WorldWideScience

Sample records for local energy loads

  1. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  2. Acoustic emission energy b-value for local damage evaluation in reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasta, Francisco; Zitto, Miguel E.; Piotrkowski, Rosa; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Suarez, Elisabet; Gallego, Antolino

    2018-03-01

    A modification of the original b-value (Gutenberg-Richter parameter) is proposed to evaluate local damage of reinforced concrete structures subjected to dynamical loads via the acoustic emission (AE) method. The modification, shortly called energy b-value, is based on the use of the true energy of the AE signals instead of its peak amplitude, traditionally used for the calculation of b-value. The proposal is physically supported by the strong correlation between the plastic strain energy dissipated by the specimen and the true energy of the AE signals released during its deformation and cracking process, previously demonstrated by the authors in several publications. AE data analysis consisted in the use of guard sensors and the Continuous Wavelet Transform in order to separate primary and secondary emissions as much as possible according to particular frequency bands. The approach has been experimentally applied to the AE signals coming from a scaled reinforced concrete frame structure, which was subjected to sequential seismic loads of incremental acceleration peak by means of a 3 × 3 m2 shaking table. For this specimen two beam-column connections-one exterior and one interior-were instrumented with wide band low frequency sensors properly attached on the structure. Evolution of the energy b-value along the loading process accompanies the evolution of the severe damage at the critical regions of the structure (beam-column connections), thus making promising its use for structural health monitoring purposes.

  3. Fracture Assessment of PEEK under Static Loading by Means of the Local Strain Energy Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Peron

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK has gained interest in many industrial applications due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent heat tolerance and high corrosion resistance. Stress concentrators such as notches and geometrical discontinuities are present in many such components necessitating the reliable assessment of notch sensitivity of PEEK in monotonic tension. Here we evaluate the applicability of the strain energy density (SED approach for the assessment of the fracture strength of experimentally tested notched geometries subject to corrosion. The fracture behavior of neat, circumferentially razor-grooved dog-bone specimens and circumferentially U-notched specimens with different notch radii can be predicted with a discrepancy lower than ±10%. Reliable predictions are shown on two previously published datasets employing both computed and published mechanical properties as inputs for the SED calculations. This report presents the first successful application of SED for PEEK as well as the successful prediction of tensile behavior in corrosive environments. This opens the road towards future applications of PEEK in fields its compliant use is of growing popularity.

  4. Nonlinear methods for load and energy forecasting in local energy systems, especially wind power and photovoltaic systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantz, H.; Ragwitz, M.

    2002-05-01

    The investigations were supported by the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Austin, Texas, the Department of Energy and Semiconductor Engineering of Oldenburg University, and Boreas Energietechnik GmbH in Dresden, Germany [de

  5. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  6. Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; SUN, BO; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on performance and operation of power systems becomes more and more pronounced. Aiming to utilize the existing power distribution infrastructure and delay its expansion, an approach that includes installation of dedica......Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on performance and operation of power systems becomes more and more pronounced. Aiming to utilize the existing power distribution infrastructure and delay its expansion, an approach that includes installation...... of dedicated flywheel energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station and compensating some of the adverse effects of high power charging is explored in this paper. Although sharing some similarities with vehicle to grid (V2G) technology, the principal advantage of this strategy is the fact that many...

  7. New model. Local financing for local energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroy, Florent

    2015-01-01

    While evoking the case of the VMH Energies company in the Poitou-Charentes region, and indicating the difference between France and Germany in terms of wind and photovoltaic energy production potential, of number of existing local companies, and of citizen-based funding, this article shows that renewable energies could put the energy production financing in France into question again, with a more important participation of local communities and of their inhabitants. The author describes how the law on energy transition makes this possible, notably with the strengthening of citizen participation. The author evokes some French local experiments and the case of Germany where this participation is already very much developed

  8. To renew local energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, Esther; Alfano, Patrick; Ballan, Etienne; Bosboeuf, Pascale; Braun, Nicolas; Budin, Jacques-Olivier; Caron, Jean-Francois; Couturier, Christian; Dantec, Ronan; Ducolombier, Alexandre; Durand, Lucas; Haeringer, Nicolas; Izard, Charlotte; Jadot, Yannick; Joos, Marine; Landel, Pierre-Antoine; Le Du, Mathieu; Lucas, Guillaume; Maya, Michel; Moisan, Marie; Peullemeulle, Justine; Pin, Pascaline; Poize, Noemie; Regnier, Yannick; Rudinger, Andreas; Saultier, Patrick; Serne, Pierre; Zeroual, Bouchr; Arevalo, Henri; Bregeon, Anne; Vauquois, Victor; Aussavy, Gregoire

    2016-08-01

    Presented as a guide, this book proposes an operational and transverse approach to local action in the field of energy. It is illustrated by many field examples which show how actors have been able to (re)gain control of the energy issue. In the first part in which they present the main issues, the authors outline that local authorities are in front line for a European energy transition, recall the French legal framework for local energy transition, describe how to address local energy self-sufficiency, and comment stakes and levers for energy transition financing. The second part deals with action. The authors there describe how to manage a local energy transition, how to act transversally, how to get citizen involved, and how to relate energy transition and local development

  9. Strength Calculation of Locally Loaded Orthotropic Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies laminated orthotropic cylindrical, conic, spherical, and toroidal shells, which are often locally loaded in the aircraft designs over small areas of their surfaces.The aim of this work is to determine stress concentration in shells versus structure of orthotropic composite material, shell form and parameters, forms of loading areas, which borders do not coincide with lines of main curvatures of shells. For this purpose, an analytical computing algorithm to estimate strength of shells in terms of stress is developed. It enables us to have solution results of the boundary value problem with a controlled error. To solve differential equations an analytical method is used. An algorithm of the boundary value problem solution is multiplicative.The main results of researches are graphs of stress concentration in the orthotropic shells versus their parameters and areas of loading lineated by circles and ellipses.Among the other works aimed at determination of stress concentration in shells, the place of this one is defined by the analytical solution of applied problems for strength estimation in terms of shell stresses of classical forms.The developed effective analytical algorithm to solve the boundary value problem and received results are useful in research and development.

  10. Local load-sharing fiber bundle model in higher dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santanu; Kjellstadli, Jonas T; Hansen, Alex

    2015-08-01

    We consider the local load-sharing fiber bundle model in one to five dimensions. Depending on the breaking threshold distribution of the fibers, there is a transition where the fracture process becomes localized. In the localized phase, the model behaves as the invasion percolation model. The difference between the local load-sharing fiber bundle model and the equal load-sharing fiber bundle model vanishes with increasing dimensionality with the characteristics of a power law.

  11. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  12. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local Markets in Abeokuta, Nigeria. I MacDonald, S Omonigho, J Erhabor, H Efijuemue. Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, ...

  13. Energy conservation prospects through electric load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shirbeeny, E H.T.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, concepts of electric load management are discussed for effective energy conservation. It is shown that the conservation program must be comprehensive to provide solutions to the problems facing the electric consumer, the electric utility and the society by reducing the rate of growth of energy consumption and power system peak demand requirements. The impact of energy management programs on electric energy conservation is examined, with emphasis on efficiency, storage, cogeneration and controls with computers.

  14. Local wall power loading variations in thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A 2 1/2-dimensional geometric model is presented that allows calculation of power loadings at various points on the first wall of a thermonuclear fusion device. Given average wall power loadings for brems-strahlung, cyclotron radiation charged particles, and neutrons, which are determined from various plasma-physics computation models, local wall heat loads are calculated by partitioning the plasma volume and surface into cells and superimposing the heating effects of the individual cells on selected first-wall differential areas. Heat loads from the entire plasma are thus determined as a function of position on the first-wall surface. Significant differences in local power loadings were found for most fusion designs, and it was therefore concluded that the effect of local power loading variations must be taken into account when calculating temperatures and heat transfer rates in fusion device first walls

  15. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  16. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  17. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy localization and molecular dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, S.; Tsironis, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    We study analytically as well as numerically the role that large-amplitude vibrations play during the process of molecular dissociation. Our model consists of a linear three-atom molecule composed of identical atoms interacting with their nearest neighbors by Morse potentials. We find a close relation between energy localization and bond breaking and evaluate numerically the corresponding reaction paths

  19. LMFBR subassembly response to local pressure loadings: an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, T.J.; Ash, J.E.; Marchertas, A.H.; Cagliostro, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the response of LMFBR-type subassemblies to local subassembly accidents caused by pressure loadings is described. Some results are presented and compared with computer calculations

  20. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  1. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Quantin, J.; Twele, J.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents european examples on the interest of the local investment, illustrated by cases studies in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. Two main points were discussed: the financial tools and the french strategy. The colloquium provided many discussions and analyzes on the possibility of significant contribution to the collective efforts in favor of the public involvement in the renewable energies development in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. LMFBR subassembly response to simulated local pressure loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, T.J.; Ash, J.E.; Marchertas, A.H.; Cagliostro, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    The structural response of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies to local accidental events is of interest in assessing the safety of such systems. Problems to be resolved include failure propagation modes from pin to pin and from subassembly to subassembly. Factors which must be considered include: (a) the geometry of the structure, (b) uncertainty of the pressure-energy source, (c) uncertainty of materials properties under reactor operating conditions, and (d) the difficulty in performing in-pile or out-of-pile experiments which would simulate the above conditions. The main effort in evaluating the subassembly response has been centered around the development of appropriate analyses based on the finite element technique. Analysis has been extended to include not only the subassembly duct structure itself, but also the fluid environment, both within subassemblies and between them. These models and codes have been devised to cover a wide range of accident loading conditions, and can treat various materials as their properties become known. The effort described here is centered mainly around an experimental effort aimed at verfying, modifying or extending the models used in treating subassembly damage propagation. To verify the finite element codes under development, a series of out-of-pile room temperature experiments has been performed on LMFBR-type subassembly ducts under various loading conditions. (Auth.)

  3. Combined Loadings and Cross-Dimensional Loadings Timeliness of Presentation of Financial Statements of Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, I.; Dharsuky, A.; Siregar, H. S.; Sadalia, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the pattern of readiness dimensional accuracy of financial statements of local government in North Sumatra with a routine pattern of two (2) months after the fiscal year ends and patterns of at least 3 (three) months after the fiscal year ends. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample used is of local government officials serving local government financial reports. Combined Analysis And Cross-Loadings Loadings are used with statistical tools WarpPLS. The results showed that there was a pattern that varies above dimensional accuracy of the financial statements of local government in North Sumatra.

  4. Failure mode and fracture behavior evaluation of pipes with local wall thinning subjected to bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seok Hwan; Nam, Ki Woo; Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture behaviors of pipes with local wall thinning are very important for the integrity of nuclear power plant. In pipes of energy plants, sometimes, the local wall thinning may result from severe Erosion-Corrosion (E/C) damage. However, the effects of local wall thinning on strength and fracture behaviors of piping system were not well studied. In this paper, the monotonic bending tests were performed of full-scale carbon steel pipes with local wall thinning. A monotonic bending load was applied to straight pipe specimens by four-point loading at ambient temperature without internal pressure. From the tests, fracture behaviors and fracture strength of locally thinned pipe were manifested systematically. The observed failure modes were divided into four types; ovalization, crack initiation/growth after ovalization, local buckling and crack initiating/growth after local buckling. Also, the strength and the allowable limit of piping system with local wall thinning were evaluated

  5. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  6. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  7. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE Energy System - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation; however, the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE Energy System consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low-enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 qnd 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability

  8. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE energy system - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation, however the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE energy system consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 and 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability. (author)

  9. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  10. Energy efficiency analysis of reconfigured distribution system for practical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated rate structure, the performance evaluation of distribution system for energy efficiency includes; loss minimization, improved power quality, loadability limit, reliability and availability of supply. Energy efficiency changes with the variation in loading pattern and the load behaviour. Further, the nature of load at each node is not explicitly of any one type rather their characteristics depend upon the node voltages. In most cases, load is assumed to be constant power (real and reactive. In this paper voltage dependent practical loads are represented with composite load model and the energy efficiency performance of distribution system for practical loads is evaluated in different configurations of 33-node system.

  11. Local load management system and intermittent power on the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project relates to the UK's obligations on renewable energy sources. The objectives were (i) to identify contractual requirements and commercial benefits of load management under the UK's Renewable Obligation and electric power trading arrangements (ii) through modelling, demonstrate the benefits of load management to major customers operating on-site wind generators; (iii) to develop a low-cost load management system incorporating communication technologies and switching devices and (iv) to identify the social and psychological aspects of load management. The demonstration of the load management system was conducted on the Findhorn Foundation's low voltage electric power distribution network and a 75kw wind turbine. The project demonstrated suitable technology for distributed load management on a grid-connected system in order to optimize the renewable energy generated on site, and the analyses identified several areas where grid-connected management can provide financial benefits. There is much scope for exploitation of commercial opportunities. The work was conducted by Econnect Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  12. Conference: photovoltaic energy - local authorities - Citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, Daniel; Witte, Sonja; Simonet, Luc; Waldmann, Lars; Fouquet, Doerte; Dupassieux, Henri; Longo, Fabio; Brunel, Arnaud; Kruppert, Andreas; Vachette, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the role of photovoltaic energy, local authorities and Citizens as pillars of the energy transition. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 100 participants exchanged views on the role of local authorities and Citizens in the implementation of the energy transition. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Solar photovoltaics, local communities and citizens - Cornerstones of the energy revolution. Franco-German viewpoints (Daniel Belon); 2 - Structure and management of the distribution system operators in Germany. efficient, innovative and reliable: Local public enterprises in Germany (Sonja Witte); 3 - Photovoltaic energy: technical challenges for power grids - A distribution network operator's (DNO) point-of-view (Luc Simonet); 4 - The sun and the grid - challenges of the energy transition (Lars Waldmann); 5 - The role of local public authorities in the networks management: legal situation in France, Germany and in the EU (Doerte Fouquet); 6 - Towards energy transition: challenges for renewable energies - Urban solar planning tools (Henri Dupassieux); 7 - The local energy supply as a municipal task - solar land-use planning in practice in Germany (Fabio Longo); 8 - Supporting and facilitating the financing of photovoltaic projects at a community level (Arnaud Brunel); 9 - Photovoltaics in the municipality VG Arzfeld (Andreas Kruppert); 10 - For the energy revolution to be a success: Invest into renewable energy. Local, controllable and renewable 'shared energy' that is grassroots (Philippe Vachette)

  13. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  14. Wind energy and local development; Eolien et developpement local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depreste, B. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France); Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Cabanes, A. [Communes du Canton de Saint Agreve, 07 (France); Puig, J.; Jochen, T. [BWE, Berlin (Germany); Gunnar boye, Olesen [Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy (Denmark); Preben, Maegaard; Bidal, J.L. [FNSEA, 75 - Paris (France); Hartmann, Ch. [Confederation Paysanne, Alsace (France); Jedliczka, M.; Quantin, J.

    2002-04-01

    This issue of Cler Info journal includes a dossier about the development of wind energy in France and in some other European countries (Spain, Germany, Denmark) and about its economical impact at the local scale. (J.S.)

  15. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N; Oefverholm, E [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  16. Danish Experience in Local Energy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sørensen, Per Alex

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the influence from public participation brings examples of local energy planning from Ærø and Samsø islands in Denmark.......The paper describes the influence from public participation brings examples of local energy planning from Ærø and Samsø islands in Denmark....

  17. Local Agenda 21 and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to examine the progress of the Local Agenda 21 (LA21) plans of local authorities relevant to renewable energy. Current UK policy and funding of renewable energy, the development of LA21 in the UK, the research methodology, and the results of a questionnaire survey are discussed. The findings of consultations with local LA21 groups, discussions of good practice examples and approaches, and final recommendations are outlined. (UK)

  18. Robust controller for synchronous generator with local load via VSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Vazquez, J. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Departamento de Electronica, Av. Revolucion No. 1500, Modulo ' ' O' ' , Apdo. Postal 44840, Guadalajara Jalisco (Mexico); Loukianov, Alexander G.; Canedo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 31-438, Plaza La Luna, C. P. 44550, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Utkin, Vadim I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio-State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1272 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to design a nonlinear observer-based excitation controller for power system comprising a single synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus with local load. The controller proposed is based on the using first singular perturbation systems concepts and then Sliding Mode Control technique combining with Block Control Principle. To reduce ''chattering'' a nonlinear observer with estimation of the mechanical torque and rotor fluxes is designed. This combined approach enables to compensate the inherent nonlinearities of the generator and to reject external disturbances. (author)

  19. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  20. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  1. Energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Tianxing; Zhao, Chuanyu; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The consequence of short-time energy shortage under extreme conditions, such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed for energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage, which includes four stages of work. First, emergency-area-centered energy network needs to be characterized, where the capacity, quantity, and availability of various energy sources are determined. Second, the energy initial situation under emergency conditions needs to be identified. Then, the energy dispatch optimization is conducted based on a developed MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) model in the third stage. Finally, the sensitivity of the minimum dispatch time with respect to uncertainty parameters is characterized by partitioning the entire space of uncertainty parameters into multiple subspaces. The efficacy of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a case study with in-depth discussions. -- Highlights: ► Address the energy network dispatch problem under emergency of local energy shortage. ► Minimize the energy restoration time for the entire energy network under emergency events. ► Develop a new MILP model and a sensitivity analysis method with respect to uncertainties.

  2. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  3. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system....

  4. Procuring load curtailment from local customers under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatović, Aleksandar; Moriarty, John; Vogrinc, Jure

    2017-08-13

    Demand side response (DSR) provides a flexible approach to managing constrained power network assets. This is valuable if future asset utilization is uncertain. However there may be uncertainty over the process of procurement of DSR from customers. In this context we combine probabilistic modelling, simulation and optimization to identify economically optimal procurement policies from heterogeneous customers local to the asset, under chance constraints on the adequacy of the procured DSR. Mathematically this gives rise to a search over permutations, and we provide an illustrative example implementation and case study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. A local energy market for electricity and hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Yunpeng; Wang, Xifan; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of distributed energy resources entails efficient market mechanisms in distribution-level networks. This paper establishes a local energy market (LEM) framework in which electricity and hydrogen are traded. Players in the LEM consist of renewable distributed generators (DGs......), loads, hydrogen vehicles (HVs), and a hydrogen storage system (HSS) operated by a HSS agent (HSSA). An iterative LEM clearing method is proposed based on the merit order principle. Players submit offers/bids with consideration of their own preferences and profiles according to the utility functions...

  6. Local agenda 21 and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This study, involving a questionnaire survey of UK local authorities, was carried out in order to examine the effectiveness of the Local Agenda 21 (LA21) in promoting the use of renewable energy, overcome barriers to the uptake of renewable energy, collect examples of good practice, and identify the possible role of the Department of Trade and Industry and other governmental programmes in meeting the needs of LA21 which was an outcome of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The background to the project, and the government's commitment to increasing the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources are discussed along with the setting up of LA21, and key areas where local authorities can help contribute towards LA21. The funding of the study and examples of good practice are discussed. Recommendations are provided.

  7. Energy Survival: entertainment as a resource for local energy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elburg, Henk van; Moosdijk, Catelijne van de [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, SenterNovem, the Dutch Broadcasting Corporation, a publishing company and a consortium of local authorities launched 'Energy Survival'; a renewing energy marketing strategy for children to create a demand for local energy actions. New elements are powerful branding and the use of cross media techniques through national TV, internet, local events and primary education. Through entertainment, Energy Survival influences children's attitude towards energy consumption and its convincing relation with the environment. It aims at qualifying children to become 'energy ambassadors' in their own local environment: family, school and neighbourhood. Energy Survival has become a well tested energy game-concept for children in whom public and private partners cooperate under one brand name and with a clear division of roles and interests. However, the backbone of the concept is the local approach: local actions in municipalities and in primary schools, supported by television and internet where children learn to deal with the upcoming energy challenges of the planet they will inherit. By providing an internet-based teaching method, especially primary schools will be an effective multiplier to reach children. Broadcasting the energy game on national TV on the one hand, and local events and preliminaries on the other hand, ensure opportunities for widespread 'duplication' of the concept, adapted to local policy priorities regarding sustainable energy because each municipality is permitted to choose its own themes. Despite the fact that the project is still young and that the partners consider it as a 'long term-investment', the first independent monitoring results indicate that Energy Survival so far is quite successful. Ratings of the first TV-series show a national market share of 20 % in the age group 6-12 years and significantly more interaction between children and their parents on energy related issues. The website

  8. Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented

  9. Iron in seeds – loading pathways and subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis eGrillet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is one of the most abundant elements on earth, but its limited bioavailability poses a major constraint for agriculture and constitutes a serious problem in human health. Due to an improved understanding of the mechanisms that control Fe homeostasis in plants, major advances towards engineering biofortified crops have been made during the past decade. Examples of successful biofortification strategies are, however, still scarce and the process of Fe loading into seeds is far from being well understood in most crop species. In particular in grains where the embryo represents the main storage compartment such as legumes, increasing the seed Fe content remains a challenging task. This review aims at placing the recently identified actors in Fe transport into the unsolved puzzle of grain filling, taking the differences of Fe distribution between various species into consideration. We summarize the current knowledge on Fe transport between symplasmic and apoplasmic compartments, and provide models for Fe trafficking and localization in different seed types that may help to develop high seed Fe germplasms.

  10. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Erik, E-mail: e.g.j.blokhuis@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, Bart [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, Eric van der [Endinet, Gas and Electricity Network Operations, P.O. Box 2005, 5600CA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schaefer, Wim [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: > Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. > Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. > Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. > The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. > Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  11. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhuis, Erik; Brouwers, Bart; Putten, Eric van der; Schaefer, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: → Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. → Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. → Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. → The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. → Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  12. Effect of density and weight of load on the energy cost of carrying loads by donkeys and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R A; Dijkman, J T; Krecek, R C; Wright, P

    1998-02-01

    Two experiments were designed to compare the energy used in carrying loads by donkeys and ponies. In the first experiment 3 donkeys and 3 ponies were compared on treadmills in the UK. Density of load (lead shot or straw) had no significant effect on the energy cost of carrying loads; however, the energy cost of carrying a load decreased significantly (p < 0.001) as the weight of the load increased (in donkeys 6.44, 4.35 and 3.03 J/kg load/m, in ponies 5.82, 3.75 and 3.68 J/kg load/m, for loads of 13, 20 and 27 kg/100 kg liveweight (M) respectively). Differences between species were not significant. In the second experiment energy expenditures were determined in 3 donkeys carrying loads equivalent to 40 kg/100 kg M over gently undulating gravel tracks in Tunisia. Energy costs of carrying the load were 2.34 (SE 0.07) J/kg load/m. The results of both experiments showed that provided the load is balanced, density does not significantly affect the energy cost of carrying; however, as the load increased then the unit energy cost of carrying it decreased. This suggest that it is more efficient in terms of energy used to carry loads equivalent to 27 to 40 kg/100 kg M than it is to carry lighter loads to less than 20 kg/100 kg M.

  13. The local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussard, E.; Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Twele, J.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings present some European testimonies about the advantage of local investment, illustrated with concrete cases taken in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. They demonstrate that local investment in renewable energy sources is a reality and that this practice has indisputably contributed to their significant development in some countries of the European Union. The sustain of foreign banks to the financing of renewable energy sources is at the evidence an example to follow up in countries like France, Greece or Spain. Important efforts have to be made to simplify and encourage the implementation of projects, in particular from the administrative point of view. Beyond the financial aspects, the colloquium has shown that these practices of citizenship involvement represent an important factor of social adaptation and acceptation. The projects, gathering local actors but also the overall citizens through common investment funds, ensure a better territorial anchoring and a sustain to local and sustainable development. This document has been published with the support of the European Commission and ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management). (J.S.)

  14. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2012-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.

  15. Learning molecular energies using localized graph kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Haut, Terry; Barros, Kipton

    2017-03-01

    Recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach based on graph theory that naturally incorporates translation, rotation, and permutation symmetries. Specifically, we use a random walk graph kernel to measure the similarity of two adjacency matrices, each of which represents a local atomic environment. This Graph Approximated Energy (GRAPE) approach is flexible and admits many possible extensions. We benchmark a simple version of GRAPE by predicting atomization energies on a standard dataset of organic molecules.

  16. Nuclear technologies for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Lynch, G.F.

    1990-03-01

    If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified and appropriate reactors developed. The Canadian program on reactor systems for local energy supply is at the forefront of these developments. This program emphasizes design simplicity, low power density and fuel rating, reliance on natural processes, passive systems, and reduced reliance on operator action. The first product, the SLOWPOKE Energy System, is a 10 MW heat source specifically designed to provide hot water to satisfy the needs of local heating systems for building complexes, institutions and municipal district heating systems. A demonstration heating reactor has been constructed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba and has been undergoing an extensive test program since first operation in 1987 July. Based on the knowledge learned from the design, construction, licensing and operational testing of this facility, the design of the 10 MW commercial-size unit is well advanced, and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is prepared to commit the construction of the first commercial unit. Although the technical demonstration of the concept is important, it is recognized that another crucial element is the public and regulatory acceptance of small nuclear systems in urban areas. The decision by a community to commit the construction of a SLOWPOKE Energy System brings to a sharp focus the current public apprehension about nuclear technologies

  17. Improving electrical power systems reliability through locally controlled distributed curtailable load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbozorgi, Mohammad Reza

    2000-10-01

    Improvements in power system reliability have always been of interest to both power companies and customers. Since there are no sizable electrical energy storage elements in electrical power systems, the generated power should match the load demand at any given time. Failure to meet this balance may cause severe system problems, including loss of generation and system blackouts. This thesis proposes a methodology which can respond to either loss of generation or loss of load. It is based on switching of electric water heaters using power system frequency as the controlling signal. The proposed methodology encounters, and the thesis has addressed, the following associated problems. The controller must be interfaced with the existing thermostat control. When necessary to switch on loads, the water in the tank should not be overheated. Rapid switching of blocks of load, or chattering, has been considered. The contributions of the thesis are: (A) A system has been proposed which makes a significant portion of the distributed loads connected to a power system to behave in a predetermined manner to improve the power system response during disturbances. (B) The action of the proposed system is transparent to the customers. (C) The thesis proposes a simple analysis for determining the amount of such loads which might be switched and relates this amount to the size of the disturbances which can occur in the utility. (D) The proposed system acts without any formal communication links, solely using the embedded information present system-wide. (E) The methodology of the thesis proposes switching of water heater loads based on a simple, localized frequency set-point controller. The thesis has identified the consequent problem of rapid switching of distributed loads, which is referred to as chattering. (F) Two approaches have been proposed to reduce chattering to tolerable levels. (G) A frequency controller has been designed and built according to the specifications required to

  18. Load Matching and Grid Interaction of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Karsten; Candanedo, José A.; Geier, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    of seasonal energy storage on-site. Even though the wording “Net Zero Energy Building” focuses on the annual energy balance, large differences may occur between solution sets in the amount of grid interaction needed to reach the goal. The paper reports on the analysis of example buildings concerning the load......“Net Zero Energy Building” has become a prominent wording to describe the synergy of energy efficient building and renewable energy utilization to reach a balanced energy budget over a yearly cycle. Taking into account the energy exchange with a grid infrastructure overcomes the limitations...... matching and grid interaction. Indices to describe both issues are proposed and foreseen as part of a harmonized definition framework. The work is part of subtask A of the IEA SHCP Task40/ECBCS Annex 52: “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”....

  19. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, a technological change towards cleaner energy technologies has been developed and implemented since around 1975. This development has had two phases: The first from 1975 until around 1996, when wind power was a niche production that supplied only 3.5% of the electricity consumption and was brought close to cost competitiveness, and the present second phase, in which wind power supplies an increasing share (in 2004 18.6%) of electricity consumption along with combined heat and power plants, which supply around 50% of consumption. Denmark succeeded in overcoming the first phase, and a large green energy technology cluster was established. During the second phase, new difficulties and challenges have arisen, both with regard to local public acceptance and the need for integrating an increasing percentage of fluctuating energy sources into the energy system. In this Phase 2, a new offensive green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system

  20. Global and local emission impact assessment of distributed cogeneration systems with partial-load models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancarella, Pierluigi; Chicco, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale distributed cogeneration technologies represent a key resource to increase generation efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with respect to conventional separate production means. However, the diffusion of distributed cogeneration within urban areas, where air quality standards are quite stringent, brings about environmental concerns on a local level. In addition, partial-load emission worsening is often overlooked, which could lead to biased evaluations of the energy system environmental performance. In this paper, a comprehensive emission assessment framework suitable for addressing distributed cogeneration systems is formulated. Local and global emission impact models are presented to identify upper and lower boundary values of the environmental pressure from pollutants that would be emitted from reference technologies, to be compared to the actual emissions from distributed cogeneration. This provides synthetic information on the relative environmental impact from small-scale CHP sources, useful for general indicative and non-site-specific studies. The emission models are formulated according to an electrical output-based emission factor approach, through which off-design operation and relevant performance are easily accounted for. In particular, in order to address the issues that could arise under off-design operation, an equivalent load model is incorporated within the proposed framework, by exploiting the duration curve of the cogenerator loading and the emissions associated to each loading level. In this way, it is possible to quantify the contribution to the emissions from cogeneration systems that might operate at partial loads for a significant portion of their operation time, as for instance in load-tracking applications. Suitability of the proposed methodology is discussed with respect to hazardous air pollutants such as NO x and CO, as well as to greenhouse gases such as CO 2 . Two case study applications based on the emission

  1. Wave loadings acting on Overtopping Breakwater for Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    distributions. Load measurements were compared with the most used prediction method for traditional breakwaters, available in the Coastal Engineering Manual (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002). These results suggest to use the experimental data as design loadings since the design criteria for the innovative......Any kind of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) requires information on reliability of technology and on time required for the return of the investment (reasonable payback). The structural response is one of the most important parameters to take in to account for a consistent assessment on innovative...... devices. This paper presents results on wave loading acting on an hybrid WEC named Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC). The new design is based on the concept of an integration between a traditional rubble mound breakwater and a front reservoir designed to store the wave overtopping from...

  2. Influence of Thread Root Radius on Maximum Local Stresses at Large Diameter Bolts under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.

  3. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based...... in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  4. Integrated biomass and solar town: Incorporation of load shifting and energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Haslenda; Ho, Wai Shin; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Macchietto, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The IBS (Integrated Biomass Solar) town is a concept which encourages local community to utilize biomass waste comprehensively with strong ties between community and local stakeholders. This paper discusses an IBS model and solution for an electrically self-sufficient eco-village with and without LS (load shifting). ES (energy storage) is also incorporated to help reduce electricity demand during peak periods and smooth variations in power generation by variable generation of solar power. Application to a realistic case study shows that substantial technical and economic benefits are achieved through the implementation of IBS with LS and ES. In this study, the LS is used mainly to increase demand during periods of high supply and also shift the load to intervals with low demand. This reduces the size of ES significantly, where the load is subject to distinct weekday and weekend profiles. The study shows that highly competitive electricity prices are obtained and the concept offers the opportunity to spur economic growth and environmental protection through energy efficiency improvement and deployment of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • A hybrid energy system for designing and optimizing RE resource utilization. • The load shifting and energy storage are incorporated. • The proposed model is demonstrated on an Iskandar Malaysia case study. • The optimal power generation scheme and power generation schedule are determined

  5. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  6. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  7. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  8. Efficient Energy Consumption Scheduling: Towards Effective Load Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different agents in the smart grid infrastructure (e.g., households, buildings, communities consume energy with their own appliances, which may have adjustable usage schedules over a day, a month, a season or even a year. One of the major objectives of the smart grid is to flatten the demand load of numerous agents (viz. consumers, such that the peak load can be avoided and power supply can feed the demand load at anytime on the grid. To this end, we propose two Energy Consumption Scheduling (ECS problems for the appliances held by different agents at the demand side to effectively facilitate load leveling. Specifically, we mathematically model the ECS problems as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP problems using the data collected from different agents (e.g., their appliances’ energy consumption in every time slot and the total number of required in-use time slots, specific preferences of the in-use time slots for their appliances. Furthermore, we propose a novel algorithm to efficiently and effectively solve the ECS problems with large-scale inputs (which are NP-hard. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is significantly more efficient than standard benchmarks, such as CPLEX, while guaranteeing near-optimal outputs.

  9. Challenging obduracy: how local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke; van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alexander

    Paper discussing the contribution of local energy initiatives to the energy transition in the Netherlands. Highlights: New energy movement challenges present governance of energy system. Sustainability and strengthening regional economy are primary goals. Democratic cooperative model should

  10. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  11. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  12. Local investment in renewable energies; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - depliant d'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Beam loading in high-energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1974-06-01

    The analysis of beam loading in the RF systems of high-energy storage rings (for example, the PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring) is complicated by the fact that the time, T/sub b/, between the passage of successive bunches is comparable to the cavity filling time, T/sub b/. In this paper, beam loading expressions are first summarized for the usual case in which T/sub b/ /much lt/ T/sub f/. The theory of phase oscillations in the heavily-beam-loaded case is considered, and the dependence of the synchrotron frequency and damping constant for the oscillations on beam current and cavity tuning is calculated. Expressions for beam loading are then derived which are valid for any value of the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/. It is shown that, for the proposed PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring parameters, the klystron power required is increased by about 3% over that calculated using the standard beam loading expressions. Finally, the analysis is extended to take into account the additional losses associated with the excitation of higher-order cavity modes. A rough numerical estimate is made of the loss enhancement to be expected for PEP RF system. It is concluded that this loss enhancement might be substantial unless appropriate measures are taken in the design and tuning of the accelerating structure

  14. Localized Oscillatory Energy Conversion in Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Cassak, P. A.; Webster, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Rager, A. C.; Hwang, K.-J.; Phan, T. D.; Genestreti, K. J.; Allen, R. C.; Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Gershman, D.; Le Contel, O.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wilder, F. D.; Graham, D. B.; Hesse, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Price, L. M.; Shay, M. A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Pollock, C. J.; Denton, R. E.; Newman, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Data from the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission are used to investigate asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the dayside boundary between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. High-resolution measurements of plasmas and fields are used to identify highly localized ( 15 electron Debye lengths) standing wave structures with large electric field amplitudes (up to 100 mV/m). These wave structures are associated with spatially oscillatory energy conversion, which appears as alternatingly positive and negative values of J · E. For small guide magnetic fields the wave structures occur in the electron stagnation region at the magnetosphere edge of the electron diffusion region. For larger guide fields the structures also occur near the reconnection X-line. This difference is explained in terms of channels for the out-of-plane current (agyrotropic electrons at the stagnation point and guide field-aligned electrons at the X-line).

  15. Santa Cruz thermic plant islanding with local loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A R [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo C. de [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sereno, Marcos G [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work looks into the feasibility of implementing a scheme for the islanding of the Santa Cruz Thermic Plant ( Rio de janeiro State) with LIGHT`s (Electric power public utility) loads fed by the Santa Cruz-Jacarepagua trunk connection, considering presently-existing system problems relative to a significant frequency drop when a loss occurs of a large generation block and which causes the blockade scheme of the mentioned Plant to work, thus aggravating the frequency control still further. An analysis is made of such scheme implementation implications on the scheme for islanding a Santa Cruz 84 MW machine to provide supply to the auxiliary services of The Angra dos Reis nuclear plant presently existing in the system. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Binding-energy distribution and dephasing of localized biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Umlauff, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report on the binding energy and dephasing of localized biexciton states in narrow ZnSe multiple quantum wells. The measured binding-energy distribution of the localized biexcitons shows a width of 2.2 meV centered at 8.5 meV, and is fairly independent of the exciton localization energy. In fo...

  17. Local response of concrete structures to explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, H.U.; Krutzik, N.J.; Muller, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the HDR safety program experiments performed concerning demolition of concrete structures and pipes by explosive charges. The precalculability of the local structure reaction as well as that of the global plant was checked. The effect on the bore hole wall by the detonating explosive and the local concrete behavior around the bore hole were investigated. The measured pressure-time history in and around the bore hole is compared with the calculated values. The calculated values seem to be near reality (as far as measurements are available), concerning pressure rise curve within the bore hole and the peak pressure. The analysis of the blow off contours performed with two variations of the material strength of the concrete plates is presented

  18. Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masayasu; Kugo, Taichiro; Yamawaki, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)

  19. Oceanic Loading and Local Distortions at the Baksan, Russia, and Gran Sasso, Italy, Strain Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, V. K.; Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Mironov, A. P.; Myasnikov, A. V.; Lagutkina, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    Reliable use of strain data in geophysical studies requires their preliminary correction for ocean loading and various local distortions. These effects, in turn, can be estimated from the tidal records which are contributed by solid and oceanic loading. In this work, we estimate the oceanic tidal loading at two European strain stations (Baksan, Russia, and Gran Sasso, Italy) by analyzing the results obtained with the different Earth and ocean models. The influence of local distortions on the strain measurements at the two stations is estimated.

  20. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process. The objective of this study is to verify the generalized body-modes approach in comparison to high-fidelity FSI simulations to accurately predict structural deflections and stress loads in a WEC. Two verification cases are considered, a free-floating barge and a fixed-bottom column. Details for both the generalized body-modes models and FSI models are first provided. Results for each of the models are then compared and discussed. Finally, based on the verification results obtained, future plans for incorporating the generalized body-modes method into the WEC simulation tool, WEC-Sim, and the overall WEC design process are discussed.

  1. Active load reduction using individual pitch, based on local blade flow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Thomsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    -of-the-art load-reducing concepts. Since the new flow-based concept deviates significantly from previous published load-reducing strategies, a comparison of the performance based on aeroelastic simulations is included. Advantages and drawbacks of the systems are discussed. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......A new load-reducing control strategy for individual blade control of large pitch-controlled wind turbines is presented This control concept is based on local blade inflow measurements and offers the possibility of larger load reductions, without loss of power production, than seen in other state...

  2. Self-organized dynamics in local load-sharing fiber bundle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2013-10-01

    We study the dynamics of a local load-sharing fiber bundle model in two dimensions under an external load (which increases with time at a fixed slow rate) applied at a single point. Due to the local load-sharing nature, the redistributed load remains localized along the boundary of the broken patch. The system then goes to a self-organized state with a stationary average value of load per fiber along the (increasing) boundary of the broken patch (damaged region) and a scale-free distribution of avalanche sizes and other related quantities are observed. In particular, when the load redistribution is only among nearest surviving fiber(s), the numerical estimates of the exponent values are comparable with those of the Manna model. When the load redistribution is uniform along the patch boundary, the model shows a simple mean-field limit of this self-organizing critical behavior, for which we give analytical estimates of the saturation load per fiber values and avalanche size distribution exponent. These are in good agreement with numerical simulation results.

  3. Energy absorption capabilities of composite sandwich panels under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ray, Tirtha

    As blast threats on military and civilian structures continue to be a significant concern, there remains a need for improved design strategies to increase blast resistance capabilities. The approach to blast resistance proposed here is focused on dissipating the high levels of pressure induced during a blast through maximizing the potential for energy absorption of composite sandwich panels, which are a competitive structural member type due to the inherent energy absorption capabilities of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the middle core in the sandwich panels can be designed as a sacrificial layer allowing for a significant amount of deformation or progressive failure to maximize the potential for energy absorption. The research here is aimed at the optimization of composite sandwich panels for blast mitigation via energy absorption mechanisms. The energy absorption mechanisms considered include absorbed strain energy due to inelastic deformation as well as energy dissipation through progressive failure of the core of the sandwich panels. The methods employed in the research consist of a combination of experimentally-validated finite element analysis (FEA) and the derivation and use of a simplified analytical model. The key components of the scope of work then includes: establishment of quantified energy absorption criteria, validation of the selected FE modeling techniques, development of the simplified analytical model, investigation of influential core architectures and geometric parameters, and investigation of influential material properties. For the parameters that are identified as being most-influential, recommended values for these parameters are suggested in conceptual terms that are conducive to designing composite sandwich panels for various blast threats. Based on reviewing the energy response characteristic of the panel under blast loading, a non-dimensional parameter AET/ ET (absorbed energy, AET, normalized by total energy

  4. The local investment in renewable energies; L'investissement local dans les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussard, E.; Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Twele, J

    2003-07-01

    These proceedings present some European testimonies about the advantage of local investment, illustrated with concrete cases taken in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. They demonstrate that local investment in renewable energy sources is a reality and that this practice has indisputably contributed to their significant development in some countries of the European Union. The sustain of foreign banks to the financing of renewable energy sources is at the evidence an example to follow up in countries like France, Greece or Spain. Important efforts have to be made to simplify and encourage the implementation of projects, in particular from the administrative point of view. Beyond the financial aspects, the colloquium has shown that these practices of citizenship involvement represent an important factor of social adaptation and acceptation. The projects, gathering local actors but also the overall citizens through common investment funds, ensure a better territorial anchoring and a sustain to local and sustainable development. This document has been published with the support of the European Commission and ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management). (J.S.)

  5. Impaired brain energy gain upon a glucose load in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardzinski, Ewelina K; Kistenmacher, Alina; Melchert, Uwe H; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2018-03-06

    There is evidence that the brain's energy status is lowered in obesity despite of chronic hypercaloric nutrition. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that the brain of obese people does not appropriately generate energy in response to a hypercaloric supply. Glucose was intravenously infused in 17 normal weights and 13 obese participants until blood glucose concentrations reached the postprandial levels of 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. Changes in cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured by 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stress hormonal measures regulating glucose homeostasis were monitored. Because vitamin C is crucial for a proper neuronal energy synthesis we determined circulating concentrations during the experimental testing. Cerebral high-energy phosphates were increased at blood glucose levels of 7 mmol/L in normal weights, which was completely missing in the obese. Brain energy content moderately raised only at blood glucose levels of 10 mmol/L in obese participants. Vitamin C concentrations generally correlated with the brain energy content at blood glucose concentrations of 7 mmol/L. Our data demonstrate an inefficient cerebral energy gain upon a glucose load in obese men, which may result from a dysfunctional glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier or a downregulated energy synthesis in mitochondrial oxidation processes. Our finding offers an explanation for the chronic neuroenergetic deficiency and respectively missing satiety perception in obesity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Energy transfer from a superconducting magnet to an inductive load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Toshitada; Miura, Akinori.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on energy transfer between two superconducting magnets have been carried out using an inductive energy transfer system similar to the flying capacitor system developed at the Karlsruhe Institute. In the present system the capacitor is grounded and diodes are used instead of thyristors, and a fraction of stored energy is transferred to the capacitor only when the relay connected in parallel to the magnet is switched off. The capacitor is expected to have no constraint in size, while in the flying capacitor system the capacitor is required to exceed a threshold size. Consequently it is possible to shorten the transfer time to some extent in comparison with the one in the flying capacitor system. Transfer experiments have been carried out using a storage magnet with inductance of 1.2H and a load of 0.41H. The capacitance is 200μF. It is possible to transfer 80.1% of the stored energy of 221 J into the load in less than about 0.35 seconds. (auth.)

  7. Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.; Deadrick, F.J.; Landt, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire is examined. Energy collected by the wire, load energy, peak load currents, and peak load voltages are found for a wide range of parameters, with particular emphasis on nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena. A series of time-sequenced plots is used to illustrate pulse propagation on wires when loads and wire ends are encountered

  8. Local investment in renewable energies; Investissement local dans les Energies Renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K; Larsen, J; Manolakaki, E; Quantin, J; Twele, J

    2003-07-01

    This document presents european examples on the interest of the local investment, illustrated by cases studies in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. Two main points were discussed: the financial tools and the french strategy. The colloquium provided many discussions and analyzes on the possibility of significant contribution to the collective efforts in favor of the public involvement in the renewable energies development in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  9. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  10. Decrease of dynamic loads in mobile energy means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivaev, O. I.; Gorban, L. K.; Vorohobin, A. V.; Vedrinsky, O. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the productivity of machine and tractor units is possible due to the increase in operating speeds, this leads to the emergence of increased dynamic loads in the system “engine-transmission-propulsion unit-soil”, which worsens the performance of machine-tractor aggregates. To reduce fluctuations in the “engine-transmission” system, special vibration dampers are used, which installed in close proximity to the engine and protect well the transmission from uneven engine operation; however, such dampers practically do not eliminate the oscillations of external loads. Reducing dynamic loads on the transmission and the mobile power engine (MPE) is an important issue directly related to improving the performance, reliability and durability of the tractor, as well as reducing the slippage of the drive wheels. In order to reduce effectively dynamic loads on the transmission and on the MPE, it is necessary to introduce resilient damping elements closer to the sources of oscillations, namely, to the driving wheels. At the same time, the elastic-damping element should provide accumulation of vibration energy caused by external influences and have a large energy capacity. The installation of an elastic-damping element in the final link of the tractor transmission ensures a reduction in the magnitude of external influences, thereby protecting the engine and transmission from large dynamic loads, and allows one to reduce the slippage of the propellers, which has a positive effect on the traction and energy characteristics of the tractor. Traction tests of the LTP-55 tractor on a concrete road showed that the use of an elasto-damping drive makes it possible to increase the maximum tractive power from 33.5 to 35.3 kW and to reduce the slipping of propellers by 12-30%, the specific fuel consumption by 6-10%. When driving on stubble, the use of an elastic-damping drive increases the maximum tractive power from 25 to 26 kW, reduces the skidding of propellers by

  11. Force reduction induced by unidirectional transversal muscle loading is independent of local pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Rode, Christian; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-05-03

    Transversal unidirectional compression applied to muscles via external loading affects muscle contraction dynamics in the longitudinal direction. A recent study reported decreasing longitudinal muscle forces with increasing transversal load applied with a constant contact area (i.e., leading to a simultaneous increase in local pressure). To shed light on these results, we examine whether the decrease in longitudinal force depends on the load, the local pressure, or both. To this end, we perform isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis without and with transversal loading (i) changing the local pressure from 1.1-3.2Ncm(-2) (n=9) at a constant transversal load (1.62N) and (ii) increasing the transversal load (1.15-3.45N) at a constant local pressure of 2.3Ncm(-2) (n=7). While we did not note changes in the decrease in longitudinal muscle force in the first experiment, the second experiment resulted in an almost-linear reduction of longitudinal force between 7.5±0.6% and 14.1±1.7%. We conclude that the observed longitudinal force reduction is not induced by local effects such as malfunction of single muscle compartments, but that similar internal stress conditions and myofilament configurations occur when the local pressure changes given a constant load. The decreased longitudinal force may be explained by increased internal pressure and a deformed myofilament lattice that is likely associated with the decomposition of cross-bridge forces on the one hand and the inhibition of cross-bridges on the other hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wave Loadings Acting on an Innovative Breakwater for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, F.; Buccino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG....... The hydraulic model tests have been carried out at the LInC laboratory of the University of Naples Federico II using random waves. Results indicate wave overtopping is able to cause a sudden inversion of vertical force under wave crest, so that it is alternatively upward and downward directed over a short time...

  13. Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Feitau [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernal Heredia, Willy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.

  14. Interactive Cosegmentation Using Global and Local Energy Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Xingping Dong,; Jianbing Shen,; Shao, Ling; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel interactive cosegmentation method using global and local energy optimization. The global energy includes two terms: 1) the global scribbled energy and 2) the interimage energy. The first one utilizes the user scribbles to build the Gaussian mixture model and improve the cosegmentation performance. The second one is a global constraint, which attempts to match the histograms of common objects. To minimize the local energy, we apply the spline regression to learn the smoothne...

  15. Challenging obduracy : How local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In

  16. Local authorities in the context of energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Polonara, Fabio; Brandoni, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Several measures to boost the energy system towards a low-carbon future can be planned and implemented by local authorities, such as energy-saving initiatives in public buildings and lighting, information campaigns, and renewable energy pilot projects. This work analyzes the public administration's role in energy and climate policies by assessing carbon-lowering measures for properties and services managed directly by local governments in central Italy. Both short- and long-term schemes were considered in the analysis of local authority energy strategies. The MARKAL-TIMES energy model was applied to long-term energy planning to assess the effect of low-carbon initiatives on public-sector energy consumption up to 2030. Two energy scenarios were built, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on current or soon-to-be-adopted national policies, and an Exemplary Public Scenario (EPS) including some further virtuous local policies suggested by local authorities. Our results show that a 20% primary energy reduction can be achieved with respect to the baseline year by means of short-term energy policies (5-year time span), while a primary energy saving of about 30% can be reached with longer-term energy policies (25-year time span), even after taking the increase in energy demand into account. This work goes to show the part that local governments can play in energy policy and their contribution to the achievement of climate goals. - Highlights: ► Assessment of Local Administration (LA) role in energy and climate policy. ► Analysis of both short-term and long-term carbon lowering measures. ► Use of MARKAL-TIMES model generator for long-term energy analysis. ► 20% primary energy reduction can be reached with short-term energy policies. ► 30% primary energy reduction can be reached with longer-term energy policies.

  17. Strategies for local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Garry

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out some near term actions and policies which may improve the prospects for 'local group owned' wind turbines in the UK. Topics covered briefly include the advantages and disadvantages of local group owned wind projects, legal and institutional structures, the scale of projects and investment, subsidies and the NFFO, debt guarantees, public electricity supply franchises and finally the elements of a local ownership strategy for the UK. (UK)

  18. Local Alternative for Energy Supply : Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due

  19. An Energy Saving Green Plug Device for Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloul, Albe; Sharaf, Adel; El-Hawary, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a low cost a FACTS Based flexible fuzzy logic based modulated/switched tuned arm filter and Green Plug compensation (SFC-GP) scheme for single-phase nonlinear loads ensuring both voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. The new Green Plug-Switched filter compensator SFC modulated LC-Filter PWM Switched Capacitive Compensation Devices is controlled using a fuzzy logic regulator to enhance power quality, improve power factor at the source and reduce switching transients and inrush current conditions as well harmonic contents in source current. The FACTS based SFC-GP Device is a member of family of Green Plug/Filters/Compensation Schemes used for efficient energy utilization, power quality enhancement and voltage/inrush current/soft starting control using a dynamic error driven fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The device with fuzzy logic controller is validated using the Matlab / Simulink Software Environment for enhanced power quality (PQ), improved power factor and reduced inrush currents. This is achieved using modulated PWM Switching of the Filter-Capacitive compensation scheme to cope with dynamic type nonlinear and inrush cyclical loads..

  20. Energy auditing and monitoring in local authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.

    1979-07-01

    An energy audit, relating the individual energy performance to the building structure and usage after discounting the effects of variation in weather and then measuring on a continuing program the actual energy usage, is described. A list of measures that can reduce the cost of energy is presented. The actual auditing and monitoring may be carried out by either a manual system using specially prepared record cards or a computer system. Details of these systems and their implementation are described. (MCW)

  1. Setting up local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larke, Charmian.

    1993-01-01

    A report is given on progress to establish a company in the UK which involves local people at an early stage in the development of wind farms. Particular attention is paid to obtaining local finance for the projects. Because rural communities tend to be relatively poor, larger investors will need to be involved. (UK)

  2. Optimum community energy storage system for demand load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.; Gillott, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbA-acid and lithium-ion batteries are optimised up to a 100-home community. • A 4-period real-time pricing and Economy 7 (2-period time-of-use) are compared. • Li-ion batteries perform worse with Economy 7 for small communities and vice versa. • The community approach reduced the levelised cost by 56% compared to a single home. • Heat pumps reduced the levelised cost and increased the profitability of batteries. - Abstract: Community energy storage (CES) is becoming an attractive technological option to facilitate the use of distributed renewable energy generation, manage demand loads and decarbonise the residential sector. There is strong interest in understanding the techno-economic benefits of using CES systems, which energy storage technology is more suitable and the optimum CES size. In this study, the performance including equivalent full cycles and round trip efficiency of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries performing demand load shifting are quantified as a function of the size of the community using simulation-based optimisation. Two different retail tariffs are compared: a time-of-use tariff (Economy 7) and a real-time-pricing tariff including four periods based on the electricity prices on the wholesale market. Additionally, the economic benefits are quantified when projected to two different years: 2020 and a hypothetical zero carbon year. The findings indicate that the optimum PbA capacity was approximately twice the optimum Li-ion capacity in the case of the real-time-pricing tariff and around 1.6 times for Economy 7 for any community size except a single home. The levelised cost followed a negative logarithmic trend while the internal rate of return followed a positive logarithmic trend as a function of the size of the community. PbA technology reduced the levelised cost down to 0.14 £/kW h when projected to the year 2020 for the retail tariff Economy 7. CES systems were sized according to the demand load and

  3. Localization of Energy Harvesting Empowered Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir; Celik, Abdulkadir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    with insufficient battery, harvest the energy and starts communicating once it has sufficient energy storage. Network localization is carried out by measuring the RSSs of active nodes, which are modeled based on the underwater optical communication channel

  4. Promoting energy efficiency: supporting Public Administration and Local Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, G.; Manila, E.

    2008-01-01

    ENEAS's institutional tasks include technical and scientific support to Public Administration and Local Bodies in the field of energy. Recently such a role has been strengthened by setting up the Agency for Energy Efficiency which ENEA is responsible for [it

  5. Energy loading effects in the scaling of atomic xenon lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwa, M.; Kushner, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic power efficiency of the atomic xenon (5d → 6p) infrared (1.73--3.65 μm) laser is sensitive to the rate of pumping due to electron collision mixing of the laser levels. Long duration pumping at moderate power deposition may therefore result in higher energy efficiencies than pumping at higher powers. In this paper the authors examine the consequences of high energy deposition (100's J/1 atm) during long pumping pulses (100's μs) on the intrinsic power and energy efficiency and optimum power deposition of the atomic xenon laser. The dominant effect of high energy loading, gas heating, causes an increase in the electron density and therefore an increase in the electron collision mixing of the laser levels. The optimum power deposition for a given gas density therefore shifts to lower values with increasing gas temperature. For sufficiently long pumping pulses, nonuniform gas heating results in convection and rarification of highly pumped regions. The optimum power deposition therefore shifts to even lower values as the length of the pumping pulse increases. As a result, laser efficiency depends on the spatial distribution of power deposition as well as its magnitude

  6. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  7. Complete mechanical behavior analysis of FG Nano Beam under non-uniform loading using non-local theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, I.; Parhizkar Yaghoobi, M.; Ghannad, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to offer a complete solution to analyze the mechanical behavior (bending, buckling and vibration) of Nano-beam under non-uniform loading. Furthermore, the effects of size (nonlocal parameters), non-homogeneity constants, and different boundary conditions are investigated by using this method. The exact solution presented here reduces costs incurred by experiments. In this research, the displacement field obeys the kinematics of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and non-local elasticity theory has been used. The governing equations and general boundary conditions are derived for a beam by using energy method. The presented solution enables us to analyze any kind of loading profile and boundary conditions with no limitations. Furthermore, this solution, unlike previous studies, is not a series-solution; hence, there is no limitation prior to existing with the series-solution, nor does it need to check convergence. Based on the developed analytical solution, the influence of size, non-homogeneity and non-uniform loads on bending, buckling and vibration behaviors is discussed. Also, the obtained result is highly accurate and in good agreement with previous research. In theoretical method, the allowable range for non-local parameters can be determined so as to make a major contribution to the reduction of the cost of experiments determining the value of non-local parameters.

  8. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  9. Regional versus local influences on lead and cadmium loading to the Great Lakes region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohn, S.; Long, D.; Fett, J.; Patino, L. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2004-07-01

    Environmental legislation has reduced the anthropogenic loadings of Pb and Cd to the Great Lakes region over the past 3 decades. However, the accumulation rates of these metals still remain above background values. Because environmental legislation was targeted at major sources (e.g., Pb in gasoline) whose influence on the environment was on a regional scale, local sources (e.g., watershed scale) for the metals may now play a more significant role. The relative importance of regional versus local scale influences on metal inputs to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, sediment chronologies of Pb and Cd were examined from 12 inland lakes that cover the broad geographic area of the State of Michigan. These chronologies were compared temporally and spatially and to watershed population densities and metal production records to gain an understanding of local and regional influences on metal inputs to the Great Lakes region. Results show that anthropogenic Pb loading during the 1930s and 1970s was dominated by regional sources. such as coal burning and use of leaded gasoline. Current loadings are now more related to local influences such as watershed population densities, rather than atmospheric deposition. Anthropogenic Cd loadings to the Great Lakes region have been dominated by both regional and local sources over time. Lead may also have shown the influence of local sources over time, if the influence of emissions from gasoline had not been present. This work shows that Pb and Cd loadings in the Great Lakes region are strongly related to watershed population densities; however, the specific sources and pathways for the metal cycling are unclear.

  10. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.

  11. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one

  12. Facilitating the Growth of Local Energy Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Willem Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Energietransitie staat hoog op de agenda. Op de route naar een duurzamer energiesysteem zien we de laatste jaren een grote toename van het aantal lokale energie communities. Deze energie communities streven naar duurzaamheid door middel van het stimuleren van energiebesparingen en het realiseren van

  13. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, L. Andrew; Koirala, Binod; Scholten, Daniel; Facchinetti, Emanuele; Lilliestam, Johan; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization concentrates competition at the wholesale level, local energy management at the distribution level is likely to impose new roles and responsibilities on existing and/or new actors. This paper prov...

  14. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  15. Local and global Casimir energies for a semitransparent cylindrical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A; Kirsten, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The local Casimir energy density and the global Casimir energy for a massless scalar field associated with a λδ-function potential in a (3 + 1)-dimensional circular cylindrical geometry are considered. The global energy is examined for both weak and strong coupling, the latter being the well-studied Dirichlet cylinder case. For weak coupling, through O(λ 2 ), the total energy is shown to vanish by both analytic and numerical arguments, based both on Green's-function and zeta-function techniques. Divergences occurring in the calculation are shown to be absorbable by renormalization of physical parameters of the model. The global energy may be obtained by integrating the local energy density only when the latter is supplemented by an energy term residing precisely on the surface of the cylinder. The latter is identified as the integrated local energy density of the cylindrical shell when the latter is physically expanded to have finite thickness. Inside and outside the δ-function shell, the local energy density diverges as the surface of the shell is approached; the divergence is weakest when the conformal stress tensor is used to define the energy density. A real global divergence first occurs in O(λ 3 ), as anticipated, but the proof is supplied here for the first time; this divergence is entirely associated with the surface energy and does not reflect divergences in the local energy density as the surface is approached

  16. Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability Considering Load and Green-Energy Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Conti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault in the network, such portions could be disconnected from the main network and supplied by local generation only. Such a mode of operation is known as “intentional islanding” and its effectiveness, in terms of adequacy, depends on the ability of the local generation to meet the island’s load. In fact, the ratio between the available local generation and load demand can frequently change during islanding due to load variations and, especially, due to the strongly irregular behavior of the primary energy sources of renewable generators. This paper proposes an analytical formulation to assess local generation adequacy during intentional islanding, accounting for the aforementioned variations. More specifically, the fluctuations of load and green-energy generators during islanding are modeled by means of Markov chains, whose output quantities are encompassed in the proposed analytical formulation. Such a formulation is used by the analytical equations of load points’ outage rate and duration. The evaluation of the reliability indices accounts for a protection scheme based on an appropriate communication infrastructure. Therefore, a brief overview on the telecommunications technologies has been presented with reference to their suitability for the specific application. In particular, distribution network safety issues have been considered as the main concern. The results show that neglecting load and generation fluctuations leads to a strong overestimation of the ability of distributed generators to meet the island load. Through a case study it is observed that the error on the load point outage rate is greater than the one affecting the outage duration.

  17. New interaction paths in the energy landscape: the role of local energy initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Jessica; Zuidema, Christian; Gugerell, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Energy transition is an encompassing process which not only involves the energy system but also the landscape in which the energy system is embedded. Renewable energy is triggering new interactions with local landscapes in physical, socio-economic and institutional senses. We capture these interactions using the energy landscape concept, which expresses the interdependence of the energy system with the landscape. We aim to understand whether and how local energy initiatives facilitate this in...

  18. Scheduling algorithms for saving energy and balancing load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Antonios

    2012-08-03

    In this thesis we study problems of scheduling tasks in computing environments. We consider both the modern objective function of minimizing energy consumption, and the classical objective of balancing load across machines. We first investigate offline deadline-based scheduling in the setting of a single variable-speed processor that is equipped with a sleep state. The objective is that of minimizing the total energy consumption. Apart from settling the complexity of the problem by showing its NP-hardness, we provide a lower bound of 2 for general convex power functions, and a particular natural class of schedules called s{sub crit}-schedules. We also present an algorithmic framework for designing good approximation algorithms. For general convex power functions our framework improves the best known approximation-factor from 2 to 4/3. This factor can be reduced even further to 137/117 for a specific well-motivated class of power functions. Furthermore, we give tight bounds to show that our framework returns optimal s{sub crit}-schedules for the two aforementioned power-function classes. We then focus on the multiprocessor setting where each processor has the ability to vary its speed. Job migration is allowed, and we again consider classical deadline-based scheduling with the objective of energy minimization. We first study the offline problem and show that optimal schedules can be computed efficiently in polynomial time for any convex and non-decreasing power function. Our algorithm relies on repeated maximum flow computations. Regarding the online problem and power functions P(s) = s{sup {alpha}}, where s is the processor speed and {alpha} > 1 a constant, we extend the two well-known single-processor algorithms Optimal Available and Average Rate. We prove that Optimal Available is {alpha}{sup {alpha}}-competitive as in the single-processor case. For Average Rate we show a competitive factor of (2{alpha}){sup {alpha}}/2 + 1, i.e., compared to the single

  19. Energy management of a university campus utilizing short-term load forecasting with an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchak, David

    Electrical load forecasting is a tool that has been utilized by distribution designers and operators as a means for resource planning and generation dispatch. The techniques employed in these predictions are proving useful in the growing market of consumer, or end-user, participation in electrical energy consumption. These predictions are based on exogenous variables, such as weather, and time variables, such as day of week and time of day as well as prior energy consumption patterns. The participation of the end-user is a cornerstone of the Smart Grid initiative presented in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and is being made possible by the emergence of enabling technologies such as advanced metering infrastructure. The optimal application of the data provided by an advanced metering infrastructure is the primary motivation for the work done in this thesis. The methodology for using this data in an energy management scheme that utilizes a short-term load forecast is presented. The objective of this research is to quantify opportunities for a range of energy management and operation cost savings of a university campus through the use of a forecasted daily electrical load profile. The proposed algorithm for short-term load forecasting is optimized for Colorado State University's main campus, and utilizes an artificial neural network that accepts weather and time variables as inputs. The performance of the predicted daily electrical load is evaluated using a number of error measurements that seek to quantify the best application of the forecast. The energy management presented utilizes historical electrical load data from the local service provider to optimize the time of day that electrical loads are being managed. Finally, the utilization of forecasts in the presented energy management scenario is evaluated based on cost and energy savings.

  20. Towards an alliance for local energy to stimulate territorial economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to demonstrate the necessity of an alliance gathering all public, private and associative actors who are interested in an energy policy oriented without any ambiguity towards the management of energy consumption demands in all consuming sectors, and an optimal use of renewable and retrieved local energy resources, i.e. a decentralised energy policy. It first presents the three main paradigms of this approach: a reversal of the way to address energy, energy as a fully local issue and as an issue of local development, and much different actors of policy based on demand management and decentralised supply. In this respect, the publication presents and outlines some elements of the Energy 2050 road-map of the European Commission. In the next part, the authors indicate who are the different concerned actors, outline why they'd better act together, and what they can do together

  1. Dark energy and the quietness of the local Hubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axenides, M.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-01-01

    The linearity and quietness of the local ( X (t 0 ) of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state p X =wρ X . We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value v rms ≅40 km/s have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters w and Ω X . Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies, dark energy with time independent equation of state cannot by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the local Hubble flow

  2. Higher harmonic imaging of tensile plastic deformation in loading and reloading processes by local resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Yasui, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We have imaged plastically deformed region in a 5052 aluminum plate under tensile loading, unloading and reloading processes by using an immersion local resonance method. By transmitting large-amplitude burst wave of which frequency is a through-thickness resonant frequency of the plate, dislocation loops in plastic zone are forced to vibrate. The higher harmonic amplitude excited by the dislocation movement is mapped for the transducer position. The extension of plastic zone under monotonically increased loading, decrease in harmonic amplitude under unloading process and marked extension of plastic zone in reloading up to 0.4% plastic strain are clearly imaged. (author)

  3. Three-dimensional fracture instability of a displacement-weakening planar interface under locally peaked nonuniform loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2018-06-01

    We consider stability of fracture on a three-dimensional planar interface subjected to a loading stress that is locally peaked spatially, the level of which increases quasi-statically in time. Similar to the earlier study on the two-dimensional case (Uenishi and Rice, 2003; Rice and Uenishi, 2010), as the loading stress increases, a crack, or a region of displacement discontinuity (opening gap in tension or slip for shear fracture), develops on the interface where the stress is presumed to decrease according to a displacement-weakening constitutive relation. Upon reaching the instability point at which no further quasi-static solution for the extension of the crack on the interface exists, dynamic fracture follows. For the investigation of this instability point, we employ a dimensional analysis as well as an energy approach that gives a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation for the dependence of crack size and maximum displacement discontinuity on the level and quadratic shape of the loading stress distribution. We show that, if the linear displacement-weakening law is applied and the crack may be assumed of an elliptical form, the critical crack size at instability is independent of the curvature of the loading stress distribution and it is of the same order for all two- and three-dimensional cases.

  4. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  5. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  6. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Danestig, Maria; Rohdin, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue

  7. Energy localization in the phi4 oscillator chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponno, A; Ruggiero, J; Drigo, E; De Luca, J

    2006-05-01

    We study energy localization in a finite one-dimensional phi(4) oscillator chain with initial energy in a single oscillator of the chain. We numerically calculate the effective number of degrees of freedom sharing the energy on the lattice as a function of time. We find that for energies smaller than a critical value, energy equipartition among the oscillators is reached in a relatively short time. On the other hand, above the critical energy, a decreasing number of particles sharing the energy is observed. We give an estimate of the effective number of degrees of freedom as a function of the energy. Our results suggest that localization is due to the appearance, above threshold, of a breather-like structure. Analytic arguments are given, based on the averaging theory and the analysis of a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation approximating the dynamics, to support and explain the numerical results.

  8. Role of local governments in promoting energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the incentives which influence the decisions by local governments to adopt energy-efficiency programs, either unilaterally or in partnership with the Federal government. It is found that there is significant potential for improved energy efficiency in urban residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and that exploiting these opportunities is in the interest of both Federal and local governments. Unless there is a unique combination of strong local leadership, a tradition of resource management, and external energy shocks, communities are unlikely to realize this potential. Conflicting demands, traditional perceptions, and lack of funding pose a major barrier to a strong unilateral commitment by local governments. A Federal-local partnership built upon and complementary to existing efforts in areas such as housing, social welfare, and economic development offers an excellent opportunity to realize the inherent potential of local energy-efficiency programs. At the local level, energy is not perceived as an isolated issue, but one which is part of a number of problems arising from the continuing increase in energy prices.

  9. Si segregation at Fe grain boundaries analyzed by ab initio local energy and local stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Somesh Kr; Kohyama, Masanori; Tanaka, Shingo; Shiihara, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Using density-functional theory calculations combined with recent local-energy and local-stress schemes, we studied the effects of Si segregation on the structural, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Σ3(1 1 1) and Σ11(3 3 2) Fe GBs formed by rotation around the [1 1 0] axis. The segregation mechanism was analyzed by the local-energy decomposition of the segregation energy, where the segregation energy is expressed as a sum of the following four terms: the local-energy change of Si atoms from the isolated state in bulk Fe to the GB segregated state, the stabilization of replaced Fe atoms from the GB to the bulk, the local-energy change of neighboring Fe atoms from the pure GB to the segregated GB and the local-energy change of neighboring Fe atoms from the system of an isolated Si atom in the bulk Fe to the pure bulk Fe. The segregation energy and value of each term greatly depends on the segregation site and Si concentration. The segregation at interface Fe sites with higher local energies in the original GB configurations naturally leads to higher segregation-energy gains, while interface sites with lower local energies can lead to larger energy gains if stronger Si–Fe interactions occur locally in the final segregated configurations. The high Si concentration reduces the segregation-energy gain per Si atom due to the local-energy increases of Si atoms neighboring to each other or through the reduction in the number of stabilized Fe atoms per Si atom as observed in a Si dimer in bulk Fe. In the Si-segregated GBs, Si–Fe bonds enhance local Young’s moduli and tend to suppress the interface weakening, while the GB adhesion is slightly reduced. And Fe atoms contacting Si atoms have reduced magnetic moments, due to Si–Fe sp-d hybridization interactions. (paper)

  10. A three-dimensional model of residential energy consumer archetypes for local energy policy design in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews major studies in three traditional lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, i.e., economic/infrastructure, behaviour, and load profiling. Based on the review the paper proposes a three-dimensional model for archetyping residential energy consumers in the UK by considering property energy efficiency levels, the greenness of household behaviour of using energy, and the duration of property daytime occupancy. With the proposed model, eight archetypes of residential energy consumers in the UK have been identified. They are: pioneer greens, follower greens, concerned greens, home stayers, unconscientious wasters, regular wasters, daytime wasters, and disengaged wasters. Using a case study, these archetypes of residential energy consumers demonstrate the robustness of the 3-D model in aiding local energy policy/intervention design in the UK. - Highlights: ► This paper reviews the three traditional lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK. ► Based on the literature review, the paper proposes a 3-D conceptual model for archetyping UK residential energy consumers. ► The 3-D archetype model can aid local energy policy/intervention design in the UK.

  11. Development of assessment methodology for locally wall-thinned pipe under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do Jun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Chi Yong

    2005-01-01

    Recently authors have proposed a new method to estimate failure strength of a pipe with local wall thinning subject to either internal pressure or global bending. The proposed method was based on the equivalent stress averaged over the minimum ligament in the locally wall thinned region, and the simple scheme to estimate the equivalent stress in the minimum ligament was proposed, based on the reference stress concept. This paper extends the new method to combined internal pressure and global bending. The proposed method is validated against FE results for various geometries of local wall thinning under combined loading. The effect of internal pressure is also investigated in the present study. Comparison of maximum moments, predicted according to the proposed method, with published full-scale pipe test data for locally wall-thinned pipes under combined internal pressure and global bending, shows good agreement

  12. State and Local Initiatives: Your Bridge to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Resources (Brochure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.

    2001-01-01

    A brochure for local and state policymakers, informing them about the State and Local Initiatives team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The brochure outlines the benefits of using renewables and energy efficiency, the benefits of using the State and Local Initiatives team as a liaison to the wealth of information at NREL, and some of the services and resources available

  13. Survey of energy load leveling system in Europe; Energy fuka heijunka taisaku ni kansuru Europe chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Setsunan University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the survey of energy load leveling systems in Europe. In Denmark, especially regional heating is remarkably diffused, and they have 350 plants. With extending the service areas, the energy load leveling has been promoted. For the cogeneration plants of SK Power, the largest electric power company, they have hot water heat storage tanks for regional heat supply with a total capacity 2,200 MWh. The regional heating system in Goeteborg City of Sweden supplies 80% of the total heat demand of the city. Unused energy sources derived from petroleum refining, sewage treatment, and garbage burning are utilized. In Uppsala, they have seasonal heat storage systems using solar heat. The Vienna Regional Heat Supply Corporation supplies heat equivalent to 5,000 GWh a year. Cogeneration plants and garbage burning plants are used as heat sources, and 25% of the total heating in the city is supplied. In Austria, they have an electric power demand with a peak in winter, and they have a pumped-storage power station in Kaprun for the annual load leveling using dump power in summer. This paper also introduces a compressed air storage gas turbine plant at Huntorf of Germany, and a large-scale underground natural gas storage of Gaz de France. 6 figs.

  14. Economics of Renewable Energy Integration and Energy Storage via Low Load Diesel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hamilton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One-quarter of the world’s population lives without access to electricity. Unfortunately, the generation technology most commonly employed to advance rural electrification, diesel generation, carries considerable commercial and ecological risks. One approach used to address both the cost and pollution of diesel generation is renewable energy (RE integration. However, to successfully integrate RE, both the stochastic nature of the RE resource and the operating characteristics of diesel generation require careful consideration. Typically, diesel generation is configured to run heavily loaded, achieving peak efficiencies within 70–80% of rated capacity. Diesel generation is also commonly sized to peak demand. These characteristics serve to constrain the possible RE penetration. While energy storage can relieve the constraint, this adds cost and complexity to the system. This paper identifies an alternative approach, redefining the low load capability of diesel generation. Low load diesel (LLD allows a diesel engine to operate across its full capacity in support of improved RE utilization. LLD uses existing diesel assets, resulting in a reduced-cost, low-complexity substitute. This paper presents an economic analysis of LLD, with results compared to conventional energy storage applications. The results identify a novel pathway for consumers to transition from low to medium levels of RE penetration, without additional cost or system complexity.

  15. A model of optimization for local energy infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juroszek, Zbigniew; Kudelko, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a non-linear, optimization model supporting the planning of local energy systems development. The model considers two forms of final energy – heat and electricity. The model reflects both private and external costs and is designed to show the social perspective. It considers the variability of the marginal costs attributed to local renewable resources. In order to demonstrate the capacity of the model, the authors present a case study by modelling the development of the energy infrastructure in a municipality located in the south of Poland. The ensuing results show that a swift and significant shift in the local energy policy of typical central European municipalities is needed. The modelling is done in two scenarios – with and without the internalization of external environmental costs. The results confirm that the internalization of the external costs of energy production on a local scale leads to a significant improvement in the allocation of resources. - Highlights: • A model for municipal energy system development in Central European environment has been developed. • The variability of marginal costs of local, renewable fuels is considered. • External, environmental costs are considered. • The model reflects both network and individual energy infrastructure (e.g. individual housing boilers). • A swift change in Central European municipal energy infrastructure is necessary.

  16. Harmonic Differential Quadrature Analysis of Soft-Core Sandwich Panels under Locally Distributed Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are widely used in practice and thus various engineering theories adopting simplifying assumptions are available. However, most engineering theories of beams, plates and shells cannot recover all stresses accurately through their constitutive equations. Therefore, the soft-core is directly modeled by two-dimensional (2D elasticity theory without any pre-assumption on the displacement field. The top and bottom faces act like the elastic supports on the top and bottom edges of the core. The differential equations of the 2D core are then solved by the harmonic differential quadrature method (HDQM. To circumvent the difficulties in dealing with the locally distributed load by point discrete methods such as the HDQM, a general and rigorous way is proposed to treat the locally distributed load. Detailed formulations are provided. The static behavior of sandwich panels under different locally distributed loads is investigated. For verification, results are compared with data obtained by ABAQUS with very fine meshes. A high degree of accuracy on both displacement and stress has been observed.

  17. Frictional systems under periodic loads — History-dependence, non-uniqueness and energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J R

    2012-01-01

    when they are out of phase. With sufficient clamping force, 'complete' contacts (i.e. those in which the contact area is independent of the normal load) can theoretically be prevented from slipping, but on the microscale, all contacts are incomplete because of surface roughness and some microslip is inevitable. In this case, the local energy dissipation density can be estimated from relatively coarse-scale roughness models, based on a solution of the corresponding 'full stick' problem.

  18. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  19. Prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)

  20. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local energy losses occur when there is a transition in open channel flow. Even though local losses in subcritical open channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. Steps are commonly used in engineering applications ...

  1. Dimensionality of Local Minimizers of the Interaction Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Balagué, D.

    2013-05-22

    In this work we consider local minimizers (in the topology of transport distances) of the interaction energy associated with a repulsive-attractive potential. We show how the dimensionality of the support of local minimizers is related to the repulsive strength of the potential at the origin. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Dimensionality of Local Minimizers of the Interaction Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Balagué , D.; Carrillo, J. A.; Laurent, T.; Raoul, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider local minimizers (in the topology of transport distances) of the interaction energy associated with a repulsive-attractive potential. We show how the dimensionality of the support of local minimizers is related to the repulsive strength of the potential at the origin. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Yamashita, Noriaki; Tan, Vincent; Irie, Risa; Van Staden, Maryke; Zimmermann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This report complements the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report by providing more detailed information at the city and local levels about policies and activities to promote renewable energy. It is intended to facilitate dialogue and illuminate pathways for future policies and actions at the local level. This 'working draft' version is intended to solicit comments and additional information

  4. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - recueil d'experiences europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quantin, J; Grepmeier, K; Larsen, J; Manolakaki, E; Smith, M

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  5. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - recueil d'experiences europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  6. Chen-Nester-Tung quasi-local energy and Wang-Yau quasi-local mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Liang; Yu, Chengjie

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we show that the Chen-Nester-Tung (CNT) quasi-local energy with 4D isometric matching references is closely related to the Wang-Yau (WY) quasi-local energy. As a particular example, we compute the second variation of the CNT quasi-local energy for axially symmetric Kerr-like spacetimes with axially symmetric embeddings at the obvious critical point (0 , 0) and find that it is a saddle critical point in most of the cases. Also, as a byproduct, we generalize a previous result about the coincidence of the CNT quasi-local energy and Brown-York mass for axially symmetric Kerr-like spacetimes by Tam and the first author Liu and Tam (2016) to general spacetimes.

  7. Tapping the energy storage potential in electric loads to deliver load following and regulation, with application to wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Duncan S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops new methods to model and control the aggregated power demand from a population of thermostatically controlled loads, with the goal of delivering services such as regulation and load following. Previous work on direct load control focuses primarily on peak load shaving by directly interrupting power to loads. In contrast, the emphasis of this paper is on controlling loads to produce relatively short time scale responses (hourly to sub-hourly), and the control signal is applied by manipulation of temperature set points, possibly via programmable communicating thermostats or advanced metering infrastructure. To this end, the methods developed here leverage the existence of system diversity and use physically-based load models to inform the development of a new theoretical model that accurately predicts - even when the system is not in equilibrium - changes in load resulting from changes in thermostat temperature set points. Insight into the transient dynamics that result from set point changes is developed by deriving a new exact solution to a well-known hybrid state aggregated load model. The eigenvalues of the solution, which depend only on the thermal time constant of the loads under control, are shown to have a strong effect on the accuracy of the model. The paper also shows that load heterogeneity - generally something that must be assumed away in direct load control models - actually has a positive effect on model accuracy. System identification techniques are brought to bear on the problem, and it is shown that identified models perform only marginally better than the theoretical model. The paper concludes by deriving a minimum variance control law, and demonstrates its effectiveness in simulations wherein a population of loads is made to follow the output of a wind plant with very small changes in the nominal thermostat temperature set points.

  8. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.facchinetti@hslu.ch; Sulzer, Sabine [Lucerne Competence Center for Energy Research, Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Horw (Switzerland)

    2016-03-03

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  9. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  10. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  11. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Leach, M.

    2000-01-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  12. Local energy developments based on spatial and systemic approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu

    Local energy developments from a spatial and systemic approach are highlighted using examples from a Dutch case study. Developments in energy systems included interconnectedness of contextual factors and systems responses. The need to explore both the contextual factors and systemic aspects are

  13. Think globally, act locally? Local climate change and energy policies in Sweden and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, U.; Loefstedt, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    While climate change is obviously a global environmental problem, there is nevertheless potential for policy initiatives at the local level. Although the competences of local authorities vary between countries, they all have some responsibilities in the crucial areas of energy and transport policy. This paper examines local competences in Sweden and the UK and looks at the responses to the climate change issue by six local authorities, focussing on energy related developments. The points of departure are very different in the two countries. Swedish local authorities are much more independent than UK ones, especially through the ownership of local energy companies. Yet, UK local authorities are relatively active in the climate change domain, at least in terms of drawing up response strategies, which they see as an opportunity for reasserting their role, after a long period of erosion of their powers. Furthermore, there is more scope for action in the UK, as in Sweden many potential measures, especially in the energy efficiency field, have already been taken. However, in both countries climate change is only a relatively marginal area of local environmental policy making and the political will, as well as the financial resources, for more radical measures are often absent. (Author)

  14. Disordered locality as an explanation for the dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Smolin, Lee

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a novel explanation of the dark energy as a manifestation of macroscopic nonlocality coming from quantum gravity, as proposed by Markopoulou [F. Markopoulou (private communication)]. It has been previously suggested that in a transition from an early quantum geometric phase of the Universe to a low temperature phase characterized by an emergent spacetime metric, locality might have been 'disordered'. This means that there is a mismatch of micro-locality, as determined by the microscopic quantum dynamics and macro-locality as determined by the classical metric that governs the emergent low energy physics. In this paper we discuss the consequences for cosmology by studying a simple extension of the standard cosmological models with disordered locality. We show that the consequences can include a naturally small vacuum energy.

  15. Time-dependent fiber bundles with local load sharing. II. General Weibull fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S Leigh; Newman, William I

    2009-12-01

    Fiber bundle models (FBMs) are useful tools in understanding failure processes in a variety of material systems. While the fibers and load sharing assumptions are easily described, FBM analysis is typically difficult. Monte Carlo methods are also hampered by the severe computational demands of large bundle sizes, which overwhelm just as behavior relevant to real materials starts to emerge. For large size scales, interest continues in idealized FBMs that assume either equal load sharing (ELS) or local load sharing (LLS) among fibers, rules that reflect features of real load redistribution in elastic lattices. The present work focuses on a one-dimensional bundle of N fibers under LLS where life consumption in a fiber follows a power law in its load, with exponent rho , and integrated over time. This life consumption function is further embodied in a functional form resulting in a Weibull distribution for lifetime under constant fiber stress and with Weibull exponent, beta. Thus the failure rate of a fiber depends on its past load history, except for beta=1 . We develop asymptotic results validated by Monte Carlo simulation using a computational algorithm developed in our previous work [Phys. Rev. E 63, 021507 (2001)] that greatly increases the size, N , of treatable bundles (e.g., 10(6) fibers in 10(3) realizations). In particular, our algorithm is O(N ln N) in contrast with former algorithms which were O(N2) making this investigation possible. Regimes are found for (beta,rho) pairs that yield contrasting behavior for large N. For rho>1 and large N, brittle weakest volume behavior emerges in terms of characteristic elements (groupings of fibers) derived from critical cluster formation, and the lifetime eventually goes to zero as N-->infinity , unlike ELS, which yields a finite limiting mean. For 1/21 but with 0

  16. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  17. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  18. Peak load shifting control using different cold thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu; Gao, Diance

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Little study reviews the load shifting control using different facilities. • This study reviews load shifting control using building thermal mass. • This study reviews load shifting control using thermal energy storage systems. • This study reviews load shifting control using phase change material. • Efforts for developing more applicable load shifting control are addressed. - Abstract: For decades, load shifting control, one of most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted increasing attentions from both researchers and engineers. Different load shifting control strategies have been developed when diverse cold thermal energy storage facilities are used in commercial buildings. The facilities include building thermal mass (BTM), thermal energy storage system (TES) and phase change material (PCM). Little study has systematically reviewed these load shifting control strategies and therefore this study presents a comprehensive review of peak load shifting control strategies using these thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings. The research and applications of the load shifting control strategies are presented and discussed. The further efforts needed for developing more applicable load shifting control strategies using the facilities are also addressed

  19. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  20. Local embeddedness in community energy projects. A social entrepreneurship perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Vancea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of community energy projects have emerged recently, reflecting diverse sociotechnical configurations in the energy sector. This article is based on an empirical study examining different types of community energy projects such as energy cooperatives, public service utilities and other entrepreneurially oriented initiatives across the European Union. Based on an in-depth analysis of three case studies, the article aims to introduce a social entrepreneurship perspective when discussing the relationship between local embeddedness and different forms of organisation and ownership in community energy. The results indicate that community energy projects can expand beyond the local scale without losing their collective and democratic form of functioning and ownership. Moreover, social movements can act as catalysts for this expansion beyond the local, in a quest for wider social transformation. Social entrepreneurship may provide a suitable analytical lens to avoid the ‘local trap’ when examining different forms of organisation and ownership in renewable energy, and further explore the question of scaling.

  1. Cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Sallan, Jose Maria; Lordan, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Cascading failures of loads in isolated networks have been studied extensively over the last decade. Since 2010, such research has extended to interdependent networks. In this paper, we study cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks. The effects of rewiring probability and coupling strength on the resilience of interdependent WS networks have been extensively investigated. It has been found that, for small values of the tolerance parameter, interdependent networks are more vulnerable as rewiring probability increases. For larger values of the tolerance parameter, the robustness of interdependent networks firstly decreases and then increases as rewiring probability increases. Coupling strength has a different impact on robustness. For low values of coupling strength, the resilience of interdependent networks decreases with the increment of the coupling strength until it reaches a certain threshold value. For values of coupling strength above this threshold, the opposite effect is observed. Our results are helpful to understand and design resilient interdependent networks.

  2. Local thermal energy as a structural indicator in glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberg, Jacques; Lerner, Edan; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-07-01

    Identifying heterogeneous structures in glasses—such as localized soft spots—and understanding structure-dynamics relations in these systems remain major scientific challenges. Here, we derive an exact expression for the local thermal energy of interacting particles (the mean local potential energy change caused by thermal fluctuations) in glassy systems by a systematic low-temperature expansion. We show that the local thermal energy can attain anomalously large values, inversely related to the degree of softness of localized structures in a glass, determined by a coupling between internal stresses—an intrinsic signature of glassy frustration—anharmonicity and low-frequency vibrational modes. These anomalously large values follow a fat-tailed distribution, with a universal exponent related to the recently observed universal ω4ω4 density of states of quasilocalized low-frequency vibrational modes. When the spatial thermal energy field—a “softness field”—is considered, this power law tail manifests itself by highly localized spots, which are significantly softer than their surroundings. These soft spots are shown to be susceptible to plastic rearrangements under external driving forces, having predictive powers that surpass those of the normal modes-based approach. These results offer a general, system/model-independent, physical/observable-based approach to identify structural properties of quiescent glasses and relate them to glassy dynamics.

  3. New interaction paths in the energy landscape: the role of local energy initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jessica; Zuidema, Christian; Gugerell, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Energy transition is an encompassing process which not only involves the energy system but also the landscape in which the energy system is embedded. Renewable energy is triggering new interactions with local landscapes in physical, socio-economic and institutional senses. We capture these

  4. Variability of bed mobility in natural, gravel-bed channels and adjustments to sediment load at local and reach scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle; Jonathan M. Nelson; John Pitlick; Mary Ann Madej; Brent L. Barkett

    2000-01-01

    Abstract - Local variations in boundary shear stress acting on bed-surface particles control patterns of bed load transport and channel evolution during varying stream discharges. At the reach scale a channel adjusts to imposed water and sediment supply through mutual interactions among channel form, local grain size, and local flow dynamics that govern bed mobility...

  5. Local application of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel to endometriosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhito; Murakami, Koichi; Shozu, Makio; Nakama, Tsuyoshi; Yui, Nobuhiko; Inoue, Masaki

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a drug delivery system composed of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid for local application to endometriosis. Prospective, randomized study. Academic research unit of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel (DZ-HA gel) was injected into the rat endometriosis model. Size and histological changes in experimental endometriosis, the concentration of danazol in the cyst wall and plasma, and estrous cycles were examined. Histologically, DZ-HA gel-treated cysts displayed marked atrophy of the endometrial epithelium. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased numbers of proliferative cells were noted with 10 mg/mL DZ-HA gel. Size of treated cysts decreased to approximately 60% at 9 weeks after injection. The estrous cycles were not disturbed during DZ-HA gel treatment. Local injection of DZ-HA gel achieved endometrial atrophy of an experimental model of endometriosis without disturbing the sexual cycle. These results suggest that local application of DZ using this drug delivery system may prove useful for treating endometriosis.

  6. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  7. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  8. THE STRESS STATE OF THE RADIALLY INHOMOGENEOUS HEMISPHERICAL SHELL UNDER LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED VERTICAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Vladimir Igorevich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: one of the promising trends in the development of structural mechanics is the development of methods for solving problems in the theory of elasticity for bodies with continuous inhomogeneity of any deformation characteristics: these methods make it possible to use the strength of the material most fully. In this paper, we consider the two-dimensional problem for the case when a vertical, locally distributed load acts on the hemisphere and the inhomogeneity is caused by the influence of the temperature field. Research objectives: derive governing system of equations in spherical coordinates for determination of the stress state of the radially inhomogeneous hemispherical shell under locally distributed vertical load. Materials and methods: as a mechanical model, we chose a thick-walled reinforced concrete shell (hemisphere with inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, b > a. The shell’s parameters are a = 3.3 m, b = 4.5 m, Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.16; the load parameters are f = 10MPa - vertical localized load distributed over the outer face, θ0 = 30°, temperature on the internal surface of the shell Ta = 500 °C, temperature on the external surface of the shell Tb = 0 °C. The resulting boundary-value problem (a system of differential equations with variable coefficients is solved using the Maple software package. Results: maximal compressive stresses σr with allowance for material inhomogeneity are reduced by 10 % compared with the case when the inhomogeneity is ignored. But it is not so important compared with a 3-fold decrease in the tensile stress σθ on the inner surface and a 2-fold reduction in the tensile stress σθ on the outer surface of the hemisphere as concretes generally have a tensile strength substantially smaller than the compressive strength. Conclusions: the method presented in this article makes it possible to reduce the deformation characteristics of the material, i.e. it leads to a reduction in stresses

  9. Assessing the performance of Dutch local energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhuis, Erik; Advokaat, Bart; Schaefer, Wim

    2012-01-01

    According to binding European Union agreements, the Netherlands has to cover at least 14% of its total energy use with renewable energy sources by 2020. However, the share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is small and hardly increasing. In 2010, renewable energy in the Netherlands accounted for only 3.8% of the national energy use, and has decreased with 0.4% compared to 2009. A cause of the stagnating renewable energy generation in the Netherlands is the absence of a nation-wide, clear and consistent long-term policy on the introduction of renewable energy. In order to overcome the current standstill in renewable energy adoption, several Dutch municipalities take the initiative and establish Local Energy Companies (LECs). However, to date, it is unclear which LEC type performs best. This research aims to compare the performance of existing LECs on three aspects: technology, finance, and organization. Furthermore, the performance of existing LECs is compared with theoretical reference LECs, in order to estimate efficiencies and opportunities for improvements. Finally, the influence of the recent changes in the Dutch subsidy scheme on LEC performance is examined. In order to achieve these aims, the benchmark method Data Envelopment Analysis is employed. - Highlights: ► Dutch Local Energy Companies (LECs) producing heat perform best in cost efficiency. ► Technical efficiency is highest in Dutch Local Energy Companies employing wind energy. ► Theoretical assumptions concerning LEC performance are not yet achieved in practice. ► The self supply model adds to the profitability of LECs, independent from subsidies. ► Recent changes in Dutch subsidy schemes add little to LECs’ financial performance.

  10. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create cooperations between both policy mechanisms

  11. Wind-energy harnessing - global, national and local considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Bunn, J.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the global issues of wind-energy capture and use is given, along with a case for developing the wind-energy potential of part of the Rhymney Valley, South Wales. Such an energy-supply project should be incorporated into an integrated energy and environmental strategy for the region. This would not only yield benefits with respect to the local, national and global environments, but also aid in enhancing the quality of life for the Rhymney Valley region and its inhabitants. (UK)

  12. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  13. Localization of Energy Harvesting Empowered Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is developed for energy harvesting underwater optical wireless sensor networks (EH-UOWSNs), where the optical noise sources and channel impairments of seawater pose significant challenges for range estimation. Energy limitation is another major problem due to the limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of an underwater sensor node. In the proposed framework, sensor nodes with insufficient battery, harvest the energy and starts communicating once it has sufficient energy storage. Network localization is carried out by measuring the RSSs of active nodes, which are modeled based on the underwater optical communication channel characteristics. Thereafter, block kernel matrices are computed for the RSS based range measurements. Unlike the traditional shortest-path approach, the proposed technique reduces the shortest path estimation for each block kernel matrix. Once the complete block kernel matrices are available, a closed form localization technique is developed to find the location of every optical sensor node in the network. Furthermore, an analytical expression for Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to compare the localization performance of the proposed technique. Finally, extensive simulations show that the proposed technique outperforms the well-known network localization techniques.

  14. A New Method for Local Energy Planning in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beeck, N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy planning is an essential tool in the economic development of industrialized as well as developing countries. Energy planning in this paper is restricted to the selection of new energy systems for the production of proper energy forms in order to meet increased energy demand. This demand is actually the desire for certain energy services, which are the starting point of the new decision support method for local energy planning presented in this paper. In the decision making process concerning energy planning at the local level it is important to include context-related issues because the context determines for a large part the viability of the technologies or systems used. The context, in turn, is represented by the aims of the relevant actors, which are translated into measurable indicators to compare the different options. The impact assessment must allow for inclusion of all the indicators, either quantitative or qualitative in order to find the most appropriate technology for a region rather than the technically best or economically most optimal one. Appropriateness is defined by the context and is thus case specific, but the framework described in this paper is generally applicable within the given limitations. Note that the new method described in this paper is a decision support tool, implying that it does not decide for the energy planner which actions to take. The ultimate decision must be made by the planners themselves

  15. Radial behavior of the average local ionization energies of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, P.; Murray, J.S.; Grice, M.E.; Brinck, T.; Ranganathan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The radial behavior of the average local ionization energy bar I(r) has been investigated for the atoms He--Kr, using ab initio Hartree--Fock atomic wave functions. bar I(r) is found to decrease in a stepwise manner with the inflection points serving effectively to define boundaries between electronic shells. There is a good inverse correlation between polarizability and the ionization energy in the outermost region of the atom, suggesting that bar I(r) may be a meaningful measure of local polarizabilities in atoms and molecules

  16. Spontaneous Broken Local Conformal Symmetry and Dark Energy Candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The local conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Local Lorentz invariance symmetry through the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting effective Lagrangian, in the unitary gauge, describes a cosmological vector field non-minimally coupling to the gravitational field. As a result of the Higgs mechanism, the vector field absorbs the dilaton and becomes massive, but with an independent energy scale. The Proca type vector field can be modelled as dark energy candidate. The possibility that it further triggers Lorentz symmetry violation is also pointed out

  17. Local and global dynamical effects of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.

    Local expansion flows of galaxies were discovered by Lemaitre and Hubble in 1927-29 at distances of less than 25-30 Mpc. The global expansion of the Universe as a whole was predicted theoretically by Friedmann in 1922-24 and discovered in the 1990s in observations at truly cosmological distances of more than 1 000 Mpc. On all these spatial scales, the flows follow a (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. This similarity of local and global phenomena is due to the universal dark energy antigravity which dominates the cosmic dynamics on both local and global spatial scales.

  18. Managing transition towards energy efficient housing at the local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    2010-01-01

    regulation in several European countries, the general picture remains that existing regimes in the building sector are withheld and that little innovation in terms of new radical energy efficient solutions is taking place. In order to dissolve such a deadlock in the building sector, there is a need to target...... the capability to coordinate and facilitate this complex transition process. The local scale of policy-formulation has been chosen in this paper in order to describe transition processes from the perspective of practitioners, who are hands on the specific building projects. The local scale provides an in......-depth study of how specific practitioners, such as local planning authorities, building firms, building developers, technical experts and suppliers, interact and coordinate their efforts in the local arena of a specific building project (within a more general framework). The focus on the local scale allows...

  19. Magnetic nanoparticle-loaded alginate beads for local micro-actuation of in vitro tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Awatef M; Wilson, Otto C; Dahal, Bishnu; Philip, John; Luo, Xiaolong; Raub, Christopher B

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) self-align and transduce magnetic force, two properties which lead to promising applications in cell and tissue engineering. However, the toxicity of MNPs to cells which uptake them is a major impediment to applications in engineered tissue constructs. To address this problem, MNPs were embedded in millimeter-scale alginate beads, coated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan, and loaded in acellular and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell-seeded collagen hydrogels, providing local micro-actuation under an external magnetic field. Brightfield microscopy was used to assess nanoparticle diffusion from the bead. Phase contrast microscopy and digital image correlation were used to track collagen matrix displacement and estimate intratissue strain under magnetic actuation. Coating the magnetic alginate beads with glutaraldehyde-chitosan prevents bulk diffusion of nanoparticles into the surrounding microenvironment. Further, the beads exert force on the surrounding collagen gel and cells, resulting in intratissue strains of 0-10% tunable with bead dimensions, collagen density, and distance from the bead. Cells seeded adjacent to the embedded beads are subjected to strain gradients without loss of cell viability over two days culture. This study describes a simple way to fabricate crosslinked magnetic alginate beads to load in a collagen tissue construct without direct exposure of the construct to nanoparticles. The findings are significant to in vitro studies of mechanobiology in enabling precise control over dynamic mechanical loading of tissue constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrational energy relaxation: proposed pathway of fast local chromatin denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.; Greinert, R.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for the a component of exchange-type chromosome aberrations, of chromosome fragmentation and of reproductive cell death is one of the unsolved issues of radiation biology. Under review is whether vibrational energy relaxation in the constitutive biopolymers of chromatin, induced by inelastic energy deposition events and mediated via highly excited vibrational states, may provide a pathway of fast local chromatin denaturation, thereby producing the severe DNA lesion able to interact chemically with other, non-damaged chromatin. (author)

  1. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  2. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  3. Energy momentum tensor in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.

    2001-01-01

    We study the energy momentum tensor in the Bogolyubov-Epstein-Glaser approach to perturbation theory. It is found to be locally conserved for a class of theories containing to derivated fields in the interaction. For the massless φ 4 -theory we derive the trace anomaly of the improved tensor. (orig.)

  4. Hawking–Hayward quasi-local energy under conformal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prain, Angus; Faraoni, Valerio; Lapierre-Léonard, Marianne; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive a formula describing the transformation of the Hawking–Hayward quasi-local energy under a conformal rescaling of the spacetime metric. A known formula for the transformation of the Misner–Sharp–Hernandez mass is recovered as a special case. (paper)

  5. Exchange energy in the local Airy gas approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model of the edge electron gas is used to construct an exchange-energy functional that is an alternative to those obtained in the local-density and generalized-gradient approximations. Test calculations for rare-gas atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces show that the Airy gas...

  6. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans...

  7. Local kinetic-energy density of the Airy gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model is used to derive an expression for the local kinetic energy in the linear potential approximation. The expression contains an explicit Laplacian term 2/5((h) over bar(2)/2m)del(mu)(2)(r) that, according to jellium surface calculations, must be a universal feature of any accura...

  8. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal insulation is one of the most important components of a thermal energy storage system. In this paper the thermal properties of selected potential local materials which can be used for high temperature insulation are presented. Thermal properties of seven different samples were measured. Samples consisted of: ...

  9. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of Quang Tri in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans...

  10. The Agri-Territorial Energy System: Energy from Biomass as a Tool in Local Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritz, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Biomass is a high-potential energy source whose development has been one of the primary objectives of the debate over the environment in France. Among the projects emerging today, we highlight two types of logics: large-scale projects such as electrical power or biofuel production plants, and smaller, local initiatives launched in rural areas. This paper lays down and illustrates the bases for the Agri-Territorial Energy System (ATES). This was inspired by Local Productive Systems and Localized Agri-food Systems, and the concept was set up on the basis of analyses of local projects involving biomass energy production. The ATES option offers strong local rooting and an organizational innovation process linking multi-stake holders. The concept is illustrated by two case studies: the Miscanthus project in Ammerzwiller (Alsace), and the Bois Bocage energy project in Orne (Basse-Normandie). These examples bring up an important point, namely the multifunctional dimension of the ATES concept

  11. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities......, as responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...

  12. Energy efficiency - The struggle for load management is raging. The French Riviera redoubles savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel; Barla, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A first article discusses the debate initiated by a decree on load management associated with the French Brottes law on energy. Load management is the possibility for consumers to reduce their consumption at peak hours. Electricity producers and suppliers are of course against, whereas new actors (load managers or aggregators) are for. The issue is then to determine who will pay this managed (and not consumed) energy. The article also evokes a controversy about the Brottes law which creates a bonus to subsidy load management, and comments the development of this load management market and its legal framework. A second article describes actions undertaken by industries of the French Riviera to manage their energy consumption

  13. Evolution strategy based optimal chiller loading for saving energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-C.; Lee, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-R.; Chou, C.-J.; Chen, W.-H.; Chen, W.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study employs evolution strategy (ES) to solve optimal chiller loading (OCL) problem. ES overcomes the flaw that Lagrangian method is not adaptable for solving OCL as the power consumption models or the kW-PLR (partial load ratio) curves include convex functions and concave functions simultaneously. The complicated process of evolution by the genetic algorithm (GA) method for solving OCL can also be simplified by the ES method. This study uses the PLR of chiller as the variable to be solved for the decoupled air conditioning system. After analysis and comparison of the case study, it has been concluded that this method not only solves the problems of Lagrangian method and GA method, but also produces results with high accuracy within a rapid timeframe. It can be perfectly applied to the operation of air conditioning systems

  14. Analysis of linezolid and tigecycline as candidates for local prophylaxis via antibiotic-loaded bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, T; Smith, T J; Townsend, R; Stockley, I; Akid, R

    2017-02-01

    To assess the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic linezolid and the broad-spectrum antibiotic tigecycline for use in local antibiotic delivery via antibiotic-loaded bone cement. Linezolid and tigecycline were added to Biomet bone cement at varying concentrations. Antibiotic elution over 1 week was quantified by HPLC-MS. The effect of wear on elution over 51 h was determined using a modified TE-66 wear tester. Eluted antibiotics were used to determine the MICs for a panel of clinically relevant bacteria. The impact strength of antibiotic-loaded samples was determined using a Charpy-type impact testing apparatus. Cytotoxicity of eluted antibiotics against MG-63 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay. Linezolid and tigecycline eluted from bone cement to clinically relevant levels within 1 h and retained activity over 1 week. Mechanical wear significantly reduced elution of tigecycline, but had little effect on elution of linezolid. Linezolid showed low cytotoxicity towards MG-63 cells with ≤300 mg/mL resulting in >50% cell activity. Cytotoxicity of tigecycline was higher, with an IC 50 of 5-10 mg/L. Linezolid and tigecycline retain activity after elution from bone cement. The concentration of tigecycline may need to be carefully controlled due to cytotoxicity. The effect of wear on bone cement may need to be considered if tigecycline is to be used for local delivery. Up to 10% linezolid can be added without affecting the impact strength of the bone cement. These results are promising indications for future investigation of these antibiotics for use in local antibiotic delivery strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Fat or lean: adjustment of endogenous energy stores to predictable and unpredictable changes in allostatic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, Jannik; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott

    2013-01-01

    1. The ability to store energy endogenously is an important ecological mechanism that allows animals to buffer predictable and unpredictable variation in allostatic load. The secretion of glucocorticoids, which reflects changes in allostatic load, is suggested to play a major role in the adjustment of endogenous stores to these varying conditions.

  16. Investigation on energy storage and quick load change control of subcritical circulating fluidized bed boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mingming; Hong, Feng; Liu, Jizhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The model of energy storage of subcritical CFB boilers is established. • The capacity and increment rate of heat storage are quantified. • A novel load control strategy is proposed to improve the quick load change ability. • An application on the 300 MW CFB unit proves the load change rate to 5–8 MW/min. - Abstract: The energy storage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers on fuel side cannot be ignored due to the special combustion type different from pulverized coal boilers. The sizable energy storage makes it possible for CFB units to enhance the quick load change ability and to increase the scale of new energy power connected into grid. Through mechanism analysis, the model of energy storage of subcritical CFB boilers has been established for the first time. Then by the project practice, the quantitative analysis is demonstrated for the capacity and control characteristics of energy storage on fuel side and steam water side. Based on the control characteristics and the transformation of the energy storage, a coordinated control system (CCS) control strategy named advanced energy balance (AEB) is designed to shorten the response time through the use of energy storage and to accelerate the load change speed of subcritical CFB units. Finally, a case study on a 300 MW CFB unit proves the feasibility of the proposed control strategy.

  17. Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindström, Daniel; Ottosson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Many companies providing energy services are experiencing difficulties. • This research identifies key activities for the provision of energy services. • Findings are aggregated to the business-model level providing managerial insights. • This research identifies two different business model innovation paths. • Energy companies may need to renew parts of, or the entire, business model. - Abstract: Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  18. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  19. Peak-load pricing and thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Twenty papers were presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 19 papers. One paper was processed previously for the Energy Data Base (EDB). Fifteen of the papers were processed for inclusion in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (LCL)

  20. Green IGP Link Weights for Energy-efficiency and Load-balancing in IP Backbone Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Frederic; Wang, Ning; Moessner, Klaus; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption of backbone networks has become a primary concern for network operators and regulators due to the pervasive deployment of wired backbone networks to meet the requirements of bandwidth-hungry applications. While traditional optimization of IGP link weights has been used in IP based load-balancing operations, in this paper we introduce a novel link weight setting algorithm, the Green Load-balancing Algorithm (GLA), which is able to jointly optimize both energy efficiency ...

  1. Struggle over energy transition in Berlin: How do grassroots initiatives affect local energy policy-making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the growing role of grassroots initiatives in the governance of urban energy systems. In recent years, research has increasingly underlined the potential for sustainable innovation of community-led bottom-up actions but has at the same time underestimated their potential impact on the governance of energy systems. Based on a strategic action field framework (SAF), this paper analyses the conflicts over the remunicipalisation of Berlin's electricity grid and investigates the creation and strategic development of two grassroots initiatives as well as their interaction with the local government and the established grid operator. We argue that grassroots initiatives have an important impact on the local energy system, not just through their influence on the implementation of local energy policy but above all by their framing of a specific vision of a local energy transition. The paper discusses the scope and limits of such initiatives in an urban context. - Highlights: • Grassroots initiatives as actors with countervailing power in local energy policy. • They increase citizens' awareness and impact the action of the local government. • Grids as objects of struggle between competing visions of energy transition. • Urban context is both a resource and a constraint for grassroots initiatives action

  2. Deep Constrained Siamese Hash Coding Network and Load-Balanced Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Near Duplicate Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Fan, Yabo; Xing, Junliang; Sun, Liang; Cai, Zhaoquan; Maybank, Stephen

    2018-09-01

    We construct a new efficient near duplicate image detection method using a hierarchical hash code learning neural network and load-balanced locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) indexing. We propose a deep constrained siamese hash coding neural network combined with deep feature learning. Our neural network is able to extract effective features for near duplicate image detection. The extracted features are used to construct a LSH-based index. We propose a load-balanced LSH method to produce load-balanced buckets in the hashing process. The load-balanced LSH significantly reduces the query time. Based on the proposed load-balanced LSH, we design an effective and feasible algorithm for near duplicate image detection. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our deep siamese hash encoding network and load-balanced LSH.

  3. Total-energy global optimizations using nonorthogonal localized orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Mauri, F.; Galli, G.

    1995-01-01

    An energy functional for orbital-based O(N) calculations is proposed, which depends on a number of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals larger than the number of occupied states in the system, and on a parameter, the electronic chemical potential, determining the number of electrons. We show that the minimization of the functional with respect to overlapping localized orbitals can be performed so as to attain directly the ground-state energy, without being trapped at local minima. The present approach overcomes the multiple-minima problem present within the original formulation of orbital-based O(N) methods; it therefore makes it possible to perform O(N) calculations for an arbitrary system, without including any information about the system bonding properties in the construction of the input wave functions. Furthermore, while retaining the same computational cost as the original approach, our formulation allows one to improve the variational estimate of the ground-state energy, and the energy conservation during a molecular dynamics run. Several numerical examples for surfaces, bulk systems, and clusters are presented and discussed

  4. Understanding Local Energy Initiatives and Preconditions for Business Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Oostra, M. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    More and more local bottom-up energy initiatives are emerging. Those involved encounter many barriers during the realization of their ideas. As the generation of renewable energy is mostly included, these local initiatives contribute to the targets set at regional, national and EU level. At the same time, they are an indication that end-users themselves want to be part of the energy transition. What are the reasons for citizens to organize themselves and start and initiative? What kind of barriers do they encounter? What does this mean for roles and responsibilities of professionals? And to what kind of opportunities does this lead for products and services? Answers to these questions provide a solid starting point to develop methods and instruments to stimulate, facilitate and upscale local energy initiatives. This paper bundles the outcomes of three workshops and three additional interviews in the Netherlands as part of the European E-hub project. Conclusions can be drawn on needs and drivers, barriers, risks and solutions (lessons learned), possible roles for professionals and opportunities for new products and services.

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF LOADING-BACK SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Acceptance post-repair testsof electric traction machinesare conducted onloading-backstandsthat reducethe overall power costsfor the tests.Currentlya numberof possiblecircuit designs of loading-backsystems of electric machines are known, but there is nomethod of determiningtheir energy efficiency. This in turn makes difficult the choiceof rationaloptions. The purpose of the article is the development of the corresponding methodo-logy to make easier this process. Methodology. Expressions for determining theenergy efficiency ofa stand for testingof electric traction machineswere obtained using the generalizedscheme analysisof energy transformationsin the loading-backsystems of universal structure. Findings.Thetechnique wasoffered and the analytical expressions for determining the energy efficiency of loading-backsystemsof electric traction machines wereobtained. Energy efficiency coefficientofloading-backsystemisproposed to consider as the ratio of the total actionenergy of the mechanical and electromotive forces, providing anchors rotation and flowof currents in electric machines, which are being tested,to the total energy, consumed during the test from the external network. Originality. The concept was introduced and the analytical determination method of the energy efficiency of loading-backsystem in electric traction machines was offered. It differs by efficiency availability of power sources and converters, as well as energy efficiency factors of indirect methods of loss compensation. Practical value. The proposed technique of energy efficiency estimation of a loading-backsystemcan be used in solving the problem of rational options choice of schematics stands decisions for electric traction machines acceptance tests of main line and industrial transport.

  6. Methodology of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrat, W.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents issues of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market. Results of research presented in the paper are mainly proposing a concept of a methodology which allows the evaluation of investment processes in regional power markets at the decision-making stage. In this respect, selecting a rational investment strategy is an important stage of the entire investment process. In view of criteria of various nature, the construction of a methodology of investment effectiveness bears an especially important meaning for a local decision-maker or investor. It is of particular significance to countries that are undergoing a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. (orig.)

  7. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  8. The semen microbiome and its relationship with local immunology and viral load in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM, including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024, TNF-α (p = 0.009, and IL-1b (p = 0.002. IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r(2  = 0.18, p = 0.02. Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r(2 = 0.15, p = 0.02. HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission.

  9. Adaptation of junior orienteers to loads, developing local-regional and special muscular endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Abzalilov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: complex assessment of junior sport orientation athletes in conditions of concentrated training of local-regional muscular endurance and stroke loads (final part of preparation for competitions. Materials: in the research sport orientation athletes (n=34, age 13-16 years participated. The athletes were divided into tested group (n=17 and group of comparison (n=17. In every group there were 17 boys and girls. The tested group consisted of volunteers, who practiced sport orientation. Comparison group included average distance and steeplechase runners. Results: In system of junior orienteers’ training we found: gender distinctions in carbohydrates and fats consumption (in the ranges of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds; substantial physiological changes in static-kinetic balance (tests with open and closed eyes. Dynamic coefficient of balance in main stance was better in sport orienteers, comparing with runners. Conclusions: it is recommended to fulfill exercises in conditions of stretching, combined with motor actions of speed-power orientation and relaxation.

  10. Fault localization technics in energy and communication cables. Fehlerortungstechnik in Energie- und Nachrichtenkabeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartz, W G; Wippler, E

    1981-01-01

    Though fault localization technics in energy and information cables represents a special field within electrical engineering or electrical measurement engineering its significance becomes visible when fault-localization technics is seen with the same eyes as energy supply or information exchange. To maintain supply and exchange disturbance free, e.g. by means of continuous or periodical monitoring or to restore them quickly in case of disturbance is the task of fault localization technics. This new volume shall give a survey on the network structures in energy and communication networks, on the types and frequency of past interruptions and also on procedures to evaluate interruptions statistically. Methods, procedures and measurement techniques of fault-localization technics are presented for usual communication and energy cables as well as for optical communication cables.

  11. Preliminary Load Estimations for DEXA Wave Energy Device - Hanstholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, in regular and irregular wave states, as described in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The length scale of the model was 1:20 compared to a full scale device suitable fro the Danish part of the North Sea, according...... to DEXA Wave Energy ApS. The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, were measured and used for calculation of power available...... to the power take-off....

  12. The local response of elastic tubes and shells to spherical pressure pulse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.J.; Holy, Z.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper develops a formulation and numerical solution technique for calculating the peak transient stresses developed in tubes or shells with external and internal acoustic media, as a result of shock loadings which may be represented as originating from external or internal point symmetric or dipole sources. The field of application is intended to be the local peak response of the cylindrical fuel cans, core barrels, pressure vessels, pipes and containment shells of Nuclear Reactor Technology, subjected to transient pressure shock loadings for a variety of operational or accident conditions, which cannot adequately be described as one dimensional plane shocks, for which elastic shell responses have been presented by other workers. The work reported here concerns the basic problem of an infinite static fluid filled hollow cylinder of arbitrary thickness, in an infinite static fluid medium, with a source at an arbitrary internal or external radial location. An acoustic model is used, with acoustic damping due to radiation as the only possible damping mechanism. The formulation and solution technique is based on the availability of the multi-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The basic result is the representation, in cylindrical co-ordinates, of the two dimensional (time and axial co-ordinate) Fourier Transform of the infinite medium frequency response function for outgoing waves from a point symmetrical source, as a series of azimuthal Fourier harmonics, from which the result for a dipole source of arbitrary orientation follows. Where possible numerical results will be presented

  13. Experimental research of plastic scintillation detector loaded 6Li neutron energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lizong; Zhang Chuanfei; Peng Taiping; Guo Cun; Yang Hongqiong; Zhang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    A new plastic scintillator, plastic scintillator loaded 6 Li, is brought forward and developed in this paper in order to increase low energy neutron sensitivity. Neutron sensitivity of several plastic scintillation detectors loaded 6 Li new developed in neutron energy range 0.2 MeV-5.0 MeV are calibrated by direct current at serial accelerator. Energy response curves of the detectors are obtained in this experiment. It is shown that this new plastic scintillation detector can increase low energy neutron sensitivity in experimental results. (authors)

  14. An optimal control model for load shifting - With application in the energy management of a colliery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelberg, Arno; Zhang Jiangfeng; Xia Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control model for the load shifting problem in energy management and its application in a South African colliery. It is illustrated in the colliery scenario that how the optimal control model can be applied to optimize load shifting and improve energy efficiency through the control of conveyor belts. The time-of-use electricity tariff is used as an input to the objective function in order to obtain a solution that minimizes electricity costs and thus maximizes load shifting. The case study yields promising results that show the potential of applying this optimal control model to other industrial Demand Side Management initiatives

  15. Load Situation Awareness Design for Integration in Multi-Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hanmin; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) have been penetrating in power system at a staggering pace in recent years. Their intermittent nature is, however, posing great threat to system operation. Recently, active load management has been suggested as a tool to counteract these side effects. In multi......-energy system, thermal load management will benefit not only electric network but also district heating network. Electric heater will be the main focus of this paper as a common thermal load. A situation awareness framework for its integration into electric and district heating network will be proposed...

  16. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, C.; Redekop, D.

    2005-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading

  17. HDAC inhibitor-loaded bone cement for advanced local treatment of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonak, Marcus; Becker, Marc; Graf, Claudine; Eckhard, Lukas; Theobald, Matthias; Rommens, Pol-Maria; Wehler, Thomas C; Proschek, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    The treatment of osteosarcoma, especially wide resection, is challenging. An additional local drug therapy after resection using anti-neoplastic bone cement (Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) could help improve the outcome of therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PMMA loaded with valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on the cell activity of a SaOs-2 cell culture, as well as the elution rate of the drugs out of the bone cement. In our experiments, we used the SaOs-2 osteosarcoma and the SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Bone cement clots (5 g) were prepared and loaded with different drug concentrations of VPA (25 mg and 50 mg) and SAHA (1 mg, 2.5 mg and 5 mg). Two control groups were established, one with a native cement clot, the other with human mesenchymal stem cells, in order to evaluate toxicity on non tumor-cells. Cell activity was measured using an Alamar Blue assay on days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7. The cement clots were additionally examined in a material testing unit for biomechanical and structural changes. Tumor cells showed a significant and complete reduction of activity under therapy with VPA and SAHA. Drug release of VPA was extensive between days 0 and 3 and decreased progressively to day 7. Cumulative drug concentration in the medium continuously increased. Biomechanical testing of the cement clots showed no differences in stability and architecture compared to the control group. SaOs-2 and SW1353 cells with medium from native cement clots without drug therapy presented a cell activity of 100% in all groups and during all measurements. Human mesenchymal stem cells were not significantly affected during therapy with VPA and low concentrations of SAHA. In contrast, cell activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was significantly reduced under therapy with higher concentrations of SAHA, with an approximately linear decrease between days 0-3 and a rapidly decreasing activity between days 4-7. A local cytotoxic therapy in the

  18. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  19. Research on Energy-Saving Design of Overhead Travelling Crane Camber Based on Probability Load Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crane is a mechanical device, used widely to move materials in modern production. It is reported that the energy consumptions of China are at least 5–8 times of other developing countries. Thus, energy consumption becomes an unavoidable topic. There are several reasons influencing the energy loss, and the camber of the girder is the one not to be neglected. In this paper, the problem of the deflections induced by the moving payload in the girder of overhead travelling crane is examined. The evaluation of a camber giving a counterdeflection of the girder is proposed in order to get minimum energy consumptions for trolley to move along a nonstraight support. To this aim, probabilistic payload distributions are considered instead of fixed or rated loads involved in other researches. Taking 50/10 t bridge crane as a research object, the probability loads are determined by analysis of load distribution density functions. According to load distribution, camber design under different probability loads is discussed in detail as well as energy consumptions distribution. The research results provide the design reference of reasonable camber to obtain the least energy consumption for climbing corresponding to different P0; thus energy-saving design can be achieved.

  20. Improving Indoor Localization Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kriz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic principles of a radio-based indoor localization and focuses on the improvement of its results with the aid of a new Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The advantage of this technology lies in its support by contemporary mobile devices, especially by smartphones and tablets. We have implemented a distributed system for collecting radio fingerprints by mobile devices with the Android operating system. This system enables volunteers to create radio-maps and update them continuously. New Bluetooth Low Energy transmitters (Apple uses its “iBeacon” brand name for these devices have been installed on the floor of the building in addition to existing WiFi access points. The localization of stationary objects based on WiFi, Bluetooth Low Energy, and their combination has been evaluated using the data measured during the experiment in the building. Several configurations of the transmitters’ arrangement, several ways of combination of the data from both technologies, and other parameters influencing the accuracy of the stationary localization have been tested.

  1. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  2. Marketing conception interaction between power system and electric energy loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagiev, G.L.; Shneerova, G.V.; Taratin, V.A.; Barykin, E.E.; Zajtsev, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    New concept of functioning fuel-power complex, based on the marketing system is, is presented in brief form. This system includes demand management program, working policy program, active energy-saving policy program and advertisment-service organization program. Methods for realization of demand management and working policy programs are considered

  3. Energy savings in mobile broadband network based on load predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samulevicius, Saulius; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—The deployment of new network equipment is resulting in increasing energy consumption in mobile broadband networks (MBNs). This contributes to higher CO2 emissions. Over the last 10 years MBNs have grown considerably, and are still growing to meet the evolution in traffic volume carried...

  4. Superdiffusive transport and energy localization in disordered granular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alejandro J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Porter, Mason A.

    2016-02-01

    We study the spreading of initially localized excitations in one-dimensional disordered granular crystals. We thereby investigate localization phenomena in strongly nonlinear systems, which we demonstrate to differ fundamentally from localization in linear and weakly nonlinear systems. We conduct a thorough comparison of wave dynamics in chains with three different types of disorder—an uncorrelated (Anderson-like) disorder and two types of correlated disorders (which are produced by random dimer arrangements)—and for two types of initial conditions (displacement excitations and velocity excitations). We find for strongly precompressed (i.e., weakly nonlinear) chains that the dynamics depend strongly on the type of initial condition. In particular, for displacement excitations, the long-time asymptotic behavior of the second moment m˜2 of the energy has oscillations that depend on the type of disorder, with a complex trend that differs markedly from a power law and which is particularly evident for an Anderson-like disorder. By contrast, for velocity excitations, we find that a standard scaling m˜2˜tγ (for some constant γ ) applies for all three types of disorder. For weakly precompressed (i.e., strongly nonlinear) chains, m˜2 and the inverse participation ratio P-1 satisfy scaling relations m˜2˜tγ and P-1˜t-η , and the dynamics is superdiffusive for all of the cases that we consider. Additionally, when precompression is strong, the inverse participation ratio decreases slowly (with η disorder, and the dynamics leads to a partial localization around the core and the leading edge of a propagating wave packet. For an Anderson-like disorder, displacement perturbations lead to localization of energy primarily in the core, and velocity perturbations cause the energy to be divided between the core and the leading edge. This localization phenomenon does not occur in the sonic-vacuum regime, which yields the surprising result that the energy is no longer

  5. Can energy utilities play a role in local political energy savings programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Danish municipalities are putting climate change high on the agenda with action plans and targets to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To reach these targets the municipalities need to engage citizens and the local business sector. In order to find new routes on how to engage and motivate local...... businesses to achieve GHG reductions, seven Danish municipalities (Copenhagen, Albertslund, Allerød, Ballerup, Herning, Kolding and Næstved) have joined forces in an EU LIFE project “Carbon 20”. A key element in the Carbon 20 project is to offer an energy screening free of charge for the participating...... the screening to small companies since the savings are rather limited in absolute terms. This article will focus on the appropriateness of using energy utilities (or consultants working on their behalf) in a local political context of engaging the local business sector in achieving energy savings and GHG...

  6. Minimization of local impact of energy systems through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, Gabriele; Colombo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The model proposed aims at minimizing local impact of energy systems. • The model is meant to minimize the impact starting from system thermodynamics. • The formulation combines exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis. • The approach of the model is dual to Thermoeconomics. - Abstract: For the acceptability of energy systems, environmental impacts are becoming more and more important. One primary way for reducing impacts related to processes is by improving efficiency of plants. A key instrument currently used to verify such improvements is exergy analysis, extended to include also the environmental externalities generated by systems. Through exergy-based analyses, it is possible indeed to evaluate the overall amount of resources consumed along all the phases of the life cycle of a system, from construction to dismantling. However, resource consumption is a dimension of the impact of a system at global level, while it may not be considered a measure of its local impact. In the paper a complementary approach named Combined Risk and Exergy Analysis (CRExA) to assess impacts from major accidents in energy systems is proposed, based on the combination of classical exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Impacts considered are focused on effects on human health. The approach leads to the identification of solutions to minimize damages of major accidents by acting on the energy system design

  7. Energy-Efficient Collaborative Outdoor Localization for Participatory Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning.

  8. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  9. Analysis of recurrent neural networks for short-term energy load forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persio, Luca; Honchar, Oleksandr

    2017-11-01

    Short-term forecasts have recently gained an increasing attention because of the rise of competitive electricity markets. In fact, short-terms forecast of possible future loads turn out to be fundamental to build efficient energy management strategies as well as to avoid energy wastage. Such type of challenges are difficult to tackle both from a theoretical and applied point of view. Latter tasks require sophisticated methods to manage multidimensional time series related to stochastic phenomena which are often highly interconnected. In the present work we first review novel approaches to energy load forecasting based on recurrent neural network, focusing our attention on long/short term memory architectures (LSTMs). Such type of artificial neural networks have been widely applied to problems dealing with sequential data such it happens, e.g., in socio-economics settings, for text recognition purposes, concerning video signals, etc., always showing their effectiveness to model complex temporal data. Moreover, we consider different novel variations of basic LSTMs, such as sequence-to-sequence approach and bidirectional LSTMs, aiming at providing effective models for energy load data. Last but not least, we test all the described algorithms on real energy load data showing not only that deep recurrent networks can be successfully applied to energy load forecasting, but also that this approach can be extended to other problems based on time series prediction.

  10. Energy management for vehicle power net with flexible electric load demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Koot, M.W.T.; Jager, de A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly and to supply all electric loads efficiently, energy management (EM) turns out to be a necessity. In general, EM exploits the storage capacity of a buffer connected to the vehicle's power net, such that energy is stored or retrieved at

  11. The role of grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaic generation in commercial building energy and power loads in a warm and sunny climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Ruether, R.

    2010-01-01

    For large commercial buildings, power load delivery limits are contracted with the local electricity distribution utility, and are usually fixed at one or more levels over the year, according to the seasonal building loads, and depending on the specific country regulations. Especially in warm and sunny climates, solar electricity generation using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can assist in reducing commercial building loads, offering peak-shaving (power) benefits on top of the on-site generation of electricity (energy). This on-site power delivery capability gives these consumers the possibility of renegotiating demand contracts with their distribution utility. Commercial buildings that operate during daytime quite often have an energy consumption profile that is well matched by solar radiation availability, and depending on the building's available surface areas, BIPV can generate considerable portions of the energy requirements. In this work we present the role of grid-connected BIPV in reducing the load demands of a large and urban commercial building located in a warm climate in Brazil. The building and adjacent car parking lots can accommodate a 1 MWp BIPV generator, which closely matches the building's typical maximum power demands. Based on real solar radiation data and simultaneous building electricity demands for the year 2007, simulation of the annual solar generation profile of this on-site generator showed that the 1 MWp BIPV system could account for around 30% of the total building's energy consumption. In addition to the energy benefit, maximum power demands were reduced due to a good match between midday air-conditioning cooling loads and solar radiation availability on both a daily and seasonal basis. Furthermore, we have simulated the effect of this considerably large urban-sited generator on the local distribution network load, and have shown that the 1 MWp BIPV installation can also offer considerable benefits to the local utility in

  12. Load management as a smart grid concept for sizing and designing of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltamaly, Ali M.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Al-Saud, M. S.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2017-10-01

    Optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) to satisfy load requirements with the highest reliability and lowest cost is a crucial step in building HRESs to supply electricity to remote areas. Applying smart grid concepts such as load management can reduce the size of HRES components and reduce the cost of generated energy considerably. In this article, sizing of HRES is carried out by dividing the load into high- and low-priority parts. The proposed system is formed by a photovoltaic array, wind turbines, batteries, fuel cells and a diesel generator as a back-up energy source. A smart particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm using MATLAB is introduced to determine the optimal size of the HRES. The simulation was carried out with and without division of the load to compare these concepts. HOMER software was also used to simulate the proposed system without dividing the loads to verify the results obtained from the proposed PSO algorithm. The results show that the percentage of division of the load is inversely proportional to the cost of the generated energy.

  13. Energy Savings in Cellular Networks Based on Space-Time Structure of Traffic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jian; Shan, Xiuming

    Since most of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure is due to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), switching off BTSs when traffic load is low has been recognized as an effective way of saving energy. In this letter, an energy saving scheme is proposed to minimize the number of active BTSs based on the space-time structure of traffic loads as determined by principal component analysis. Compared to existing methods, our approach models traffic loads more accurately, and has a much smaller input size. As it is implemented in an off-line manner, our scheme also avoids excessive communications and computing overheads. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a comparable performance in energy savings.

  14. Inclusion of Structural Flexibility in Design Load Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Hydroelastic interactions, caused by ocean wave loading on wave energy devices with deformable structures, are studied in the time domain. A midfidelity, hybrid modeling approach of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics is developed and implemented in an open-source simulation tool for wave energy converters (WEC-Sim) to simulate the dynamic responses of wave energy converter component structural deformations under wave loading. A generalized coordinate system, including degrees of freedom associated with rigid bodies, structural modes, and constraints connecting multiple bodies, is utilized. A simplified method of calculating stress loads and sectional bending moments is implemented, with the purpose of sizing and designing wave energy converters. Results calculated using the method presented are verified with those of high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations, as well as low-fidelity, frequency-domain, boundary element method analysis.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of locally prepared fast meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2006-12-01

    Locally prepared meal (Kubba, Borak, Cheese borak and Sheesh Tawoq) was treated with 0, 2, 4, or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerators (1- 4 centigrade degree). Microbiological and chemical analyses were performed on each treated sample immediately after processing, and weekly throughout storage period which lasted for 3 weeks for Kubba, 6 weeks for Borak and Cheese Borak and 20 weeks for Sheesh Tawoq. Sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were done within one week after irradiation. Results of the proximate analysis of Borak, Cheese Borak and Sheesh Tawoq showed that irradiation doses did not have a significant effect on moisture, protein and fat content of meals. Whereas, irradiation decreased the major constituents of Kubba moisture, protein and fats. Used doses of gamma irradiation decreased the microorganisms load and increased the shelf-life of Kubba, Borak, Cheese Borak and Sheesh Tawoq. The radiation doses required to reduce the microorganisms load one log cycle (D 1 0) in Borak were 456 and 510 Gy and in cheese Borak 303 and 500 Gy for the Salmonella and E. coli respectively. The three chemical parameters, total acidity, lipid peroxide and volatile basic nitrogen, which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 3 weeks for Kubba, 6 weeks for Borak and Cheese Borak and 20 weeks for Sheesh Tawoq treated with 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  16. Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianguo

    2005-01-01

    The dominance of a single-energy system inevitably leads to excessive burden on, and eventually weakening, a particular aspect of the environment, and can cause environmental fatigue and failure (permanent damage) or even catastrophe if dominated for too long; thus it inevitably poses the health and environmental risk. This is the case for our currently fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In fact, each energy system, including renewables and alternative fuels, has its own unique adverse impact on the environment, as dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. A truly sustainable development may be achieved with the diversification and localization of energy sources and systems if the adverse impact of each energy system is sufficiently small and well within the tolerance limit of the environment. Energy diversification and localization would also provide a security for the energy supply and distribution as well for the energy consumers - a specifically important issue in the wake of blackout (electric power failure) in the Northeastern states to the Midwest of the United States and part of Canada on August 14, 2003. The idea of diversified energy systems for the good of humanity and environment is similar to many analogies in other fields, such as bio-diversity is the best means to prevent the spread and damage of diseases and pests, and diversified investment is the best strategy to guarantee the overall best investment return. It is concluded that the diversification and localization of energy systems is the best future energy systems that would be environmentally compatible, and allow for sustainable development as well as energy security for both supply and distribution to the energy consumers

  17. Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianguo Li

    2005-01-01

    The dominance of a single-energy system inevitably leads to excessive burden on, and eventually weakening, a particular aspect of the environment, and can cause environmental fatigue and failure (permanent damage) or even catastrophe if dominated for too long; thus it inevitably poses the health and environmental risk. This is the case for our currently fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In fact, each energy system, including renewables and alternative fuels, has its own unique adverse impact on the environment, as dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. A truly sustainable development may be achieved with the diversification and localization of energy sources and systems if the adverse impact of each energy system is sufficiently small and well within the tolerance limit of the environment. Energy diversification and localization would also provide a security for the energy supply and distribution as well for the energy consumers - a specifically important issue in the wake of blackout (electric power failure) in the Northeastern states to the Midwest of the United States and part of Canada on August 14, 2003. The idea of diversified energy systems for the good of humanity and environment is similar to many analogies in other fields, such as bio-diversity is the best means to prevent the spread and damage of diseases and pests, and diversified investment is the best strategy to guarantee the overall best investment return. It is concluded that the diversification and localization of energy systems is the best future energy systems that would be environmentally compatible, and allow for sustainable development as well as energy security for both supply and distribution to the energy consumers. (Author)

  18. Enhancing energy efficiency in public buildings: The role of local energy audit programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annunziata, Eleonora; Rizzi, Francesco; Frey, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In the objective of reaching the “nearly zero-energy buildings” target set by the European Union, municipalities cover a crucial role in advocating and implementing energy-efficient measures on a local scale. Based on a dataset of 322 municipalities in Northern Italy, we carried out a statistical analysis to investigate which factors influence the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. In particular, the analysis focuses on four categories of factors: (i) capacity building for energy efficiency, (ii) existing structure and competences for energy efficiency, (iii) technical and economic support for energy efficiency, and (iv) spill-over effect caused by adoption of “easier” energy-efficient measures. Our results show that capacity building through training courses and technical support provided by energy audits affect positively the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. The size of the municipal authority, the setting of local energy policies for residential buildings and funding for energy audits are not correlated with energy efficiency in public buildings, where the “plucking of low hanging fruit” often prevails over more cost-effective but long-term strategies. Finally, our results call for the need to promote an efficient knowledge management and a revision of the Stability and Growth Pact. - Highlights: • Public procurement supports the deployment of the energy efficiency of buildings. • Energy audits and other factors influence energy efficiency in public buildings. • Econometric analysis applied to data from 322 municipalities in Northern Italy. • Municipalities need to overtake the “plucking of low-hanging fruit”. • Knowledge management should be associated with removal of budget constraints

  19. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Average 33% time of daily electrical load shedding in Pakistan is most serious as it has affected all activities. Industries are crippled, commercial, official activities and daily life is being deteriorated Total loss to Export is 1.3 and oil import bill is $ 9 Billion. If appropriate actions are not taken immediately; the situation is going to get worse when people will fight for every watt of electricity. The impounding crises are not foreseen and its gravity is not yet properly realized by the decision makers. Politics and several lobbies work against construction of major projects of hydel power and baseless controversies have been created. Pakistan is blessed with abundant renewable energy i.e. 2.9 million MW solar, tidal, wind 346,000 MW and 59,000 MW potentials of hydro electricity. Analysis of the reasons for the slow and no growth of these vital renewable potentials in Pakistan indicate that there are barriers which need to be mitigated to take immediate benefits to overcome menace of load shedding. Local R and D, Design, manufacturing, installation and feasibility study capabilities are negligible. Institutional capabilities in most of the organizations can at best be ranked as average or weak. Other impediments and barriers that continue to hamper the load shedding are losses, attitude in the promotion of renewable and hydro power projects include: lack of serious attempts to mitigate the barriers, integrate the programs with profitability; inadequate evaluation of resources; non availability of reliable baseline data; and lack of coordination among the relevant agencies; weak institutional arrangements for renewable energy promotion; absence of fiscal and financing mechanisms; lack of understanding, awareness, information and outreach; uneven allocation of resources; lack of appropriate quality management, monitoring and evaluation programs; and need of attractive policy framework and legislative support, building consensus among people and provinces

  20. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads II: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we verify the two optimal electric load concepts based on the zero reflection condition and on the power maximization approach for ultrasound energy receivers. We test a high loss 1-3 composite transducer, and find that the measurements agree very well with the predictions of the analytic model for plate transducers that we have developed previously. Additionally, we also confirm that the power maximization and zero reflection loads are very different when the losses in the receiver are high. Finally, we compare the optimal load predictions by the KLM and the analytic models with frequency dependent attenuation to evaluate the influence of the viscosity.

  1. Energy transition in and by the local media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2013-01-01

    have addressed the media at a national or international level. This article investigates the mediating of a local, municipal initiative, i.e. the so-called ‘Energy Town Frederikshavn’ project in northern Denmark, which has set the ambitious goal of complete transition to renewable energy consumption...... and CO2 neutrality within a few years. Using frame analysis, informed by discourse studies, the article analyzes how the project emerged and was established as a public phenomenon in the media coverage, including how it was made intelligible and which social actors were represented as having a say...... on the matter. The findings show several differences to national or international representations of climate change and sustainability, such as a prevalent profiling frame and an indication of a reversal of the so-called Giddens’ paradox....

  2. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  3. A sustainable local energy policy. Into a renewable millennium; Politique energetique locale durable: vers un millenaire renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Renewable energy sources only contribute to a marginal extent to the energy balance of most European towns and cities. Many of them, however, have set ambitious targets for 2010 and have developed programmes to this end. During the seminar organised by Energie-Cites in Verona, around 200 people representing towns and cities from over 20 countries were able to present and exchange experience in all areas related to renewable energy: on practical projects and on their impact on local development, urban planning and employment. It is in towns and cities that energy consumption is the highest and that heat networks working on biomass and buildings equipped with thermal and photovoltaic solar collectors are to be found. Renewable energy has been increasingly gaining ground in urban areas over the last few years for the following reasons: cities are responsible for 80% of total energy consumption and therefore concentrate most of energy needs; the existence of heat networks in densely-populated areas is an incentive to use resources such as biomass or geothermal energy for producing heat or in CHP units; biogas from sewage plants or resulting from the biological treatment of waste is also an urban product; thermal solar systems can often be installed on roof tops to satisfy part of the needs in terms of hot water or space heating and the same applies to photovoltaic solar energy; even wind energy can be promoted, either directly or through green buying procedures. Sustainable urban development depends on the implementation of a sustainable local energy policy based on the involvement of local authorities in improving energy efficiency and developing the use of renewable energy sources in municipal energy supplies. Local development, employment, social integration, the quality of the air - all being major sources of concern for local decision-makers - are stimulated by the promotion of renewable energy sources. Cities are, on account of their size, capable of defining

  4. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism. PMID:29495346

  5. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Nathali Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  6. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  7. Local behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to in situ biaxial loading in SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, C., E-mail: celia.caer@gmail.com; Pesci, R.

    2017-04-06

    The microstructural response of a coarse grained AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to biaxial tensile loading was investigated using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The specimen geometry was designed to allow for biaxial stress state and incipient crack in the center of the active part under biaxial tensile loading. This complex loading was performed step by step by a micromachine fitting into a SEM chamber. At each loading step FSD pictures and EBSD measurements were carried out to study the microstructural evolution of the alloy, namely grain rotations and misorientations, stress-induced martensite formation and crack propagation. According to their initial orientation, grains are found to behave differently under loading. Approximately 60% of grains are shown to reorient to the [110] Z orientation under biaxial tensile loading, whereas the 40% left undergo high plastic deformation. EBSD and XRD measurements respectively performed under loading and on the post mortem specimen highlighted the formation of about 4% of martensite.

  8. Characterizing structural transitions using localized free energy landscape analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh K Banavali

    Full Text Available Structural changes in molecules are frequently observed during biological processes like replication, transcription and translation. These structural changes can usually be traced to specific distortions in the backbones of the macromolecules involved. Quantitative energetic characterization of such distortions can greatly advance the atomic-level understanding of the dynamic character of these biological processes.Molecular dynamics simulations combined with a variation of the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method for potential of mean force determination are applied to characterize localized structural changes for the test case of cytosine (underlined base flipping in a GTCAGCGCATGG DNA duplex. Free energy landscapes for backbone torsion and sugar pucker degrees of freedom in the DNA are used to understand their behavior in response to the base flipping perturbation. By simplifying the base flipping structural change into a two-state model, a free energy difference of upto 14 kcal/mol can be attributed to the flipped state relative to the stacked Watson-Crick base paired state. This two-state classification allows precise evaluation of the effect of base flipping on local backbone degrees of freedom.The calculated free energy landscapes of individual backbone and sugar degrees of freedom expectedly show the greatest change in the vicinity of the flipping base itself, but specific delocalized effects can be discerned upto four nucleotide positions away in both 5' and 3' directions. Free energy landscape analysis thus provides a quantitative method to pinpoint the determinants of structural change on the atomic scale and also delineate the extent of propagation of the perturbation along the molecule. In addition to nucleic acids, this methodology is anticipated to be useful for studying conformational changes in all macromolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

  9. Real - time Optimization of Distributed Energy Storage System Operation Strategy Based on Peak Load Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Lu, Guangqi; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    To take advantage of the energy storage system (ESS) sufficiently, the factors that the service life of the distributed energy storage system (DESS) and the load should be considered when establishing optimization model. To reduce the complexity of the load shifting of DESS in the solution procedure, the loss coefficient and the equal capacity ratio distribution principle were adopted in this paper. Firstly, the model was established considering the constraint conditions of the cycles, depth, power of the charge-discharge of the ESS, the typical daily load curves, as well. Then, dynamic programming method was used to real-time solve the model in which the difference of power Δs, the real-time revised energy storage capacity Sk and the permission error of depth of charge-discharge were introduced to optimize the solution process. The simulation results show that the optimized results was achieved when the load shifting in the load variance was not considered which means the charge-discharge of the energy storage system was not executed. In the meantime, the service life of the ESS would increase.

  10. Energy Road-map 2050: Towards regional and local energy Road-maps. IMAGINE seminar 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillot, Herve; Pidoux, Blandine

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 IMAGINE Seminar held in Brussels on 9 November 2011 united around fifty representatives from Energy Cities network member cities as well as representatives from the European Parliament and the Commission, various industrial sectors and civil society organisations. Participants were invited to share their visions of their action by 2040-2050 in a sustainable and desirable city, having achieved its energy transition. The spontaneous and inspiring discussions that followed broached the following questions: - What is and should be the role of the local level in the EU Energy Road-map? - What if European local authorities were to develop their own 'Energy 2050' Road-maps? - What local and regional policies can social and economic players use for contributing to achieving European targets? - Under what conditions is the 'low energy cities with a high quality of life for all' concept relevant? The debate helped outline a shared, global vision as a step towards European collective dynamics giving territories a major role in energy transition. At the end of the day, participants from very different backgrounds converged on the following key points: - Like European institutions, territories must develop a long-term vision, failing which they will be unable to take meaningful action, mobilise players and make the right decisions in the short-term. - The energy-territory relationship, from efficient energy use to supply policies, is a major democratic challenge. - Although a number of technologies are already available, they still have to be integrated so that citizens can satisfy their needs and become fully accountable for their energy use. - Energy strategies must help meet a number of local challenges: social and territorial cohesion, employment and economic development, environmental protection and quality of life. To do so, they need to be designed taking those they are supposed to serve, i.e. citizens, into consideration. - The interaction between local

  11. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of

  12. Functional adaptation to mechanical loading in both cortical and cancellous bone is controlled locally and is confined to the loaded bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Price, Joanna S; Lanyon, Lance E

    2010-02-01

    In order to validate whether bones' functional adaptation to mechanical loading is a local phenomenon, we randomly assigned 21 female C57BL/6 mice at 19 weeks of age to one of three equal numbered groups. All groups were treated with isoflurane anesthesia three times a week for 2 weeks (approximately 7 min/day). During each anaesthetic period, the right tibiae/fibulae in the DYNAMIC+STATIC group were subjected to a peak dynamic load of 11.5 N (40 cycles with 10-s intervals between cycles) superimposed upon a static "pre-load" of 2.0 N. This total load of 13.5 N engendered peak longitudinal strains of approximately 1400 microstrain on the medial surface of the tibia at a middle/proximal site. The right tibiae/fibulae in the STATIC group received the static "pre-load" alone while the NOLOAD group received no artificial loading. After 2 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and both tibiae, fibulae, femora, ulnae and radii analyzed by three-dimensional high-resolution (5 mum) micro-computed tomography (microCT). In the DYNAMIC+STATIC group, the proximal trabecular percent bone volume and cortical bone volume at the proximal and middle levels of the right tibiae as well as the cortical bone volume at the middle level of the right fibulae were markedly greater than the left. In contrast, the left bones in the DYNAMIC+STATIC group showed no differences compared to the left or right bones in the NOLOAD or STATIC group. These microCT data were confirmed by two-dimensional examination of fluorochrome labels in bone sections which showed the predominantly woven nature of the new bone formed in the loaded bones. We conclude that the adaptive response in both cortical and trabecular regions of bones subjected to short periods of dynamic loading, even when this response is sufficiently vigorous to stimulate woven bone formation, is confined to the loaded bones and does not involve changes in other bones that are adjacent, contra-lateral or remote to them. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc

  13. Energy Evolution Mechanism and Confining Pressure Effect of Granite under Triaxial Loading-Unloading Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Miao, Sheng-jun

    2018-05-01

    Rock mass undergoes some deformational failure under the action of external loads, a process known to be associated with energy dissipation and release. A triaxial loading-unloading cycle test was conducted on granite in order to investigate the energy evolution pattern of rock mass under the action of external loads. The study results demonstrated: (1) The stress peaks increased by 50% and 22% respectively and the pre-peak weakening became more apparent in the ascending process of the confining pressure from 10MPa to 30MPa; the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop corresponding to 30MPa diminished by nearly 60% than that corresponding to 10MPa, indicating a higher confining pressure prohibits rock mass from plastic deformation and shifts strain toward elastic deformation. (2) In the vicinity of the strength limit, the slope of dissipation energy increased to 1.6 from the original 0.7 and the dissipation energy grew at an accelerating rate, demonstrating stronger propagation and convergence of internal cracks. (3) At a pressure of 70% of the stress peak, the elastic energy of the granite accounted for 88% of its peak value, suggesting the rock mechanical energy from the outside mostly changes into the elastic energy inside the rock, with little energy loss.(4) Prior to test specimen failure, the axial bearing capacity dropped with a decreasing confining pressure in an essentially linear way, and the existence of confirming pressure played a role in stabilizing the axial bearing capacity.

  14. Mobility-Aware and Load Balancing Based Clustering Algorithm for Energy Conservation in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHENG Bao-yu; GUO Gong-de

    2005-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of wireless communication network architecture that has received a lot of attention. MANET is characterized by dynamic network topology and limited energy. With mobility-aware and load balancing based clustering algorithm (MLCA), this paper proposes a new topology management strategy to conserve energy. Performance simulation results show that the proposed MLCA strategy can balances the traffic load inside the whole network, so as to prolong the network lifetime, meanly, at the same time, achieve higher throughput ratio and network stability.

  15. Investigation of local load effect on damping characteristics of synchronous generator using transfer-function block-diagram model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichai Aree

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The transfer-function block-diagram model of single-machine infinite-bus power system has been a popular analytical tool amongst power engineers for explaining and assessing synchronous generator dynamic behaviors. In previous studies, the effects of local load together with damper circuit on generator damping have not yet been addressed because neither of them was integrated into this model. Since the model only accounts for the generator main field circuit, it may not always yield a realistic damping assessment due to lack of damper circuit representation. This paper presents an extended transfer-function block-diagram model, which includes one of the q-axis damper circuits as well as local load. This allows a more realistic investigation of the local load effect on the generator damping. The extended model is applied to assess thegenerator dynamic performance. The results show that the damping power components mostly derived from the q-axis damper and the field circuits can be improved according to the local load. The frequency response method is employed to carry out the fundamental analysis.

  16. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  17. The surface-forming energy release rate versus the local energy release rate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Si; Wang, He-ling; Landis, Chad M; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies two ways to extract the energy (or power) flowing into a crack tip during propagation based on the power balance of areas enclosed by a stationary contour and a comoving contour. It is very interesting to find a contradiction that two corresponding energy release rates (ERRs), a surface-forming ERR and a local ERR, are different when stress singularity exists at a crack tip. Besides a rigorous mathematical interpretation, we deduce that the stress singularity leads to an...

  18. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix A: energy storage coil and superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1979-09-01

    The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed

  19. Research on the Operation Mode of Intelligent-town Energy Internet Based on Source-Load Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Wen; Miao, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Chang; Lv, Zhipeng

    2018-01-01

    On the background of the rise of intelligence and the increasing deepening of “Internet +”application, the energy internet has become the focus of the energy research field. This paper, based on the fundamental understanding on the energy internet of the intelligent town, discusses the mode of energy supply in the source-load interactive region, and gives an in-depth study on the output characteristics of the energy supply side and the load characteristics of the demand side, so as to derive the law of energy-load interaction of the intelligent-town energy internet.

  20. Fatigue Crack Propagation Under Variable Amplitude Loading Analyses Based on Plastic Energy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Maachou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity effects at the crack tip had been recognized as “motor” of crack propagation, the growth of cracks is related to the existence of a crack tip plastic zone, whose formation and intensification is accompanied by energy dissipation. In the actual state of knowledge fatigue crack propagation is modeled using crack closure concept. The fatigue crack growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading of the aluminum alloy 2024 T351 are analyzed using in terms energy parameters. In the case of VAL (variable amplitude loading tests, the evolution of the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is shown similar with that observed under constant amplitude loading. A linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is obtained at high growth rates. For lower growth rates values, the relationship between crack growth rate and hysteretic energy dissipated per block can represented by a power law. In this paper, an analysis of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude loading based on energetic approach is proposed.

  1. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  2. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  3. A multi-objective genetic approach to domestic load scheduling in an energy management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Ana; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Oliveira, Carlos; Gomes, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to solve a multi-objective model to optimize the time allocation of domestic loads within a planning period of 36 h, in a smart grid context. The management of controllable domestic loads is aimed at minimizing the electricity bill and the end-user’s dissatisfaction concerning two different aspects: the preferred time slots for load operation and the risk of interruption of the energy supply. The genetic algorithm is similar to the Elitist NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II), in which some changes have been introduced to adapt it to the physical characteristics of the load scheduling problem and improve usability of results. The mathematical model explicitly considers economical, technical, quality of service and comfort aspects. Illustrative results are presented and the characteristics of different solutions are analyzed. - Highlights: • A genetic algorithm similar to the NSGA-II is used to solve a multi-objective model. • The optimized time allocation of domestic loads in a smart grid context is achieved. • A variable preference profile for the operation of the managed loads is included. • A safety margin is used to account for the quality of the energy services provided. • A non-dominated front with the solutions in the two-objective space is obtained

  4. Nano structures of amorphous silicon: localization and energy gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nourbakhsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy research has created a push for new materials; one of the most attractive material in this field is quantum confined hybrid silicon nano-structures (nc-Si:H embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H. The essential step for this investigation is studying a-Si and its ability to produce quantum confinement (QC in nc-Si: H. Increasing the gap of a-Si system causes solar cell efficiency to increase. By computational calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT, we calculated a special localization factor, [G Allan et al., Phys. Rev. B 57 (1997 6933.], for the states close to HOMO and LUMO in a-Si, and found most weak-bond Si atoms. By removing these silicon atoms and passivating the system with hydrogen, we were able to increase the gap in the a-Si system. As more than 8% hydrogenate was not experimentally available, we removed about 2% of the most localized Si atoms in the almost tetrahedral a-Si system. After removing localized Si atoms in the system with 1000 Si atoms, and adding 8% H, the gap increased about 0.24 eV. Variation of the gap as a function of hydrogen percentage was in good agreement with the Tight –Binding results, but about 2 times more than its experimental value. This might come from the fact that in the experimental conditions, it does not have the chance to remove the most localized states. However, by improving the experimental conditions and technology, this value can be improved.

  5. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  6. Short-Term Load Forecast in Electric Energy System in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Asenova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accuracy of the electricity load forecast is crucial in providing better cost effective risk management plans, this paper proposes a Short Term Electricity Load Forecast (STLF model with high forecasting accuracy. Two kind of neural networks, Multilayer Perceptron network model and Radial Basis Function network model, are presented and compared using the mean absolute percentage error. The data used in the models are electricity load historical data. Even though the very good performance of the used model for the load data, weather parameters, especially the temperature, take important part for the energy predicting which is taken into account in this paper. A comparative evaluation between a traditional statistical method and artificial neural networks is presented.

  7. Coordinated Optimization of Distributed Energy Resources and Smart Loads in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart loads have the potential to provide flexibility to the distribution system operation. A coordinated optimization approach is proposed in this paper to actively manage DERs and smart loads in distribution systems to achieve the optimal operation status. A three-phase unbalanced Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem is developed to determine the output from DERs and smart loads with respect to the system operator's control objective. This paper focuses on coordinating PV systems and smart loads to improve the overall voltage profile in distribution systems. Simulations have been carried out in a 12-bus distribution feeder and results illustrate the superior control performance of the proposed approach.

  8. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    in order to support basic electrical operation. This paper proposes a local implementation of a hysteresis-based aggregation algorithm for coordinated control of multiple stations that can provide functions such as peak shaving, spinning reserves, frequency control, regulation and load following. Local......Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...... stability. Finally, corresponding hardware in the loop results based on dSPACE1006 platform have been reported in order to verify the validity of proposed approach....

  9. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  10. Multifunctional Structures for High-Energy Lightweight Load-Bearing Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2018-01-01

    This is a pull-up banner of the Multifunctional Structures for High-Energy Lightweight Load-bearing Storage (M-SHELLS) technology that will be on display at the SciTech Conference in January 2018. Efforts in Multifunctional Structures for High Energy Load-Bearing Storage (M-Shells) are pushing the boundaries of development for hybrid electric propulsion for future commercial aeronautical transport. The M-Shells hybrid material would serve as the power/energy storage of the vehicle and provide structural integrity, freeing up usable volume and mass typically occupied by bulky batteries. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate a system-level mass savings with a multifunctional structure with energy storage.

  11. Linear active disturbance rejection-based load frequency control concerning high penetration of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanmei; Bai, Yan; Huang, Congzhi; Du, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A disturbance rejection solution to the load frequency control issue is proposed. • Several power systems with wind energy conversation system have been tested. • A tuning algorithm of the controller parameters was proposed. • The performance of the proposed approach is better than traditional controllers. - Abstract: A new grid load frequency control approach is proposed for the doubly fed induction generator based wind power plants. The load frequency control issue in a power system is undergoing fundamental changes due to the rapidly growing amount of wind energy conversation system, and concentrating on maintaining generation-load balance and disturbance rejection. The prominent feature of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach is that the total disturbance can be estimated and then eliminated in real time. And thus, it is a feasible solution to deal with the load frequency control issue. In this paper, the application of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach in the load frequency control issue for a complex power system with wind energy conversation system based on doubly fed induction generator is investigated. The load frequency control issue is formulated as a decentralized multi-objective optimization control problem, the solution to which is solved by the hybrid particle swarm optimization technique. To show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, the robust performance testing based on Monte-Carlo approach is carried out. The performance superiority of the system with the proposed linear active disturbance rejection control approach over that with the traditional proportional integral and fuzzy-proportional integral-based controllers is validated by the simulation results

  12. Local sharing of cogeneration energy through individually prioritized controls for increased on-site energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing of surplus heat and electricity produced by CHP plants in different types of buildings. • Individually prioritized control of CHP plants with direct local sharing and minimal storage capacity. • Energy sharing reduced primary energy consumption by 1–9% with biogas. • Excess energy minimized by thermal tracking. - Abstract: All over the world, including Japan, there are targets to decrease building energy consumption and increase renewable energy utilization. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants increase energy efficiency and are becoming popular in Japan. CHP plants produce both heat and power simultaneously, but there is not always a need for both. A cluster of several different buildings can increase total efficiency and reduce primary energy (PE) consumption by sharing excess heat and electricity between neighboring buildings. If the generated energy comes from renewable sources, energy sharing makes it easier to reach the net zero energy balance. By adjusting CHP sizes and operation patterns, the wasted heat and primary energy consumption can be minimized. Energy sharing has been explored in situations with identical buildings and centrally administered energy systems before, but not with different building types with separate systems. In this study, a cluster of Japanese office and residential buildings were combined to allow heat and electricity sharing based on cogeneration, using individually prioritized control (IPC) systems. TRNSYS simulation was used to match energy generation with pregenerated demand profiles. Absorption cooling was utilized to increase the benefits of local heat generation. Different CHP operation modes and plant sizes were tested. The benefit of surplus energy sharing depends on the CHP capacities and the fuel type. When using biogas, larger CHP plants provided lower total primary energy consumption, in the most extreme case lowering it by 71%, compared to the conventional case. Using natural gas

  13. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  14. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E., E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.u [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m{sup 2}. The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  15. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Landman, I.; Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m 2 . The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  16. Importance of nuclear station load factor in applied ro energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Load factor is the ration between the energy produced by a station and the energy it would have produced running at maximum power. The factor intends for all types of commercial reactors. Nuclear plants continuously provide over 11% of the world's electricity. The reactors for which data were available generated 618.7 TWh of electricity in 2014. Typical load factor was around 75% in worldwide during the first quarter of 2015. In this manner, it obtained from an average, three-monthly or yearly. The regular load factor of the reactors in operation was around 56% in 1970. While, in 1980's decade, we have an increase to 63%, the same situation occurred in next the decade and suffering increasing to 73%. Currently, the load factor reaches 78%. Accidents are seasonal factors, with the occurrence of reduction of power generation plants. In 2015 in January, there are over 437 operable commercial reactors in 31 countries, with over 377,728 MWe of full capacity. In Brazil, total capacity is 1901 MWe, with around 2.8% of electricity energy consumed. The primary objective of this study was to find a forecast model that express the evolution of the load factor in the next years. In recent years occur an extensive development of pressurized water reactors in Asia. The periodicity of seasonal effects on the performance of nuclear power plants due to aging. However, the impact of plant age depended on new technologies that allow the growth of the performance. The accident of Fukushima was an inflection point for energy policies. The event produced a trend that reduced the load in the world. (author)

  17. Development of load calculation techniques on screw and screw press energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Татарьянц, Максим Сергеевич; Завинский, Сергей Иванович; Трошин, Алексей Георгиевич

    2015-01-01

    The process of pressing of wood chips in screw machines is researched. It is defined processes taking place in different parts of the screw, formulas allowing to calculate the loads acting on the screw flights, as well as to determine the power required for compression. The unit costs of energy consumption and raw materials in the degree of heat pressing are determined

  18. Wave loadings acting on innovative rubble mound breakwater for overtopping wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contestabile, Pasquale; Iuppa, Claudio; Lauro, Enrico Di

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •An innovative breakwater for overtopping wave energy conversion has been studied. •Physical model tests have been carried out and analysed. •Breakwater design information on loadings acting on various parts of the structure has been presented. •Design formulae and validation of some t...

  19. A Smart Load Interface and Voltage Regulator for Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedier, Mohammed; Basset, Philippe; Galayko, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new implementation in ams 0.35μm HV technology of a complete energy management system for an electrostatic vibrational energy harvester (e-VEH). It is based on the Bennet's doubler architecture and includes a load voltage regulator (LVR) and a smart Load Interface (LI) that are self-controlled with internal voltages for maximum power point tracking (MMPT). The CMOS implementation makes use of an energy harvester that is capable of producing up to 1.8μW at harmonic excitation, given its internal voltage is kept within its optimum. An intermediate LI stage and its controller makes use of a high side switch with zero static power level shifter, and a low power hysteresis comparator. A full circuit level simulation with a VHDL-AMS model of the e-VEH presented was successfully achieved, indicating that the proposed load interface controller consumes less than 100nW average power. Moreover, a LVR regulates the buffer and discharge the harvested energy into a generic resistive load maintaining the voltage within a nominal value of 2 Volts.

  20. Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy conservation in cloud computing. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from ...

  1. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, I. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holland, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanada, A. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  2. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  3. Harvesting energy: Place and local entrepreneurship in community-based renewable energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.

  4. Local ownership, smart energy systems and better wind power economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Möller, Bernd; Sperling, Karl

    2013-01-01

    is never sold at a lower price than the most expensive heat alternative. The other is to lower the average costs of wind power by building more onshore wind power capacity, and proportionally less offshore wind power. This is facilitated by local and regional majority ownership models that increase...... the acceptance rate of onshore wind. The economy of wind power is thus improved by both increasing its value and reducing its costs.......Increasing wind power shares enhances the need to integrate wind power into the energy system and to improve its economy. In this study we propose two ways of achieving this end. One is to increase the value of wind power by integrating the heat and power markets, and thus ensures that wind power...

  5. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-26

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target's location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of EKF algorithm and 21.41% better than EKF algorithm. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is especially useful to improve the localization accuracy in environments with sparse beacon deployment.

  6. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  7. Impacts of Using Distributed Energy Resources to Reduce Peak Loads in Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lunacek, Monte S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Birk [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-28

    To help the United States develop a modern electricity grid that provides reliable power from multiple resources as well as resiliency under extreme conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the Grid Modernization Initiative (GMI) to help shape the future of the nation's grid. Under the GMI, DOE funded the Vermont Regional Initiative project to provide the technical support and analysis to utilities that need to mitigate possible impacts of increasing renewable generation required by statewide goals. Advanced control of distributed energy resources (DER) can both support higher penetrations of renewable energy by balancing controllable loads to wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar generation and reduce peak demand by shedding noncritical loads. This work focuses on the latter. This document reports on an experiment that evaluated and quantified the potential benefits and impacts of reducing the peak load through demand response (DR) using centrally controllable electric water heaters (EWHs) and batteries on two Green Mountain Power (GMP) feeders. The experiment simulated various hypothetical scenarios that varied the number of controllable EWHs, the amount of distributed PV systems, and the number of distributed residential batteries. The control schemes were designed with several objectives. For the first objective, the primary simulations focused on reducing the load during the independent system operator (ISO) peak when capacity charges were the primary concern. The second objective was to mitigate DR rebound to avoid new peak loads and high ramp rates. The final objective was to minimize customers' discomfort, which is defined by the lack of hot water when it is needed. We performed the simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) because it can simulate both electric power distribution feeder and appliance end use performance and it includes the ability to simulate

  8. Load following generation in nuclear power plants by latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Kamimoto, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Ryuji; Kanari, Katsuhiko; Ozawa, Takeo

    1985-01-01

    The recent increase in nuclear power plants and the growing difference between peak and off-peak demands imperatively need load following generation in nuclear power plants to meet the time-variant demands. One possible way to resolve the problem is, obviously, a prompt reaction conrol in the reactors. Alternatively, energy storage gives another sophisticated path to make load following generation in more effective manner. Latent thermal energy storage enjoys high storage density and allows thermal extraction at nearly constant temperature, i.e. phase change temperature. The present report is an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of load following electric power generation in nuclear plants (actually Pressurized Water Reactors) by latent thermal energy storage. In this concept, the excess thermal energy in the off-peak period is stored in molten salt latent thermal energy storage unit, and additional power output is generated in auxiliary generator in the peak demand duration using the stored thermal energy. The present evaluation gives encouraging results and shows the primary subject to be taken up at first is the compatibility of candidate storage materials with inexpensive structural metal materials. Chapter 1 denotes the background of the present report, and Chapter 2 reviews the previous studies on the peak load coverage by thermal energy storage. To figure out the concept of the storage systems, present power plant systems and possible constitution of storage systems are briefly shown in Chapter 3. The details of the evaluation of the candidate storage media, and the compilation of the materials' properties are presented in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, the concept of the storage systems is depicted, and the economical feasibility of the systems is evaluated. The concluding remarks are summarized in Chapter 6. (author)

  9. Local energy ownership in Europe. An exploratory study of local public initiatives in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Across Europe, a growing number of local authorities are eager to regain control over energy systems on a wide range of scales and modalities. Through an exploratory study authored by Andreas Ruedinger and funded by the French Agency for Energy Management (ADEME), Energy Cities decided to shed light on the various nuances surrounding this phenomenon of local reclaim over energy systems and offer new perspectives to cities wishing to replicate successful initiatives. This European overview focuses mainly on three countries: Germany, which could almost be described as the cradle of re-municipalization, the United Kingdom and France. Local energy management can take many forms, and the study outlines and develops four specific processes: 1. re-municipalization, 2. Political decentralization, 3. Citizen projects, 4. Participatory governance. More and more cities are taking a leading role in driving the energy transition, not only as planning authorities but also as an operational actors, inspired in particular by examples of re-municipalization in the water sector. Whether it is through the creation of new integrated municipal companies such as Germany, public energy suppliers such as the UK, or local operators investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. France, we see the outlines of a movement of re-appropriation of energy transition by local communities, the study finds. The reasons and opportunities that motivate local authorities to embark on re-municipalization projects are multiple: revitalizing the local economy, creating a close connection with citizens, managing local public services in a more integrated way, fostering cooperation and partnerships with other players, accessing new markets, etc. However, as the study points out, these endeavors can also come with some risks, such as the competitive pressure exerted by the private sector and the limited influence over national and European energy policies

  10. Local energy ownership in Europe. An exploratory study of local public initiatives in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Across Europe, a growing number of local authorities are eager to regain control over energy systems on a wide range of scales and modalities. Through an exploratory study authored by Andreas Ruedinger and funded by the French Agency for Energy Management (ADEME), Energy Cities decided to shed light on the various nuances surrounding this phenomenon of local reclaim over energy systems and offer new perspectives to cities wishing to replicate successful initiatives. This European overview focuses mainly on three countries: Germany, which could almost be described as the cradle of re-municipalization, the United Kingdom and France. Local energy management can take many forms, and the study outlines and develops four specific processes: 1. Re-municipalization, 2. Political decentralization, 3. Citizen projects, 4. Participatory governance. More and more cities are taking a leading role in driving the energy transition, not only as planning authorities but also as an operational actors, inspired in particular by examples of re-municipalization in the water sector. Whether it is through the creation of new integrated municipal companies such as Germany, public energy suppliers such as the UK, or local operators investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. France, we see the outlines of a movement of re-appropriation of energy transition by local communities, the study finds. The reasons and opportunities that motivate local authorities to embark on re-municipalization projects are multiple: revitalizing the local economy, creating a close connection with citizens, managing local public services in a more integrated way, fostering cooperation and partnerships with other players, accessing new markets, etc. However, as the study points out, these endeavors can also come with some risks, such as the competitive pressure exerted by the private sector and the limited influence over national and European energy policies

  11. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present an analytic model for thickness resonating plate ultrasound energy receivers, which we have derived from the piezoelectric and the wave equations and, in which we have included dielectric, viscosity and acoustic attenuation losses. Afterwards, we explore the optimal electric load predictions by the zero reflection and power maximization approaches present in the literature with different acoustic boundary conditions, and discuss their limitations. To validate our model, we compared our expressions with the KLM model solved numerically with very good agreement. Finally, we discuss the differences between the zero reflection and power maximization optimal electric loads, which start to differ as losses in the receiver increase.

  12. Theoretical analysis, infrared and structural investigations of energy dissipation in metals under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhov, O.A.; Saintier, N.; Palin-Luc, T.; Uvarov, S.V.; Naimark, O.B.

    2007-01-01

    The infrared and structural investigations of energy dissipation processes in metals subjected to cyclic loading have given impetus to the development of a new thermodynamic model with the capability of describing the energy balance under plastic deformation. The model is based on the statistical description of the mesodefect ensemble evolution and its influence on the dissipation ability of the material. Constitutive equations have been formulated for plastic and structural strains, which allow us to describe the stored and dissipated parts of energy under plastic flow. Numerical results indicate that theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimentally observed temperature data

  13. Local energy equation for two-electron atoms and relation between kinetic energy and electron densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2002-08-01

    In early work, Dawson and March [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5850 (1984)] proposed a local energy method for treating both Hartree-Fock and correlated electron theory. Here, an exactly solvable model two-electron atom with pure harmonic interactions is treated in its ground state in the above context. A functional relation between the kinetic energy density t(r) at the origin r=0 and the electron density p(r) at the same point then emerges. The same approach is applied to the Hookean atom; in which the two electrons repel with Coulombic energy e 2 /r 12 , with r 12 the interelectronic separation, but are still harmonically confined. Again the kinetic energy density t(r) is the focal point, but now generalization away from r=0 is also effected. Finally, brief comments are added about He-like atomic ions in the limit of large atomic number. (author)

  14. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  15. Implementation of GAMMON - An efficient load balancing strategy for a local computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Katherine M.; Kling, Ralph M.; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1989-01-01

    GAMMON (Global Allocation from Maximum to Minimum in cONstant time), an efficient load-balancing algorithm, is described. GAMMON uses the available broadcast capability of multiaccess networks to implement an efficient search technique for finding hosts with maximal and minimal loads. The search technique has an average overhead which is independent of the number of participating stations. The transition from the theoretical concept to a practical, reliable, and efficient implementation is described.

  16. Microcogeneration in buildings with low energy demand in load sharing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Canelli, Michele; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of microcogenerator (MCHP) in buildings with low energy demand is evaluated. • The load sharing approach leads to suitable thermal and electric loads for MCHP. • Dynamic simulations are carried out considering two different climates. • A sensitivity analysis with respect to the self-consumed electricity is performed. • MCHPs with internal combustion engine perfectly match with well-insulated buildings. - Abstract: The paper investigates the introduction of a MCHP (Micro Combined Heat and Power) system in buildings with low energy demand with respect to the current building stock. A load sharing approach between a multifamily residential building and an office one is taken into account. Dynamic simulations are carried out in order to evaluate the thermo-economic performance of the analyzed system. Particular attention is given to the estimation of the electric load of the different users, as the economic profitability of a MCHP system is strongly influenced by the amount of self-consumed electricity. In order to analyze the influence of climatic conditions, two different geographical locations in Italy (Naples and Turin, having 1034 and 2617 heating degree days, respectively) are considered. The results of this study indicate that the installation of MCHP systems in buildings with low energy demand allows to increase the percentage of self-consumed electricity reducing the bidirectional electricity flow between the users and the external grid, as well as the impact on the grid itself due to the large diffusion of distributed generation systems. Moreover this study shows that the load sharing approach between users with different load profile leads to better energy, environmental and economic results with respect to a conventional system. The climatic conditions play an important role on the MCHP operational hours and hence on the thermo-economic performance of the system. The primary energy saving of the system located in Turin is

  17. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis Dept.; Hamrin, J. [Centre for Resource Solutions (United States); Eyre, N. [Energy Savings Trust (United Kingdom); Crossley, D.; Maloney, M.; Watt, G. [Energy Futures Australia Pty Ltd (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted. (author)

  18. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted.

  19. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted

  20. Energy Dependent Divisible Load Theory for Wireless Sensor Network Workload Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN, consisting of a large number of microsensors with wireless communication abilities, has become an indispensable tool for use in monitoring and surveillance applications. Despite its advantages in deployment flexibility and fault tolerance, the WSN is vulnerable to failures due to the depletion of limited onboard battery energy. A major portion of energy consumption is caused by the transmission of sensed results to the master processor. The amount of energy used, in fact, is related to both the duration of sensing and data transmission. Hence, in order to extend the operation lifespan of the WSN, a proper allocation of sensing workload among the sensors is necessary. An assignment scheme is here formulated on the basis of the divisible load theory, namely, the energy dependent divisible load theory (EDDLT for sensing workload allocations. In particular, the amount of residual energies onboard sensors are considered while deciding the workload assigned to each sensor. Sensors with smaller amount of residual energy are assigned lighter workloads, thus, allowing for a reduced energy consumption and the sensor lifespan is extended. Simulation studies are conducted and results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed workload allocation method.

  1. Detection of local birefringence in embedded fiber Bragg grating caused by concentrated transverse load using optical frequency domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, D.; Murayama, H.; Igawa, H.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the capability of local birefringence detection in an embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) using optical frequency domain reflectometry. We embed an FBG into carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen, and conduct 3-point bending test. The cross-sectional stresses are applied to the FBG at the loading location in addition to the non-uniform longitudinal strain distribution over the length of the FBG. The local birefringence due to the cross-sectional stresses was successfully detected while the non-uniform longitudinal strain distribution was accurately measured.

  2. A partnership approach to local energy management between European and Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Peter; Pardo, Manuel; Conway, Stewart; Lack, Don; Ferreira, Vasco; Castanheira, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, several local areas have a number of years of experience with implementing local energy and greenhouse gas management policies, addressing national and international climate change targets. For example, in the city of Leicester in the UK, local strategies and measures have been implemented over several years to improve the energy efficiency of the Council's own operations and to manage city-wide energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, Leicester has participated in a European Commission funded project, which explores the potential for European local authorities and agencies to use their experience to work with a local area in a developing country where energy demand has been increasing rapidly, addressing climate change and sustainable development issues. The project has aimed to provide support at the local level with developing a framework to minimise energy-related contributions to climate change and air pollution, while giving quality of life benefits. It has used a partnership approach between Leicester, Vila Nova de Gaia municipality in Portugal, and a city in the Gujarat, India. The local level's role in each country in local energy management has been investigated. This has included a baseline assessment of local energy use, renewable energy and climate change issues in each partner city. The most locally relevant energy technologies have been selected and their implementation discussed in the local workshops involving a range of organisations and individuals, with actions being identified to improve the local management of energy, such as raising awareness and ensuring easy access to information

  3. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms - e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness) through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs) toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK) is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw) and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload), as ΔK ˜ -mloadFloadu2sw/4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp) for Kp = 1-7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK) = 0.2 ṡ Kp + 2 ṡ log10(Kp + 1.2) + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy ΔK from the solar wind to the current system by the increased

  4. Energy-time entanglement, elements of reality, and local realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-10-01

    The Franson interferometer, proposed in 1989 (Franson 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2205-08), beautifully shows the counter-intuitive nature of light. The quantum description predicts sinusoidal interference for specific outcomes of the experiment, and these predictions can be verified in experiment. In the spirit of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen it is possible to ask if the quantum-mechanical description (of this setup) can be considered complete. This question will be answered in detail in this paper, by delineating the quite complicated relation between energy-time entanglement experiments and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) elements of reality. The mentioned sinusoidal interference pattern is the same as that giving a violation in the usual Bell experiment. Even so, depending on the precise requirements made on the local realist model, this can imply (a) no violation, (b) smaller violation than usual, or (c) full violation of the appropriate statistical bound. Alternatives include (a) using only the measurement outcomes as EPR elements of reality, (b) using the emission time as EPR element of reality, (c) using path realism, or (d) using a modified setup. This paper discusses the nature of these alternatives and how to choose between them. The subtleties of this discussion needs to be taken into account when designing and setting up experiments intended to test local realism. Furthermore, these considerations are also important for quantum communication, for example in Bell-inequality-based quantum cryptography, especially when aiming for device independence. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  5. Energy-time entanglement, elements of reality, and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Franson interferometer, proposed in 1989 (Franson 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2205–08), beautifully shows the counter-intuitive nature of light. The quantum description predicts sinusoidal interference for specific outcomes of the experiment, and these predictions can be verified in experiment. In the spirit of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen it is possible to ask if the quantum-mechanical description (of this setup) can be considered complete. This question will be answered in detail in this paper, by delineating the quite complicated relation between energy-time entanglement experiments and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) elements of reality. The mentioned sinusoidal interference pattern is the same as that giving a violation in the usual Bell experiment. Even so, depending on the precise requirements made on the local realist model, this can imply (a) no violation, (b) smaller violation than usual, or (c) full violation of the appropriate statistical bound. Alternatives include (a) using only the measurement outcomes as EPR elements of reality, (b) using the emission time as EPR element of reality, (c) using path realism, or (d) using a modified setup. This paper discusses the nature of these alternatives and how to choose between them. The subtleties of this discussion needs to be taken into account when designing and setting up experiments intended to test local realism. Furthermore, these considerations are also important for quantum communication, for example in Bell-inequality-based quantum cryptography, especially when aiming for device independence. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  6. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM, channel-separate fingerprinting (FP, outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target’s location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy. The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m, which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m, the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at

  7. Impact of load management on the energy management strategy of a wind-short hydro hybrid system in frequency based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakar, T.; Goswami, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a new profit centric operating strategy of a hybrid power system under market environment. • The profit is ensured by optimal coordination of RES and load management approach. • The problem is formulated as dynamic optimization problem and solved using ABC algorithm. • Comparison shows that the proposed approach results more profit for the hybrid system. - Abstract: In the post restructuring era of electrical power system, each of the generating farm or utility has its own business strategy in terms of generation planning, load management and for other decisions. The basic objective of the utility is to maximize the operational profit for a given period of time. Generation scheduling for a utility with wind farm largely depends on the accuracy of wind power prediction. Therefore, it is important to explore the suitability of load management approach in coordination with the use of energy storage facility to compensate the uncertainty in wind power generation. This paper focuses mainly the operating strategy of a grid connected small hybrid power system to maximize its profit by adopting coordination between load management technique and utilization of storage plant under frequency based pricing. The optimum load scheduling has been implemented to utilities own local load. An hourly-discretized optimization algorithm is proposed and solved using artificial bee colony algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the optimization problem is solved for varied wind power scenarios with different demand expectations cases in a day ahead Indian electricity market. It is noted that the proposed load management approach results more profit for the hybrid system because of better power management compared to the case when load scheduling has not been incorporated. The solution of the proposed optimization algorithm gives the strategies to be followed by the hybrid system how to operate its pump storage unit and to

  8. Utilizing an Energy Management System with Distributed Resources to Manage Critical Loads and Reduce Energy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    significant impact that energy usage has on their operations and their ability to conduct sustained expeditionary operations. In austere environments...efficiency and reduce environmental impact is to power the fuel cell using hydrogen obtained by electrolysis of water from a renewable energy source...look at other DR. Using microturbines and other natural gas cogeneration ( energy and heat) power generation systems is a more affordable way of

  9. Regulation of the energy infrastructure. Load management. Part 1. Fiscal aspects of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch energy system depends on the presence of a good infrastructure. For many decades little attention was paid to infrastructure, but due to the liberalization infrastructure is receiving renewed attention. The grids are now considered the backbone of the energy system and essential for security of supply. Moreover, future electricity plants may have to adhere to the 'zero emission' demands in the future and (nearly) empty oil and gas fields will be used for underground storage of substances such as CO2. This new series addresses the existing and new regulation for the energy infrastructure. This edition addresses a number of fiscal aspects of the energy infrastructure. [mk] [nl

  10. Latching and Declutching Control of the Solo Duck Wave-Energy Converter with Different Load Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The solo duck wave-energy converter (WEC captures power in a point absorber manner, hence it exhibits high power-capture efficiency within only a narrow bandwidth. Passive control is characterized by a unidirectional power flow, and thus its engineering implementation can be simplified. In this paper, two typical passive control strategies, latching and declutching control, are applied to the solo duck WEC to improve its power-capture performance at wave periods larger and smaller than the natural period of the WEC, respectively. Special attention is paid to the peak value of instantaneous WEC performance parameters, including the peak motion excursion, the peak power take-off (PTO moment, and the peak-to-average power ratio, when the captured power is maximized. Performance differences between the linear and coulomb loads are also investigated. Results show that both latching and declutching control can effectively improve captured power, but also incidentally increase the peak motion excursion and peak-to-average power ratio. When under latching and declutching control, the coulomb load leads to the same maximum relative capture width and peak motion excursion as the linear load, but presents smaller peak PTO moment and peak-to-average power ratio than the linear load, hence making the coulomb load the better choice for the solo duck WEC.

  11. Estimation of metal pollutant loads from Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Faustino, Mainara G.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B., E-mail: joyce.marques@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    According to National Environmental Council's (CONAMA) Resolution 357/05, pollutant load can be defined as the amount of a particular pollutant released in receiving water body; it is commonly expressed in a mass-time ratio. As specified in CONAMA's Resolution 430/11, the responsible for the pollutant source must present the Pollutant Load Declaration to environmental authorities. However, pollutant load knowledge is also important to the water quality maintenance and its environmental rating that must be kept to meet the requirements of the most restrictive use. In the control of metals releases is also important due public health matters, since they can cause harmful environmental contamination and major public health issues. Therefore this work aims to present the estimated metal pollutant load released by Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN - Brazil), between 2013 and 2014. Results of cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, manganese, iron, barium, silver, boron and tin in composite samples (weekly) via Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and bromide (Br-) released as a tracer, to measure the wastewater flow were used to estimate IPEN's Metal Pollutant load. This study is part of the environmental assessment Program at IPEN, instituted since 2006 to the attendance of the current environmental legislation (CONAMA's Resolution 430/11, Article 19-A of State Decree 8.468/76 and State Decree 15.425/80). (author)

  12. Formation energies of local pairs in fullerene isomer mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well-known that the alkali metal-doped fullerides are superconductors of type II. There were so far many trials to explain the pairing mechanism in the superconducting fullerides. A description of the superconducting mechanism in terms of the so-called local pair model has been proposed in this note. A purely electronic interaction was also considered within the resonating valence bond model (RVB). In fact, other models were not able to explain exactly why superconductivity appears for the stoichiometry of A 3 C 60 in the alkali metal-doped fullerides. An exception of this rule is, e.g., Ca 5 C 60 which is a superconductor with T c = 8.4 K. However, measurements show that electronic structures near the Fermi level of the A 3 C 60 (A = K, Rb) as well as the Ca 5 C 60 superconductors are remarkably similar although their charge carriers form energy bands of different character. Therefore, the results obtained for the stoichiometry A 3 C 60 can roughly refer to the Ca 5 C 60 case as well. (orig.)

  13. Local Energy Matters: Solar Development in Duluth, Minnesota Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slick, Jodi Lyn [Ecolibrium3

    2018-03-30

    The Local Energy Matters project advanced solar deployment in the City of Duluth, MN- a cold-climate community of 86,000. At the beginning of the project, Duluth had 254.57 kW installed solar capacity with an average cost of $5.04/watt installed in 2014. The project worked with cross-sector stakeholders to benchmark the current market, implement best practices for solar deployment and soft cost reduction, develop pilot deployment programs in residential rooftop, community solar, and commercial/industrial sectors, work with the City of Duluth to determine appropriate sites for utility scale developments, and demonstrate solar pus storage. Over the three years of the project, Duluth’s installed residential and commercial solar capacity grew by 344% to 875.9 kW with an additional 702 kW solar garden capacity subscribed by Duluth residents, businesses, and institutions. Installation costs dropped 48% over this timeframe to $4.08/watt installed (exclusive of solar garden construction). This report documents the process used to identify levers for increased solar installation and cost reductions in a nascent cold-climate solar market.

  14. A three-dimensional model of residential energy consumer archetypes for local energy policy design in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tao; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews major studies in three traditional lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, i.e. economic/infrastructure, behaviour, and load profiling. Based on the review the paper proposes a three-dimensional model for archetyping residential\\ud energy consumers in the UK by considering property energy efficiency levels, the greenness of household behaviour of using energy, and the duration of property daytime occupancy. With the proposed model, eight archetypes of...

  15. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    is used as the bids from the ACL customers, is utilized to determine the direct monetary compensation to the ACL customers. The proposed scheme was investigated for the PoolCo electricity market. The optimal DLC scheme is determined based on the minimum system operating cost which is comprised......A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...... of the system energy cost, the system spinning reserve cost and the compensation cost to the ACL customers. Dynamic programming (DP) was used to obtain the optimal DLC scheme. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) was studied to illustrate the proposed DLC scheme....

  16. Energy availabilities for state and local development: projected energy patterns for 1980 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L.; Pai, V. P.

    1978-06-01

    This report presents projections of the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types and four final consuming sectors for BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation for 1980 and 1985. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction, as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The objective of the program is to provide a consistent base of historic and projected energy information within a standard format. Such a framework should aid regional policymakers in their consideration of regional growth issues that may be influenced by the regional energy system. This basic data must be supplemented by region-specific information which only the local policy analyst can bring to bear in his assessment of the energy conditions which characterize each region. The energy data, coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment patterns, can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.

  17. Localism and energy: Negotiating approaches to embedding resilience in energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Geoff; Hope, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Tensions are evident in energy policy objectives between centralised top-down interconnected energy systems and localised distributed approaches. Examination of these tensions indicates that a localised approach can address a systemic problem of interconnected systems; namely vulnerability. The challenge for energy policy is to realise the interrelated goals of energy security, climate and environmental targets and social and economic issues such as fuel poverty, whilst mitigating vulnerability. The effectiveness of conventional approaches is debatable. A transition to a low carbon pathway should focus on resilience, counter to vulnerability. This article draws from on-going work which evaluates the energy aspects of a Private Finance Initiative (PFI) project to refurbish and re-build a local authority's entire stock of sheltered accommodation to high environmental standards. Initial findings suggest that whereas more conventional procurement processes tend to increase systemic vulnerability, a user focussed process driven through PFI competitive dialogue is beginning to motivate some developers to adopt innovative approaches to energy system development.

  18. A local energy management of a hybrid PV-storage based distributed generation for microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudar, Adel; Boukhetala, Djamel; Barkat, Said; Brucker, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed system is based on photovoltaic system, batteries and ultra-capacitors. • Batteries are used as an energy source, ultra-capacitors are used as a fast power regulator. • An energy management strategy, to operate a grid connected active PV system (APS). • Different levels of the control system are studied and organized in a hierarchical control structure. • Different operating modes are explained (island, limited PV power, normal, fast recovering). - Abstract: The presented work focuses on energy management strategy, to operate a grid connected active PV system (APS) in a microgrid. A microgrid is a smart grid in a small scale which can be stand-alone or grid-tied. The proposed system is based on photovoltaic system, batteries and ultra-capacitors. Three converters are used to interface the elements of the APS to a common DC-link capacitor. The presented control strategy manages the power flow between the converters and the grid through the DC-link in order to maintain the grid power demand coming from the grid operator. Batteries are used as an energy source, to stabilize and permit the APS units to run at a constant and stable output power, damping peak surges in electricity demand and to store the excess of energy from the PV array. Ultra-capacitors are used as a fast power regulator to: limit the battery’s current, regulate the DC-link voltage when the disconnection mode occurs and to deliver a smooth power to the grid, despite primary source and load fluctuations. Several operating modes are presented to manage locally the power flows between the various sources, taking into account the state of charge of batteries (SOC), the energy level of ultra-capacitors (Lev), the available PV power and the power demand from the grid operator

  19. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Hernán Pérez de la Ossa

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ(9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and Cannabidiol (CBD - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies.

  20. Local Governments Supporting Local Energy Initiatives: Lessons from the Best Practices of Saerbeck (Germany) and Lochem (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Graf, Antonia; Warbroek, Wynzen Douwe Beau; Lammers, Imke; Lepping, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The social dimension of the transition to a low carbon economy is a key challenge to cities. The establishment of local energy initiatives (LEIs) has recently been attracting attention. It is of great importance to draw lessons from best practices when LEIs have been facilitated by local governments

  1. Quasi-static analysis of wave loadings on spine-based wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockett, F.P.; Peatfield, A.M.; West, M.J.

    1980-02-01

    A report is given on the Wave Energy Research Programme at Lanchester Polytechnic. Results are presented for both theoretical and experimental scale models for wave loadings on circular and rectangular spines of various lengths. The results are in good agreement over the operational wave range for the 1/50 scale model and for the more limited data on the 1/10 scale model.

  2. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.

    2017-11-01

    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  3. An energy estimation framework for event-based methods in Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Suman; Bergés, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy estimation is NILM has not yet accounted for complexity of appliance models. • We present a data-driven framework for appliance modeling in supervised NILM. • We test the framework on 3 houses and report average accuracies of 5.9–22.4%. • Appliance models facilitate the estimation of energy consumed by the appliance. - Abstract: Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a set of techniques used to estimate the electricity consumed by individual appliances in a building from measurements of the total electrical consumption. Most commonly, NILM works by first attributing any significant change in the total power consumption (also known as an event) to a specific load and subsequently using these attributions (i.e. the labels for the events) to estimate energy for each load. For this last step, most published work in the field makes simplifying assumptions to make the problem more tractable. In this paper, we present a framework for creating appliance models based on classification labels and aggregate power measurements that can help to relax many of these assumptions. Our framework automatically builds models for appliances to perform energy estimation. The model relies on feature extraction, clustering via affinity propagation, perturbation of extracted states to ensure that they mimic appliance behavior, creation of finite state models, correction of any errors in classification that might violate the model, and estimation of energy based on corrected labels. We evaluate our framework on 3 houses from standard datasets in the field and show that the framework can learn data-driven models based on event labels and use that to estimate energy with lower error margins (e.g., 1.1–42.3%) than when using the heuristic models used by others

  4. Assessing the financial impacts of distributed energy on load serving entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zeyu; Negash, Ahlmahz; Kirschen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the financial impact of distributed energy resources (DERs) owned and operated by commercial customers on the load serving entities (LSEs). DERs reduce the customers' electricity bills and hence the revenues collected by their LSE. However, changes in customer demand profiles can potentially reduce the aggregated system demand profile, and therefore, reduce the LSE's costs in wholesale markets. Analysis of these financial impacts indicates that the LSE's lost revenue ultimately outweighs its reduced expenses. This is largely due to a significant reduction in revenue from demand charges. Dispatchable DERs, including energy storages and demand response, result in more financial losses for LSEs than photovoltaics. The financial losses LSEs face indicate that redesigning commercial customer tariffs is necessary in order for LSEs to accommodate customer owned DERs properly. Several suggestions on modifying commercial tariffs are presented. - Highlights: • We analyze the financial impacts on load serving entities of DERs owned by commercial customers. • Under the selected commercial tariff, load serving entities suffer economic losses. • Energy storages and demand response results in more financial losses for LSE than photovoltaics. • We provide some suggestions for tariff modifications.

  5. Economic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Georges, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out......-in tariff and a 5 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out...... by varying the building envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lightning and appliances profiles, the roof tilt, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption rate, shifted energy...

  6. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  7. Localized Fluctuant Oscillatory Activity by Working Memory Load: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is a resource-limited memory system for temporary storage and processing of brain information during the execution of cognitive tasks. Increased WM load will increase the amount and difficulty of memory information. Several studies have used electroencephalography (EEG or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore load-dependent cognition processing according to the time courses of electrophysiological activity or the spatial pattern of blood oxygen metabolic activity. However, the relationships between these two activities and the underlying neural mechanism are still unclear. In this study, using simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI data under an n-back verbal WM task, we modeled the spectral perturbation of EEG oscillation and fMRI activation through joint independent component analysis (JICA. Multi-channel oscillation features were also introduced into the JICA model for further analysis. The results showed that time-locked activity of theta and beta were modulated by memory load in the early stimuli evaluation stage, corresponding to the enhanced activation in the frontal and parietal lobe, which were involved in stimulus discrimination, information encoding and delay-period activity. In the late response selection stage, alpha and gamma activity changes dependent on the load correspond to enhanced activation in the areas of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, which played important roles in attention, information extraction and memory retention. These findings suggest that the increases in memory load not only affect the intensity and time course of the EEG activities, but also lead to the enhanced activation of brain regions which plays different roles during different time periods of cognitive process of WM.

  8. Localized Fluctuant Oscillatory Activity by Working Memory Load: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaoyun; Yao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a resource-limited memory system for temporary storage and processing of brain information during the execution of cognitive tasks. Increased WM load will increase the amount and difficulty of memory information. Several studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore load-dependent cognition processing according to the time courses of electrophysiological activity or the spatial pattern of blood oxygen metabolic activity. However, the relationships between these two activities and the underlying neural mechanism are still unclear. In this study, using simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI data under an n-back verbal WM task, we modeled the spectral perturbation of EEG oscillation and fMRI activation through joint independent component analysis (JICA). Multi-channel oscillation features were also introduced into the JICA model for further analysis. The results showed that time-locked activity of theta and beta were modulated by memory load in the early stimuli evaluation stage, corresponding to the enhanced activation in the frontal and parietal lobe, which were involved in stimulus discrimination, information encoding and delay-period activity. In the late response selection stage, alpha and gamma activity changes dependent on the load correspond to enhanced activation in the areas of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, which played important roles in attention, information extraction and memory retention. These findings suggest that the increases in memory load not only affect the intensity and time course of the EEG activities, but also lead to the enhanced activation of brain regions which plays different roles during different time periods of cognitive process of WM.

  9. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  10. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Boardman, Richard D.; Aumeier, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  11. Modeling of plastic localization in aluminum and Al–Cu alloys under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, V.S.; Mayer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modeling of plastic deformation localization in pure aluminum and aluminum–copper alloys during the propagation of a plane shock wave. Modeling is carried out with the use of continual dislocation plasticity model in 2-D geometry. It is shown that the formation of localization bands occurs at an angle of 45° to the direction of propagation of the shock front. Effective initiators for plastic localization in pure aluminum are the perturbations of the initial dislocation density, in the alloys – perturbations of the dislocation density and the concentration of copper atoms. Perturbations of temperature field in a range of tens of kelvins are not so effective for plastic localization. In the alloy plastic localization intensity decreases with an increase of strain rate due to the thermally activated nature of the dislocation motion

  12. Passive Method to Reduce Solar Energy Effect on the Cooling Load in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfi J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy needed for cooling residential and industrial buildings in hot weather countries is the major issue. The period needed for cooling or comfort conditions in those countries exceeds five months and outdoor temperature reaches more than 40 °C. Also, the solar intensity usually high and can reach about one kW per m2. Hence, any attempt to reduce the effect of solar energy on the cooling load is worthy to investigate. The present work analyzes using artificial, naturally ventilated, shading covers to reduce the effect of solar energy. Analytical and numerical analyzes were performed on the effect of adding a ventilated cover to walls and roof exposed to the solar energy.

  13. Load sharing with a local thermal network fed by a microcogenerator: Thermo-economic optimization by means of dynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Canelli, Michele; Rosato, Antonio; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The cogeneration is the combined production of electric and/or mechanical and thermal energy starting by a single energy source; in particular in this paper the analysis will be focused on a cogeneration system with electric power lower than 15 kW (micro-cogeneration). The paper analyzes a system consisting of a natural gas-fired micro-cogeneration unit (MCHP), a heat storage and a peak boiler. The system provides thermal and electric energy to two end-users, the former is a tertiary building (office), where the generation system is located, and the latter is a residential building connected to the former through a district heating micro-grid. In order to analyze the influence of climatic conditions, two different geographical locations in Italy (Benevento and Milano) are considered, that are also characterized by different natural gas and electricity tariffs. Particular attention is paid to the choice of the users, in order to obtain more stable and continuous electric and thermal loads (load sharing approach) and to increase the operating hours per year of the MCHP unit. The operation of the MCHP is governed by a control system, aimed to optimize a thermo-economic objective function. The models representing the components, the thermo-economic objective function and the buildings have been implemented in a widely used commercial software for building simulations. The models are calibrated and validated through data obtained from experimental tests carried out in the laboratory of the University of Sannio (Benevento). The results of the simulations highlight the potential benefits of the thermal load sharing approach. In particular, this study shows that an MCHP unit connected by means of a thermal micro-grid to different users in “load sharing mode” can obtain a high number of operating hours as well as significant energy (Primary Energy Saving) and environmental (avoided CO 2 equivalent emissions) benefits with respect to an appropriate reference system

  14. Economic assessment of electric energy storage for load shifting in positive energy building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the buildin...... and a 3.7 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the building...... envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lighting and appliances profiles, the roof tilt angle, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption and self-production rate and payback...

  15. Business model innovation for Local Energy Management: a perspective from Swiss utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Facchinetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential Local Energy Management stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the Local Energy Management business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing Local Energy Management concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the Local Energy Management business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights to policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management.

  16. An adaptive clustering approach to dynamic load balancing and energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbi, Chirihane; Aliouat, Zibouda; Benmohammed, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Clustering is a well known approach to cope with large nodes density and efficiently conserving energy in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Load balancing is an effective approach for optimizing resources like channel bandwidth, the main objective of this paper is to combine these two valuable approaches in order to significantly improve the main WSN service such as information routing. So, our proposal is a routing protocol in which load traffic is shared among cluster members in order to reduce the dropping probability due to queue overflow at some nodes. To this end, a novel hierarchical approach, called Hierarchical Energy-Balancing Multipath routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (HEBM) is proposed. The HEBM approach aims to fulfill the following purposes: decreasing the overall network energy consumption, balancing the energy dissipation among the sensor nodes and as direct consequence: extending the lifetime of the network. In fact, the cluster-heads are optimally determined and suitably distributed over the area of interest allowing the member nodes reaching them with adequate energy dissipation and appropriate load balancing utilization. In addition, nodes radio are turned off for fixed time duration according to sleeping control rules optimizing so their energy consumption. The performance evaluation of the proposed protocol is carried out through the well-known NS2 simulator and the exhibited results are convincing. Like this, the residual energy of sensor nodes was measured every 20 s throughout the duration of simulation, in order to calculate the total number of alive nodes. Based on the simulation results, we concluded that our proposed HEBM protocol increases the profit of energy, and prolongs the network lifetime duration from 32% to 40% compared to DEEAC reference protocol and from 25% to 28% compared to FEMCHRP protocol. The authors also note that the proposed protocol is 41.7% better than DEEAC with respect to FND (Fist node die), and 25

  17. Energy cost and mechanical work of walking during load carriage in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jordane G; Peyrot, Nicolas; Castells, Josiane; Oullion, Roger; Messonnier, Laurent; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2012-06-01

    In the military context, soldiers carry equipments of total mass often exceeding 30%-40% of their body mass (BM) and complexly distributed around their body (backpack, weapons, electronics, protections, etc.), which represents severe load carrying conditions. This study aimed to better understand the effects of load carriage on walking energetics and mechanics during military-type walking. Ten male infantrymen recently retired from the French Foreign Legion performed 3-min walking trials at a constant speed of 4 km·h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill, during which walking pattern spatiotemporal parameters, energy cost (C(W)), external mechanical work (W(ext)), and the work done by one leg against the other during the double-contact period (W(int,dc)) were specifically assessed. Three conditions were tested: (i) light sportswear (SP, reference condition considered as unloaded), (ii) battle equipment (BT, ∼22 kg, ∼27% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military intermediate load), and (iii) road march equipment (RM, ∼38 kg, ∼46% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military high load). Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that military equipment carriage significantly (i) altered the spatiotemporal pattern of walking (all P < 0.01), (ii) increased absolute gross and net CW (P < 0.0001), and (iii) increased both absolute and mass-relative W(ext) (P < 0.01) and W(int,dc) (P < 0.0001) but did not alter the inverted pendulum recovery or locomotor efficiency. Military equipments carriage induced significant changes in walking mechanics and energetics, but these effects appeared not greater than those reported with loads carried around the waist and close to the center of mass. This result was not expected because the latter has been hypothesized to be the optimal method of load carriage from a metabolic standpoint.

  18. Effects of energy conservation programs: report to IEA (International Energy Agency) Annex 7, Local Government Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Benton, L.; Engebeck, L.; Erikson, B.E.; Fredriksson, G.

    1984-01-01

    This Bulletin is an anthology of 13 essays by different authors covering various aspects of government programs for energy conservation. In six essays effects of energy codes, subsidies to conservation measures in buildings and advisory services are discussed. Results from several empirical studies are presented. Five essays deal with side-effects (or secondary effects) of energy conservation. Moisture and increased radiation from radon are two types of negative effects that are covered. Also positive effects such as promotion of innovations or increased employment are discussed. Policy instruments are normally implemented by the local authorities. This is illustrated by a description of energy planning for a new suburb in one municipality. Some tentative conclusions are presented in the final essay.

  19. Local structure analysis of materials for increased energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medling, Scott

    In this dissertation, a wide range of materials which exhibit interesting properties with potential for energy efficiency applications are investigated. The bulk of the research was conducted using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique. EXAFS is a powerful tool for elucidating the local structure of novel materials, and it's advantages are presented in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, I present details on two new techniques which are used in studies later in this dissertation, but are also promising for other, unrelated studies and, therefore, warrant being discussed generally. I explain the presence of and present a method for subtracting the X-ray Raman background in the fluorescence window when collecting fluorescence EXAFS data of a dilute dopant Z in a Z+1 host. I introduce X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and discuss the process to reduce XMCD data, including the self-absorption corrections for low energy K-edges. In Chapter 4, I present a series of investigations on ZnS:Cu electroluminescent phosphors. Optical microscopy indicates that the emission centers do not degrade uniformly or monotonically, but rather, most of the emission centers blink on and off during degradation. The effect of this on various proposed degradation mechanisms is discussed. EXAFS data of ZnS:Cu phosphors ground to enable thinner, lower-voltage devices indicate that grinding preferentially causes damage to the CuS nanoprecipitates, quenching electroluminescence (EL) and concluding that smaller particles must be built up from nanoparticles instead. EXAFS data of nanoparticles show that adding a ZnS shell outside a ZnS:Cu core provides significant additional encapsulation of the Cu, increasing photoluminescence and indicating that this may increase EL if devices can be fabricated. Data from extremely dilute (0.02% Cu) ZnS:Cu nanoparticles is presented in order to specifically study the non-precipitate and suggests that the Cu dopant substitutes for Zn and is

  20. The expected performance of local energy visions in Europe : A governance perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.; Dignum, M.; Steenhuisen, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers insights into the expected performance of Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAPs) as a policy instrument, a local energy vision initiated by the EU and used by municipalities across Europe. How are SEAPs aiming to contribute to the process of local energy transition and how can

  1. Robust Building Energy Load Forecasting Using Physically-Based Kernel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Krishnan Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Robust and accurate building energy load forecasting is important for helping building managers and utilities to plan, budget, and strategize energy resources in advance. With recent prevalent adoption of smart-meters in buildings, a significant amount of building energy consumption data became available. Many studies have developed physics-based white box models and data-driven black box models to predict building energy consumption; however, they require extensive prior knowledge about building system, need a large set of training data, or lack robustness to different forecasting scenarios. In this paper, we introduce a new building energy forecasting method based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR that incorporates physical insights about load data characteristics to improve accuracy while reducing training requirements. The GPR is a non-parametric regression method that models the data as a joint Gaussian distribution with mean and covariance functions and forecast using the Bayesian updating. We model the covariance function of the GPR to reflect the data patterns in different forecasting horizon scenarios, as prior knowledge. Our method takes advantage of the modeling flexibility and computational efficiency of the GPR while benefiting from the physical insights to further improve the training efficiency and accuracy. We evaluate our method with three field datasets from two university campuses (Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford University for both short- and long-term load forecasting. The results show that our method performs more accurately, especially when the training dataset is small, compared to other state-of-the-art forecasting models (up to 2.95 times smaller prediction error.

  2. Development of a local anesthetic lidocaine-loaded redox-active injectable gel for postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Yukio; Mizukoshi, Yutaro; Gao, Zhenyu; Feliciano, Chitho P; Chang, Kyungho; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    Although local anesthesia is commonly applied for pain relief, there are several issues such as its short duration of action and low effectiveness at the areas of inflammation due to the acidic pH. The presence of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to induce inflammation and aggravate pain. To resolve these issues, we developed a redox-active injectable gel (RIG) with ROS-scavenging activity. RIG was prepared by mixing polyamine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyamine with nitroxide radical moieties as side chains on the polyamine segments (PMNT-b-PEG-b-PMNT) with a polyanion, which formed a flower-type micelle via electrostatic complexation. Lidocaine could be stably incorporated in its core. When the temperature of the solution was increased to 37°C, the PIC-type flower micelle transformed to gel. The continuous release of lidocaine from the gel was observed for more than three days, without remarkable initial burst, which is probably owing to the stable entrapment of lidocaine in the PIC core of the gel. We evaluated the analgesic effect of RIG in carrageenan-induced arthritis mouse model. Results showed that lidocaine-loaded RIG has stronger and longer analgesic effect when administered in inflamed areas. In contrast, while the use of non-complexed lidocaine did not show analgesic effect one day after its administration. Note that no effect was observed when PIC-type flower micelle without ROS-scavenging ability was used. These findings suggest that local anesthetic-loaded RIG can effectively reduce the number of injection times and limit the side effects associated with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management. 1. We have been working on nanomaterials, which effectively eliminate ROS, avoiding dysfunction of mitochondria in healthy cells. 2. We designed redox injectable gel using polyion complexed flower type micelle, which can eliminates ROS locally. 3. We could prepare local anesthesia-loaded redox injectable

  3. Improved free-energy landscape reconstruction of bacteriorhodopsin highlights local variations in unfolding energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, Patrick R; Yu, Hao; Siewny, Matthew G W; Perkins, Thomas T

    2018-03-28

    Precisely quantifying the energetics that drive the folding of membrane proteins into a lipid bilayer remains challenging. More than 15 years ago, atomic force microscopy (AFM) emerged as a powerful tool to mechanically extract individual membrane proteins from a lipid bilayer. Concurrently, fluctuation theorems, such as the Jarzynski equality, were applied to deduce equilibrium free energies (ΔG 0 ) from non-equilibrium single-molecule force spectroscopy records. The combination of these two advances in single-molecule studies deduced the free-energy of the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin in its native lipid bilayer. To elucidate this free-energy landscape at a higher resolution, we applied two recent developments. First, as an input to the reconstruction, we used force-extension curves acquired with a 100-fold higher time resolution and 10-fold higher force precision than traditional AFM studies of membrane proteins. Next, by using an inverse Weierstrass transform and the Jarzynski equality, we removed the free energy associated with the force probe and determined the molecular free-energy landscape of the molecule under study, bacteriorhodopsin. The resulting landscape yielded an average unfolding free energy per amino acid (aa) of 1.0 ± 0.1 kcal/mol, in agreement with past single-molecule studies. Moreover, on a smaller spatial scale, this high-resolution landscape also agreed with an equilibrium measurement of a particular three-aa transition in bacteriorhodopsin that yielded 2.7 kcal/mol/aa, an unexpectedly high value. Hence, while average unfolding ΔG 0 per aa is a useful metric, the derived high-resolution landscape details significant local variation from the mean. More generally, we demonstrated that, as anticipated, the inverse Weierstrass transform is an efficient means to reconstruct free-energy landscapes from AFM data.

  4. Optical Dark-Field and Electron Energy Loss Imaging and Spectroscopy of Symmetry-Forbidden Modes in Loaded Nanogap Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew A; Long, James P; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, B S

    2015-06-23

    We have produced large numbers of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanogap antennas using a scalable electrochemical approach and systematically characterized the spectral and spatial character of their plasmonic modes with optical dark-field scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy with principal component analysis, and full wave simulations. The coordination of these techniques reveal that these nanostructures support degenerate transverse modes which split due to substrate interactions, a longitudinal mode which scales with antenna length, and a symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode. This gap-localized transverse mode arises from mode splitting of transverse resonances supported on both antenna arms and is confined to the gap load enabling (i) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material and (ii) the possibility of tuning the antenna resonance via active modulation of the gap material's optical properties. The resonant position of this symmetry-forbidden mode is sensitive to gap size, dielectric strength of the gap material, and is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multifunctional components many seek.

  5. Lateral Viscosity Variations in the Both Local and Global and Viscoelastic Load Response and it's Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Caron, L.; Adhikari, S.; Larour, E. Y.; Seroussi, H. L.; Wiens, D.; Lloyd, A. J.; Dietrich, R. O. R.; Richter, A.

    2017-12-01

    One aspect of GIA modeling that has been a source of contention for many years is the exploration, or lack thereof, of the parameters representing growth and collapse of ice loading while additionally allowing mantle structure to vary. These problems are today being approached with advanced coupled solid earth and ice sheet continuum mechanics. An additional source of non-uniqueness lies in the potential for large (4 orders of magnitude) variability in mantle creep strength. A main question that remains is how to seek some simplification of the set of problems that this implies and to shed from consideration those questions that lack relevance to properly interpreting geodetic data sets. Answering this question therefore entails defining what science questions are to be addressed and to define what parameters produce the highest sensitivities. Where mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness have affinity with an active dynamic mantle that brings rejuvenation by upwelling of volatiles and heat, the time scales for ice and water loading shorten. Here we show how seismic images map with constitutive flow laws into effective laterally varying viscosity maps. As important, we map the uncertainties. In turn, these uncertainties also inform the time scales that are sensitive to load reconstruction for computing present-day deformation and gravity. We employ the wavelength-dependent viscoelastic response decay spectra derived from analytic solutions in order to quantitatively map these sensitivities.

  6. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmák, P; Pilch, J; Heller, L; Kopeček, J; Wright, J; Sedlák, P; Frost, M; Šittner, P

    2016-08-05

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation in tensioned nickel-titanium shape-memory alloys proceeds by propagation of macroscopic fronts of localized deformation. We used three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray diffraction to image at micrometer-scale resolution the grain-resolved elastic strains and stresses in austenite around one such front in a prestrained nickel-titanium wire. We found that the local stresses in austenite grains are modified ahead of the nose cone-shaped buried interface where the martensitic transformation begins. Elevated shear stresses at the cone interface explain why the martensitic transformation proceeds in a localized manner. We established the crossover from stresses in individual grains to a continuum macroscopic internal stress field in the wire and rationalized the experimentally observed internal stress field and the topology of the macroscopic front by means of finite element simulations of the localized deformation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  8. Proceedings of the 7. world wind energy conference 2008 : community power : energy autonomy for local economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This international conference profiled the topic of community power within the dynamic renewable energy sector. The objective was to promote international technology transfer and bring a new perspective to community development, economic growth and environmental awareness in the context of climate change. It was attended by academics and industry representatives from 20 countries who focused on leading edge research on the topic of innovative technology in the rapidly growing renewable power market. The topics of discussion addressed issues such as ownership of renewable energy projects by local communities, including farmers, landowners, cooperatives, Aboriginal groups, municipalities, utilities and educational institutions. Presentations focused on policy development, financial mechanisms, ownership models, technology advancements, grid interconnection issues, governance and capacity building. The conference featured more than 100 presentations, of which 65 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Dependence of Seebeck coefficient on a load resistance and energy conversion efficiency in a thermoelectric composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Satou, Kouji

    2007-01-01

    The thermo-emf ΔV and current ΔI generated by imposing the alternating temperature gradients (ATG) at a period of T and the steady temperature gradient (STG) on a thermoelectric (TE) composite were measured as a function of t, where t is the lapsed time and T was varied from 60 to or ∞ s. The STG and ATG were produced by imposing steadily and alternatively a source voltage V in the range from 1.0 to 4.0 V on two Peltier modules sandwiching a composite. ΔT, ΔV, ΔI and V P oscillate at a period T and their waveforms vary significantly with a change of T, where ΔV and V P are the voltage drops in a load resistance R L and in resistance R P of two modules. The resultant Seebeck coefficient |α| = |ΔV|/ΔT of a composite under the STG was found to be expressed as |α| = |α 0 |(1 - R comp /R T ), where R T is the total resistance of a circuit for measuring the output signals and R comp is the resistance of a composite. The effective generating power ΔW eff has a local maximum at T = 960 s for the p-type composite and at T = 480 s for the n-type one. The maximum energy conversion efficiency η of the p- and n-type composites under the ATG produced by imposing a voltage of 4.0 V at an optimum period were 0.22 and 0.23% at ΔT eff = 50 K, respectively, which are 42 and 43% higher than those at ΔT = 42 K under the STG. These maximum η for a TE composite sandwiched between two Peltier modules, were found to be expressed theoretically in terms of R P , R T , R L , α P and α, where α P and α are the resultant Seebeck coefficients of Peltier modules and a TE composite

  10. Power flow control strategy in distribution network for dc type distributed energy resource at load bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Choudhry, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work presents a feed forward power flow control strategy in the secondary distribution network working in parallel with a DC type distributed energy resource (DER) unit with SPWM-IGBT Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The developed control strategy enables the VSC to be used as power flow controller at the load bus in the presence of utility supply. Due to the investigated control strategy, power flow control from distributed energy resource (DER) to common load bus is such that power flows to the load without facing any power quality problem. The technique has an added advantage of controlling power flow without having a dedicated power flow controller. The SPWM-IGBT VSC is serving the purpose of dc-ac converter as well as power flow controller. Simulations for a test system using proposed power flow control strategy are carried out using SimPower Systems toolbox of MATLAB at the rate and Simulink at the rate. The results show that a reliable, effective and efficient operation of DC type DER unit in coordination with main utility network can be achieved. (author)

  11. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Gu Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.

  12. Transient modelling of heat loading of phase change material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asyraf W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the development of solar energy is getting advance from time to time, the concentration solar technology also get the similar attention from the researchers all around the globe. This technology concentrate a large amount of energy into main spot. To collect all the available energy harvest from the solar panel, a thermal energy storage is required to convert the heat energy to one of the purpose such as electrical energy. With the idea of energy storage application that can be narrow down to commercial application such as cooking stove. Using latent heat type energy storage seem to be appropriate with the usage of phase change material (PCM that can release and absorb heat energy at nearly constant temperature by changing its state. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3 and potassium nitrate (KNO3 was selected to use as PCM in this project. This paper focus on the heat loading process and the melting process of the PCM in the energy storage using a computer simulation. The model of the energy storage was created as solid three dimensional modelling using computer aided software and the geometry size of it depend on how much it can apply to boil 1 kg of water in cooking application. The materials used in the tank, heat exchanger and the heat transfer fluid are stainless steel, copper and XCELTHERM MK1, respectively. The analysis was performed using a commercial simulation software in a transient state. The simulation run on different value of velocity but kept controlled under laminar state only, then the relationship of velocity and heat distribution was studied and the melting process of the PCM also has been analyzed. On the effect of heat transfer fluid velocity, the higher the velocity resulted in higher the rate of heat transfer. The comparison between the melting percentages of the PCMs under test conditions show that NaNO3 melts quite faster than KNO3.

  13. Indoor self-localization via bluetooth low energy beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizky Pratama, Azkario; Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Aliaksandr; Aiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Indoor localization is concerned with mapping sensory data to physical locations inside buildings. Location of a user or a mobile device is an essential part of the context, and is therefore very useful for pervasive computing applications. Many proposals exist for solving the localization problem,

  14. 3. national sittings on energy ''energy, urban mobility,... tomorrow: which responsibilities for the local governments?''; 3. assises nationales de l'energie. ''Energie, mobilite urbaine,... demain: quelles responsabilites pour les collectivites locales?''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the local government policy concerning the energy mastership of the transportation sector. Sixteen workshops discussed on the problem of the urban mobility in an environmental quality context: legal provisions affecting the energy mastership, mobility in the urban area, regulations, clean technologies enhancement, the public information impact on the energy consumption and the financial means. (A.L.B.)

  15. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of load-leveling hyper energy converting and utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Behdad; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Load-leveling hyper energy converting and utilization system (LHECUS) is a hybrid cycle which utilizes ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid in a combined power generation and refrigeration cycle. The power generation cycle functions as a Kalina cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle is combined with it as a bottoming cycle. LHECUS is designed to utilize the waste heat from industry to produce cooling and power simultaneously. The refrigeration effect can be either transported to end-use sectors by means of a solution transportation absorption chiller (STA) as solution concentration difference or stored for demand load leveling. This paper shows a simulation of the LHECUS cycle. A computer model was written to balance the cycle and key parameters for optimizing the cycle were identified

  17. Vibration and Energy Dissipation of Nanocomposite Laminates for Below Ballistic Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaganesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Composite laminates are made of glass woven roving mats of 610gsm, epoxy resin and nano clay which are subjected to projectile impact. Nano clay dispersion is varied from 1% to 5%. Impact tests are conducted in a gas gun setup with a spherical nose cylindrical projectile of diameter 9.5 mm of mass 7.6 g. The energy absorbed by the laminates when subjected to impact loading is studied, the velocity range is below ballistic limit. The effect of nano clay on energy absorption in vibration, delamination and matrix crack is studied for different weight % of nano clay and for different thickness values of the laminates. The natural frequencies and damping factors are obtained for the laminates during impact and the effect of nano clay is studied. The results show considerable improvement in energy absorption due to the presence of nano clay

  18. Impacts of Commercial Building Controls on Energy Savings and Peak Load Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas E.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Commercial buildings in the United States use about 18 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of primary energy annually . Studies have shown that as much as 30% of building energy consumption can be avoided by using more accurate sensing, using existing controls better, and deploying advanced controls; hence, the motivation for the work described in this report. Studies also have shown that 10% to 20% of the commercial building peak load can be temporarily managed/curtailed to provide grid services. Although many studies have indicated significant potential for reducing the energy consumption in commercial buildings, very few have documented the actual savings. The studies that did so only provided savings at the whole building level, which makes it difficult to assess the savings potential of each individual measure deployed.

  19. Experimental Characterization of the Energy Absorption of Functionally Graded Foam Filled Tubes Under Axial Crushing Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Saeed; Vahdatazad, Nader; Liaghat, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the energy absorption characterization of functionally graded foam (FGF) filled tubes under axial crushing loads by experimental method. The FGF tubes are filled axially by gradient layers of polyurethane foams with different densities. The mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams are firstly obtained from axial compressive tests. Then, the quasi-static compressive tests are carried out for empty tubes, uniform foam filled tubes and FGF filled tubes. Before to present the experimental test results, a nonlinear FEM simulation of the FGF filled tube is carried out in ABAQUS software to gain more insight into the crush deformation patterns, as well as the energy absorption capability of the FGF filled tube. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. Finally, the results of experimental test show that an FGF filled tube has excellent energy absorption capacity compared to the ordinary uniform foam-filled tube with the same weight.

  20. Local effects in thin elastic shell due to thermal and mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, S.

    1987-01-01

    For a thick cylinder (1/15)<(h/rm)<(1/3) the local effect is represented by the same field. When the local effect is negligible the Love-Kirchhoff solution is valid for a thick cylinder. A shear effect shell theory may give for a thin cylinder a large error compared to the exact 3D solution on a thermal shock. The Love-Kirchhoff solution is generally not valid in the vicinity of a clamped or simply supported edge. A finite element program of thin shell with shear effect or thick shell ist not really reliable. A combination of 3D local solution and Love-Kirchhoff global solution through a transition zone may replace a complete 3D solution for not very thick structures. (orig./GL)

  1. Performance improvement of a battery/PV/fuel cell/grid hybrid energy system considering load uncertainty modeling using IGDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Majidi, Majid; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimum performance of PV/battery/fuel cell/grid hybrid system under load uncertainty. • Employing information gap decision theory (IGDT) to model the load uncertainty. • Robustness and opportunity functions of IGDT are modeled for risk-averse and risk-taker. • Robust strategy of hybrid system's operation obtained from robustness function. • Opportunistic strategy of hybrid system's operation obtained from opportunity function. - Abstract: Nowadays with the speed that electrical loads are growing, system operators are challenged to manage the sources they use to supply loads which means that that besides upstream grid as the main sources of electric power, they can utilize renewable and non-renewable energy sources to meet the energy demand. In the proposed paper, a photovoltaic (PV)/fuel cell/battery hybrid system along with upstream grid has been utilized to supply two different types of loads: electrical load and thermal load. Operators should have to consider load uncertainty to manage the strategies they employ to supply load. In other words, operators have to evaluate how load variation would affect their energy procurement strategies. Therefore, information gap decision theory (IGDT) technique has been proposed to model the uncertainty of electrical load. Utilizing IGDT approach, robustness and opportunity functions are achieved which can be used by system operator to take the appropriate strategy. The uncertainty modeling of load enables operator to make appropriate decisions to optimize the system’s operation against possible changes in load. A case study has been simulated to validate the effects of proposed technique.

  2. Solar energy storage in German households: profitability, load changes and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschub, Thomas; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The developments of battery storage technology together with photovoltaic (PV) roof-top systems might lead to far-reaching changes in the electricity demand structures and flexibility of households. The implications are supposed to affect the generation mix of utilities, distribution grid utilization, and electricity price. Using a techno-economic optimization model of a household system, we endogenously dimension PV system and stationary battery storage (SBS). The results of the reference scenario show positive net present values (NPV) for PV systems of approx. 500–1,800 EUR/kW_p and NPV for SBS of approx. 150–500 EUR/kWh. Main influences are the demand of the households, self-consumption rates, investment costs, and electricity prices. We integrate electric vehicles (EV) with different charging strategies and find increasing NPV of the PV system and self-consumption of approx. 70%. With further declining system prices for solar energy storage and increasing electricity prices, PV systems and SBS can be profitable in Germany from 2018 on even without a guaranteed feed-in tariff or subsidies. Grid utilization substantially changes by households with EV and PV-SBS. We discuss effects of different incentives and electricity tariff options (e. g. load limits or additional demand charges). Concluding, solar energy storage systems will bring substantial changes to electricity sales. - Highlights: • Domestic photovoltaics (PV) and storage systems are techno-economically analyzed. • PV & storage are profitable in the medium term due to high self-consumption rates. • Controlled electric vehicle charging improves load flexibility and self-generation. • External procurement of electricity drastically changes and decreases to 48–58%. • Dynamic tariffs e. g. with load limits or demand charges incentivize load shifting.

  3. Local shell-to-shell energy transfer via nonlocal interactions in fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the shell-to-shell energy transfer rate is found to be local and forward. .... interaction was strong, but the energy exchange occurred predominantly between ..... The wave-number range considered is in the inverse cascade regime.

  4. Territory and energy: policies, scales and tools for mobilization, knowledge and local action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is about French local authorities' energy policies, and more particularly about regional policies. In a context of reassessment of fossil fuel-based energy systems, local authorities have a key role to play. Indeed, energy systems are complex and require to act locally, in order to keep fair access for consumers and to adapt supply to needs and uses. In the same way, environmental constraints and sustainable exploitation of local resources involve to have a good knowledge of territory and of local energy potential. But, local authorities do not know much about boundaries and about components of territorial energy systems. The main purpose of the thesis is to determine structure and behaviour of these energy systems in order to identify public policy incentive levers at local scale. The first part of the thesis deals with the links between land uses, actors' behaviours, political choices and energy consumptions. Here, we point out the specific interest of geography and territorial approach to treat energy issue, both for land planning and for actors' mobilization. In the second part, we identify policy instruments which local authorities should dispose and actions they should implement in order to develop energy saving and renewables. Then, the third part is more specific to regional level. The analysis of two French planning instruments (Regional Plans for Climate, Air and Energy and Regional Energy Observatories), shows the interest of this scale which could, with its position between national and local levels, contribute to improve knowledge of territories, to coordinate local actions and to develop energy policies adapted to local specificities [fr

  5. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients' well-being.

  6. Intracellular localization and dynamics of Hypericin loaded PLLA nanocarriers by image correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Deville, Sarah; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Berden, Mandy; Ameloot, Marcel; Ethirajan, Anitha

    2015-11-28

    The study of cell-nanoparticle interactions is an important aspect for understanding drug delivery using nanocarriers. In this regard, advances in fluorescence based microscopy are useful for the investigation of temporal and spatial behavior of nanoparticles (NPs) within the intracellular environment. In this work, we focus on the delivery of the naturally-occurring hydrophobic photosensitizer Hypericin in human lung carcinoma A549 cells by using biodegradable poly L-lactic acid NPs. For the first time, Hypericin containing NPs are prepared by combining the miniemulsion technique with the solvent evaporation method. This approach yields an efficient loading of the NPs with Hypericin and allows for additional cargo molecules. To monitor the release of Hypercin from the NPs, an additional fluorescent lipophilic dye Coumarin-6 is incorporated in the NPs. Temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy is used to determine the fate of the NPs carrying the potential cargo. Both directed and non-directed motions are detected. By using image cross-correlation spectroscopy and specific fluorescent labeling of endosomes, lysosomes and mitochondria, the dynamics of the cargo loaded NPs in association with the organelles is studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New life styles to accompany the transition. Energy and territories: Toward the concept 'Energy 2.0' with local authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    There has never really been a policy for heating, which represents 40 % of needs, even though a policy has existed for a long time now for electricity, which represents only 20 %. The latter has overdetermined the country's total energy system, thus leading to a national, centralized approach focused on macro-level quantitative needs in energy and on a single product. In contrast, a local, decentralized, more qualitative approach should focus on needs in relation to heating as well as electricity and on tapping local energy potentials, including saving energy. The concept of 'energy subsidiarity' is proposed. In its general acceptation, 'subsidiarity' implies that the search for solutions be conducted as closely as possible to the problems to be solved. In relation to energy, it implies systematically mobilizing locally available energy potentials

  8. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms – e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload, as ΔK ∼ −mloadFloadu2sw∕4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp for Kp = 1–7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK = 0.2 ⋅ Kp + 2 ⋅ log10(Kp + 1.2 + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy

  9. Energy Coordinative Optimization of Wind-Storage-Load Microgrids Based on Short-Term Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbin Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the topological structure of wind-storage-load complementation microgrids, this paper proposes a method for energy coordinative optimization which focuses on improvement of the economic benefits of microgrids in the prediction framework. First of all, the external characteristic mathematical model of distributed generation (DG units including wind turbines and storage batteries are established according to the requirements of the actual constraints. Meanwhile, using the minimum consumption costs from the external grid as the objective function, a grey prediction model with residual modification is introduced to output the predictive wind turbine power and load at specific periods. Second, based on the basic framework of receding horizon optimization, an intelligent genetic algorithm (GA is applied to figure out the optimum solution in the predictive horizon for the complex non-linear coordination control model of microgrids. The optimum results of the GA are compared with the receding solution of mixed integer linear programming (MILP. The obtained results show that the method is a viable approach for energy coordinative optimization of microgrid systems for energy flow and reasonable schedule. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method is verified by examples.

  10. Load shifting with the use of home energy management system implemented in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazydło, Grzegorz; Wermiński, Szymon

    2017-08-01

    The increases for power demand in the Electrical Power System (EPS) causes a significant increase of power in daily load curve and transmission line overload. The large variability in energy consumption in EPS combined with unpredictable weather events can lead to a situation in which to save the stability of the EPS, the power limits must be introduced or even industrial customers in a given area have to be disconnected, which causes financial losses. Nowadays, a Transmission System Operator is looking for additional solutions to reduce peak power, because existing approaches (mainly building new intervention power unit or tariff programs) are not satisfactory due to the high cost of services in combination with insufficient power reduction effect. The paper presents an approach to load shifting with the use of home Energy Management System (EMS) installed at small end-users. The home energy management algorithm, executed by EMS controller, is modeled using Unified Modeling Language (UML). Then, the UML model is translated into Verilog description, and is finally implemented in the Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The advantages of the proposed approach are the relatively low cost of reduction service, small loss of end-users' comfort, and the convenient maintenance of EMS. A practical example illustrating the proposed approach and calculation of potential gains from its implementation are also presented.

  11. Evaluating Small Sphere Limit of the Wang-Yau Quasi-Local Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Ning; Wang, Mu-Tao; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we study the small sphere limit of the Wang-Yau quasi-local energy defined in Wang and Yau (Phys Rev Lett 102(2):021101, 2009, Commun Math Phys 288(3):919-942, 2009). Given a point p in a spacetime N, we consider a canonical family of surfaces approaching p along its future null cone and evaluate the limit of the Wang-Yau quasi-local energy. The evaluation relies on solving an "optimal embedding equation" whose solutions represent critical points of the quasi-local energy. For a spacetime with matter fields, the scenario is similar to that of the large sphere limit found in Chen et al. (Commun Math Phys 308(3):845-863, 2011). Namely, there is a natural solution which is a local minimum, and the limit of its quasi-local energy recovers the stress-energy tensor at p. For a vacuum spacetime, the quasi-local energy vanishes to higher order and the solution of the optimal embedding equation is more complicated. Nevertheless, we are able to show that there exists a solution that is a local minimum and that the limit of its quasi-local energy is related to the Bel-Robinson tensor. Together with earlier work (Chen et al. 2011), this completes the consistency verification of the Wang-Yau quasi-local energy with all classical limits.

  12. A coupled nuclear reactor thermal energy storage system for enhanced load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameri, Saeed A.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants operate most economically at a constant power level, providing base load electric power. In an energy grid containing a high fraction of renewable power sources, nuclear reactors may be subject to significantly variable power demands. These variable power demands can negatively impact the effective capacity factor of the reactor and result in severe economic penalties. Coupling a nuclear reactor to a large thermal energy storage block will allow the reactor to better respond to variable power demands. In the system described in this paper, a Prismatic core Advanced High Temperature Reactor supplies constant power to a lithium chloride molten salt thermal energy storage block that provides thermal power as needed to a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system. During normal operation, the thermal energy storage block stores thermal energy during the night for use in the times of peak demand during the day. In this case, the nuclear reactor stays at a constant thermal power level. After a loss of forced circulation, the reactor reaches a shut down state in less than half an hour and the average fuel, graphite and coolant temperatures remain well within the design limits over the duration of the transient, demonstrating the inherent safety of the coupled system. (author)

  13. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  14. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  15. Load Frequency Control of Two-Area Network using Renewable Energy Resources and Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiz Bin SALIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected system, the frequency and tie-line power interchange are very susceptible with the diversification of power load demand. Literally, in a multi-area power system, the load frequency control (LFC is substantially aimed to minimise the deviations of these parameters relatively. Knowingly, the power production from renewable energy resources could offer promising solutions despite their intermittency (i.e. photovoltaic/wind generation, hence in this context, a battery energy storage system (BESS is proposed to delineate dynamic response along with grid—connection. This study has proposed LFC with BESS control method to suppress frequency deviations for a power system and being compared with photovoltaic (PV approach. The effectiveness was verified using newly developed AGC30 model of Japanese Power System and was modelled using MATLAB Simulink. Furthermore, an analysis of the tie-line power oscillations also are carried out and comparison analysis demonstrates further the reliability of the proposed model and control methods.

  16. Adaptive algorithm for predicting increases in central loads of electrical energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbachyauskene, N A; Pushinaytis, K V

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for predicting increases in central loads of the electrical energy system is suggested for the task of evaluating the condition. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter. In order to calculate the coefficient of intensification, the a priori assigned noise characteristics with low accuracy are used only in the beginning of the calculation. Further, the coefficient of intensification is calculated from the innovation sequence. This approach makes it possible to correct errors in the assignment of the statistical noise characteristics and to follow their changes. The algorithm is experimentally verified.

  17. Local Governments Supporting Local Energy Initiatives: Lessons from the Best Practices of Saerbeck (Germany and Lochem (The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The social dimension of the transition to a low carbon economy is a key challenge to cities. The establishment of local energy initiatives (LEIs has recently been attracting attention. It is of great importance to draw lessons from best practices when LEIs have been facilitated by local governments and made a substantial contribution to greening local energy systems. The main research questions in this paper are: What lessons can be drawn from successful local low carbon energy transition cases, and which strategies proved successful to support LEIs? We have used analytical notions from the Strategic Niche Management (SNM and grassroots innovation literature to analyze two best-practice cases: Saerbeck (Germany and Lochem (The Netherlands. Data collection involved a set of fourteen in-depth interviews and secondary data. The results show that three key factors from SNM (building networks, managing expectations, and facilitation of learning are of great importance. However, to a great degree it is also strategic, community serving, responsive, reflexive leadership and proper process management by public officials that spurred success, which would not have been possible without close interaction and mutual trust between local government and representatives of the local communities.

  18. Local anesthetic effects of bupivacaine loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengju; Li, Ting; Xing, Huaixin; Wang, Suzhen; Sun, Yingui; Sheng, Xiugui; Wang, Kaiguo

    2017-05-01

    There is a compelling need for prolonged local anesthetic that would be used for analgesia with a single administration. However, due to the low molecular weight of local anesthetics (LA) (lidocaine, bupivacaine, procaine, dibucaine, etc), they present fast systemic absorption. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate bupivacaine lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (BVC LPNs), and compared with BVC loaded PLGA nanoparticles (BVC NPs). Their morphology, particle size, zeta potential and drug loading capacity were evaluated. In vitro release study, stability and cytotoxicity were studied. In vivo evaluation of anesthetic effects was performed on animal models. A facile nanoprecipitation and self-assembly method was optimized to obtain BVC LPNs, composed of PLGA, lecithin and DSPE-PEG 2000 , of ∼175nm particle size. Compared to BVC NPs, BVC LPNs exhibited prolonged in vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH=7.4). Further, BVC LPNs displayed enhanced in vitro stability in 10% FBS and lower cytotoxicity (the concentration of BVC ranging from 1.0μM to 20μM). In addition, BVC LPNs exhibited significantly prolonged analgesic duration. These results demonstrate that the LPNs could function as promising drug delivery system for overcoming the drawbacks of poor stability and rapid drug leakage, and prolonging the anesthetic effect with slight toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy policy design and China’s local climate governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ting, Guan; Delman, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    This study probes into climate policy design at city level in China, with Hangzhou’s energy efficiency and renewable energy policies between 2005 and 2014 as a case. The study applies a political action arena approach to accentuate the importance of different normative preferences behind climate...

  20. Energy and protein requirements for growth of the local domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet 3 in the grower phase improved growth with the highest EFU, 0.12, and was better utilized by the birds than in the chick starter phase where it was least utilized. High energy, high protein diet enhanced growth while low energy, high protein diet did not support maximum growth especially in the chick starter phase.

  1. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  2. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Chambart, M.; Gatuingt, F.; Guilbaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework allows to model the concrete-like materials behavior and in particular their dissymmetric tension/compression response. To deal with dynamics applications such as impact, it is furthermore necessary to take into account the strain rate effect observed experimentally. This is done in the present work by means of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydrostatic stresses only. The proposed delay-damage law assumes no viscous effect in compression as the consideration of inertia effects proves sufficient to model the apparent material strength increase. High-rate dynamics applications imply to deal with wave propagation and reflection which can generate alternated loading in the impacted structure. In order to do so, the key concept of active damage is defined and introduced within both the damage criterion and the delay-damage evolution law. At the structural level, strain localization often leads to spurious mesh dependency. Three-dimensional Finite Element computations of dynamic tensile tests by spalling are presented, with visco-damage and either without or with non-local enhancement. Delay-damage, as introduced, regularizes the solution in fast dynamics. The location of the macro-crack initiated is found influenced by non-local regularization. The strain rate range in which each enhancement, delay-damage or non-local enhancement, has a regularizing effect is studied. (authors)

  3. Prolonged local persistence of cisplatin-loaded gelatin microspheres and their chemoembolic anti-cancer effect in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shinichi; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Seko, Ayumi; Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Takemura, Shizuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To confirm prolonged cisplatin release from drug-loaded gelatin microspheres (GMSs) and their improved chemoembolic anti-cancer effect against VX2 liver tumors in rabbits. Materials and methods: Two groups of twelve rabbits each were treated intraarterially either with 2 mg/kg cisplatin-loaded GMSs (=0.04 mg/kg cisplatin) or 0.04 mg/kg cisplatin solution by administering them into the right renal artery. Platinum concentrations within the renal parenchyma were analyzed immediately following infusion (day 0) and on days 1, 3, and 7 using the atomic absorption method. In a second experiment four groups of five rabbits each with implanted VX2 liver tumors were treated intraarterially through the hepatic artery with the following drugs: 2 mg/kg cisplatin-loaded GMSs (=0.04 mg/kg cisplatin) (group I), 2 mg/kg GMSs without any drug (group II), 1.5 mg/kg cisplatin solution (group III) and saline (group IV). Tumor volumes were analyzed pre-injection and 7 days after with MRI allowing calculating the relative tumor growth rate (%). Degree of liver cell necrosis was assessed on the histopathological specimens. Results: The renal parenchymal platinum concentrations (μg/ml) with 4.51 ± 2.25 (day 0), 1.59 ± 0.70 (day 1), 0.72 ± 0.10 (day 3) and 0.20 ± 0.06 (day 7) were significantly more pronounced after cisplatin-loaded GMS on days one and three compared to cisplatin with 1.99 ± 0.55, 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.10 ± 0.07, respectively. Relative tumor growth rates resulted in 84.5% ± 26.4 (group I); 241.4% ± 145.1 (II); 331.9% ± 72.2 (III), and 413.6% ± 103.6 (IV) with statistical significant differences between groups I and III, and groups I and IV. Similar degrees of necrosis were observed in both GMSs treated groups, while ballooning of hepatocytes was highest in cisplatin-loaded GMSs. Conclusions: With cisplatin-loaded GMSs more pronounced and prolonged local parenchymal cisplatin concentrations may be achieved offering the advantage of an

  4. [Manual handling of loads in the hotel trade: the experience of the ASL (Local Health Unit) Milan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontani, S; Mercuri, Irene; Salicco, R; Veratti, Silvia; Sorrentino, L

    2010-01-01

    There are over 400 hotels in Milan with a guest capacity of about 62,000 and employing more than 10,000 workers. In 2008/09 the Occupational Health and Safety Service of A.S.L. Milano (Local Health Unit) carried out research into the hotel trade to ascertain the development of this commercial sector, also in view of EXPO 2015. The aim of the project was to improve hygiene and safety conditions and carry out preventive measures. A specific purpose was to study manual handling of loads and repetitive movements risk. The study covered 30 hotels and 7 temporary staff cooperatives. We acquired the Risk Evaluation Document, the Health Surveillance Programme and Registers of Labour Accidents to analyze manual handling of loads and repetitive movements. In the investigations and assessments on hotels we used currently available scientific tools--NIOSH Lifting Index, Push and Pulling Analysis, OC.R.A. Check-List--to study risks related to handling loads and upper limb mechanical overload, which revealed a specific occupational risk that requires a fresh approach to prevention and safety in the entire sector. Chambermaid: LI (Range): 0.57-2.75; Push and Pulling Actions: Fi 0.66-Fm 1.5 and Fi 0.76-Fm 1.33 respectively; OC.R.A. Check-List: 21. Porter: LI (Range): 0.77-3.75. Maintenance staff LI (Range): 0.57-2.75. The study highlighted the presence of risk due to manual handling of loads and repetitive movements in porters, maintenance personnel and particularly in chambermaids that up to now have been poorly assessed by safety experts. Analysis of the information contained in the registers of labour accidents suggests that a significant number of accidents can be related to muscular-skeletal disorders that affect especially cleaning, portering and kitchen staff

  5. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  6. Local functional derivative of the total energy and the shell structure in atoms and molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, R.; Markvoort, Albert. J.; Santen, van R.A.; Hilbers, P.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The full and local Thomas–Fermi–Dirac energy functional derivatives are evaluated at Hartree–Fock densities for several atoms and molecules. These functions are interpreted as local chemical potentials and related mainly to kinetic energy functional derivatives. They are able to reveal the shell

  7. The energy transition: new dialogues between cities and local stakeholders. Exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxer, Olivia; Lacassagne, Sylvie; Guerin, Laura; Dupas, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Energy Cities has carried out an exploratory study for cities and diverse project leaders desiring to start a sustainable energy transition in collaboration with all stakeholders in their territory. Local authorities have a key role to play in climate and energy policies and in the energy transition towards a low carbon, energy efficient and sustainable society. However, they cannot act alone. They often control only a small percentage of the emissions of local greenhouse gases directly, and this percentage rarely exceeds a quarter. It is therefore necessary to rely on the involvement of local stakeholders, which in turn will provide an opportunity for these stakeholders to be ambitious through innovative actions. How to stimulate stakeholders' involvement? In the past several years, a number of citizens', economic actors' or other local actors' initiatives have contributed to the energy transition of territories. These initiatives are based on empowerment. For instance, stakeholders can get access and the power to act on innovative tools and approaches, such as social economy, stakeholders' participation, crowd-funding, renewable energy citizen cooperatives and fab labs. Two primary questions to explore: As coordinators and pilots of local strategies for energy transition, how can local authorities foster, identify, support and replicate local energy transition initiatives? What dialogue should local authorities and leaders of local initiatives engage in? How can they drive new modes of governance, where stakeholders share responsibility to co-develop public policies, manage their city, and encourage the energy transition at the local level? We selected more than ten European energy transition initiatives, as diverse as they are innovative, anticipating new forms of governance and new ways to act and collaborate. The exploratory study does not only describe their process but it also analyses the synergies between the different stakeholders and the role the

  8. Superdiffusive transport and energy localization in disordered granular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis G.; Porter, Mason A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the spreading of initially localized excitations in one-dimensional disordered granular crystals. We thereby investigate localization phenomena in strongly nonlinear systems, which we demonstrate to be fundamentally different from localization in linear and weakly nonlinear systems. We conduct a thorough comparison of wave dynamics in chains with three different types of disorder: an uncorrelated (Anderson-like) disorder and two types of correlated disorders (which are produced by random dimer arrangements), and for two families of initial conditions: displacement perturbations and velocity perturbations. We find for strongly precompressed (i.e., weakly nonlinear) chains that the dynamics strongly depends on the initial condition. Furthermore, for displacement perturbations, the long-time asymptotic behavior of the second moment m ~ 2 has oscillations that depend on the type of disorder, with a complex trend that is markedly different from a power law and which is particularly evident for an Anderson-like disorder

  9. Research into the Energy Output of Asymmetric Cylindrical Structure under Internal Explosion Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy output characteristic of an asymmetric cylindrical structure under internal explosion loading has significant research value in the field of the national defense industry. This paper took the D-shaped structure as the research object. Three groups of experiments (D-90°, D-120°, D-150° were carried out. The D-shaped structure showed that fragments are concentrated in the middle and are sparse on both sides. Moreover, the fragment density decreased with the increase of the azimuth angle. The fragment velocities, which were measured from high-speed photography and an oscilloscope, coincided well with each other, and decreased with an increase in the central angle. Compared with the cylindrical structure, the fragment energy gain of the D-shaped structure is significant; the total energy and energy density of the three D-shaped structures were very close to each other. This indicates that D-120° is the optimal solution among the three D-shaped structures and it can provide guidance for the future design of D-shaped structures to achieve higher energy output.

  10. Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as a global optimal control problem which aims to minimize fuel consumption. Pontryagin’s minimum principle is applied to solve the optimal control problem to realize a real-time control strategy for electrical energy management in vehicles. The control strategy can change the output of the intelligent alternator and the battery with the changes of electrical load and driving conditions in real-time. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the traditional open-loop control strategy, the proposed control strategy for vehicle energy management can effectively reduce fuel consumption and the fuel consumption per 100 km is decreased by approximately 1.7%.

  11. Energy localization and decay in highly ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.T.; Thoma, E.D.; Bunton, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Luminescence from localized states in pure wide-gap crystals is examined from the perspective of modern fast scintillator requirements. Recent advances in the understanding of self-trapped excitons are summarized with regard to excited-state configurations, spectra, and luminescence efficiency. As an example, the fast luminescence of partially quenched type I STEs (self-trapped excitons) in RbI offers tunable-lifetime subnanosecond pulses which could be useful for timing applications. The possible role of hole localization in cross luminescence is discussed. Stokes-shifted luminescence in some pure rare-earth fluoride crystals probably originates from self-trapped excitons of forms to be discussed

  12. Energy accommodation... tomorrow which responsibility for the local authorities?; Energie habitat... demain quelles responsabilite pour les collectivite locales?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document summarizes the 2 days of meetings and debates of these 2. national sittings on energy and accommodation. The colloquium was organized around 4 working groups: 1 - energy, accommodation and territories (the new rules of the urban game, fluxes and stocks, the end of the 'city in the country' myth, the energy-accommodation marriage of convenience), Dunkerque and the sustainable development; 2 - the technological dimension (buildings size, equipments, appliances, comfort, health); 3 - the social dimension (housing rights, heating rights, energy choices); 4 - the economical dimension (energy and environment, who will profit from the market deregulation?). The document comprises also a summary of the opening talks and plenary sessions (challenges, risks and margins of maneuver, municipal actions for a durable energy policy). (J.S.)

  13. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  14. Advances in electric power and energy systems load and price forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art approaches to power systems forecasting from the most respected names in the field, internationally. Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is the first book devoted exclusively to a subject of increasing urgency to power systems planning and operations. Written for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-grads concerned with power systems planning and forecasting, this book brings together contributions from many of the world’s foremost names in the field who address a range of critical issues, from forecasting power system load to power system pricing to post-storm service restoration times, river flow forecasting, and more. In a time of ever-increasing energy demands, mounting concerns over the environmental impacts of power generation, and the emergence of new, smart-grid technologies, electricity price forecasting has assumed a prominent role within both the academic and industrial ar nas. Short-run forecasting of electricity prices has become nece...

  15. Study of the energy gain and the beam loading of the detuned structure with a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.; Kheifets, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A circuit model for the longitudinal case from which to study the field pattern, energy gain and beam loading of a detuned structure is derived from Maxwell's equations. The results obtained with the model are compared to numerical results of the code PROGON. The model gives reasonable scaling of the group velocity and voltage with geometric parameters. The energy gain and beam loading are compared and are shown to depend on the same factor. This is true even for periodic variations of the boundary. Finally, a way to find the shape of the rf pulse envelope for the beam loading compensation is suggested

  16. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  17. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmák, P.; Pilch, Jan; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromír; Wright, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Šittner, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 6299 (2016), 559-562 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800; GA ČR GPP108/12/P111 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : martensitic transformation * 3D x-ray diffraction * shape memory alloys * internal stress * NiTi wire * localized deformation * tension Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BI - Acoustics (UT-L) Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  18. The energy policies of Guatemala: Local and Regional opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    This presentation prepared by the Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines Mr. Rodolfo Santizo overviews the following issues: Plans of interconnected power systems with Mexico through the Usumacinta river basin that is considered in the Plan Puebla Panama, interconnected power systems with El Salvador and Honduras. Plans of energy infrastructure: hidroelectric power plants, crude oil pipelines for export and petroleum storage facilities. Investment estimates are given for bussiness opportunities

  19. Energy-aware hybrid fruitfly optimization for load balancing in cloud environments for EHR applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lawanyashri

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has gained precise attention from the research community and management of IT, due to its scalable and dynamic capabilities. It is evolving as a vibrant technology to modernize and restructure healthcare organization to provide best services to the consumers. The rising demand for healthcare services and applications in cloud computing leads to the imbalance in resource usage and drastically increases the power consumption resulting in high operating cost. To achieve fast execution time and optimum utilization of the virtual machines, we propose a multi-objective hybrid fruitfly optimization technique based on simulated annealing to improve the convergence rate and optimization accuracy. The proposed approach is used to achieve the optimal resource utilization and reduces the energy consumption and cost in cloud computing environment. The result attained in our proposed technique provides an improved solution. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently outperforms compared to the existing load balancing algorithms. Keywords: Cloud computing, Electronic Health Records (EHR, Load balancing, Fruitfly Optimization Algorithm (FOA, Simulated Annealing (SA, Energy consumption

  20. Thermal Energy Storage for Building Load Management: Application to Electrically Heated Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieblemont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cold climates, electrical power demand for space conditioning becomes a critical issue for utility companies during certain periods of the day. Shifting a portion or all of it to off-peak periods can help reduce peak demand and reduce stress on the electrical grid. Sensible thermal energy storage (TES systems, and particularly electrically heated floors (EHF, can store thermal energy in buildings during the off-peak periods and release it during the peak periods while maintaining occupants’ thermal comfort. However, choosing the type of storage system and/or its configuration may be difficult. In this paper, the performance of an EHF for load management is studied. First, a methodology is developed to integrate EHF in TRNSYS program in order to investigate the impact of floor assembly on the EHF performance. Then, the thermal comfort (TC of the night-running EHF is studied. Finally, indicators are defined, allowing the comparison of different EHF. Results show that an EHF is able to shift 84% of building loads to the night while maintaining acceptable TC in cold climate. Moreover, this system is able to provide savings for the customer and supplier if there is a significant difference between off-peak and peak period electricity prices.

  1. RANKING OF LOCAL AND DOMESTIC FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES IN GROSS CONSUMPTION OF BELARUSSIAN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and domestic fuel-energy recourses of theRepublicofBelarusin gross consumption of fuel-energy  recourses  has  been ranked on the  basis of the  analysis of scientific  literature,  statistical information and also fundamental documentation in the sphere of energy policy and power saving. The paper proposes to give a special emphasis on usage of products after processing domestically manufactured fuel-energy recourses that have been obtained from local and imported raw-materials with the purpose to estimate a power security level of the Republic from a new point of view.

  2. Strategic energy planning within local authorities in the UK: A study of the city of Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, Catherine S.E.; Foxon, Timothy J.; Hannon, Matthew J.; Gale, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the development of a strategic energy body in a local authority in the UK and looks at the perceived need for, and possible roles of, such a body. Historically, energy provision and management has not usually been a strategic priority for UK local authorities. Yet energy considerations are implicit in key local authority responsibilities such as transport, waste management, planning, and the provision of housing services. In addition, recent UK central government policies support the move to localism and provide incentives for low-carbon energy generation. A study was undertaken to assess the potential (including both the perceived benefits and actual capacity to deliver) for Leeds City Council to develop a strategic body to execute delivery of city-level energy decision-making. We examine the perceived benefits to a range of main stakeholders, using data drawn from interviews with managers responsible for low-carbon and renewable energy projects across the city. Through participant observation we explore the capacity of a local authority to deliver a strategic energy body, and we briefly examine the possible forms of delivery. We conclude with recommendations for national policy that would enable the development of strategic energy bodies across local governments in the UK. - Highlights: ► Strategic energy planning is currently not a priority for UK local authorities. ► We present an empirical study of strategic energy planning in local authorities. ► Results from stakeholder interviews suggest support for a strategic energy body. ► We identify the capacity barriers to implementing a strategic energy body. ► We make recommendations for ways forward and support needed from national policy.

  3. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  4. Energy Saving by Novel Bed-Integrated Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Kehayova, Nushka; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    High quality indoor environment in hospitals is important for patients’ healing and performance of the personnel. A novel method for minimizing spread of bio-effluents generated from hospitalized patients lying in bed was developed. The method consists of ventilated mattress (VM) which is able...... respectively with 55%, 71.1% and 85.9% and in the double room with 39.3%, 60.0%, and 80.4%. The use of the VM with reduced background CAV ventilation is an effective energy saving strategy for both double and single patient hospital rooms.......-bed hospital patient room (1.3 air changes per hour (ACH)) and double-bed patient room (1.6 ACH) was assessed by means of dynamic computer simulations. The estimated annual energy consumption for the rooms using the VM combined with CAV was compared to the annual energy consumption when the CAV ventilation...

  5. Energy availabilities for state and local development: 1973 data volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L.; Pai, V. P.

    1977-11-01

    This report is one of a continuing series developed by ORNL with financial support from the Economic Development Administration to present the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types for four final consuming sectors of BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation in 1974. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The long-term objective of the program is to pinpoint those regions where economic development potentials will most likely be affected by the availability of energy. This information coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment distribution patterns can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.

  6. Energy availabilities for state and local development: 1974 data volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L.; Pai, V. P.

    1977-11-01

    This report is one of a continuing series developed by ORNL with financial support from the Economic Development Administration to present the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types for four final consuming sectors of BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation in 1973. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The long-term objective of the program is to pinpoint those regions where economic development potentials will most likely be affected by the availability of energy. This information coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment distribution patterns can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.

  7. Analysis of the effect of mobile phone base station antenna loading on localized SAR and its consequences for measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Björn; Thors, Björn; Törnevik, Christer

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the effect of antenna element loading on the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) has been analyzed for base station antennas. The analysis was conducted in order to determine whether localized SAR measurements of large multi-element base station antennas can be conducted using standardized procedures and commercially available equipment. More specifically, it was investigated if the antenna shifting measurement procedure, specified in the European base station exposure assessment standard EN 50383, will produce accurate localized SAR results for base station antennas larger than the specified measurement phantom. The obtained results show that SAR accuracy is affected by the presence of lossy material within distances of one wavelength from the tested antennas as a consequence of coupling and redistribution of transmitted power among the antenna elements. It was also found that the existing standardized phantom is not optimal for SAR measurements of large base station antennas. A new methodology is instead proposed based on a larger, box-shaped, whole-body phantom. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  9. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M. Bobby; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating

  10. Experimental determination of the energy efficiency of an air-cooled chiller under part load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T.

    2005-01-01

    In cities located in a subtropical climate, air-cooled chillers are commonly used to provide cooling to the indoor environment. This accounts for the increasing electricity demand of buildings over the decades. This paper investigates how the condensing temperature serves to accurately determine the energy efficiency, or coefficient of performance (COP), of air-cooled chillers under part load conditions. An experiment on an air-cooled reciprocating chiller showed that for any given operating condition, the COP of the chiller varies, depending on how the condensing temperature is controlled. A sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate to what extent COP is responding to changes in operating variables and confirms that the condensing temperature is an adequate variable to gauge COP under various operating conditions. The specifications of the upper limit for the condensing temperature in order to improve the energy efficiency of air-cooled chillers are discussed. The results of this work will give designers and researchers a good idea about how to model chiller energy performance curves in the thermal and energy computation exercises

  11. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  12. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  13. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Li, Huimin; Wu, Liang; Qi, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  14. Electromagnetic pulse compression and energy localization in quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefferon, Gareth; Sharma, Ashutosh; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the intensity of a relativistic laser beam propagating through a dense quantum plasma is investigated, by considering different plasma regimes. A cold quantum fluid plasma and then a thermal quantum description(s) is (are) adopted, in comparison with the classical case of reference. Considering a Gaussian beam cross-section, we investigate both the longitudinal compression and lateral/longitudinal localization of the intensity of a finite-radius electromagnetic pulse. By employing a quantum plasma fluid model in combination with Maxwell's equations, we rely on earlier results on the quantum dielectric response, to model beam-plasma interaction. We present an extensive parametric investigation of the dependence of the longitudinal pulse compression mechanism on the electron density in cold quantum plasmas, and also study the role of the Fermi temperature in thermal quantum plasmas. Our numerical results show pulse localization through a series of successive compression cycles, as the pulse propagates through the plasma. A pulse of 100 fs propagating through cold quantum plasma is compressed to a temporal size of ∼1.35 attosecond and a spatial size of ∼1.08.10 -3 cm. Incorporating Fermi pressure via a thermal quantum plasma model is shown to enhance localization effects. A 100 fs pulse propagating through quantum plasma with a Fermi temperature of 350 K is compressed to a temporal size of ∼0.6 attosecond and a spatial size of ∼2.4.10 -3 cm.

  15. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-22

    Apr 22, 2010 ... channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. .... of these studies report on numerical modelling of flow over transitions. ... that the frictional losses are negligible, the energy equation between Sections (1) ...

  16. Cities & counties - back to the basics: Creating a local energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Outlined in this brochure are steps that local governments, or communities at large, can follow to devise an energy efficiency program. In general, an energy efficiency policy is first legislated by the local governing body. Then, an energy program is created to support the policy by developing and executing an action plan. The steps are: Determine how much you spend on energy; Designate or create a lead office; Link energy programs with community goals; Build grassroots community support; Don`t reinvent the wheel; Prioritize actions and develop a draft plan; Implement the plan; Evaluate success and update the plan; and, Publicize the benefits.

  17. Thermal Heat and Power Production with Models for Local and Regional Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Sturla

    1999-07-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is the description and modelling of combined heat and power systems as well as analyses of thermal dominated systems related to benefits of power exchange. Large power plants with high power efficiency (natural gas systems) and heat production in local heat pumps can be favourable in areas with low infrastructure of district heating systems. This system is comparable with typical combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on natural gas with respect to efficient use of fuel energy. The power efficiency obtainable from biomass and municipal waste is relatively low and the advantage of CHP for this system is high compared to pure power production with local heat pumps for heat generation. The advantage of converting pure power systems into CHP systems is best for power systems with low power efficiency and heat production at low temperature. CHP systems are divided into two main groups according to the coupling of heat and power production. Some CHP systems, especially those with strong coupling between heat and power production, may profit from having a thermal heat storage subsystem. District heating temperatures direct the heat to power ratio of the CHP units. The use of absorption chillers driven by district heating systems are also evaluated with respect to enhancing the utilisation of district heating in periods of low heat demand. Power exchange between a thermal dominated and hydropower system is found beneficial. Use of hydropower as a substitute for peak power production in thermal dominated systems is advantageous. Return of base load from the thermal dominated system to the hydropower system can balance in the net power exchange.

  18. Local Energy Advising in Sweden: Historical Development and Lessons for Future Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are E. Kjeang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, energy-consulting services, here referred to as local energy advising (LEA, have traditionally contributed to improving household energy efficiency. The aim of this article is to analyze the development of this service from the 1970s, when the consultancy came into being, to the present day, through a review of documents and published literature. The analysis enables the understanding of the evolution of local energy advising as a policy instrument, and provides valuable insights for the future. Local energy advising has often been subsidized by the Swedish government and used as a state policy measure rather than a municipal one. As a policy measure, the function of the service has changed over time. In the early period, the oil crisis was a fact and the local advisers were used to inform households. In the 1980s, however, the task of energy-advising was taken over by the energy companies in the spirit of market liberalization. In the 1990s, Sweden became a member of the European Union, and the emphasis was put on general information campaigns. Recently, the development of decentralized energy systems (including micro-energy systems has necessitated targeting individuals with information. One important lesson to learn from the historical development of LEA is the imperativeness of providing energy advising at the local rather than the state level for better efficiency.

  19. Locally Integrated Energy Sectors supported by renewable network management within municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostevšek, Anja; Petek, Janez; Čuček, Lidija; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev

    2015-01-01

    The decarbonisation of energy systems is one of the important issues of the present energy policies. One of the ways of achieving this is to focus on local energy systems, thus ensuring as much as possible their heat and power self-sufficiency by applying local renewable resource integration and transformation of the renewable energy. Increasing the share of renewables within the local energy balance could be accomplished by using a variety of approaches. One possibility is combining the Locally Integrated Energy Sectors' concept with the novel management and organisation of a renewables-based network. As a first priority, the proposed comprehensive approach focuses on increasing the energy efficiency of municipal heat and power systems using the Locally Integrated Energy Sectors' concept, which is followed by the integration of renewable energy sources with the establishment of a renewable-based network. The proposed approach is illustrated by a case study of district heating based on wood biomass for the municipality Ormož, Slovenia by integrating various end-users from different sectors. - Highlights: • The paper presents a new approach for accelerated inception of RES in municipalities. • LIES with RES network increases energy efficiency and accelerates RES integration. • A demonstration case of district heating on wood biomass within Ormož was performed.

  20. Atomistic spectrometrics of local bond-electron-energy pertaining to Na and K clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Maolin [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: YWang8@hnust.edu.cn [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Yongli; Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Coordination environment resolves electron binding-energy shift of Na and K clusters. • Cohesive energy of the representative bond determines the core-level shift. • XPS derives the energy level of an isolated atom and its bulk shift. • XPS derives the local bond length, bond energy, binding energy density. - Abstract: Consistency between density functional theory calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed our predications on the undercoordination-induced local bond relaxation and core level shift of Na and K clusters. It is clarified that the shorter and stronger bonds between under-coordinated atoms cause local densification and local potential well depression and shift the electron binding-energy accordingly. Numerical consistency turns out the energy levels for an isolated Na (E{sub 2p} = 31.167 eV) and K (E{sub 3p} = 18.034 eV) atoms and their respective bulk shifts of 2.401 eV and 2.754 eV, which is beyond the scope of conventional approaches. This strategy has also resulted in quantification of the local bond length, bond energy, binding energy density, and atomic cohesive energy associated with the undercoordinated atoms.

  1. A novel chaotic particle swarm optimization approach using Henon map and implicit filtering local search for economic load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2009-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based swarm intelligence algorithm driven by the simulation of a social psychological metaphor instead of the survival of the fittest individual. Based on the chaotic systems theory, this paper proposed a novel chaotic PSO combined with an implicit filtering (IF) local search method to solve economic dispatch problems. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed PSO introduces chaos mapping using Henon map sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. The chaotic PSO approach is used to produce good potential solutions, and the IF is used to fine-tune of final solution of PSO. The hybrid methodology is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  3. Application of the local-to-global approach to the study of infilled frame structures under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, D.

    2000-01-01

    The seismic performance of civil engineering structures may be estimated by using two levels of modelling. At the local level, each constituent has its own constitutive law and geometric finite element support. The main phenomena such as the cracking and the crushing of concrete and masonry could be reproduced by using the continuous damage or plasticity theories. However the cost of the computations does not allow extensive or dynamic studies and thus the global level - where the constitutive laws based on empirical rules reproduce the behaviour of the structural elements - represents the unique strategy for the analysis of complete civil engineering structures under seismic loading. The present paper aims at presenting the application of these two modelling levels in order to assess the seismic performance of masonry infilled R/C frame structures. The one-bay masonry infilled frames tested at Lisbon under cyclic loading and the four-storey building tested at ELSA have been used for the validation of the modelling approach. (orig.)

  4. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  5. New possibilities for testing local realism in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng

    2009-01-01

    The three photons from the dominant ortho-positronium decay and two vector mesons from the η c exclusive decays are found to be in tripartite and high-dimensional entangled states, respectively. These two classes of entangled states possess the Hardy type nonlocality and allow a priori for quantum mechanics vs local realism test via Bell inequalities. The experimental realizations are shown to be feasible, and a concrete scheme to fulfill the test in experiment via two-vector-meson entangled state is proposed.

  6. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  7. Long-term visibility variation in Athens (1931–2013: a proxy for local and regional atmospheric aerosol loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Founda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the interdecadal variability and trends of surface horizontal visibility at the urban area of Athens from 1931 to 2013, using the historical archives of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. A prominent deterioration of visibility in the city was detected, with the long-term linear trend amounting to −2.8 km decade−1 (p < 0.001, over the entire study period. This was not accompanied by any significant trend in relative humidity or precipitation over the same period. A slight recovery of visibility levels seems to be established in the recent decade (2004–2013. It was found that very good visibility (>  20 km occurred at a frequency of 34 % before the 1950s, while this percentage drops to just 2 % during the decade 2004–2013. The rapid impairment of the visual air quality in Athens around the 1950s points to the increased levels of air pollution on a local and/or regional scale, related to high urbanization rates and/or increased anthropogenic emissions on a global scale at that period. Visibility was found to be negatively/positively correlated with relative humidity/wind speed, the correlation being statistically valid at certain periods. Wind regime and mainly wind direction and corresponding air mass origin were found to highly control visibility levels in Athens. The comparison of visibility variation in Athens and at a non-urban reference site on Crete island revealed similar negative trends over the common period of observations. This suggests that apart local sources, visibility in Athens is highly determined by aerosol load of regional origin. AVHRR and MODIS satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals over Athens and surface measurements of PM10 confirmed the relation of visibility to aerosol load.

  8. Finite element modeling of temperature load effects on the vibration of local modes in multi-cable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyssède, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Understanding thermal effects on the vibration of local (cable-dominant) modes in multi-cable structures is a complicated task. The main difficulty lies in the modification by temperature change of cable tensions, which are then undetermined. This paper applies a finite element procedure to investigate the effects of thermal loads on the linear dynamics of prestressed self-weighted multi-cable structures. Provided that boundary conditions are carefully handled, the discretization of cables with nonlinear curved beam elements can properly represent the thermoelastic behavior of cables as well as their linearized dynamics. A three-step procedure that aims to replace applied pretension forces with displacement continuity conditions is used. Despite an increase in the computational cost related to beam rotational degrees of freedom, such an approach has several advantages. Nonlinear beam finite elements are usually available in commercial codes. The overall method follows a thermoelastic geometrically non-linear analysis and hereby includes the main sources of non-linearities in multi-cable structures. The effects of cable bending stiffness, which can be significant, are also naturally accounted for. The accuracy of the numerical approach is assessed thanks to an analytical model for the vibration of a single inclined cable under temperature change. Then, the effects of thermal loads are investigated for two cable bridges, highlighting how natural frequencies can be affected by temperature. Although counterintuitive, a reverse relative change of natural frequency may occur for certain local modes. This phenomenon can be explained by two distinct mechanisms, one related to the physics intrinsic to cables and the other related to the thermal deflection of the superstructure. Numerical results show that cables cannot be isolated from the rest of the structure and the importance of modeling the whole structure for a quantitative analysis of temperature effects on the

  9. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  10. Local approach to brittle fracture under residual stress field. Assessment of pre-loading effect; Local approach no tekiyo ni yoru zanryu oryoku wo motsu buzai no zeisei hakai kyodo hyoka. Yokaju no eikyo no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Sakano, K.; Onozuka, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Minami, F. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on brittle fracture was investigated on the basis of the Local Approach. Compressive residual stress was introduced by pre-loading and the subsequent fracture test conducted with a 780 MPa class steel. Preloading apparently increased the critical load and critical CTOD at the onset of brittle fracture initiation. The Weibull stress criterion was used to evaluate the brittle fracture resistance of the pre-loaded specimen. The critical Weibull stress is a material property independent of test conditions with and without pre-loading. Using the Weibull stress criterion, the critical CTOD of the pre-loaded specimen can be predicted from test results of the specimen without pre-loading. (author)

  11. A load predictive energy management system for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system in solar application using the Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Yen Yee; Lee, Lam Hong; Shafiabady, Niusha; Isa, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel energy management system (EMS) for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is implemented. • It is a load predictive EMS which is implemented using Support Vector Machine (SVM). • An optimum SVM load prediction model is obtained, which yields 100% accuracy in 0.004866 s of training time. • The implemented load predictive EMS is compared with the conventional sequential programming control. • This methodology reduces the number of power electronics used and prolong battery lifespan. - Abstract: This paper presents the use of a Support Vector Machine load predictive energy management system to control the energy flow between a solar energy source, a supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage combination and the load. The supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is deployed in a solar energy system to improve the reliability of delivered power. The combination of batteries and supercapacitors makes use of complementary characteristic that allow the overlapping of a battery’s high energy density with a supercapacitors’ high power density. This hybrid system produces a straightforward benefit over either individual system, by taking advantage of each characteristic. When the supercapacitor caters for the instantaneous peak power which prolongs the battery lifespan, it also minimizes the system cost and ensures a greener system by reducing the number of batteries. The resulting performance is highly dependent on the energy controls implemented in the system to exploit the strengths of the energy storage devices and minimize its weaknesses. It is crucial to use energy from the supercapacitor and therefore minimize jeopardizing the power system reliability especially when there is a sudden peak power demand. This study has been divided into two stages. The first stage is to obtain the optimum SVM load prediction model, and the second stage carries out the performance comparison of the proposed SVM-load predictive

  12. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  13. Energy storage for load leveling; Fuka heijunka ni kakasenai denryoku chozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    This paper introduces features and state of development of electric power storage technologies. Pumped storage power generation is a technology to store electric power by utilizing energy of position. However, because the plant locations are limited to mountainous areas far away from power demand areas, development of power storage technologies is being progressed from a new viewpoint of installing plants in the vicinity of demand areas. Superconduction power storage continues flowing current into a superconductor coil to store the power as electromagnetic energy, which is drawn out as electric power on request. Research and development is in progress in Japan on superconductor coils, permanent current switches, and control and protection systems. A flywheel system stores energy by rotating a disk at high speeds. Element technologies are being developed on long-period storage technologies such as superconductor magnetic bearings and high-speed rotating flywheels. For new load leveling batteries, development efforts are being given on sodium-sulfur batteries, zinc-bromine batteries, redox flow batteries, and lithium batteries. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Local power and land use: spatial implications for local energy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, C.L.; Hewitt, Richard; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Martínez Alonso, Patricia; Hernández Jiménez, Verónica; Diaz Pacheco, Jaime; Bermejo, Lara Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background The decentralised and private nature of small-scale renewable energy development does not fit traditional models of government planning and oversight. The land use impacts related to these developments are not well understood and data is lacking related to the environmental, social and

  15. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility dirunal load leveling; however, such a device will function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. The study has explored several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. The study examines aspects of the coil design; superconductor supported off of the dewar shell; the dewar shell, its configuration and stresses; the underground excavation and related construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar; the helium refrigeration system; the electrical converter system; the vacuum system; the guard coil; and the costs. The report is a condensation of the more comprehensive study which is in the process of being printed

  16. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A., E-mail: beck@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Frederiksen, J.T. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Dérouillat, J. [CEA, Maison de La Simulation, 91400 Saclay (France)

    2016-09-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.

  17. ENERGY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND LOAD MANAGEMENT THROUGH THE REHABILITATION AND RETURN TO PLAY PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Scot; Ward, Patrick; duManoir, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    Return-to-play from injury is a complex process involving many factors including the balancing of tissue healing rates with the development of biomotor abilities. This process requires interprofessional cooperation to ensure success. An often-overlooked aspect of return-to-play is the development and maintenance of sports specific conditioning while monitoring training load to ensure that the athlete's training stimulus over the rehabilitation period is appropriate to facilitate a successful return to play. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to address the role of energy systems training as part of the return-to-play process. Additionally the aim is to provide practitioners with an overview of practical sports conditioning training methods and monitoring strategies to allow them to direct and quantify the return-to-play process. 5.

  18. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wardell, Bob [Infosys Technologies Limited; Deshpande, Manoj [Infosys Technologies Limited; Ugarkar, Jayraj [Infosys Technologies Limited

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of a collaborative research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) project that aims to address energy efficiency of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads (MELs) (referred to as plug loads interchangeably in this report) using load monitoring and control devices. The goal s of this project are to identify and provide energy efficiency and building technologies to exemplary information technology (IT) office buildings, and to assist in transforming markets via technical assistance and engagement of Indian and U.S. stakeholders. This report describes the results of technology evaluation and United States – India collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Infosys Technologies Limited (India), and Smartenit, Inc. (U.S.) to address plug - load efficiency. The conclusions and recommendations focus on the larger benefits of such technologies and their impacts on both U.S. and Indian stakeholders.

  19. Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V.; Kaupp, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities

  20. Locally owned renewable energy : benefits, opportunities and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, H.

    2008-01-01

    The German experience in wind power development was discussed in this presentation, with particular reference to 17 years of experience acquired by the German company Ingenieurburo Henning Holst. The company has constructed 30 wind power projects in Germany ranging in size from 1 to 57 MW. Half of the projects are community owned. The services provided by Henning Holst include calculations of emissions from turbines; land lease concepts; assistance with contractual agreements; tenders and site supervision; feasibility studies; and commissioning, operation and administration. The early installations required high wind speeds and wind energy development was only possible in a few locations. With improved technology, many other sites with lower wind speeds are now profitable. In 1991, the provincial target for Schleswig Holstein was 1,200 MW by 2010. Today, there are 2,400 MW in the province, and 1,500 MW are waiting to be installed. This paper provided a brief outline of Germany's renewable energy policy and the importance of grid access and appropriate pricing. 25 figs

  1. Coordinated control of distributed energy resources to support load frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar Pandi, V.; Al-Hinai, A.; Feliachi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We aims to maintain feeder power flow by the coordination of DER units. • The error in feeder flow with respect to scheduled value is used by the controller. • The particle swarm optimization is employed to minimize the error in feeder flow. • Implemented on a transmission system along with 37 bus distribution feeder. • The results of proposed feeder control is analyzed with no feeder control scheme. - Abstract: The control of generating resources to follow the unscheduled load changes is considered to be an essential process in the power system in order to maintain the frequency of power supply. This load frequency control (LFC) problem has been given more importance in the recent smart grid environment because of the impact from high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) installed at the distribution level. The renewable sources are highly intermittent in nature, so it is required to coordinate and control the DER units to maintain the feeder power flow at substation bus bar which is seen by transmission system operator during the LFC process. This paper aims to identify the impact of distributed generation and its control method to reduce the deviation of feeder power flow from the scheduled value in real time operation. The error in feeder power flow with respect to scheduled value is utilized by the PI controller to estimate the change in power reference of all DER units. The power output of DER units are maintained to reference values by the individual PI controllers. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to minimize the error in feeder power flow by optimally tuning the gain values of all PI controllers. The proposed method is examined on a small transmission system along with the feeder of IEEE 37 bus distribution system with balanced loading condition. The complete system along with DER units is implemented in the MATLAB based stability package named Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) for performing time domain

  2. Local full-wave energy and quasilinear analysis in nonuniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of local wave energy in plasmas is treated via quasilinear theory from the dual perspectives of the action-angle formalism and gyrokinetic analysis. An extension is presented to all orders in the gyroradius of the self-consistent wave-propagation/quasilinear-absorption problem using gyrokinetics. Questions of when and under what conditions local energy should be of definite sign are answered using the action-angle formalism. An important result is that the ''dielectric operators'' of the linearized wave equation and of the local energy are not the same, a fact which is obscured when the eikonal or WKB assumption is invoked. Even though the two dielectrics are very different in character, it is demonstrated that they are nevertheless related by a simple mathematical statement. This study was originally motivated by concern over the question of local energy for r.f.-heating of plasmas, where in certain instances, full-wave effects such as refraction, strong absorption, and mode conversion are of primary importance. Fundamentally, the r.f.-absorption must equate with the energy moment of the quasilinear term to achieve a correct energy balance. This fact governs the derivation (as opposed to postulation) of the local absorption. The troublesome ''kinetic flux'' may then be chosen (it is not unique) to satisfy a wave-energy balance relation with the Poynting flux and local absorption. It is shown that at least one such choice reduces asymptotically to the Stix form away from nonuniformities. (author)

  3. An experimental design approach to the preparation of pegylated polylactide-co-glicolide gentamicin loaded microparticles for local antibiotic delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorati, Rossella; DeTrizio, Antonella; Genta, Ida; Grisoli, Pietro; Merelli, Alessia [Department of Drug Sciences, Viale Taramelli 12, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Tomasi, Corrado [IENI CNR Lecco Unit, Via Promessi Sposi 29, 23900, Lecco (Italy); Conti, Bice, E-mail: bice.conti@unipv.it [Department of Drug Sciences, Viale Taramelli 12, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    The present paper takes into account the DOE application to the preparation process of biodegradable microspheres for osteomyelitis local therapy. With this goal gentamicin loaded polylactide-co-glycolide-co-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) microspheres were prepared and investigated. Two preparation protocols (o/w and w/o/w) with different process conditions, and three PLGA-PEG block copolymers with different compositions of lactic and glycolic acids and PEG, were tested. A Design Of Experiment (DOE) screening design was applied as an approach to scale up manufacturing step. The results of DOE screening design confirmed that w/o/w technique, the presence of salt and the 15%w/v polymer concentration positively affected the EE% (72.1–97.5%), and span values of particle size distribution (1.03–1.23), while salt addition alone negatively affected the yield process. Process scale up resulted in a decrease of gentamicin EE% that can be attributed to the high volume of water used to remove PVA and NaCl residues. The results of in vitro gentamicin release study show prolonged gentamicin release up to three months from the microspheres prepared with salt addition in the dispersing phase; the behavior being consistent with their highly compact structure highlighted by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The prolonged release of gentamicin is maintained even after embedding the biodegradable microspheres into a thermosetting composite gel made of chitosan and acellular bovine bone matrix (Orthoss® granules), and the microbiologic evaluation demonstrated the efficacy of the gentamicin loaded microspheres on Escherichia coli. The collected results confirm the feasibility of the scale up of microsphere manufacturing process and the high potential of the microparticulate drug delivery system to be used for the local antibiotic delivery to bone. - Highlights: • To get a more effective therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteomyelitis. • To exploit the local

  4. Local modular Hamiltonians from the quantum null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeller, Jason; Leichenauer, Stefan; Levine, Adam; Shahbazi-Moghaddam, Arvin

    2018-03-01

    The vacuum modular Hamiltonian K of the Rindler wedge in any relativistic quantum field theory is given by the boost generator. Here we investigate the modular Hamiltonian for more general half-spaces which are bounded by an arbitrary smooth cut of a null plane. We derive a formula for the second derivative of the modular Hamiltonian with respect to the coordinates of the cut which schematically reads K''=Tv v . This formula can be integrated twice to obtain a simple expression for the modular Hamiltonian. The result naturally generalizes the standard expression for the Rindler modular Hamiltonian to this larger class of regions. Our primary assumptions are the quantum null energy condition—an inequality between the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy of a region and the stress tensor—and its saturation in the vacuum for these regions. We discuss the validity of these assumptions in free theories and holographic theories to all orders in 1 /N .

  5. Local acceptance of wind energy: Factors of success identified in French and German case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobert, Arthur; Laborgne, Pia; Mimler, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify and analyse factors that are important for winning acceptance of wind-energy parks on the local level. The developers of wind-energy parks need to know how to manage 'social acceptance' at the different stages of planning, realisation and operation. Five case studies in France and Germany focused on factors of success in developing a wind-energy project on a given site and illuminated how policy frameworks influence local acceptance. Our hypothesis is that these factors fall into two categories: institutional conditions, such as economic incentives and regulations; and site-specific conditions (territorial factors), such as the local economy, the local geography, local actors, and the actual on-site planning process (project management)

  6. Energy performance control of local collectivities. Good practices of european towns; Mesure des performances energetiques des collectivites locales. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-01-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the first axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  7. French policy localism: Surfing on ‘Positive Energie Territories’ (Tepos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadaï, Alain; Labussière, Olivier; Debourdeau, Ariane; Régnier, Yannick; Cointe, Béatrice; Dobigny, Laure

    2015-01-01

    This paper is interested in sustainable energy initiatives in French rural areas. It follows up the UK debate about ‘localism’. UK policy localism has been cast as neoliberal, framing communities as competent and competitive actors, morally responsible and accountable for their destiny. In France, the emerging policy localism is surfing on an ongoing political structuration of innovative rural territories – ‘Positive Energie Territories’ (TEPOS). The paper presents and discusses the results of a rough census (undertaken in 2012) of significant experiences in this domain. It points to a few experiences and depicts them as risky, trial-and-error transcalar processes that endow locally emergent energy issues with a political dimension. To this extent, they amount to a different way of doing energy policy. The analysis points to an ambiguity in French policy localism. This localism may pave the way for an upscaling of the ongoing TEPOS political structuration, or tend to make TEPOS into demonstration territories within a neoliberal RTD policy approach. In the latter case, it may not necessarily fit territories to pursue their political structuration with a view to the energy transition. - Highlights: • The paper bears witness to the emergence of a French energy policy localism. • It presents a sample of significant local rural experiences in the climate energy domain in rural France. • These experiences are risky, trial-and-error transcalar processes. • They amount to a different way of doing energy policy. • French localism surfs on these innovative territories while remaining ambiguous about the status that it confers on them

  8. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Glushkov, Dmitry Olegovich; Strizhak, Pavel Alexandrovich; Vershinina, Kseniya Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc.) in the vicinity of storage areas, tra...

  9. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc. in the vicinity of storage areas, transportation, transfer and processing of flammable liquids (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel.

  10. Local application of a gentamicin-loaded thermo-responsive hydrogel allows for fracture healing upon clearance of a high Staphylococcus aureus load in a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    G-JA ter Boo; T Schmid; I Zderic; D Nehrbass; K Camenisch; RG Richards; DW Grijpma; TF Moriarty; D Eglin

    2018-01-01

    ntibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs) have emerged as a potential useful adjunctive antimicrobial measure for the prevention of infection in open fracture care. A biodegradable thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted hyaluronic acid (HApN) hydrogel loaded with gentamicin has recently been shown to prevent implant-related infection in a rabbit osteosynthesis model. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of this HApN hydrogel on bone healing at an early stage ...

  11. Development regulation changes local elected leaders can make to promote energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Jr, N F

    1980-07-01

    This report lists actions that local officials can make to change their community's development regulations and thereby lessen the effects of local energy problems. The term development regulations, as used here, is a general reference to local or state controls over land use and development that affect design, orientation, placement, location, and related characteristics of buildings and infrastructure. The regulations include items such as zoning, subdivision controls, setbacks, yard and height requirements, and solar-access ordinances.

  12. Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

  13. Energy dependence of a local equivalent potential for RGM phase shifts for 16O + 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Tahar, S.; Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.; Wada, T.

    1993-01-01

    We have found, using the IP inversion method, the local representation of a potential that in S(l) equivalent to the RGM nonlocal potential of Wada and Horiuchi. Phase shifts corresponding to RGM calculations at laboratory energies 30, 41, 49, 59, 150, 350 and 500 MeV were inverted and the resulting local potentials compared with the local (but l-dependent) potentials obtained previously in the WKB-RGM scheme. The present l-independent potentials exhibit a smooth radial variation and show marked differences from previous results. The energy dependence arises from that of the exchange term and from the conversion of the l-dependence into an additional energy dependence. In particular, we show that the energy dependence of the volume integrals in this energy region is different from earlier WKB-RGM predictions. (orig.)

  14. Equivalent Energy Density concept: A preliminary reexamination of a technique for equating thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-08-01

    Historical and projected inventories of spent fuel from commercial light-water nuclear reactors exhibit diverse decay characteristics and ages. This report summarizes a preliminary reexamination of a method for determining equivalent thermal loads for the range of spent fuel expected at a potential underground repository. The method, known at the Equivalent Energy Density (EED) concept, bases its equivalence criteria on the assumption that a given waste will produce worst-case thermomechanical effects equal to worst-case thermomechanical effects produced by a baseline waste, provided that the thermal energy deposited in the host rock over a specified deposition period is the same for both waste descriptions. To test this assumption, temperature histories at representative locations within the host rock were calculated using layouts defined by the EED concept and four deposition periods (20, 50, 100, and 300 years). It was found that the peak temperatures at near-field locations were best matched by the shorter deposition periods of 20 and 50 years. However, due to the sensitivity of the near-field environment to short-term canister-to-canister interactions, caution,should be used when choosing a near-field deposition period. At the location chosen to represent the far-field, a 300-year deposition period provided reasonable correspondence of peak temperature responses for all waste descriptions examined

  15. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  16. Energy productivity and Chinese local officials’ promotions: Evidence from provincial governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiude; Qin, Quande; Wei, Y.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Improving energy productivity is one of the most cost-effective ways to achieve a sustainable development target. The existing literature has shown some factors that have driven the improvement in China’s energy productivity. However, these studies do little to tackle the role of Chinese local officials. Political promotions can be seen as the most important career incentive for Chinese local officials. Hence, we intend to study whether energy productivity affects Chinese local officials’ promotions in this paper. The data of position changes for the 31 provincial governors during 1978‐2012 are utilized. We adopted probit models to empirically examine the correlation between provincial governors’ political promotions and energy productivity. The empirical results demonstrate that (1) energy productivity has a significantly positive impact on provincial governors’ political promotions in China, meaning that the provincial governors have the momentum to improve energy productivity; and (2) the effect of energy productivity on provincial governors’ political promotions has evolved, dynamically changing along with the transformation of the economic growth mode and the adjustment of the local officials’ promotion mechanism. The results are helpful in understanding the drivers of the improvement in China’s energy productivity and provide insightful implications for conducting energy policy in China. - Highlights: •The data of position changes for China’s provincial governors during 1978–2012 are utilized. •Energy productivity has a positive impact on provincial governors’ promotion in China. •Political incentive is an important driver of the improvement in China’s energy productivity. •The correlation between energy productivity and local officials’ promotions was evolved.

  17. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  18. Finding synergy between local competitiveness and global sustainability to provide a future to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The world's future energy needs will require a mix of energy conversion technologies matched to the local energy market needs while also responding to both local and global socio-political concerns, e.g. energy security, environmental impact, safety and non-proliferation. There is growing recognition worldwide that nuclear energy should not only be part of the solution but maybe as well play a larger share in future's energy supply. The sustainability of future nuclear energy systems is hereby important and a variety of studies have already shown that sustainability of nuclear energy from a resource perspective is achievable via the nuclear fuel cycle though where economic sustainability is essentially defined by the nuclear power plants. The main challenge in deploying sustainable nuclear energy systems will be to find synergies between this local competitiveness of nuclear power plants and the global resource sustainability defined via the nuclear fuel cycle. Both may go hand-in-hand in the long-term but may need government guidance in starting the transition towards such future sustainable nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  19. The deployment of new energy technologies and the need for local learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neij, Lena; Heiskanen, Eva; Strupeit, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify local aspects of technological learning in the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV), a globally important form of distributed energy technology. We review literature in the economics of innovation and economic geography to identify the need for local learning when adopting new technologies and seek evidence on the local aspects of learning processes in the deployment of new (energy) technologies. The analysis focuses on the empirical evidence of learning processes in PV deployment. Our findings show that learning for PV deployment exhibits characteristics of local learning identified in the innovation literature (tacit knowledge, shared narratives, user relations and learning in interorganizational networks). In addition, we show that competencies in the deployment of PV rely on learning processes that are closely connected to the historically and geographically distinctive characteristics of the built environment. We also find evidence of the significance of proximity in (local) learning, as well as examples of knowledge being codified over time into national and global knowledge flows. We conclude with policy implications that acknowledge the importance of local learning for deployment. - Highlights: • PV deployment exhibits characteristics of local learning. • Some processes of local learning have become codified on a national level. • Based on a proximity in local learning we stress the importance of local policy.

  20. Local Content Requirements in Renewable Energy Schemes - Government Procurement or a Violation of International Obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Numerous States have adopted renewable energy schemes aimed at incentivising investments in renewable energy generation capacity that contain local content requirements as an eligibility criterion to obtain support, such as a feed-in tariff. However, these requirements may violate the international

  1. The energy balance of a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, G.M.W.; Schram, D.C.; Timmermans, C.J.; de Haas, J.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The energy balance for electrons and heavy particles constituting a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium is derived. The formulation of the energy balance used allows for evaluation of the source terms without knowledge of the particle and radiation transport situation, since most of

  2. The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.

    1984-05-01

    Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)

  3. Strategy for solving a coupled problem of the electromagnetic load analysis and design optimization for local conducting structures to support the ITER blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozov, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.rozov@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail.

  4. Strategy for solving a coupled problem of the electromagnetic load analysis and design optimization for local conducting structures to support the ITER blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, Vladimir; Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail

  5. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  6. One-dimensional arrays of oscillators: Energy localization in thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigada, R.; Romero, A.H.; Sarmiento, A.; Lindenberg, K.

    1999-01-01

    All systems in thermal equilibrium exhibit a spatially variable energy landscape due to thermal fluctuations. Thus at any instant there is naturally a thermodynamically driven localization of energy in parts of the system relative to other parts of the system. The specific characteristics of the spatial landscape such as, for example, the energy variance, depend on the thermodynamic properties of the system and vary from one system to another. The temporal persistence of a given energy landscape, that is, the way in which energy fluctuations (high or low) decay toward the thermal mean, depends on the dynamical features of the system. We discuss the spatial and temporal characteristics of spontaneous energy localization in 1D anharmonic chains in thermal equilibrium. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Plasmonic resonance-enhanced local photothermal energy deposition by aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Xinyuan; Jiang Naibo; Zhang Zhili; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Local energy deposition of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) by localized surface plasmon resonance-enhanced photothermal effects is demonstrated. Low-power light stimuli are efficiently and locally concentrated to trigger the oxidation reactions of Al NPs because of the large ohmic absorption and high reactivity of the Al. Numerical simulations show that both ultraviolet and visible light are more efficient than infrared light for photothermal energy coupling. The natural oxidation layer of alumina is found to have minimum impact on the energy deposition because of its negligible dielectric losses. The near-field distributions of the electric field indicate that slight aggregation induces much higher local enhancement, especially at the interface region of multiple contacting nanoparticles.

  8. DTU International Energy Report 2016: The Energy-Water-Food Nexus - from local to global aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or...

  9. Evaluation of local tolerance of the antiretroviral spermicide (WHI-07)-loaded gel-microemulsion in the porcine female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2008-04-01

    The local tolerance of the antiretroviral spermicide, WHI-07 (5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate)-loaded gel-microemulsion was evaluated in a physiologically relevant and sensitive porcine model. Gilts (Duroc) in nonestrus stages of the reproductive cycle received either a single or a daily intravaginal application of 2.0% WHI-07 via a gel-microemulsion for 6 days. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid was obtained for up to 72 h after a single exposure and the cellular profile and levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) were quantitated by flow cytometry and chemiluminescence-based multiplex immunoassay, respectively. The reproductive tract (vagina, cervix, uteri and Fallopian tubes) harvested on day 7 was scored histologically for evidence of mucosal irritation using a new scoring criterion for ten histological endpoints that reflect pathological changes in the epithelial/ subepithelial and vascular/perivascular compartments. When compared with irritant reactions caused by the detergent-type spermicide, benzalkonium chloride (BZK), the scatter profile of CVL immune cells and basal levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) in CVL fluid were unaffected by intravaginal exposure to 2% WHI-07. Unlike BZK, endpoint histology of the proximal and distal regions of the reproductive tract from gilts treated with 2.0% WHI-07 via gel-microemulsion for 6 days did not result in mucosal irritation or alteration in the epithelium, subepithelium/lamina propria, vessels/perivascular tissues and underlying/surrounding muscles. Based on surrogate markers for inflammation, leukocyte profile and histologic data for local tolerance, repeated intravaginal administration of WHI-07 via gel-microemulsion as a prophylactic contraceptive is unlikely to cause vaginal irritation.

  10. High-sensitivity visualization of localized electric fields using low-energy electron beam deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Samuel; Ito, Yoshikazu; Edwards, Gary; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2018-06-01

    The visualization of localized electronic charges on nanocatalysts is expected to yield fundamental information about catalytic reaction mechanisms. We have developed a high-sensitivity detection technique for the visualization of localized charges on a catalyst and their corresponding electric field distribution, using a low-energy beam of 1 to 5 keV electrons and a high-sensitivity scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) detector. The highest sensitivity for visualizing a localized electric field was ∼0.08 V/µm at a distance of ∼17 µm from a localized charge at 1 keV of the primary electron energy, and a weak local electric field produced by 200 electrons accumulated on the carbon nanotube (CNT) apex can be visualized. We also observed that Au nanoparticles distributed on a CNT forest tended to accumulate a certain amount of charges, about 150 electrons, at a ‑2 V bias.

  11. Simulation of a Local Collision of SC Wall Using High Energy Absorbing Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J.; Lee, J. W. [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. Y. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Local damage evaluations for nuclear power plant(NPP) design are performed against turbine impact, tornado impact, airplane engine impact, etc., where turbine is a internal source of impact, whereas tornado and airplane engine are external sources of impact. The thickness of NPP wall structure is determined at initial design stage not to be penetrated by local impacts. This study investigated the local damage of NPP substructure against internal turbine impact. Simulation of local collisions of SC wall in NPP structure, which consists of two models: one using general steel and the other using high energy absorbing steel, were performed. The performance of SC wall using ductile high energy absorbing steel can be greatly improved on local collisions when compared with that of general steel

  12. Simulation of a Local Collision of SC Wall Using High Energy Absorbing Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Local damage evaluations for nuclear power plant(NPP) design are performed against turbine impact, tornado impact, airplane engine impact, etc., where turbine is a internal source of impact, whereas tornado and airplane engine are external sources of impact. The thickness of NPP wall structure is determined at initial design stage not to be penetrated by local impacts. This study investigated the local damage of NPP substructure against internal turbine impact. Simulation of local collisions of SC wall in NPP structure, which consists of two models: one using general steel and the other using high energy absorbing steel, were performed. The performance of SC wall using ductile high energy absorbing steel can be greatly improved on local collisions when compared with that of general steel

  13. Regulatory Options for Local Reserve Energy Markets: Implications for Prosumers, Utilities, and other Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Christiane; Madlener, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    While the share of fluctuating renewable energy resources is constantly increasing, the centralized, hierarchical organization of the current energy system cannot adequately accommodate such decentralized electricity generation. New ideas have been developed for improved integration, especially in the lead market Germany. One of these concepts is the microgrid, a grid within the grid. This paper presents a local reserve energy market, which can facilitate the operation and allow trading withi...

  14. Multifractality in edge localized modes in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.E.; Asakura, N.; Miura, Y.; Nakano, T.; Yoshino, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal losses of confinement during edge localized modes in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) show multifractal scaling and the spectra are generally smooth, but in some cases there are signs of discontinuous derivatives. Dynamics of the Sugama-Horton model, interpreted as edge localized modes, also display multifractal scaling. The spectra display singularities in the derivative, which can be interpreted as a phase transition. It is argued that the multifractal spectra of edge localized modes can be used to discriminate between different experimental discharges and validate edge localized mode models

  15. Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises—A Case Study of a Local Energy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Backman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro- and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro- and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded rationality (lack of time and/or other priorities, split incentives (having other priorities for capital investments, and imperfect information (slim organization and lack of technical skill. This study also found that information in the form of a report was the main thing that companies gained from working on the project “Energy-Driven Business”. Notably, the study involved companies that had participated in a local energy program and, still, companies face major barriers inhibiting implementation, indicating a need to further study other alternative policy models and how knowledge transfer can be improved.

  16. Feasibility of energy justice: Exploring national and local efforts for energy development in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islar, Mine; Brogaard, Sara; Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The energy justice framework serves as an important decision-making tool in order to understand how different principles of justice can inform energy systems and policies. The realization of the urgency of providing modern energy technology and services particularly to rural areas has prompted both the Nepalese government and development institutions to focus on community-run renewable energy facilities. It is argued that off-grid and micro-scale energy development offers an alternative path to fossil-fuel use and top-down resource management as they democratize the grid and increase marginalized communities' access to renewable energy, education and health care. However, Nepal's energy development is also heavily influenced by demands from the fast-growing economies of neighboring countries such as China and India. As a result, this article evaluates the Nepalese national energy policies by applying the key aspects of the energy justice framework and showing the feasibility constraints due to geopolitical and biophysical factors to the implementation of energy just policies in this developing country context. The empirical evidence is derived from interviews during a one-month fieldwork in the Lalitpur and Katmandu districts of Nepal, site-visits, discourse analysis of expert statements, government policies and newspaper articles as well literature review on peer-review articles. - Highlights: • Energy justice framework can be used as a decision-making tool. • Energy transitions need to be understood from multiple perspectives. • Justice principles may face geopolitical, biophysical and ethical feasibility constraints. • The implementation of energy justice principles requires attention to the problem of agency.

  17. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I.

    1979-09-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility diurnal load-leveling but can also function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. This study explores several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. This report examines aspects of the coil, the superconductor supported off of the dewar shell, the dewar shell, and its configuration and stresses, the underground excavation and construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar, the helium refrigeration system, the electrical converter system, the vacuum system, the guard coil, and the costs. This report is divided into two major portions. The first is a general treatment of the work and the second is seven detailed technical appendices issued as separate reports. The information presented on the aluminum stabilizer for the conductor, on the excavation, and on the converter is based upon industrial studies contracted for this work

  18. Plastic collapse and energy absorption of circular filled tubes under quasi-static loads by computational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beng, Yeo Kiam; Tzeng, Woo Wen [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents the finite element analysis of plastic collapse and energy absorption of polyurethane-filled aluminium circular tubes under quasi-static transverse loading. Increasing focuses were given to impact damage of structures where energy absorbed during impact could be controlled to avoid total structure collapse of energy absorbers and devices designed to dissipate energy. ABAQUS finite element analysis application was utilized for modelling and simulating the polyurethane-filled aluminium tubes, different set of diameterto- thickness ratios and span lengths, subjected to transverse three-point-bending load. Different sets of polyurethane-filled aluminium tubes subjected to the transverse loading were modelled and simulated. The failure modes and mechanisms of filled tubes and its capabilities as energy absorbers to further improve and strengthening of empty tube were also identified. The results showed that plastic deformation response was affected by the geometric constraints and parameters of the specimens. The diameter-to-thickness ratio and span lengths had shown to play crucial role in optimizing the PU-filled tube as energy absorber.

  19. How to transform local energy systems towards bioenergy? Three strategy models for transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, Kjell; Westerberg, Karin

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades, the actors within the energy sector in Sweden-as well as in many other countries-have faced increasing demands to transform the energy system towards ecological sustainability. In Sweden these demands have led to numerous policies and economic incentives promoting the use of renewables (which in the Swedish discourse often also includes a connotation of 'indigenous energy sources'), and especially the promotion of bioenergy. To be successful, however, these policies and economic incentives need to be interpreted and adapted to different local contexts and translated into actual transformation processes. In Sweden the municipal authorities have played an important role as interpreters of such institutional frameworks and implementers of local transformation processes. In this article, we re-construct three transformation processes implemented by local municipal authorities, chiselling out the different strategy models developed through them. We argue that such re-constructions help to make visible the different and complex interactions between national institutional frameworks and local contexts as well as interactions within such local contexts. We hope that the strategy models presented can contribute to the understanding of the different kinds of local actions that can foster a further implementation of bioenergy into the energy system

  20. Local acceptance of renewable energy-A case study from southeast Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musall, Fabian David; Kuik, Onno

    2011-01-01

    The European 20-20-20 goals, as well as national targets for the next decade, require a substantial increase in installed renewable capacity in Germany. While public support for such measures is high on an abstract level, the situation in the local context is often very different. Here, the impact of renewable energy might cause resistance. Empirical research shows that a community ownership model can have a positive effect on local acceptance. Our study explores whether such an effect can also be demonstrated in a community co-ownership model. The question is relevant since larger projects exceed the financial possibilities of most communities, leaving them with only co-ownership as an option. The research design is based on a comparative case study, utilizing a questionnaire-based survey. The results of the survey clearly show that a significant difference in local acceptance exists between the two cases. The residents of Zschadrass, where a community co-ownership model exists, are consistently more positive towards local renewable energy and also towards renewable energy in general. The results provide evidence that the co-ownership model is a means to reconcile local acceptance with an increased use of renewable energy in Germany. - Highlights: → We study if community co-ownership affects local acceptance of renewable energy → We interviewed residents from two villages with different ownership models → Residents with co-ownership are consistently more positive towards renewable energyLocal acceptance is higher with co-ownership than with a private ownership model.

  1. Network approach for local and community governance of energy: The case of Oxfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Yael; Hamilton, Jo; White, Vicki; Hogan, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    One of the many barriers to the incorporation of local and community actors in emerging energy governance structures and policy delivery mechanisms is the lack of thorough understanding of how they work in practice, and how best to support and develop effective local energy governance. Taking a meso-level perspective and a network approach to governance, this paper sheds some new light on this issue, by focusing on the relation, channels of communication and interactions between low carbon community groups (LCCGs) and other actors. Based on data gathered from LCCGs in Oxfordshire, UK, via network survey and interviews the research maps the relations in terms of the exchanges of information and financial support, and presents a relation-based structure of local energy governance. Analysis reveals the intensity of energy related information exchanges that is taking place at the county level and highlights the centrality of intermediary organization in facilitating information flow. The analysis also identifies actors that are not very dominant in their amount of exchanges, but fill ‘weak-tie’ functions between otherwise disconnected LCCGs or other actors in the network. As an analytical tool the analysis could be useful for various state and non-state actors that want to better understand and support – financially and otherwise – actors that enable energy related local action. - Highlights: • We used social network analysis to examine local and community governance of energy. • We examined information and financial support flow within the network. • Analysis highlights central and peripheral actors in the local governance structure. • The findings highlight the central role intermediary organizations have in local governance structures

  2. A High Precision Artificial Neural Networks Model for Short-Term Energy Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huan Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important research topics in smart grid technology is load forecasting, because accuracy of load forecasting highly influences reliability of the smart grid systems. In the past, load forecasting was obtained by traditional analysis techniques such as time series analysis and linear regression. Since the load forecast focuses on aggregated electricity consumption patterns, researchers have recently integrated deep learning approaches with machine learning techniques. In this study, an accurate deep neural network algorithm for short-term load forecasting (STLF is introduced. The forecasting performance of proposed algorithm is compared with performances of five artificial intelligence algorithms that are commonly used in load forecasting. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE and Cumulative Variation of Root Mean Square Error (CV-RMSE are used as accuracy evaluation indexes. The experiment results show that MAPE and CV-RMSE of proposed algorithm are 9.77% and 11.66%, respectively, displaying very high forecasting accuracy.

  3. A note on the post-Newtonian limit of quasi-local energy expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B

    2011-01-01

    An 'effective' quasi-local energy expression, motivated by the (relativistically corrected) Newtonian theory, is introduced in exact general relativity as the volume integral of all the source terms in the field equation for the Newtonian potential in static spacetimes. In particular, we exhibit a new post-Newtonian correction in the source term in the field equation for the Newtonian gravitational potential. In asymptotically flat spacetimes, this expression tends to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy at spatial infinity as a monotonically decreasing set function. We prove its positivity in spherically symmetric spacetimes under certain energy conditions, and that its vanishing characterizes flatness. We argue that any physically acceptable quasi-local energy expression should behave qualitatively like this 'effective' energy expression in this limit. (paper)

  4. The case for local food in sustainable food-energy-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Zumkehr, A. L.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Local food systems, which are characterized by foodsheds with small distances between production and consumption ( 100 km), are currently experiencing explosive growth. Local food has largely been assessed within the context of transportation energy. While the effects of local food systems on transportation energy are well studied, broader implications of localization on the food-energy-water nexus are not. Furthermore, little is known about the potential for local food to scale beyond niche markets and meet a significant fraction of total food demand. Here we estimate the upper potential for all existing croplands to meet total U.S. food demand through local food networks. Our spatially explicit land-use model simulates the years 1850 through 2000 and accounts for a wide range of foodshed areas, diets, food waste, population distributions, cropland areas, and crop yields. While we find that the foodshed potential has declined in time, our results also demonstrate an unexpectedly large potential at present for supporting as much as 82% of national food demand within a 50 mile foodshed radius. The decline is associated with extreme pressures from demographic and agronomic trends that if continued could significantly undermine recent national policies focused on food localization. We then apply a life-cycle assessment approach to show that for some crops, irrigation could contribute up to 50% of the cradle-to-gate carbon emissions, thus they may benefit from food localization making use of water from wastewater treatment plants. Our results also show that local food could reduce the water footprint of lettuce by 50%. Our study suggests that exploring future scenarios, beyond assessing historical outcomes, is critical if food-energy-water research is to support sustainable decision making.

  5. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  6. Management of Sustainable Energy Efficient Development at the Local Level: Stakeholder-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horban Vasylyna B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There presented a theoretical rationale for the expediency of using the stakeholder-oriented approach to improve the process of management of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level. The evolution of theories by scientific schools that studied the concepts of «stakeholders» and «interested parties» is analyzed and generalized. A classification of types of stakeholders in the context of eighteen typological features is suggested, which allows to more effectively align their interests and contributes to establishing constructive forms of cooperation in order to achieve efficient final results. An algorithm of interaction with interested parties in achieving the goals of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level is elaborated. Typical motivational interests of stakeholders at the local level in the field of sustainable energy efficient development (on the example of Ukraine are identified. Instruments of prioritization of stakeholders depending on the life cycle stages of energy efficiency projects are proposed. The results obtained in the course of the research can be used to develop local energy efficient programs, business plans and feasibility studies for energy efficient projects.

  7. Quantum measurement information as a key to energy extraction from local vacuums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a protocol is proposed in which energy extraction from local vacuum states is possible by using quantum measurement information for the vacuum state of quantum fields. In the protocol, Alice, who stays at a spatial point, excites the ground state of the fields by a local measurement. Consequently, wave packets generated by Alice's measurement propagate the vacuum to spatial infinity. Let us assume that Bob stays away from Alice and fails to catch the excitation energy when the wave packets pass in front of him. Next Alice announces her local measurement result to Bob by classical communication. Bob performs a local unitary operation depending on the measurement result. In this process, positive energy is released from the fields to Bob's apparatus of the unitary operation. In the field systems, wave packets are generated with negative energy around Bob's location. Soon afterwards, the negative-energy wave packets begin to chase after the positive-energy wave packets generated by Alice and form loosely bound states.

  8. Localized Spectral Analysis of Fluctuating Power Generation from Solar Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nijs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in solar irradiance are a serious obstacle for the future large-scale application of photovoltaics. Occurring regularly with the passage of clouds, they can cause unexpected power variations and introduce voltage dips to the power distribution system. This paper proposes the treatment of such fluctuating time series as realizations of a stochastic, locally stationary, wavelet process. Its local spectral density can be estimated from empirical data by means of wavelet periodograms. The wavelet approach allows the analysis of the amplitude of fluctuations per characteristic scale, hence, persistence of the fluctuation. Furthermore, conclusions can be drawn on the frequency of occurrence of fluctuations of different scale. This localized spectral analysis was applied to empirical data of two successive years. The approach is especially useful for network planning and load management of power distribution systems containing a high density of photovoltaic generation units.

  9. Basin Testing of Wave Energy Converters in Trondheim: Investigation of Mooring Loads and Implications for Wider Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivtsov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an analysis of the extreme mooring loads. Tests were completed at 1/20 scale on a single oscillating water column device and on close-packed arrays of three and five devices following calibration of instrumentation and the wave and current test environment. One wave energy converter (WEC was fully instrumented with mooring line load cells, optical motion tracker and accelerometers and tested in regular waves, short- and long-crested irregular waves and current. The wave and current test regimes were measured by six wave probes and a current meter. Arrays of three and five similar WECs, with identical mooring systems, were tested under similar environmental loading with partial monitoring of mooring forces and motions. The majority of loads on the mooring lines appeared to be broadly consistent with both logistic and normal distribution; whilst the right tail appeared to conform to the extreme value distribution. Comparison of the loads at different configurations of WEC arrays suggests that the results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that the mooring loads should differ. In particular; the results from the tests in short crested seas conditions give an indication that peak loads in a multi WEC array may be considerably higher than in 1-WEC configuration. The test campaign has contributed essential data to the development of Simulink™ and Orcaflex™ models of devices, which include mooring system interactions, and data have also been obtained for inter-tank comparisons, studies of scale effects and validation of mooring system numerical models. It is hoped that this paper will help to draw the attention of a wider scientific community to the dataset freely available from the

  10. Local governance of energy. Clarification of stakes and illustration by spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Ruedinger, Andreas; Guerry, Anais

    2014-01-01

    As energy transition implies important societal transformations, the authors developed an analysis framework about the main questions raised by local governance: role of the different levels of local communities in the definition and implementation of strategies, key stakes of the sharing of skills between the State and communities, and stakes regarding spatial planning in this context. The authors first address the issue of relevance of the different territorial scales in a context of evolution of energy policies. They propose an overview of this issue with reference to the debate on local governance of transition. They discuss the return on experience of decentralisation in other fields of action of local policies, notably urban planning and spatial planning

  11. Local application of a gentamicin-loaded thermo-responsive hydrogel allows for fracture healing upon clearance of a high Staphylococcus aureus load in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-JA ter Boo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ntibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs have emerged as a potential useful adjunctive antimicrobial measure for the prevention of infection in open fracture care. A biodegradable thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide grafted hyaluronic acid (HApN hydrogel loaded with gentamicin has recently been shown to prevent implant-related infection in a rabbit osteosynthesis model. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of this HApN hydrogel on bone healing at an early stage (4 weeks. A rabbit humeral osteotomy model with plating osteosynthesis was used to compare fracture healing in rabbits receiving the hydrogel as compared with control animals. The secondary aim was to observe fracture healing in groups treated with and without antibiotic-loaded hydrogel in the presence of bacterial contamination. In all groups, outcome measures were mechanical stability and histological score, with additional quantitative bacteriology in the inoculated groups. Application of the HApN hydrogel in non-inoculated rabbits did not significantly influence humeral stiffness or histological scores for fracture healing in comparison to controls. In the inoculated groups, animals receiving the bacterial inoculum without hydrogel were culture-positive at euthanasia and found to display lower humeral stiffness values and higher histopathological scores for bacterial presence in comparison with equivalents receiving the gentamicin-loaded HApN hydrogel, which were also infection-free. In summary, our data showed that HApN was an effective antibiotic carrier that did not affect fracture healing. This data supported its suitability for application in fracture care. Addition of osteopromotive compounds could provide further support for accelerating fracture healing in addition to successful infection prophylaxis.

  12. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  13. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and chemical and sensory properties of locally prepared fast meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2009-01-01

    Locally prepared meals (kubba, borak, cheese borak and sheesh tawoq) were treated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 deg. C). Microbiological and chemical analyses were performed on each treated sample immediately after processing, and weekly throughout the storage period, which lasted for 3 weeks for kubba, 6 weeks for borak and cheese borak and 20 weeks for sheesh tawoq. Sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were done within one week after irradiation. Results of the proximate analysis of borak, cheese borak and sheesh tawoq showed that the irradiation doses did not have a significant effect on the moisture, protein and fat contents of meals, whereas for kubba, irradiation decreased the moisture, protein and fat contents. The doses of gamma irradiation selected decreased the microorganism load and increased the shelf life of all meals studied. The radiation doses required to reduce Salmonella and Escherichia coli by one log cycle (D 10 ) in borak were 0.46 and 0.51 kGy, in cheese borak 0.30 and 0.50 kGy and for sheesh tawoq 0.44 and 0.39 kGy, respectively. The three chemical parameters, total acidity, lipid peroxide and volatile basic nitrogen, which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 3 weeks for kubba, 6 weeks for borak and cheese borak and 20 weeks for sheesh tawoq treated with 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Local approach: fracture at high temperature in an austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermomechanical loadings. Calculations and experimental validations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poquillon, D.

    1997-10-01

    Usually, for the integrity assessment of defective components, well established rules are used: global approach to fracture. A more fundamental way to deal with these problems is based on the local approach to fracture. In this study, we choose this way and we perform numerical simulations of intergranular crack initiation and intergranular crack propagation. This type of damage can be find in components of fast breeder reactors in 316 L austenitic stainless steel which operate at high temperatures. This study deals with methods coupling partly the behaviour and the damage for crack growth in specimens submitted to various thermomechanical loadings. A new numerical method based on finite element computations and a damage model relying on quantitative observations of grain boundary damage is proposed. Numerical results of crack initiation and growth are compared with a number of experimental data obtained in previous studies. Creep and creep-fatigue crack growth are studied. Various specimen geometries are considered: compact Tension Specimens and axisymmetric notched bars tested under isothermal (600 deg C) conditions and tubular structures containing a circumferential notch tested under thermal shock. Adaptative re-meshing technique and/or node release technique are used and compared. In order to broaden our knowledge on stress triaxiality effects on creep intergranular damage, new experiments are defined and conducted on sharply notched tubular specimens in torsion. These isothermal (600 deg C) Mode II creep tests reveal severe inte