subsequent systemic therapy and is rarely associated with myopathies. Radiation recall should be considered a potential complication of neoadjuvant radiation therapy for rectal cancer, and for ongoing research into the optimization of treatment for these patients. Severe myopathies caused by radiation recall may be fully reversible with corticosteroid treatment.

  12. Predictive factors of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to clarify the predictive factors correlated with esophageal stenosis within three months after radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. We enrolled 47 patients with advanced esophageal cancer with T2-4 and stage II-III who were treated with definitive radiation therapy and achieving complete response of primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2005. Esophagography was performed for all patients before treatment and within three months after completion of the radiation therapy, the esophageal stenotic ratio was evaluated. The stenotic ratio was used to define four levels of stenosis: stenosis level 1, stenotic ratio of 0-25%; 2, 25-50%; 3, 50-75%; 4, 75-100%. We then estimated the correlation between the esophageal stenosis level after radiation therapy and each of numerous factors. The numbers and total percentages of patients at each stenosis level were as follows: level 1: n=14 (30%); level 2: 8 (17%); level 3: 14 (30%); and level 4: 11 (23%). Esophageal stenosis in the case of full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. The extent of involved circumference and wall thickness of tumor region were significantly correlated with esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy (p=0.0006, p=0.005). For predicting the possibility of esophageal stenosis with tumor regression within three months in radiation therapy, the extent of involved circumference and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region may be useful. (author)

  13. A laser pointer driven microheater for precise local heating and conditional gene regulation in vivo. Microheater driven gene regulation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achermann Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue heating has been employed to study a variety of biological processes, including the study of genes that control embryonic development. Conditional regulation of gene expression is a particularly powerful approach for understanding gene function. One popular method for mis-expressing a gene of interest employs heat-inducible heat shock protein (hsp promoters. Global heat shock of hsp-promoter-containing transgenic animals induces gene expression throughout all tissues, but does not allow for spatial control. Local heating allows for spatial control of hsp-promoter-driven transgenes, but methods for local heating are cumbersome and variably effective. Results We describe a simple, highly controllable, and versatile apparatus for heating biological tissue and other materials on the micron-scale. This microheater employs micron-scale fiber optics and uses an inexpensive laser-pointer as a power source. Optical fibers can be pulled on a standard electrode puller to produce tips of varying sizes that can then be used to reliably heat 20-100 μm targets. We demonstrate precise spatiotemporal control of hsp70l:GFP transgene expression in a variety of tissue types in zebrafish embryos and larvae. We also show how this system can be employed as part of a new method for lineage tracing that would greatly facilitate the study of organogenesis and tissue regulation at any time in the life cycle. Conclusion This versatile and simple local heater has broad utility for the study of gene function and for lineage tracing. This system could be used to control hsp-driven gene expression in any organism simply by bringing the fiber optic tip in contact with the tissue of interest. Beyond these uses for the study of gene function, this device has wide-ranging utility in materials science and could easily be adapted for therapeutic purposes in humans.

  14. Management of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With Manual Therapy and Local Cryostimulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Nadia; Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Descarreaux, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adding cryostimulation to manual therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. The control group (n = 19) was treated with manual therapy consisting of soft-tissue therapy and radial head mobilizations. The experimental group (n = 18) received cryostimulation in addition to manual therapy care similar to that for the control group. Both protocols consisted of 8 treatments over a 4-week period. Outcome measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), pain-free grip strength (handheld dynamometer), and functional index (Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire). Assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Adherence and dropout rates were also considered. Both groups exhibited significant improvements in pain intensity and functional index at postintervention assessments, which were maintained at follow-up. All participants attended the prescribed number of treatments, but 27% were lost at follow-up. Minor adverse events were reported after cryostimulation in 4 cases. This study indicated that it is feasible to complete a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of adding cryostimulation to manual therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. On the basis of these preliminary data, the combination of cryostimulation and manual therapy care did not provide any additional benefits in both the short term and the long term. Manual myofascial point treatment and mobilization techniques yielded positive outcomes in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Further studies should focus on the sole therapeutic effect of cryostimulation in both patients with acute and those with chronic conditions.

  15. [Local cyclosporin A therapy of nummuli after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, T; Sundmacher, R

    1997-03-01

    Steroid therapy for persistent or recurrent nummular adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK) has little benefit because of the frequent recurrences, and mostly "offers" only serious steroid side effects. Since January 1995, we have treated different patients with nummuli after AK with topical Ciclosporin A (CSA) in an attempt to achieve at least the same symptomatic effect as with steroids, however, without side effects. Here, we report about our experiences in a very severe case with longterm treatment. The patient was sent to our clinic 4 months after AK with confluent nummuli and Descemet folds, more severe in the right than in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.05 in the right and 0.5 in the left eye. Topical CSA 2% 4 times daily was first administered only in the right eye. When after 6 weeks a reduction of nummuli was noted in the right eye, the left eye, which had not improved, was started on the same regime. Therapy was tapered and finally stopped after 12 months in the right and 10 months in the left eye, when only minor changes were left in the corneae. A prompt recurrence of nummuli in both eyes within 4 weeks forced us to resume CSA therapy. At present, both corneae are clear with full vision, and this result is stable with 1 drop of CSA daily. No side effects of CSA therapy have been noted. The disappearance of nummuli with topical CSA and even more the reappearance of nummuli after cessation of CSA therapy show that topical CSA is about as effective as topical steroids in the symptomatic treatment of non-scarred nummuli after KE without the serious steroid side effects. Topical CSA treatment of nummuli after KE is, therefore, a very recommendable alternative for the potentially dangerous steroid therapy. Generally valid data on risk of recurrences, dosage and general effectiveness could only be learned from prospective studies with large numbers of AK patients, which, however, are not available outside epidemics.

  16. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated and Proton Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthan, Anju; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Davies, Diane; Taylor, Douglas C. A.; Pawar, Vivek; Bijlani, Akash; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publicly available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Compared to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost-effective in 75% and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75% and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusion: Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  17. Comparative cost-effectiveness of stereotactic body radiation therapy versus intensity-modulated and proton radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju eParthan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer.Methods. A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publically available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both a payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results. Compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and proton beam therapy (PT, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost effective in 75%, and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75%, and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusions. Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  18. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  19. Fluid motion and heat transfer in a horizontal liquid layer heated locally from free surface; Ekimen wo kyokushoteki ni kanetsusareta suihei ekitai sonai no nagare to netsuido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T; Mitachi, K [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Yokoo, H [Babcock Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-25

    Heat transfer from a heated wire and a heated vertical plate, which were in contact with the top of liquid surface, was studied experimentally. The curve representing the heat-transfer coefficient as a function of the temperature difference between the heaters and cooled tray could be divided into four parts. The range of each part depended closely upon the size of heaters, the depth of tray and the liquid properties. The mechanism of heat transfer from the heaters in each part was discussed. The following was shown. In the first part, where the temperature difference was the smallest, the heat was mainly transferred by conduction. The heat transfer was mainly due to natural convection in the second part, and was mainly due to Marangoni convection in the fourth part. The third part could be considered a mixed convection regime. Furthermore, it was found that the transition from the second part to the third part was suppressed by the meniscus of liquid surface which contacted with the heaters. 10 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Sunil, E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chadha, Awalpreet S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Hsiang-Chun [Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results: Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P=.03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P=.05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS.

  1. WE-FG-BRA-02: Docetaxel Eluting Brachytherapy Spacers for Local Chemo-Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, J [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Kumar, R; Sridhar, S [Northeastern University & Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Makrigiorgos, G; Nguyen, P [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); D’Amico, A [Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cormack, R [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We propose an innovative combinatorial treatment strategy of Local ChemoRadiation Therapy (LCRT) using a sustained drug delivery platform in the form of a spacer to locally radio-sensitize the prostate with Docetaxel (DTX) enabling a synergistic cure with the use of lower radiation doses. These biodegradable spacers are physically similar to the inert spacers routinely used in prostate brachytherapy but are now loaded with formulations of DTX. Methods: Spacers were loaded with ∼500µg Docetaxel (DTX) for prostate cancer studies. The implants were characterized in vitro using SEM and HPLC. The release kinetic studies were carried out in buffer (pH 6.0) at 37°C. Subcutaneous PC3 tumors were xenografted in nude mice. Prostate cancer studies were done with and without radiation using SARRP at 5Gy, 10Gy, and 15Gy. Drug-loaded implants were injected once intratumorally using an 18G brachytherapy needle. Results: The release study in vitro showed a highly sustained release for multiple weeks at therapeutically relevant doses. The monotherapy with local DTX spacer showed sustained tumor inhibition compared to empty implants and an equivalent DTX dose given systemically. At 40 days, 89% survival was observed for mice treated with DTX implants compared with 0% in all other treatment groups. The combined treatment with local DTX spacer and radiation (10Gy) showed the highest degree of tumor suppression (significant tumor growth inhibition by day 90). The control mice showed continuous tumor growth and were scarified by day 56. Groups of mice treated with DTX-spacer or radiation alone showed initial tumor suppression but growth continued after day 60. A larger experiment is ongoing. Conclusion: This approach provides localized delivery of the chemotherapeutic sensitizer directly to the tumor and avoids the toxicities associated with both brachytherapy and current systemic delivery of docetaxel. Sustained release of DTX is an effective chemotherapy option alone or

  2. Fast Neutron Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Final Report of a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G. E.; Krall, J. M.; Thomas, F. J.; Russell, K. J.; Maor, M. H.; Hendrickson, F. R.; Martz, K. L.; Griffin, T. W.; Davis, L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Between June 1977 and April 1983 the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) sponsored a Phase III randomized trial investigating the use of fast neutron radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced (Stages C and D1) adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. Patients were randomized to receive either conventional photon radiation or fast neutron radiation used in a mixed-beam (neutron/photon) treatment schedule. A total of 91 analyzable patients were entered into the study, and the two patient groups were balanced with respect to the major prognostic variables. Actuarial curves are presented for local/regional control and "overall" survival. Ten-year results for clinically assessed local control are 70% for the mixed-beam group versus 58% for the photon group (p = 0.03) and for survival are 46% for the mixed-beam group versus 29% for the photon group (p = 0.04). This study suggests that a regional method of treatment can influence both local tumor control and survival in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland.

  3. External beam radiotherapy of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma. Evaluation of conformal therapy, field number and target margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennernaes, B.; Rikner, G.; Letocha, H.; Nilsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors of importance in the planning of external beam radiotherapy of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Seven patients with urogenital cancers were planned for external radiotherapy of the prostate. Four different techniques were used, viz. a 4-field box technique and four-, five- or six-field conformal therapy set-ups combined with three different margins (1-3 cm). The evaluations were based on the doses delivered to the rectum and the urinary bladder. A normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was calculated for each plan using Lyman's dose volume reduction method. The most important factors that resulted in a decrease of the dose delivered to the rectum and the bladder were the use of conformal therapy and smaller margins. Conformal therapy seemed more important for the dose distribution in the urinary bladder. Five- and six-field set-ups were not significantly better than those with four fields. NTCP calculations were in accordance with the evaluation of the dose volume histograms. To conclude, four-field conformal therapy utilizing reduced margins improves the dose distribution to the rectum and the urinary bladder in the radiotherapy of prostatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.)

  4. Targeted therapies for locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2013-12-01

    Most patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) present with advanced or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Given the low prevalence of oncogenic driver mutations in SCC, I do not routinely perform molecular testing. The times that I perform molecular testing in SCC are for patients with SCC and a light or never smoking history, adenosquamous histology, or when the histological diagnosis is not definitive. For patients with a good performance status and adequate organ function, a platinum doublet is the standard therapy, and I generally use carboplatin and gemcitabine or carboplatin and paclitaxel. In the second-line setting for patients who are chemotherapy candidates, I will use docetaxel on a weekly or every three week schedule. Erlotinib is a treatment option in the third-line setting. My preference is for patients to participate in clinical trials because the development of novel therapies for patients with SCC has been slow compared with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. Ongoing investigations into the genomics of SCC will hopefully identify driver mutations or alterations in pathways essential for oncogenesis and tumor growth and will lead to the development of targeted therapies. The complexity of the genomics of SCC will make the development of targeted therapies challenging.

  5. Postoperative radiation therapy following laser surgery in locally advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, O.; Schmidberger, H.; Christiansen, H.; Florez, R.; Hess, C.F.; Jackel, M.C.; Steiner, W.

    2002-01-01

    The results achieved with trans oral micro-surgery in advanced head and neck carcinoma with adjuvant radiotherapy are comparable to those with radical surgery. The haemoglobin level has an important role in the loco regional control and on survival. Split course radiation therapy regimen has not a place in the adjuvant situation. (author)

  6. Assessment of the efficacy of laser hyperthermia and nanoparticle-enhanced therapies by heat shock protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Fei [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ran, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Junwei [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Tumor thermotherapy is a method of cancer treatment wherein cancer cells are killed by exposing the body tissues to high temperatures. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clear understanding and assessment of the changes of the tumor area after the therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels. We used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in combination with this thermotherapy. We established a mouse model for breast cancer and randomly divided the mice into four groups: mice with SWNT-assisted thermotherapy; mice heat treated without SWNT; mice injected with SWNTs without thermotherapy; and a control group. Tumors were irradiated using a near-infrared laser with their surface temperature remaining at approximately 45 °C. We monitored the tumor body growth trend closely by daily physical measurements, immunohistochemical staining, and H and E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining by stage. Our results showed that infrared laser hyperthermia had a significant inhibitory effect on the transplanted breast tumor, with an inhibition rate of 53.09%, and also significantly reduced the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. Furthermore, we have found that protein analysis and histological analysis can be used to assess therapeutic effects effectively, presenting broad application prospects for determining the effect of different treatments on tumors. Finally, we discuss the effects of SWNT-assisted near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy on tumor growth at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels.

  7. Clinical and dosimetric results of three-dimensional image-guided and pulsed dose rate curie-therapy in locally advanced cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, R.; Gilmore, J.; Dumas, I.; Abrous-Anane, S.; Haberer, S.; Verstraet, R.; Champoudry, J.; Martinetti, F.; Morice, P.; Haie-Meller, C.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a review of data obtained between 2004 and 2009 on 130 women who had been treated by optimized pulsed-rate curie-therapy for a locally advanced cervical cancer. Results are discussed in terms of cancer stage, treatment (with or without concomitant chemotherapy), planning method (MRI, scanography), delivered doses in the clinical target volumes, surgery, relapse occurrence and localizations, global survival probability, local control, undesirable side effects, occurrence of intestine or urinary toxicity. It appears that the association of a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and optimized curie-therapy results in a good local-regional control and a low toxicity level. Short communication

  8. The impact of a focally positive resection margin on the local control in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seho; Park, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Seung-ll; Koo, Ja-Seung; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lee, Kyong-Sik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the parameters affecting positive margin and the impact of positive margin on outcomes after breast-c